Object Technology & UML

Introduction to UML

Mr. Harinandan Tunga
Sr. Lecturer, Dept. of CSE,RCCIIT E-Mail: harinandan.tunga@gmail.com Mob: 9339877213

UML stands for Unified Modeling Language.

Aspects of the UML
Each of these words speaks to an important aspect of the Unified Modeling Language

Unified because it …
– Combines main preceding OO methods

Modelling because it is …
– Primarily used for visually modelling systems. Many system views are supported by appropriate models

Language because …
– It offers a syntax through which to express modelled knowledge

• UML is the international standard notation for objectoriented analysis and design. defined by the Object Management Group (OMG). of UML m unified refers to the fact that the Object ent Group (OMG), an industry-recognized dization organization and Rational software tion created the UML to bring together the information tion systems and technology industry’s best ring practices. Booch by Grady Booch, OMT by Jim Rumbaugh and OOSE by Ivar Jacobson baugh, Ivar Jacobson and Grady Booch decided at at the end of 1994 to unify their work within a single method – “The unified method”.

Definition of UML: A visual language for modeling and communicating about systems through the use of diagrams and supporting text this is known as Unified Modeling Language. visualizing and documenting the artifacts of an objectoriented system under development. • The UML is represents the unification of the Booch. . objectory and OMT (Object Modeling Technique) methods and is their direct and upwardly compatible successor. • The UML is a third-generation method for specifying.

• Express (Visualize) specific syntactical properties of the model.OMT Methodology: OMT methodology is a methodology of software engineering to develop the software using the steps of software development life cycle. Advantages of Modeling: • Testing a physical entity before building original system. • Reduction of complexity Why UML Modeling? UML is a Modeling language because • Support the understanding of the model. • Visualization to show the idea of designer. • All model components are used consistently. • Allow easy navigation through the model. . • A model is free of redundancies. • Communication with customers to show and understand. • Support simple application of changes.

Class diagrams and Object diagrams. . Use Case diagrams. – Dynamic Models Describe the internal behavior of the system. For example. attributes. – Static Models Describes the structure and substructure of the system using objects. Activity diagrams and State diagrams. For example.Three categories of UML modeling. Collaboration diagrams. Sequence diagrams. For example. operations. and associations. They are – Functional Models Describes the functionality of the system from the user’s point of view.

• Implementation-independent: An implementationindependent language may be used independently of any specific implementation technologies. frameworks. • Best practices : Integrate best practices. • Extensibility and Specialization: Provide extensibility and specialization mechanisms to extend the core concepts. expressive visual modeling language so they can develop and exchange meaningful models. patterns and components. • Development concepts: Support higher-level development concepts such as collaborations. • Modeling language: Provide a formal basis for understanding the modeling language. .The primary goals in the design of the UML • Ready to use and Expressive: Provide users with a readyto-use.NET • Process-independent: A process-independent language may be used with various types of processes. such as JAVA or .

This model also provides an abstract interpretation of the run-time properties of objectoriented programs. a behavior. which views a running system as being a dynamic network of interacting objects.OBJECT MODEL • Object-oriented modeling languages are based on an abstract object model. • Object is a single thing or concept. and an identity Object = State + Behavior + Identity. that can be represented as an encapsulation of state. either in a model of an application domain or in a software system. behaviour and identity and a member of a class that defines a set of similar objects. . • Every object has following three characteristics – a state.

These objects or instance may be same or different in data structure and behaviour. Links are relationships among the objects • The links always exist the relationships between two or more objects • The OMT notation for a link is a line between the objects .LINKS • Links are the means for building the relationships among the objects. • A link is a physical or conceptual connection between instances or objects i.e.

For example.One (M:1) many-to-many (M:N) . In this example ‘employee’ is the link between “Gopa” and “TCS company”. Gopa works-for TCS company. Relationships can have different connectivity • • • • one-to-one (1:1) one-to-many (1:N) many-to. 1 employee 1 Gopa TCS (Person) (Company) one-to-one links • Link Relationship is an association among two or more objects. In this example ‘works-for’ is the link between “Gopa” and “TCS company” Gopa (Person) works-for TCS (Company) OR Gopa is employee of TCS company.

For examples.One (M:1) Rahul (Person) Prosun (Person) Partha (Person) works-for CTS (Company) . • one-to-many (1:N) India (Country) Kolkata (City) Metro City Mumbai (City) Chennai (City) • many-to.

.• many-to-many (M:N) Debnath (Employee) Team Member HR-System (Project) Arpita (Employee) Arijit (Employee) Team Member A/C-System (Project) Figure Show the relationships between many objects to many objects this type of links called many-to-many links.

ASSOCIATION • An association is a logical connection. • An association is the relationship among classes • The object modeling describes as a group of links with common structure and common semantics. All the links among the object are the forms of association among the same classes . usually between different classes although in some circumstances a class can have an association with itself.

For example. works-for Person (Association) Company . Nandana (Person) Work-for TCS (Company) Whereas ‘Person works-for Company in this example Person and Company both are classes. Gopa works-for TCS company. Here Nandana is an object of Person class and TCS company is the object of Company class and the relationship called links. thus the relationship between them is called association.

• Association can have the following – • Name: Identifies the association type. . • Associations – • Are classes that relate other classes. • Are to links as classes are to objects. • Role: Meaning of the classes involved. • Multiplicity: Indicates that how many objects can participate in the association. • Define an implementation for their links.• Associations are descriptions of links or a set of links with a common implementation.

. 1...* At least one instance.* or * No limit on the number of instances. The multiplicity of an association end is the number of possible instances of the class associated with a single instance of the other end. 1 Exactly one.• Associations have a multiplicity attribute.. The multiplicity denotes the cardinality of the association. 0.1 Zero or one instance. Multiplicities are single numbers or ranges of numbers. Most common Multiplicities: • • • • 0.

The most common and frequent association are based on the degree: • Unary association or Reflexive: managed by 0…1 Employee 0...n manager of • Binary Association: The association which contain the degree of two classes is called binary association Person *.1 Company works-for ..1 *.Degree of Association: The degree of association defines the number of classes connected by association.

• Ternary Association: The association which contain the degree of three classes is called binary association • Quaternary Association: The association which contain the degree of four classes is called binary association .

keyboard is a part of computer.e. For example. Y is not a part of X. . Components are part of the aggregate i. aggregation is the ‘part-whole’ or ‘a-part-of’ relationship. • Aggregation has three formal properties – The first property is antisymmetry.AGGREGATIONS • Association can be two types (i) Aggregation (ii) Composition • The aggregation is an extension of association mean aggregation is a strong form of association in which an aggregate object is made of components. which simply means that a link which is an instance of an aggregation cannot be used to link an object to itself that if X is a part of Y.

The environment of the part is the same as that of the assembly Definition: Aggregation is the “part-whole” or “a-part-of” relationship among classes.* Plant 0…* Flower Figure Shows a class diagram with aggregation. diamond indicates the assembly end of the relationship. which is based on the observation that if X is a part of Y and Y is a part of Z then X is also a part of Z. It shows the plant is the part of garden and flower is part of plant.• The second property is transitivity.. • The third property is Propagation. . then X should also be thought of as linked to Z. More formally. if object X is linked to Y and Y to Z by links that are instances of the same aggregation. Garden 0.

Class diagram showing Aggregation between two classes

• Aggregation may have number of levels.

Aggregation types:
• Fixed aggregation • Variable aggregation • Recursive aggregation • Fixed aggregation: A fixed aggregation has the particular numbers and types of the component parts are pre-defined. • Variable aggregation: The number of levels of aggregation is fixed, but the number of parts may vary. • Recursive aggregation: components of its own type. The object contains

Composition is a strong form of aggregation with a lifetime dependency between each part and the whole. No part can belong to more than one composition at a time and if the composite whole is deleted its parts are deleted with it. • Composition is a strong association in which the part can belong to only one whole – the part cannot exist without the whole. • It is indicated by a line with strong diamond at the end.

e. Thus the aggregation relationship is often called "catalog" containment to distinguish it from composition's "physical" containment.g.Differences between Composition and Aggregation • The whole of a composition must have a multiplicity of 0. The whole of an aggregation may have any multiplicity.. e. the composition relationship is most appropriate. • When attempting to represent real-world whole-part relationships. as the engine.1 or 1.. when representing a software or database relationship.. indicating that a part must be for only one whole. . an engine is part of a car. an aggregation relationship is best. However.g. ENG01 may be also part of a different car model. car model engine ENG01 is part of a car model CM01.

Aggregation is a tightly coupled form of association with some extra semantics. it is a special form of association. Components are part of the aggregate.Association vs aggregation Both concepts provide the relationship among the classes. Thus we can say aggregation is a strong form of association in which an aggregation object is made of components. associations are bidirectional whereas aggregations are anti-symmetric. Aggregation is not an independent concept. . Aggregation exists after the existing of association. Aggregation is the “part-whole” or “a part of” relationship among the classes.

Higher cohesion indicates that changes will more likely be localized. Coupling is a measure of the strength of the connections between parts. • Cohesion: Cohesion is a measure of how parts of a whole are logically related to each other and the overall whole. .COUPLING AND COHESION • Coupling: Coupling is relates to the degree of interconnectedness between design components and is reflected by the number of links and degree of interaction an object has with other objects. This is maximized by the use of modularity.

They are specified by the type and may be object attributes or class attributes. Types • Are concerned with the specification of uniform structural characteristics and behavioral characteristics. properties. and so forth. constraints. . etc.TYPES • Types are descriptions of objects or a set of objects with a common specification or interface. • Encapsulate behavioral characteristics called operations. • Are used to render comments. NOTE • Notes are graphical constructs or notational items containing and rendering textual information. They are specified by the type and may be object operations or class operations.Note attached to a Diagram<<Stereotype>> Notes • Are denoted as rectangles with a bent upper right corner. • Encapsulate structural characteristics called attributes. method bodies.

Meta types are types whose instance are types.METACLASS AND METAMODEL Meta class: A class whose instances are classes. Meta model: A model that describes model elements and meta modeling is the recursive modeling of model elements from themselves. it contains data and operations that are specific to a class rather than its instances. .

Most OCL statements consist of the following structural elements – .OBJECT CONSTRAINT LANGUAGE (OCL) • Object Constraint Language (OCL) is a formal language that supplements the graphical notions of UML. • OCL expressions are construct from a collection of pre-defined elements and types and the language has a precise grammar that enables the construction of unambiguous statements about the properties of model components and their relationships to each other. OCL is generally used to give precise definitions for operation logic or for properties such as invariants.

• A property of that instance which is the context for the expression. This is often an instance of a specific type. set operators such as size. . +.and /. association-ends and query operations. A link may also be the context for an OCL expression. • An OCL operation that is applied to the property. for example an object in a class diagram.• A context that defines a domain within which the expression in valid. . Properties may include attributes. isEmpty and select and type operators such as oclIsTypeOf. Operations include (but are not restricted to) the arithmetical operators *.

giving rise to generalization hierarchies. can be substituted for. This process can be carried out as often as required. an instance of another class.GENERALIZATION • Generalization is the abstraction of common features among elements (for example. . or treated as if it was. the subclass. classes) by the creation of a hierarchy of more general elements (for example. the super class. • Generalization defines a relationship between classes where any instance of one class. • A given class can have any number of mutually exclusive subclasses. super classes) that encapsulate the common features.

• Generalization is a processor of defining a superclass from a given set of simantically related entity set. • The notation for generalization is a triangle connecting a superclass to its subclassses.

• Class diagram showing generalization between one superclass and two subclasses

Generalization can only be shown on class diagrams and on Use case diagrams.

SPECIALIZATION Specialization is the other face of generalization; an element (for example, a class) is said to be specialized when it has a set of characteristics that uniquely distinguish it from other elements. Distinguishes subclasses from their super class.

Generalization uses bottom up approach. while specialization uses top-down approach.Generalization vs. .e. In the process of Generalization we create a superclass from a given set of semantically related subclasses whereas in the process of Specialization we refine the superclass into the specialization subclasses i. Specialization Generalization and specialization are two different viewpoints of the same relationship. we create subclasses from a single superclass. The generalization an specialization both are opposite to each other. Viewed from super-class to subclasses is called specialization and viewed from subclasses to super-class is called generation.

Human Top to Down Bottom to Up Male Female Specialization Generalization When we create a superclass ‘Human’ using two subclasses ‘Male’ and ‘Female’ this process is called Generalization whereas When we create two subclasses ‘Male’ and ‘Female’ using a single superclass ‘Human’ this is called specialization. .

Both super and subclasses refer to properties of a single object. Aggregation relates instances. Aggregation provides the relationship between objects and classes. In generalization. Generalization Aggregation and Generalization both are different concepts. an object is simultaneously an instance of the superclass and an instance of the subclass. where one of them is a part of the other. . in which tow distinct objects are involved. Generalization relates classes and is a way of structuring the description of a single object. while Generalization is a process to combine the common behaviour and attributes in a single class or more classes.Aggregation vs.

Head and Body are parts of Human class that show example of aggregation . while generalization is often called “a-kind-of” or is-a” relationship. Hands.Aggregation is often called “a-part-of” relationship. Human Male Female Legs Hands Head Body Generalization Aggregation When we create a super-class ‘Human’ using two subclasses ‘Male’ and ‘Female’ this process is called Generalization whereas Legs.

Each subclass is said to inherit the features of its superclass. . Attributes and operations common to a group of subclasses are attached to the superclass and changed by each subclass. The class being refined is called the superclass and each refined version is called subclasses. Inheritance Generalization is the relationship between a class and one or more refined versions of it. Actually we use Generalization to refer to the relationship among classes. while inheritance refers to the mechanism of sharing attributes and operations using the Generalization relationship. Generalization and inheritance are transitive across an arbitrary number of levels.Generalization vs.

Knowledge Model (Architectu re) Architectura l views Diagrams (Views) Model Elements .ARCHITECTURAL VIEWS AND MODEL VIEWS Architectural views: Architectural views are abstractions of models.

Model views: Structural View Implementation View Use-case Behavioral View Environment View .

• • . A set of concerns establishes an architectural focus. This view presents the goals and objectives of the problem owners and their requirements of the solution. Include the following model views regarding models of problems and solutions – The user model view encompasses a problem and solution from the perspective of those individuals whose problem the solution addresses. Enable the extraction of architecturally significant elements of a model via different viewpoints or perspectives.Architectural views • • Are perspectives through which models may be represented or projected as diagrams. Organize perspectives or views of models around specific sets of concerns particular to different stakeholders involved in the problem-solving effort.

The behavioral model view encompasses the dynamic or behavioral. aspects of a problem and solution and interactions or collaborations among problem solution elements. aspects of a problem and solution. The structural model view encompasses the static or structural. . Sequence diagrams depict an interaction among the elements of a system organized in a time sequence. Static diagrams depict the status conditions and responses of the elements of a system. • • class diagram depicts the static structure of a system. Activity diagrams depict the activity of elements of a system.• The use case diagrams depict the functionality of a system. • • • • Collaboration diagrams depict an interaction among the elements of a system and their relationship organized in time and space. Object diagram depicts the static structure of a system at particular time.

. behavioral model view. structural model view. The environment model view encompasses the structural and behavioral aspects of the domain in which a solution must be realized. – Component diagrams depict the organization of elements use to realize a system. The UML supports the user model view.The implementation model view encompasses the structural and behavioral aspects of the solution’s realization. and environment model view to facilitate the organization of knowledge within problem solving. implementation model view. – Deployment diagram depict the configuration of environment elements and the mapping of elements realizing a system onto them.


Implementation diagram like • Component diagrams . like the • • Class Diagrams Use Case diagrams • Dynamic diagrams: Dynamic diagrams describe the messages that can be passed between objects and the effect on an object of receiving a message. Dynamic diagrams • • • • • Sequence Diagrams Object diagrams Collaboration diagram State diagrams Activity diagrams • Implementation diagrams: The implementation characteristic of a system describes the different elements required for deploying a system.UML DIAGRAMS UML diagrams can be drawn to represent particular runtime configurations of objects. Static diagrams. These diagrams fall into three main categories – • Static diagrams: Static diagrams describe the kinds of connections that can exist between objects and the possible topologies that the resulting object network can have.

CLASS DIAGRAMS • Class diagrams depict the structure of a system in general. this represents what objects of the class know. An attribute – shown as a text string in a class’s second compartment. • • . this represents a relationship between classes. • Class diagrams have the following types of elements. this represents what objects of the class can do. An operation – shown as a text string in a class’s 3rd compartment. this represents a general concept. • • A class – Shown as a solid-outline rectangle labeled with a name. An association – shown as a solid line path labeled with a name .

packages and objects. . conceptual. • Class diagrams are the backbone of almost every object oriented method. • Class diagrams are widely used to describe the types of objects in a system and their relationships. and implementation.• A class diagram that shows classes with their attributes and operation. specification. They describe the static structure of a system. These perspectives become evident as the diagram is created and help solidify the design. • Class diagrams describe three different perspectives when designing a system. together with the associations between classes. • Class diagrams model class structure and contents using design elements such as classes. including UML.


inheritance. . and » operations. • Class diagrams also display relationships such as containment. Below is an example of a class.• Classes are composed of three things: » name. associations and others. » attributes.

. an Order object can be associated to only one customer. but a customer can be associated to many orders. The multiplicity of the association denotes the number of objects that can participate in then relationship. The association shows the relationship between instances of classes. the class Order is associated with the class Customer. For example. For example.Below is an example of an associative relationship: The association relationship is the most common relationship in a class diagram.

A generalization is used when two classes are similar.• Another common relationship in class diagrams is a generalization. but have some differences. Look at the generalization below: .

but each class has some of its own attributes and operations.• In this example. This allows the designers to just use the Customer class for modules and do not require in-depth representation of each type of customer. The class Customer is a general form of both the Corporate Customer and Personal Customer classes. the classes Corporate Customer and Personal Customer have some similarities such as name and address. • Class diagrams are the backbone of almost every objectoriented method including UML. . They describe the static structure of a system.

How to Draw: Class Diagrams • Class diagrams are some of the most difficult UML diagrams to draw. To draw detailed and useful diagrams a person would have to study UML and Object Oriented principles for a long time.When to Use: Class Diagrams • Class diagrams are used in nearly all Object Oriented software designs. . Therefore. this page will give a very high level overview of the process. specification. and implementation. conceptual. Use them to describe the Classes of the system and their relationships to each other. Try not to focus on one perspective and try see how they all work together. Before drawing a class diagram consider the three different perspectives of the system the diagram will present.

. Then try to determine how instances of the classes will interact with each other. These are the very first steps of many in developing a class diagram.• When designing classes consider what attributes and operations it will have. However. using just these basic techniques one can develop a complete view of the software system.

• Classes Illustrate classes with rectangles divided into compartments. bolded.Basic Class Diagram Symbols and Notations: Classes represent an abstraction of entities with common characteristics. Associations represent the relationships between classes. and write operations into the third. and capitalized). . Place the name of the class in the first partition (centered. list the attributes in the second partition.

• Visibility Use visibility markers to signify who can access the information contained within a class. . Illustrate active classes with a thicker border. Private visibility hides information from anything outside the class partition.• Active Class Active classes initiate and control the flow of activity. Protected visibility allows child classes to access information they inherited from a parent class. while passive classes store data and serve other classes. Public visibility allows all other classes to view the marked information.

Note: It's uncommon to name both the association and the class roles. Place roles near the end of an association. Roles represent the way the two classes see each other. Use a filled arrow to indicate the direction of the relationship. . on. or below the association line. Place association names above.• Associations Associations represent static relationships between classes.

but each employee works for one company only. . For example. one company will have one or more employees.• Multiplicity (or Cardinality) Place multiplicity notations near the ends of an association. These symbols indicate the number of instances of one class linked to one instance of the other class.

.• Constraint Place constraints inside curly braces {}.

Illustrate composition with a filled diamond. and Class B. . in which the "whole" class plays a more important role than the "part" class. the whole.Composition and Aggregation • Composition is a special type of aggregation that denotes a strong ownership between Class A. but the two classes are not dependent on each other. its part. Use a hollow diamond to represent a simple aggregation relationship. The diamond end in both a composition and aggregation relationship points toward the "whole" class or the aggregate.

the difference between inheritance and aggregation can be confusing.Generalization Generalization is another name for inheritance or an "is a" relationship. For example. So the class Honda would have a generalization relationship with the class car. In real life coding examples. the aggregate (the whole) can access only the PUBLIC functions of the part class. inheritance allows the inheriting class to access both the PUBLIC and PROTECTED functions of the super class. On the other hand. It refers to a relationship between two classes where one class is a specialized version of another. . If you have an aggregation relationship. Honda is a type of car.

Just as an object is an instance of a class.OBJECT DIAGRAM: • WHAT IS A UML OBJECT DIAGRAM? Object diagrams are also closely linked to class diagrams. . Object diagrams describe the static structure of a system at a particular time and they are used to test the accuracy of class diagrams. an object diagram could be viewed as an instance of a class diagram.

Both names are optional and the colon is only present if the class is specified. . which contains the name of the object and its class underlined and separated by a colon.Basic Object Diagram Symbols And Notations Object names: • Each object is represented as a rectangle.

object attributes must have values assigned to them. you can list object attributes in a separate compartment. .• Object attributes As with classes. Illustrate these objects with a thicker border. unlike classes. However. • Active object Objects that control action flow are called active objects.

• Multiplicity You can illustrate multiple objects as one symbol if the attributes of the individual objects are not important. • Links Links are instances of associations.Learn how to connect objects. . You can draw a link using the lines used in class diagrams.

Mark's instance of the two classes will be self-linked.• Self-linked Objects that fulfill more than one role can be selflinked. and the two positions are linked. also fulfilled the role of a marketing assistant. an administrative assistant. For example. . if Mark.

swing. faculty. book. student. Object classes: college.Assignment: Draw object diagram for the following object classes. ruler. cafeteria. door. with association names attributes and additional object classes if required. playground. classroom. principal. board. .

• Use cases can be represented graphically in a use case diagram. • Use cases may be modeled at varying degrees of abstraction. are technologically and implementation independent whereas real use cases describe how the use case actually operates in a particular environment. a use case diagram shows actors and use cases. essential use cases. each use case being described in the data dictionary. . • So. together with various relations between them. the most abstract.USE-CASE DIAGRAMS: • Use case is a specification technique for functional needs as perceived by a category of users.

An actor represents a role that a user can play when interacting with a system. Actors are association can be related by generalization. to make explicit their shared capabilities. .• A use case denotes a typical type of task that a user can perform with a system.

. • An actor is represents a user or another system that will interact with the system you are modeling.• Use case diagrams model the functionality of system using actors and use cases. • A use case is a set of scenarios that describing an interaction between a user and a system. A use case is an external view of the system that represents some action the user might perform in order to complete a task. The two main components of a use case diagram are use cases and actors. A use case diagram displays the relationship among actors and use cases.

If you would like to learn more see the Resources page for more detailed resources on UML. During the initial stage of a project most use cases should be defined. The are helpful in exposing requirements and planning the project. • How to Draw: Use Cases Diagrams Use cases are a relatively easy UML diagram to draw. but this is a very simplified example.• When to Use: Use Cases Diagrams Use cases are used in almost every project. This example is only meant as an introduction to the UML and use cases. but as the project continues more might become visible. .

• Call sales representative. • Receive conformation number from salesperson. • Browse catalog and select items. • Supply payment information. . For example a user placing an order with a sales company might follow these steps.• Start by listing a sequence of steps a user might take in order to complete an action. • Supply shipping information.

• These steps would generate this simple use case diagram: .

This diagram can easily be expanded until a complete description of the ordering system is derived capturing all of the requirements that the system will need to perform. The diagram takes the simple steps listed above and shows them as actions the customer might perform. The customer might have a need to add an item to an order that has already been placed.• This example shows the customer as a actor because the customer is using the ordering system. As the project progresses other use cases might appear. . The salesperson could also be included in this use case diagram because the salesperson is also interacting with the ordering system. the requirements of the ordering system can easily be derived. • From this simple diagram. The system will need to be able to perform actions for all of the use cases listed.

Place actors outside the system's boundries. • Use Case Draw use cases using ovals. Use cases are services or functions provided by the system to its users. . • System Draw your system's boundries using a rectangle that contains use cases.• Use case diagrams model the functionality of a system using actors and use cases. Label with ovals with verbs that represent the system's functions.

use arrows labeled either "uses" or "extends. For relationships among use cases. • Relationships Illustrate relationships between an actor and a use case with a simple line. label the actor system with the actor stereotype. When one system is the actor of another system." A "uses" relationship indicates that one use case is needed by another in order to perform a task. . An "extends" relationship indicates alternative options under a certain use case.• Actors Actors are the users of a system.

• Access to the SBI account is provided by a PIN code. . Draw a use-case diagram according to the above scenario. If the amount to be withdrawn exceeds the amount in the account of the client then it should check whether the client could avail the overdraft facility as per the SBI rules.Assignment: A State Bank of India (SBI) has installed ATM to offer basic service round the clock and the functional requirement of the system are : • The SBI client must be able to deposit or withdraw an amount to/from his account using the ATM counter. • The system should be designed such that it automatically checks the client account. Each transaction has to be recorded and the client must be able to review all transaction performed in his account.

Sequence diagrams can be draw at different levels of detail and also to meet different purposes at several stages in the development life cycle. .SEQUENCE DIAGRAMS: • A sequence diagram or interaction diagram that shows an interaction between objects arranged in a time sequence.

A horizontal axis shows the elements involved in the interaction and a vertical axis represents time proceeding down the page. • Sequence diagrams describe interactions among classes in terms of an exchange of messages over time. this represents that the sender sends a message or stimulus to the receiver. – A communication • Shown as a horizontal solid arrow from the lifeline of the sender to the lifeline of the receiver and labeled with the name of the operation to be invoked. Objects may also be shown much the same way as on object diagrams. – A lifeline • Shown as a vertical dashed line from an element.• Sequence diagrams describe interactions among classes in terms of an exchange of messages over time. • Sequence diagrams have the following types of elements: – Classes and Objects • Classes are shown much the same way as on class diagrams. . this represents the existence of the element over time.

Basic Sequence Diagram Symbols And Notations • Class roles Class roles describe the way an object will behave in context. • Activation Activation boxes represent the time an object needs to complete a task. . but don't list object attributes. Use the UML object symbol to illustrate class roles.

• Messages Messages are arrows that represent communication between objects. Use half-arrowed lines to represent asynchronous messages. Asynchronous messages are sent from an object that will not wait for a response from the receiver before continuing its tasks.

• Various message types Collaboration diagrams




• Lifelines Lifelines are vertical dashed lines that indicate the object's presence over time. • Destroying Objects Objects can be terminated early using an arrow labeled "< < destroy > >" that points to an X.

. Place the condition for exiting the loop at the bottom left corner in square brackets [ ].• Loops A repetition or loop within a sequence diagram is depicted as a rectangle.

.Assignment: Draw a sequence diagram for the cellular phone connection.

.COLLABORATION DIAGRAMS • A collaboration diagram that shows an interaction between objects and the context of the interaction in terms of the links between the objects.

• A collaboration diagram describes interactions among objects in terms of sequenced messages. . • Collaboration diagrams describe both the static structure and the dynamic behavior of a system. and use case diagrams describing both the static structure and dynamic behavior of a system. sequence.• Collaboration diagrams represent interactions between objects as a series of sequenced messages. • Collaboration diagrams represent a combination of information taken from class.

• Classes and Objects Classes are shown much the same way as on class diagrams. • Associations These are shown much the way as on class diagrams.• Collaboration diagrams have the types of elements that are described in the list shown next. Objects may also be shown much the same way as on object diagrams. . It is labeled with a sequence number showing the order in which the communication is sent followed by a colon followed by the name of the operation to be invoked. • A communication This is shown as an arrow attached to a relationship pointing from the sender toward the receiver. Links may also be shown much the same way as on object diagrams. It represents that the sender sends a message to the receiver.

Basic Collaboration Diagram Symbols And Notations • Class roles Class roles describe how objects behave. . Use the UML object symbol to illustrate class roles. You can draw association roles using simple lines labeled with stereotypes. • Association roles Association roles describe how an association will behave given a particular situation. but don't list object attributes.

Sequence numbering can become nested using the Dewey decimal system. The a condition for a message is usually placed in square brackets immediately following the sequence number. nested messages under the first message are labeled 1. 1. 1. For example. and so on. Use a * after the sequence number to indicate a loop.2.• Messages Unlike sequence diagrams.3. .1. collaboration diagrams do not have an explicit way to denote time and instead number messages in order of execution.

1 . There are many acceptable sequence numbering schemes in UML. scheme can be used. The objects are listed as icons and arrows indicate the messages being passed between them. 3. The numbers next to the messages are called sequence numbers. . 1.. or for more detailed and complex diagrams a 1.2. as the example below shows.1. format can be used...2. they show the sequence of the messages as they are passed between the objects.• Collaboration diagrams are also relatively easy to draw. A simple 1. As the name suggests. 2.. 1. They show the relationship between objects and the order of messages passed between them.1.

This time the names of the objects appear after the colon. such as :Order Entry Window following the objectName: className naming convention.• The example below shows a simple collaboration diagram for the placing an order use case. This time the class name is shown to demonstrate that all of objects of that class will behave the same way. .

. They illustrate the sequences of messages that can be sent to an object and the response that an object might make to a message at different times. A state diagrams also known as statechart diagram. The state of an object is determined by values of some its attributes and the presence or absence of certain links with other objects. depict the lifecycle of an element.STATE CHART DIAGRAMS or STATE DIAGRAMS: • Statecharts can be used to specify the behaviour of classes that display statedependent behaviour.


• State chart diagrams describe the dynamic behavior of a system in response to external stimuli. • A state chart diagram shows the behavior of classes in response to external stimuli. State diagrams describe all of the possible states of an object as events occur. • State diagrams are used to describe the behavior of a system. State chart diagrams are especially useful in modeling reactive objects whose states are triggered by specific events. Each diagram usually represents objects of a single class and track the different states of its objects through the system. This diagram models the dynamic flow of control from state to state within a system. .

Basic State chart Diagram Symbols And Notations • States States represent situations during the life of an object. • Transition A solid arrow represents the path between different states of an object. . You can easily illustrate a state in SmartDraw by using a rectangle with rounded corners. Label the transition with the event that triggered it and the action that results from it.

Final State Fig. • Initial State • A filled circle followed by an arrow represents the object's initial state.Fig. • Final State • An arrow pointing to a filled circle nested inside another circle represents the object's final state. • Synchronization and Splitting of Control • A short heavy bar with two transitions entering it represents a synchronization of control. . A short heavy bar with two transitions leaving it represents a splitting of control that creates multiple states. Initial State Fig.

. Not all classes will require a state diagram and state diagrams are not useful for describing the collaboration of all objects in a use case. State diagrams are other combined with other diagrams such as interaction diagrams and activity diagrams. Only use state diagrams for classes where it is necessary to understand the behavior of the object through the entire system.When to Use: State Diagrams • Use state diagrams to demonstrate the behavior of an object through many use cases of the system.

How to Draw: State Diagrams • State diagrams have very few elements. The basic elements are rounded boxes representing the state of the object and arrows indicting the transition to the next state. The activity section of the state symbol depicts what activities the object will be doing while it is in that state. .

• All state diagrams being with an initial state of the object. This is the state of the object when it is created. Conditions based on the activities can determine what the next state the object transitions to. After the initial state the object begins changing states. .

.Assignment: • Draw a state chart diagram. If there is no response within the time. which explains the various states of making a phone call. • A passenger calls the lift from its current floor and after entering the lift the passenger presses the destination button. Represent these features with the help of state diagrams. the lift will go back to its home floor that is ground floor. The lift on arrival at destination will wait for next response up to a time limit.

. each of which represents the execution of an operation. In an activity diagram most states are action.ACTIVITY DIAGRAMS: • A activity diagram is a variation of a state chart diagram that focuses on a flow of activity driven by internal processing within an object rather than by events that are external to it.

Typically. An activity represents an operation on some class in the system that results in a change in the state of the system. activity diagrams are used to model workflow or business processes and internal operation. • Activity diagrams describe the workflow behavior of a system. activity diagrams are used to model workflow or business processes and internal operation. Activity diagrams can show activities that are conditional or parallel. An activity represents an operation on some class in the system that results in a change in the state of the system. it uses some of the same modeling conventions. Activity diagrams are similar to state diagrams because activities are the state of doing something. • An activity diagram illustrates the dynamic nature of a system by modeling the flow of control from activity to activity. Because an activity diagram is a special kind of statechart diagram. The diagrams describe the state of activities by showing the sequence of activities performed.• Activity diagrams illustrate the dynamic nature of a system by modeling the flow of control from activity to activity. . Typically.

Basic Activity Diagram Symbols And Notations • Action states Action states represent the noninterruptible actions of objects. . • Action Flow Action flow arrows illustrate the relationships among action states. You can draw an action state in SmartDraw using a rectangle with rounded corners.

An object flow arrow from an object to an action indicates that the action state uses the object. • Final State An arrow pointing to a filled circle nested inside another circle represents the final action state.Fig. Object Flow Fig. Initial State Fig. Final State • Object Flow Object flow refers to the creation and modification of objects by activities. An object flow arrow from an action to an object means that the action creates or influences the object. . • Initial State A filled circle followed by an arrow represents the initial action state.

Synchronization is also called forking and joining. You can also label one of the paths "else.“ • Synchronization A synchronization bar helps illustrate parallel transitions. The outgoing alternates should be labeled with a condition or guard expression. Branching Fig. Synchronization • Branching A diamond represents a decision with alternate paths.Fig. .

Describing a complicated sequential algorithm. • Activity diagrams do not give detail about how objects behave or how objects collaborate. The main reason to use activity diagrams is to model the workflow behind the system being designed.• Swimlanes Swimlanes group related activities into one column. and Modeling applications with parallel processes. Read this this flowchart tutorial to learn how to create swimlanes in SmartDraw. . • Activity Diagrams are useful for: Analyzing a use case by describing what actions need to take place and when they should occur. • Activity diagrams should not take the place of interaction diagrams and state diagrams. • When to Use: Activity Diagrams • Activity diagrams should be used in conjunction with other modeling techniques such as interaction diagrams and state diagrams.

A fork is used when multiple activities are occurring at the same time. After activity2 there is a branch. The diagram below shows a fork after activity1. .How to Draw: Activity Diagrams • Activity diagrams show the flow of activities through the system. After the merge all of the parallel activities must be combined by a join before transitioning into the final activity state. Diagrams are read from top to bottom and have branches and forks to describe conditions and parallel activities. This indicates that both activity2 and activity3 are occurring at the same time. All branches at some point are followed by a merge to indicate the end of the conditional behavior started by that branch. The branch describes what activities will take place based on a set of conditions.


These relationships are called dependencies.PHYSICAL DIAGRAMS There are two types of physical diagrams: • Deployment diagrams • Component diagrams Deployment diagrams show the physical relationship between hardware and software in a system. Component diagrams show the software components of a system and how they are related to each other. . When to Use: Physical Diagrams • Physical diagrams are used when development of the system is complete. • Physical diagrams are used to give descriptions of the physical information about a system.

Component diagrams can also show the interfaces used by the components to communicate to each other. • The deployment diagram contains nodes and connections.• How to Draw: Physical Diagrams • Many times the deployment and component diagrams are combined into one physical diagram. A combined deployment and component diagram combines the features of both diagrams into one diagram. • A node usually represents a piece of hardware in the system. • Dependencies in a component diagram are represented by a dashed line between two or more components. • The component dependencies. . diagram contains components and • Components represent the physical packaging of a module of code. The dependencies between the components show how changes made to one component may affect the other components in the system. • A connection depicts the communication path used by the hardware to communicate and usually indicates a method such as TCP/IP.


so changes to component 2 could affect component1. . The diagram shows two nodes which represent two machines communicating through TCP/IP. Component2 is dependant on component1. This diagram gives the reader a quick overall view of the entire system. The diagram also depicts component3 interfacing with component1.• The combined deployment and component diagram below gives a high level physical description of the completed system.

COMPONENT DIAGRAMS: • Component is a physical entity that is part of an application and is usually represented in the implementation view. • A component diagram that shows the organization of and dependencies among components. .

It can be combined with deployment diagrams to show the physical location of components of the system.• component diagram show the physical components of a system. . including source code. • A component diagram describes the organization of the physical components in a system. • Component diagrams describe the organization of physical software components. and executables codes. run-time (binary) code.

Dependencies • Component A component is a physical building block of the system. Component Fig. It is represented as a rectangle with tabs. • Interface An interface describes a group of operations used or created by components. Interface Fig.Basic Component Diagram Symbols and Notations Component diagrams have the following types of elements: Fig. . • Dependencies Draw dependencies among components using dashed arrows.

DEPLOYMENT DIAGRAMS: • A deployment diagram that shows the run-time configuration of processing nodes and the components. and connections. • Deployment diagrams depict the physical resources in a system. . processes and objects that are located on them. including nodes. components.

Basic Deployment Diagram Symbols And Notations Deployment diagrams have the following types of elements: Node A node is a physical resource that executes code components. such as Ethernet. Association refers to a physical connection between nodes. Shown as 3D rectangle. Association Shown as a solid line path between nodes. this represents a resource that is available during execution time. .

Components and Nodes Place components inside the node that deploys them. .

the lift will go back to its home floor that is ground floor. 2. If there is no response within the time. which explains the various states of making a phone call. Draw a state chart diagram. A passenger calls the lift from its current floor and after entering the lift the passenger presses the destination button. Represent these features with the help of state diagrams. . The lift on arrival at destination will wait for next response up to a time limit.CASE STUDIES: 1.

Access to the SBI account is provided by a PIN code. The system should be designed such that it automatically checks the client account. If the amount to be withdrawn exceeds the amount in the account of the client then it should check whether the client could avail the overdraft facility as per the SBI rules. A State Bank of India (SBI) has installed ATM to offer basic service round the clock and the functional requirement of the system are : • The SBI client must be able to deposit or withdraw an amount to/from his account using the ATM counter. .3. Each transaction has to be recorded and the client must be able to review all transaction performed in his account. • • Draw a use-case diagram according to the above scenario.

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