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# INFERENCE IN BIVARIATES

## CHI-SQUARE: TEST OF ASSOCIATION (TEST OF INDEPENDENCE)

- a procedure that tests whether responses are according to categories.
(𝑂−𝐸)2
χ2 = ∑ ; O – observed frequencies Ho: indicates equal proportions
𝐸
E – expected frequencies (not associated, independent, or do not differ)
df = (i – 1)(j – 1); Ha: indicates unequal proportions
i and j are total no. of rows and columns, respectively (associated, dependent, or differ)

- Assumption: Not more than 20% of cells have expected counts less than 5;
If situation occurs that when the expected frequency is so small (less than 5) for more than 20% of the cells,
use the Fisher’s exact test, where
(𝐴+𝐵)!(𝐶+𝐷)!(𝐴+𝐶)!(𝐵+𝐷)!
𝑝=
𝐴!𝐵!𝐶!𝐷!𝑛!

CORRELATION TECHNIQUES
determines the linear relationship between two variables

Ho: (r = 0) no relationship
Ha: (r ≠ 0) has relationship, (r > 0) has positive relationship, or (r <0) has no relationship

𝑟̂ √𝑛−2
𝑡= , df = n – 2
√1−𝑟̂ 2

## PEARSON – PRODUCT MOMENT CORRELATION SPEARMAN CORRELATION

- used for two independent variables in interval / ratio - may take the role of Pearson r for
interval/ratio data
- used for two independent data in
ordinal measurement

6 ∑ 𝐷2
𝑟𝑠 = 1 −
𝑛(𝑛2 −1)

𝑛 ∑ 𝑥𝑦−∑ 𝑥 ∑ 𝑦
𝑟𝑝 =
√[𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 −(∑ 𝑥)2 ][𝑛 ∑ 𝑦 2 −(∑ 𝑦)2 ]

## SUMMARY OF CORRELATION / ASSOCIATION TECHNIQUES

Interval/Ratio Ordinal Nominal
Interval/Ratio Pearson Spearman Pearson
Ordinal Spearman Spearman Chi-square
Nominal Pearson Chi-square Chi-square
Examples:
1. [trainingaccidents.sav] In the article of Kelm et al. (2004), it was stated that school sports injuries are gender-specific.
Suppose a similar study was done that associates gender with basic motion training related accidents (running, jumping
and catching) in physical education classes in an elementary school for one year and results are shown below. Do the
data provide sufficient evidence that gender is associated with basic motion training related accidents? Test at α = 0.05.
[Source: Kelm, J., Ahlhelm, F., Anagnostakos, K., Pitsch, W., Schmitt, E., Regitz, T., & Pape, D. (2004). Gender-specific differences in school

## Male Female TOTAL

With basic motion
training related 30 (25.0%) 35 (35.0%) 65
accidents
Without basic motion
training related 90 (75.0%) 65 (65.0%) 155
accidents
TOTAL 120 100 220

Hypotheses:
Ho: _______________________________________________________________________________.
Ha: _______________________________________________________________________________.
Test Statistic:

## Critical Value: ______________ p-value: ________ Decision: __________________

Conclusion: _______________________________________________________________________________.
2. [confidence.sav] A study of Skinner (2013) claimed that team and coach confidence in volleyball are correlated.
Suppose that another study wanted to determine if team and coach confidence in basketball are correlated. Team and
coach confidence were collected through the Collective Efficacy Questionnaire for Sport (CEQS) and Coaching
Efficacy Scale (CES). The CEQS measured collective efficacy (team confidence) and the CES measured coaching
efficacy (coach confidence) for each team. Scores are shown below. Is there sufficient evidence that CEQS and CES
scores are significantly correlated? Test at α = 0.05.
[Source: Skinner, B. R. (2013). The Relationship Between Confidence and Performance Throughout a Competitive Season].

## Team CES score CEQS score

(X) (Y) X2 Y2 XY
Team A 18 20 324 400 360
Team B 15 16 225 256 240
Team C 9 12 81 144 108
Team D 15 14 225 196 210
Team E 14 9 196 81 126
Team F 10 5 100 25 50
Team G 12 11 144 121 132
SUMS: 93 87 1295 1223 1226

Hypotheses:
Ho: _______________________________________________________________________________.
Ha: _______________________________________________________________________________.
Test Statistic:
𝑛 ∑ 𝑥𝑦 − ∑ 𝑥 ∑ 𝑦 7(1226) − (93)(87) 8582 − 8091 491
𝑟̂𝑝 = = = =
√[𝑛 ∑ 𝑥 2 − (∑ 𝑥)2 ][𝑛 ∑ 𝑦 2 − (∑ 𝑦)2 ] √[7(1295) − 932 ][7(1223) − 872 ] √[9065 − 8649][8561 − 7569] √[416][992]
491 491 491
= = = = 0.76432662925275 ≈ 0.764
√[416][992] √412672 642.3955167963114

𝑟̂ √𝑛−2
𝑡= = df = n – 2
√1−𝑟̂ 2

## Critical Value: ______________ p-value: ________ Decision: __________________

Conclusion: _______________________________________________________________________________.
3. [goldtally.sav] Bahrami and Asgari (2014) attempted to correlate the gold medal tally in world championships and
Olympic games of various countries. Suppose that the data are shown below. Using ranks, do this provide sufficient
evidence that gold medal tally in world swimming championships and Olympic games are positively correlated?
[Source: BAHRAMI, S., & ASGARI, B. (2014). The relationship between the countries' performances at the major sport events with their
performance at the Olympic Games. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 16(3), 61-65.]
Olympics World
Championship
Country (X) (Y) Rank X Rank Y Difference
USA 46 8
China 26 5
Brazil 7 0
Hungary 8 3
Italy 8 1
New Zealand 4 0
Uzbekistan 4 0
SUM:
Hypotheses:
Ho: _______________________________________________________________________________.
Ha: _______________________________________________________________________________.
Test Statistic:
6 ∑ 𝐷2
𝑟̂ 𝑠 = 1 − =
𝑛 ( 𝑛 2 − 1)

𝑟̂ √𝑛−2
𝑡= = df = n – 2
2
√1−𝑟̂

## Critical Value: ______________ p-value: ________ Decision: __________________

Conclusion: _______________________________________________________________________________.