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A report on summer training

Taken at

RESEARCH REACTOR MAINTENANCE DIVISION


BHABHA ATOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE, TROMBAY, MUMBAI

TOPIC: TROUBLESHOOTING OF TWO STAGE, DOUBLE-ACTING, SELF


LUBRICATING RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements


For the award of the
Bachelor of Technology
In
Mechanical Engineering
National Institute Of Technology, Raipur

(18, May 2017-3, July 2017)


SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:

Mr Mayank Agarwal Divyanjali Jaiswal


Madhur Jain
Rajan Lad
Sanket Kumar
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Words fail us to express our sincerest gratitude to this esteemed organization, which has
conferred on us the privilege to pragmatically convert our theoretical knowledge into
practical experience. During the course of our training at RESEARCH REACTOR
MAINTENANCE DIVISION, BARC, TROMBAY, MUMBAI so many people have
guided us and we will remain indebted to them throughout our life for making our training a
wonderful learning experience.

We would like to thank MR. MAYANK AGARWAL under whom we completed this
training report file, who gave us opportunity to work in this department and guided us
through our report from time to time. His words were a true inspiration for us. The exposure
to the working of the industry that we have got here would not have been possible without his
kind support.

He took keen interest in our report and ensured that our tenure at BARC, Mumbai is a
learning experience for a lifetime for us.

Thanks to all those operators with whom we had developed a special bond. In the end we
would like to thank HRDD, BARC for providing us the opportunity to add a new dimension
in our knowledge by getting trained in this esteemed organization.
LIST OF CONTENTS

ABOUT DHRUVA…………………………………………………………………………………….1

TWO STAGE, DOUBLE ACTING, SELF LUBRICATING RECIPROCATING


COMPRESSOR

1. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

1.1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………8

1.2 WORKING OF COMPRESSORS………………………………………………………...8

1.3 TYPES OF COMPRESSORS……………………………………………………………..9

1.4 THEORY OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS……………………………………10

1.5 COMPRESSOR CLASSIFICATION…………………………………………………….14

1.6 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CYLINDER ARRANGEMENTS………………..15

1.7 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CALCULATIONS……………………………….16

2. DESIGN AND MATERIAL FOR RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR COMPONENTS

2.1 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION……………………………………………………20

2.2 CYLINDERS……………………………………………………………………………..21

2.3 LINERS…………………………………………………………………………………..22

2.4 PISTONS…………………………………………………………………………………23

2.5 PISTON RODS…………………………………………………………………………...24

2.6 NON-LUBRICATED OR OIL FREE CYLINDER CONSTRUCTION………………...26

2.7 PISTON RODS AND RIDER RINGS…………………………………………………...26

2.8 VALVES AND UNLOADERS…………………………………………………………..27

2.9 FRAME LOADING………………………………………………………………………27

3. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

3.1 LUBRICATION OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS…………………………….29

3.2 COMPRESSOR VALVE THEORY AND DESIGN…………………………………….29

3.3 COMPRESSOR PISTON ROD PACKING……………………………………………...36

3.4 COMPRESSOR CONTROL SYSTEMS………………………………………………...38


3.5 COMPRESSOR CYLINDER COOLING………………………………………………..42

3.6 NON-LUBRICATED COMPRESSOR MAINTENANCE……………………………...44

4. TROUBLESHOOTING COMPRESSOR PROBLEMS

4.1 INSTRUMENTATION TABLE…………………………………………………………46

4.2 TROUBLESHOOTING TABLE…………………………………………………………47

4.3 EXPLANATIONS WITH REASONS…………………………………………………...54

VISUAL BASIC CODE……………………………………………………………………………...63

SOME GENERAL DISCUSSIONS………………………………………………………………...74


ABOUT DHRUVA
1. DESCRIPTION AND OBJECTIVE

A thermal research reactor with nominal power of 100MW.The reactor is fuelled with
natural uranium and is cooled, moderated and reflected by heavy water. It is vertical
pool type reactor. Natural Uranium contains 0.7% U235 and rest U238 which is
converted to Plutonium 235.Fission reaction takes place inside the reaction in which
heat is also released (description of fission).

When neutrons strike a uranium-235 nucleus in the fuel, sometimes the nucleus splits
into two smaller nuclei or undergoes fission. These nuclei called fission fragments
usually have different sizes. The kinetic energy of the fission fragments is transferred
to other atoms in the fuel as heat energy, which is eventually used to produce steam to
drive the turbines. Every fission event results in the release of 2 to 3 energetic
neutrons. For every fission event, if at least one of the emitted neutrons, on an
average, causes fission, a self-sustaining chain reaction will result.

The probability of interaction will increase if speed of neutron slows down which is
done by moderator. Heat exchangers are there so that inside temperature does not
increase continuously. Light water is also very good modulator but is not used because
of its capacity to absorb neutron.

The objectives behind establishment of the reactor:-


1. To test the prototype fuel elements for power reactor
2. To spread head the neutron beam research programme

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3. It enlarges isotopes production facility for application in the field of medicine,
industry and agriculture.
4. Experiments for future design (egg- fuel rods structure) are also performed.

These objectives require neutron flux in the region of 1*1014 N/cm2/sec

2. FEATURES OF REACTOR DESIGN


 The reactor has a vertical core and is fuelled with metallic natural uranium.
 The reactor vessel is immersed in a pool of light water thus simplifying the
shielding design.
 Reactor starts up and power regulation is affected by controlled adjustment of
D2O level in the calendric (stainless steel vessel).
 In addition to normal shut down devices, an emergency liquid poison injection
system is provided.
 Reactor heat is rejected to the sea which is termed as tertiary system.
 Experimental facilities include:
-Two in core engineering loop tubes.
-Two in core horizontal through tubes.
-Three in core lattice tubes for creep and corrosion experiment.
-hot and cold neutron beam tubes
-provision of extending neutron beam into an experimental area called Guide
Tube Laboratory.
 Spent fuel handling and storage facilities are there to enable vertical transfer
and handling of irradiated fuel underwater.

3. PLANT LAYOUT

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REACTOR CONTAINMENT BUILDING:-Reactor Block is located inside it and
houses reactor vessel, associated equipment and experimental facilities. It also
includes the equipment‘s connected with heavy water system, cover gas system,
engineering loops. Fuel storage block with facility of temporary storage of fuel
removed from the reactor. Two fuelling machine traverse between reactor and storage
block to facilitate handling of fuel. The reactor containment building is designed for a
pressure of 300mm wg and a maximum temperature of 110 degree Fahrenheit and for
a negative pressure of -100mm wg. The building is designed for maximum
permissible leakage rate of 0.5%volume per hour at 150mm wg.

SERVICE BUILDING:-It includes the equipments for process water system


including heat exchangers,pumps,ion exchangers. Air compressors, plant power
supply equioment, diesel driven standby power plant all are in this building. Chilled
water for air conditioning of reactor complex

is drawn from Central Air Conditioning Plant at BARC.It also includes booster pumps
and air handling equipment for supply of conditioned air to the reactor
building.Ventilation is provided through air washers.

REACTOR ANNEXE BUILDING AND ATTACHED LABORATORY:-An


annexe building houses the main control and instrumentation room. The access to
DHRUVA reactor from its attached laboratory is through reactor annexe building. The
laboratory is to conduct nuclear physics experiment using cold and hot neutron
sources.

SPENT FUEL STORAGE BUILDING:-It houses water filled bays for the storage
and handling of spent fuel. All the bays are lined with stainless steel for leak tightness
and ease of decontamination. Active chemical and non-chemical wastes are led to
underground tank.

OVERHEAD STORAGE TANK AND UNDERGROUND DUMP TANK:-


Overhead storage tank (1.8million litres) and underground dump tank (2.5 million
litres) are provided for giving emergency cooling to reactor. A pump house is attached
to dump tank which provides facilities for recirculation and also for disposal of
effluents.

EFFLUENT MANAGEMENT:-Separate R.C underground tank with suitable


compartment provides facilities for storing active chemicals and non-chemicals
effluents received from various areas. From this tank effluents are pumped to Effluent
Treatment Plant or Waste Management Division.

STACK AND FILTER HOUSE:-Exhaust fans, high Efficiency Particulate Air


(HEPA), filter banks are located in this building. Underground ducting connects the

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reactor and spent fuel storage building with the filter house. Exhaust air from reactor
and spent fuel storage building is filtered and discharged to the atmosphere through a
stack.

REACTOR BLOCK:-It is constructed of heavy concrete. It has a cavity forming a


vault in which are located the reactor vessel with its support structure, end shield,
annular shields, inlet and outlet headers, deck plates, piping, etc.Vault is lined with
stainless steel and filled with light water.Calandria (19mm thick) single walled
cylindrical shell (3.72m diameter) with the ends stepped down to conserve heavy
water and to provide flexibility in axial direction. End shield, Annular shield and top
deck plate provide radiation shielding above the reacrtor.The end shield contains
various shielding layers(stainless steel slabs,water,mixture of water and steel
balls).Annular shield supports the end shield and also the outlet header.

4. HEAVY WATER SYSTEM


Heavy water at a temperature of 50 degree centigrade enters a plenum located at the
bottom of calandria.It is then distributed to fuel assemblies, located in guide tubes9to
remove heat from fuel).Coolant exist at the top into a common header and is divided
into three circuits having circulating pumps and heat exchangers with the associated
valves and piping. In order to remove heat generated in the moderator, a specified
quantity of heavy water is supplied from the outlet of main circulating pumps into the
calandria. The heavy water from calandria returns to the suction side of main

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circulating pump. In addition to main circulating pumps, three small capacity pumps
are there. These are provided with emergency power supply and also are backed up by
water power turbines to ensure uninterrupted coolant flow even during failure of
normal power supply. A small quantity of heavy water is circulated through filters and
ion exchangers unit to maintain the purity of the system. Helium is used as cover gas
for heavy water system.

5. AUXILLARY COOLANT SYSTEM


Demineralised water is used as secondary coolant to cool the heavy water from the
reactor. A recirculation circuit has been chosen for the system, since a very large
coolant flow rate is required. The reactor vault and top thermal shields are cooled by
separate coolant circuits. Spent fuel storage bays are also provided with independent
cooling systems. During total power failure, the systems heavy water is cooled by
demineralise water fed from an overhead storage tank.

6. FUEL ASSEMBLY AND FUEL HANDLING


Fuel for the reactor is in the form of 7 pin cluster of metallic natural uranium metal
cluster with uranium diameter of 1.27cm, cladded with aluminium. The pins are
arranged hexagonally with centre to centre distance of 1.78cm inside an aluminium
coolant tube. Zircaloy guide tube used around coolant tube .Space between guide tube
and coolant tube contains heavy water coolant. The uranium in the fuel assembly has
mass of about 51 kg.The fuel cell consist of:-

 Fuel(Uranium metal)
 Clad including fins(Aluminium)
 Coolant tube(Aluminium)
 Guide tube(Zircaloy)
 Coolant(Heavy water)
 Annular heavy water between coolant and guide tube
 Moderator heavy water

Fuel and tray rod assemblies which are heavy water cooled, are installed and removed
from the core with the reactor on power‗ using a vertical fuelling machine which
traverse between the reactor and storage blocks, providing heavy water cooling to the
assemblies during handling. Fuel assemblies from the storage blocks are transferred to

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the spent fuel bays through a water filled trench for canned storage of spent fuel. The
fuel will be reprocessed at the reprocessing plant. Another fuel machine is used for
handling engineering loops, shut off rods, etc. during shutdown using demineralised
water as required.

7. SAFETY
Safety system consist of three different devices: solid shut off rods, a backup liquid
poison system and a moderator dump. Liquid poison system is gadolinium nitrate
solution of strength 25000ppm in light water which is injected into the system as
emergency shutdown. Fast shutdown of reactor upon initiation of trip signals to be
achieved by inserting a set of cadmium shut off rods into the core.

8. CONTAINMENT VENTILATION SYSTEM


Inlet supply fans provide fresh, clean and conditioned air to the reactor building.
Exhaust system does the functioning of air cleaning and exhaust air from building is
passed through HEPA filters before it is released to the atmosphere through 100m
high stack. Combined Hepa plus charcoal filters are provided in the emergency
exhaust system to prevent release of fission products especially I131 to the
atmosphere.

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SPECIFICATIONS OF COMPRESSORS
USED IN DHRUVA

1. KIRLOSKAR COMPRESSOR (3 Nos.)

Model: TBTDQM Sr No: AC0035

LP Bore: 385 mm FAD: 19.61 m3/min

HP Bore: 235 mm Press: 8.4 kg/cm2

Stroke: 150 mm RPM: 700

Spec. no: 282067 Date: NOV, 98

2. KHOSLA COMPRESSOR (2 Nos.)

FAD: 18.1 m3/min

Press: 8.4 kg/cm2

RPM: 750

Type: 2HA20D

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TWO STAGE, DOUBLE ACTING,
SELF LUBRICATING
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
1. RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR AND
THEIR APPLICATIONS

1.1 INTRODUCTION
The purpose of compressors is to move air and other gases from place to place. Gases,
unlike liquids, are compressible and require compression devices, which although
similar to pumps, operate on somewhat different principles. Compressors, blowers,
and fans are such compression devices.

1.2 WORKING OF COMPESSORS


To understand how gases and gas mixtures behave, it is necessary to recognize that
gases consist of individual molecules of the various gas components, widely separated
compared to their size. These molecules are always traveling at high speed; they strike
against the walls of the enclosing vessel and produce what we know as pressure. Refer
to Figure 1-1.
Temperature affects average molecule speed. When heat is added to a fixed volume of
gas, the molecules travel faster, and hit the containing walls of the vessel more often
and with greater force. See Figure 1-2. This then produces a greater pressure. This is
consistent with Amonton's Law.
If the enclosed vessel is fitted with a piston so that the gas can be squeezed into a
smaller space, the molecule travel is now restricted. The molecules now hit the walls
with a greater frequency, increasing the pressure, consistent with Boyle's Law.
However, moving the piston also delivers energy to the molecules, causing them to
move with increasing velocity. As with heating, this results in a temperature increase.
Furthermore, all the molecules have been forced into a smaller space, which results in
an increased number of collisions on a unit area of the wall. This, together with the
increased velocity, results in increased pressure.

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1.3 TYPES OF COMPRESSORS
The principal types of compressors are shown in figure and are defined below. Cam,
diaphragm, and diffusion compressors are not shown because of their specialized
applications and relatively small size.

 Positive displacement units are those in which successive volumes of gas are
confined within a closed space and elevated to a higher pressure.

 Rotary positive displacement compressors are machines in which


compression and displacement result from the positive action of rotating
elements.

 Sliding vane compressors are rotary positive displacement machines in which


axial vanes slide radially in a rotor eccentrically mounted in a cylindrical
casing. Gas trapped between vanes is compressed and displaced.

 Liquid piston compressors are rotary positive displacement machines in


which water or other liquid is used as the piston to compress and displace the
gas handled.

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 Two-impeller straight-lobe compressors are rotary positive displacement
machines in which two straight mating lobed impellers trap gas and carry it
from intake to discharge. There is no internal compression.

 Helical or spiral lobe compressors are rotary positive displacement machines


in which two intermeshing rotors, each with a helical form, compress and
displace the gas.

 Dynamic compressors are rotary continuous-flow machines in which the


rapidly rotating element accelerates the gas as it passes through the element,
converting the velocity head into pressure. This occurs partially in the rotating
element and partially in stationary diffusers or blades.

 Centrifugal compressors are dynamic machines in which one or more rotating


impellers, usually shrouded on the sides, accelerate the gas. Main gas flow is
radial.

 Axial compressors are dynamic machines in which gas acceleration is


obtained by the action of the bladed rotor. Main gas flow is axial

 Mixed flow compressors are dynamic machines with an impeller form


combining some characteristics of both the centrifugal and axial types.

1.4 THEORY OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS


Reciprocating compressors are the best known and most widely used compressors of
the positive displacement type. They operate on the same principle as the old, familiar
bicycle pump, that is, by means of a piston in a cylinder. As the piston moves forward
in the cylinder, it compresses the air or gas into a smaller space, thus raising its
pressure.

The basic reciprocating compression element is a single cylinder compressing on one


side of the piston (single-acting). A unit compressing on both sides of the piston
(double-acting) consists of two basic single-acting elements operating in parallel in
one casting. Most of the compressors in use are of the double-acting type.

Rotary motion provided at the compressor shaft is converted to reciprocating (linear)


motion by use of a crankshaft, crosshead, and a connecting rod between the two. One
end of the connecting rod is secured by the crankpin to the crankshaft, and the other
by crosshead pin to the crosshead which, as the crankshaft turns, reciprocates in a
linear motion. Intake (suction) and discharge valves are located in the top and bottom
of the cylinder. (Sometimes they may be located in the cylinder barrel.) These are
basically check valves, permitting gas to flow in one direction only. The movement of
(he piston to the top of the cylinder creates a partial vacuum in the lower end of the

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cylinder; the pressure differential between intake pressure and this vacuum across the
intake valve then causes the valves to open, allowing air to flow into the cylinder from
the intake line. On the return stroke, when the pressure in the cylinder exceeds the
pressure in the discharge line, the discharge valve opens, permitting air at that
pressure to be discharged from the cylinder into the discharge or system line. This
action, when on one side of the piston only, is called "single-acting" compression;
when on both sides of the piston, it is called "double acting" compression.

1.4.1 COMPRESSOR CAPACITY


Determining compressor capacity would be relatively simple if a non-compressible,
non-expandable fluid were handled. The quantity into the discharge line would be
practically equal to the volume swept by the piston.

However, since air or gas is elastic, compressor capacity varies widely as pressure
conditions change. For instance, with a given intake pressure, machine capacity is
considerably less when discharging at 100 psi than at 50 psi. This makes it impossible
to rate a given compressor for a given capacity. The only practicable rating is in terms
of piston displacement— volume swept by the moving piston during one minute.

1.4.2 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY


A volumetric efficiency, which varies for different compression ratios, must then be
applied to the piston displacement to determine actual free air capacity. Volumetric
efficiency also varies to some extent with the "n" value, and molecular weight, of the
gas being compressed.

Greatest volumetric loss occurs because of clearance within the compressor cylinders.
However, other losses, while of lesser importance, also affect compressor capacity.

1.4.3 CLEARANCE LOSS


When the compressor reaches the end of its stroke and has discharged all the gas it
can, a small amount remains in the valve pockets and in the clearance space between
piston and cylinder head.

When the piston starts its return stroke, this clearance gas at discharge pressure must
expand to intake pressure before inlet valves can open; thus, no air enters the cylinder
for that portion of the stroke, which reduces the intake volume by that amount.

Since the volume for this clearance gas, expanded to intake pressure, varies with the
compression ratio, it follows that compressor volumetric efficiency, and hence its
actual capacity, varies with compression ratio instead of with pressure.
Cylinder clearance cannot be completely eliminated. Normal clearance is the
minimum obtainable in a given cylinder and will vary between 4% and 16% for most
standard cylinders. Some special low ratio cylinders have normal clearance much

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greater than this. Normal clearance does not include volume that may have been added
for other purposes, such as capacity control.

Although clearance is of little importance to the average user (guarantees are made on
actual delivered capacity), its effect on capacity should be understood because of the
wide application of a variation in clearance for control and other purposes. There are
many cases where extra clearance is added to a cylinder:
1. To reduce capacity at fixed pressure conditions.
2. To prevent driver overload under variable operating pressure conditions by
reducing capacity as compression ratio changes.

If a compressor is designed for a given capacity at a given condition, the amount of


normal clearance in the cylinder or cylinders has no effect on power.
When a piston has completed the compression and delivery stroke and is ready to
reverse its movement, gas at discharge pressure is trapped in the clearance space.
This gas expands on the return stroke until its pressure is sufficiently below intake
pressure to cause the suction valves to open.

The above figure shows a series of theoretical pV diagrams based on a pressure ratio
of 4.0 and clearances of 7, 14, and 21%. The effect of clearance is clearly indicated.

It can now be seen that volumetric efficiency decreases as


1. The clearance increases.
2. The compression ratio increases.
The following figure illustrates the effect of clearance at moderate and high
compression ratio condition. A theoretical pV diagram for a ratio of 7 is superimposed
on a diagram for a ratio of 4, all else being the same. A relatively high clearance
(14%) has been used for illustrative purposes. The clearance for a commercial
compressor designed for a ratio of 7 would be less than 14%.

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Just as clearance in a cylinder
has predominant control over
volumetric efficiency, the
valve area has predominant
control over compression
efficiency.
To obtain low clearance and
a high volumetric efficiency,
it is necessary to limit the
size and number of valves.
This may tend to lower the
efficiency of compression
and raise the horsepower.
Both factors must be
evaluated and compromises
made.

1.4.4 PISTON RING LEAKAGE


This leakage allows gas from the compression chamber to escape past the piston into
the other end of the cylinder, which is taking suction with the inlet valve open.
Capacity is reduced because this hot leakage gas heats up the incoming gas in that end
of the cylinder.

Naturally, maximum piston leakage occurs as the piston approaches the end of its
stroke because differential pressure across the rings and the time element are the
greatest at this point. This leakage causes both a volumetric and a horsepower loss as
evidenced by an increase in discharge temperatures.

1.4.5 VALVE SLIP


Valve slip means reversed gas flow through the valves before they have had time to
seat at the end of the piston stroke. Obviously, this volume loss can occur through
both intake and discharge valves. Minimum slippage occurs in a responsive valve; one
that has minimum inertia so that the moving element can easily be controlled by air
flow.

Slippage is usually much less through intake valves than through discharge valves. In
the latter, differential pressure across the valve increases rapidly as the piston reaches
dead centre, so that if the valve does not respond instantaneously, high pressure gas
naturally returns through the valve before it seats.

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1.4.6 EFFECTS OF MULTI STAGING
Multistaging has a marked effect on
volumetric efficiency. Here, the low
pressure cylinder largely determines
the entire machine's volumetric
efficiency because whatever volume
this cylinder delivers to succeeding
stages must be discharged, with the
exception of slight leakage that occurs
through packing boxes.

In other words, volumetric efficiency


of a two-stage machine is the same as
if the low pressure cylinder were a
single-stage compressor delivering
gas at intercooler pressure.

Figure shows the pV combined


diagram of a two-stage 100 psig air
compressor. Further stages are added
in the same manner. In a reciprocating
unit, all cylinders are commonly combined into one unit assembly and driven from a
single crankshaft.

For reciprocating compressors, multistaging is used


1. To save power.
2. To limit gas discharge temperature.
3. To limit pressure differential.

1.5 COMPRESSOR CLASSIFICATION


Manufacturers design compressors to fill definite user needs. These compressors fall
into two general groups, moderate duty machines and heavy duty units.

1.5.1 MODERATE DUTY COMPRESSORS

Moderate duty compressors are designed for reliable operation over a reasonable
service life but should not be installed where continuous full load, long-time operation
is required. This does not mean that these units will not operate for long full-load
periods. It does mean that maintenance will be greater than normal.

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Generally, moderate duty compressors are of single-acting cylinder design. Usually,
these compressors are air-cooled. However, they are also offered as water-cooled
designs in horsepower ranges of 30 to 125. Maximum rating is 125 horsepower in
either version.
They are built as single-stage units for pressure ratings up to 50 psig and as two-stage
units up to 250 psig.

1.5.2 HEAVY DUTY COMPRESSORS

It is generally agreed that for a reciprocating compressor to be considered heavy duty


or "continuous duty," it must be both water-cooled and double-acting.

We have seen that whenever gas is compressed, heat is generated. Proper cooling of
the internal parts of the compressor in order to maintain the coolest possible
temperatures at critical points is a basic part of the design. In the case of the water-
cooled reciprocating compressor, the cylinders and cylinder heads are surrounded by
water jackets and the heat transfers through the metal to the water much more
efficiently than heat transfer through metal to air. Water-cooled reciprocating units
handle cooling more efficiently than comparable air-cooled units. This allows for
continuous duty (operation at 100% load and 24-hour days) with low maintenance.

1.6 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CYLINDER


ARRANGEMENTS
By arranging the cylinders of the reciprocating compressor in various combinations,
greater capacity and output can be achieved. Some of the many possible combinations
of cylinders and their arrangements are shown in Figure.

Single - Frame straight-line reciprocating compressors, Figures A, C, D, and F, are


horizontal or vertical double-acting compressors with one or more cylinders in line on
a single frame having one crank throw and one connecting rod and crosshead. They
may be belted or direct-connected, motor-driven, or steam-driven with the steam and
air cylinder in tandem.

V- or Y-type reciprocating compressors are two-cylinder, vertical double-acting


machines in which the compressor cylinders are arranged at some angle, using 45°
from the vertical, and are driven from a single crank (Figure G).

Semi-Radial reciprocating compressors are similar to the V- or Y-type except that, in


addition to the double-acting compressor cylinders arranged at an angle from the
vertical, horizontal double-acting cylinders are also arranged on each side, all operated
from a single crankpin (Figure H).

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Duplex reciprocating compressors are machines with cylinders mounted on two
parallel frames connected through a common crankshaft (Figure I). Duplex Four-
Cornered Steam-Driven reciprocating compressors are of the duplex type and have
steam and compressor cylinders on opposite ends of each frame (Figure J).

Four-Cornered Motor-Driven reciprocating compressors are of the duplex type with


one or more compressing cylinders on each end of each frame. The driving motor is
mounted on the shaft between the frames (Figure L).

Angle or L-type Integral gas or oil-driven compressors have the power cylinders in a
vertical or vertical-V arrangement and the compressing cylinders in a horizontal plane
(Figure M).

Horizontal Opposed reciprocating compressors are multi-cylinder machines on


opposite sides of the crankcase; they employ a multi-throw type of shaft with one
crank throw per cylinder. Power is applied at the end of the shaft (Figure N).

1.7 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CALCULATIONS

The compression of air can be assumed to be a reversible polytropic process, that is;

p.Vn = constant.
Where;
P = pressure
V = volume of air

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n = constant or polytropic index.

See Processes section in these notes.

The pressure – volume (p-V) diagram for a reciprocating compressor is shown below.

The Induction stroke is where air is drawn into the cylinder, from points 4 to 1.
The Compression and Delivery stroke are one stroke of the piston inside a cylinder.
The air is compressed from point 1 to point 2.
At point 2 the delivery valve opens and the compressed air exits the cylinder to point
3.
The cycle is repeated.

The net work done by a compression cycle is the area under the curve 1-2-3-4.

It can be shown that Work Input is;

Work input = (n / n – 1) m . R ( T2 - T1 )

Where;
n = constant or polytropic index.
m = Mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
R = Specific Gas Constant for air is 287.1 J/kg K (Steam
Tables)
T2 = Air delivery temperature (oK)
T1 = Air suction temperature (oK)

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Also;

T2 = T1 ( p2 / p1 ) (n-1) / n

Where;
T2 = Air delivery temperature (oK)
T1 = Air suction temperature (oK)
p2 = Air delivery pressure (N/m2)
p1 = Air suction pressure (N/m2)
n = constant or polytropic index.

Example 1

A single cylinder reciprocating compressor delivers air at 10 bar.


The suction temperature is 10oC (283 K) and suction pressure is 1.0 bar.
The amount of air drawn into the compressor is 0.16 m3/s.
Calculate the indicated power to drive the compressor.
Assume the law of compression; p V 1.4 = constant.

Answer.

The mass flow rate of suction air can be found and this is the same as the mass flow
rate of delivered air.

p.V = m .R .T

Where;
p = Suction pressure (N/m2).
V = Volume flow rate (m3/s)
m = Mass flow rate of suction air (kg/s)
R = Specific Gas Constant for air is 287.1 J/kg K (Steam
Tables)
T = Air suction temperature (oK)

Rearranging;

m = p.V / R .T

m = (1.0 x 105 x 0.16) / ( 287.1 x 283 )

m = 16,000 / 81,249.3

18
m = 0.197 kg/s.

The temperature of delivery air is‘;

T2 = T1 ( p2 / p1 ) (n-1) / n

Where;
T2 = Air delivery temperature (oK)
T1 = Air suction temperature (oK)
p2 = Air delivery pressure (N/m2)
p1 = Air suction pressure (N/m2)
n = constant or polytropic index.

T2 = 283 ( 10 / 1.0 ) (1.4 -1) / 1.4

T2 = 283 x 10 0.2857

T2 = 283 x 1.9306

T2 = 546.4 K (273.4 oC)

Work input (Watts) = ( n / n – 1 ) m . R ( T2 - T1 )

Where;
n = constant or polytropic index.
m = Mass flow rate of air (kg/s)
R = Specific Gas Constant for air is 287.1 J/kg K (Steam
Tables)
T2 = Air delivery temperature (oK)
T1 = Air suction temperature (oK)

Work input (Watts) = ( n / n – 1 ) m . R ( T2 - T1 )

Work input (Watts) = ( 1.4 / 0.4 ) x 0.197 x 287.1 x (546.4 - 283)

Work input (Watts) = 3.5 x 0.197 x 287.1 x 263.4

Work input (Watts) = 52,141 Watts = 52.14 kW

19
2. DESIGN AND MATERIAL FOR
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR
COMPONENTS

2.1 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION


The knowledge of the materials used in the construction of the major components of
the heavy-duty water-cooled compressor will permit the proper maintenance and
repair of those components.

Frame or crankcase is a high-grade cast-iron


casting similar to ASTM class 40 or 50; it is
designed with suitable supports or ribbing to
mount the compressor cylinders, crankshaft, and
other running gear parts and hold them in
accurate alignment under the stresses imposed
during operation.

Crankshafts are made from carbon steel forgings or


nodular iron (ductile) castings. Most forgings are carbon
steel conforming to AISI 1020, ASTM 668 for small
shafts and AISI 1045, ASTM 668 class F for large shafts.
Nodular iron crankshafts conform to ASTM A-536 Grade
80-55-06.

Main bearings may be horizontally split


shells made of steel or cast iron, with a
lining of Babbitt. Some are made of
aluminium without Babbitt or of a steel/
bronze/ babbitt tri-metal construction. The
shells may have a laminated shim placed
between the halves to permit adjustment for
wear. On some smaller compressors, anti-
friction roller bearings are used.

Connecting rod as shown in Figure 2-3 is a semi-marine


type, made from a low carbon steel forging. Oil under
pressure is conducted from the crankpins to the crosshead pin.
Similar to the main bearing, crankpin bearings are babbitt-

20
lined steel or cast-iron shells. They may be shim adjustable or shim less. In other
designs, bearings are made from aluminium, bronze, or tri-metal construction.

Crossheads, as illustrated in Figure 2-4, are generally made of cast grey iron or
nodular iron, but in some older designs cast steel is used. Shoes or slippers of cast iron
with babbitt overlay or shoes of
aluminium are bolted to the crosshead.
The crosshead pin is made of steel and
hardened to approximately 50 Re; it is
tapered at the ends and held in place
with caps. Other designs have no taper
and are free to rotate or "float," retained
by lock rings.

The piston rod is threaded into the


crosshead and is locked with a dowel or set screws.

2.2 CYLINDERS
A typical double-acting cylinder,
consists of a barrel, usually water-
jacketed, with a front and rear head. In
some designs the rear head is an
integral part of the cylinder barrel; in
others, it is a separate, bolted piece as
shown. These heads are also water-
cooled to remove heat of compression.

Provision is made in the rear head for


the pressure packing. Valves are
installed around the barrel, but in some
designs valves are installed in the
heads.

Cylinders may be double-acting, that is,


compressing on both sides of the piston,
or single-acting, compressing at either the head or crank end, but not both.

2.2.1 CYLINDER MATERIALS

21
Cylinders are made of material selected for the particular pressure and gas being
handled. Variables which must be considered in the selection of materials include bore
diameter, pressure differential, and the type of gas to be handled.

2.2.2 LOW AND MEDIUM PRESSURE CYLINDERS


These are normally made of cast iron but are also available in nodular iron or cast
steel depending on application. The cylinder has a solid bore, but in most designs the
cylinders may be furnished with sleeves or liners. These cylinders normally have
generous water cooling around the bore and in both heads. Pressures can be up to
2000 psi depending on the bore diameter.

2.2.3 MEDIUM TO HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDERS


This cylinder has heavier wall sections and smaller bores. The material used would
normally be nodular iron, but steel has been used in the past. Cooling and control
options are similar to those in low and medium pressure cylinders. Pressure range is
from 1000 psi to 2500 psi, depending on the bore sizes.

2.2.4 HIGH PRESSURE CYLINDERS

High-pressure cylinders are made from a steel forging, with only nominal water
cooling as compared to the other cylinders. Because the smallest possible number of
openings in the forging is desired, capacity control mechanisms are not normally
provided. Tie bolts may be installed perpendicular to the bore to pre-stress the forging,
decreasing the maximum tensile stress induced by the gas pressure.

2.3 LINERS
Liners and sleeves are used in compressor cylinders either to form the cylinder wall or
to be a removable part of the cylinder in case of accidental scoring or wear over a long
period of service.

In general, liners are not used in low- or medium-pressure cylinders where the gas
being handled is non-corrosive, such as air. Liners are almost always used in medium-
to high-pressure cylinders where the gas being handled is corrosive.

Another application of the liner is to reduce the cylinder bore size to meet certain
capacity conditions. By installing liners with different bore sizes, the same cylinder
casting can be used to accommodate a range of capacity and pressure conditions.

22
Cast iron is generally used for liners unless the cylinder is high pressure above 3000
psi on lubricated machines and above 500 psi on non-lubricated compressors. On
these, hardened cast steel may be used.

2.4 PISTONS
The design and materials used for compressor pistons will vary with the make, type,
and application of the compressor. They are designed to take into account a number of
conditions:
• Cylinder bore diameter
• Discharge pressure
• Compressor rotative speed
• Compressor stroke
• Required piston weight

Compressor pistons are typically designed as one of three types:

One piece, either solid cast iron or steel, for small bores and high
pressure differential applications, or one piece hollow-cored cast
iron or aluminium, for large diameter and lower pressures.

Two piece, aluminium or cast iron, which is split for ease of


hollow casting and weight control. These are generally used
above 10" bore diameters. Aluminium is used when the
reciprocating weight must be reduced.

Three piece, in which a ring carrier is added to permit band-type


rider rings to be installed directly into the piston grooves. While
this design adds a part, it allows thicker rings to be used since the
ring does not have to be stretched over the outside diameter. It is
also used as a carrier for the piston rings on large diameter
pistons, where metallic rings are used which might wear into an aluminium piston.

23
2.4.1 PISTON MATERIALS

Material selection for pistons is very important, and many factors must be considered.
Some of these include
• Weight
• Strength, for differential pressures and inertia forces
• Corrosion resistance
• Compression and rider ring wall wear resistance
• Outside diameter wear resistance

Materials commonly used for compressor pistons are aluminium, cast iron, and steel.

Aluminium is used when lightweight pistons are required in order to balance


reciprocating weights or to reduce inertia forces so they do not exceed rated frame
load limits.

Cast Iron is the most common piston material due to its high strength and good wear
and corrosion resistance. It is used in either the cast or solid form, conforming to
ASTM A275, class 40.

Steels are used for small bore, high differential pistons when strength requirements
are higher. They conform to ASTM A354 or A320. Steel is also used in fabricating
built-up type pistons in some designs.

2.5 PISTON RODS


Like other components in the modern reciprocating compressor, the piston rod is
designed for specific applications such as
 Operating pressures
 Gas composition
 Capacity
 Rotating speed

Piston rods incorporate diameter, length, material, composition, and fastening


arrangements as dictated by both the operating conditions of the compressor and the
design of the piston to which they are connected.

2.5.1 TYPES OF PISTON RODS

Single Piston Rod. This is the most common type. It contains a single piston.

24
Tandem Piston Rod. This is a piston rod on which two or more pistons are mounted
in tandem. This is used where loading is low so that the combined loading does not
exceed the allowable frame load.

Piston Rod for Truncated Cylinder. This is a special configuration which


accommodates the truncated cylinders. A truncated, or stepped, piston compressor
cylinder is designed with different bore sizes for head end and crank end.

Tail Rod. In this arrangement, the piston is in the centre of the piston rod, and the rod
is the same diameter on both sides of the piston. This prevents non-reversal loading
due to equal areas and equal pressures on both sides of the piston.

Cooled Piston Rod. This rod is drilled through the centre axis to allow pressure fed
coolant, usually oil, to circulate up the rod core. Such circulation helps to remove the
heat of compression from rod and piston.

2.5.2 PISTON ROD MATERIALS

Compressor piston rods are made from various types of steel depending on stress
levels and the composition of the gas handled. Low carbon steels, such as AISI 1037,
and low alloy steels, such as AISI 4140, are commonly used. For certain corrosive
gases, 410 stainless, K-Monel, or Hastalloy steels may be used.

The normal frictional forces acting between the piston rod packing rings and the
piston rod increase with pressure. Experience has shown that piston rod packing wear
becomes excessive with pressures above 1000 psi.

2.5.3 PISTON ROD TO CROSSHEAD CONNECTION

The piston rod is always screwed into the crosshead and locked with a nut except in
the case of the floating coupling arrangement to be described. This discussion will
concern only the arrangement which is screwed into the crosshead.

Castellated Piston Rod. The end of the piston rod is


machined with castellations, and a pin or lock dowel is
inserted through the crosshead to prevent rod rotation. This
method also uses a nut against the face of the crosshead for
locking.

25
Set Screw Lock. The crosshead is drilled and
tapped for a set screw at the threads of the piston
rod. A copper disc is inserted into the hole to
prevent damage of the rod threads by the set
screw. The crosshead nuts are also locked in a
similar manner with the set screws and copper
discs

Jam Screw Lock to Crosshead. This


arrangement uses several set screws through the
nut which bears against the face of the crosshead.
It also uses a set screw and copper disc through
the nut and bears against the piston rod threads.

2.6 NON-LUBRICATED OR OIL FREE CYLINDER


CONSTRUCTION

There are many applications for industrial compressors in which oil in the gas stream
cannot be tolerated. Oil-free compressed air is essential in industries such as the food
industry, the brewing industry, and the packaging (Pharmaceuticals) industry, as well
as in some industrial air control systems. But even in general industry or
manufacturing, there may be reasons to consider reducing the amount of lubricating
oil used in the compressor cylinders. Excess oil can build up in the discharge valve
port areas, and even the best premium grades of compressor oil will oxidize when
subjected to high temperatures. These oils may eventually form gummy or sludge-like
deposits, which reduce the performance of a compressor and can, in some cases, lead
to fires in the air system if they are allowed to build up. For these and other reasons,
non-lubricated operation has become increasingly popular.

2.7 PISTON RODS AND RIDER RINGS

Rider bands and piston rings are made from PTFE (Teflon) with various fillers such as
glass, carbon, bronze, or high performance polymers. Carbon filled Teflon is
customary in low-pressure air service. It has good heat conductivity, is compatible

26
with many cylinder materials, and is normally used with hydrocarbon gases as well as
dry gases such as nitrogen and helium. Bronze may be used for pressures above 2000
psi, and graphite is used for very high temperature applications.

Piston rings made of PTFE will have an end gap clearance of .020" to .024" per inch
of piston diameter when fitted into the cylinder bore. Side clearance in the groove
should be 0.010"-0.020" per inch of width. It should be remembered that Teflon
expansion rates are approximately seven times those of cast iron. Values for oil-
lubricated compressors with cast iron rings are .0035" per inch of diameter for the ring
gap.

2.8 VALVES AND UNLOADERS

Valves, unloaders, and clearance pockets for non-lube units have Teflon nubs or
bushings for self-lubricating operation. Channel valves have Teflon strips over the
channels and Teflon guides at the ends. Plate valves usually have Teflon nubs between
the springs and the plate. In some cases, all components are Teflon coated.

2.9 FRAME LOADING

Piston rod column or frame load is the force that the pressure in a cylinder exerts on
the piston and, in turn, the piston exerts on the piston rod. This load is transmitted
through the piston rod back to the frame and running gear parts.

Frame load is the difference of the total loads across the piston or across one
cylinder. It is the net area of the piston times the difference between the discharge and
suction pressures for that cylinder.

2.9.1 ROD UNDER COMPRESSION

Two forces are opposite in direction, but


since the discharge pressure is greater; the
net result is a force compressing the rod.
This is called rod load compression. It is
obvious that as suction pressure is decreased,
or discharge pressure is increased, the net
compression on the rod increases. Therefore, if the operator lets the suction or

27
discharge pressure deviate too far from the design conditions, the maximum
permissible compressive load may be exceeded.

2.9.2 ROD UNDER TENSION

As the piston discharges toward the crank end


on the return stroke, as seen in Figure, the net
force of the suction and discharge pressures
results in a tension load on the rod. This is
called rod load tension. The operator can
damage the compressor by decreasing the
suction or increasing the discharge pressure
too far above the design pressures.

28
3. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE OF
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

3.1 LUBRICATION OF RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS

Proper lubrication includes:


 Selection of a high quality lubricant suited for the particular service conditions
 Cleanliness in storage and dispensing
 Application of correct quantities in a manner that permits effective
 Performance

Proper lubrication will lead to:


 Reduced wear rates of sensitive and critical parts
 Avoidance of catastrophic failure and malfunction
 Increased reliability
 Reduced cost of system downtime, spare parts, new oil, and labor for repair
 Minimum power consumption

A lubricant is expected to:


 Separate rubbing parts
 Dissipate frictional heat through cooling and heat transfer
 Flush away entering dirt as well as debris
 Minimize wear
 Reduce friction loss and power required
 Reduce gas leakage
 Protect parts from corrosion
 Minimize deposits

3.2 COMPRESSOR VALVE THEORY AND DESIGN

Compressor valves are devices placed in the cylinder to permit one way flow of gas
either into or out of the cylinder. If the valve fails to function properly, the compressor
cannot supply compressed air or gas and must be shut down for repair. It is subjected
to all types of destructive forces such as tension, compression, impact, twisting,

29
bending, abrasion, erosion, and extreme temperature variations. The valves are opened
solely by the difference in pressure across the valve; no mechanical device is used.

Basically, an automatic compressor valve requires only three components to do its


job:
1. Valve seat
2. Sealing element
3. A stop to contain the travel of the
sealing element

The area enclosed by the curve E-A-B-


D-E in the PV-diagram represents the
total work performed during
compression. Areas D-B-C-D and E-A-
F-E indicate energy expended activating
the valves and in overcoming flow
resistance in and out of the cylinder.

3.2.1 TYPES OF VALVES USED IN RECIPROCATING


COMPRESSORS

RECTANGULAR ELEMENT VALVES


Typical valve designs that use rectangular elements are feather valves, channel valves
and reed valves. These valves generally make excellent use of available valve port
areas to provide flow area at moderate valve lifts (.100"-.200"). The rectangular shape
of the elements eliminates the use of a cross ribbing system to provide structural
integrity of the valve seat and guard. This enables the use of long uninterrupted slots
in the seat and guard and provides good flow area.

FEATHER VALVES
Feather valves use a long and narrow
metallic strip as a sealing element.
These strips open as a simply
supported, uniformly loaded beam.
The guard provides a large radius stop
to limit the lift. Common applications
are low-to-medium-speed machines and medium pressures. These valves have not
proven successful in higher speed applications or for higher pressures.

30
CHANNEL VALVES
Channel valves use a long and narrow metallic
channel-shaped sealing element. Springing is
provided by a pre-curved long and narrow strip
similar to a single element leaf spring. This spring
deflects against a flat stop that causes the spring rate
to increase as the channel nears a maximum lift. The
spring fits into a channel with a close clearance that
can provide some gas damping. The application is
similar to the feather valve, but can operate with
higher pressure differentials and under more severe
conditions of moisture and foreign materials.

REED VALVES
Reed valves are similar to feather valves in that the
sealing element is the spring. One end of the reed is fixed
so that it deflects as a cantilever beam. The stop is either
contoured or a bumper that limits the deflection of the
free end of the reed.

CONCENTRIC RING VALVES


These valves use one or more relatively narrow metallic or
nonmetallic rings arranged concentrically about the center
line of the valve. Spring is provided by either wave springs
or, more commonly, coil springs.

PORTED PLATE VALVES


Ported plate valves are similar to the concentric
ring valves, except the rings are joined together
into a single element.
There are two advantages to this when
compared to the concentric plates:
* The number of plate edges available for
impact is reduced.
• Mechanical damping by using damping plates
to absorb opening impact is easily introduced.

31
Spring is generally provided by coil springs that directly contact the plates,
eliminating the buttons used in concentric ring valves.

DISC/POPPET VALVES
The design characteristics of poppet valves for
gas transmission service are multiple nonmetallic
and streamlined sealing elements in single or
double-deck valves. Maximum lift is
approximately .300". Springing is provided by
individual coil springs for each poppet.

3.2.2 VALVE MATERIALS

Valve components are made of various materials depending on the operating pressures
and type of gas to be handled. Materials used for valve seats and guards include:
 Cast iron—most common for low and medium pressures
 Ductile iron—for medium pressures
 Cast steel—for high pressures
 Steel (bar stock)—for high pressures

SEALING ELEMENTS
Materials used for sealing elements fall into two classes: high strength steels and
plastic composites.
Feather valve strips, valve channels, and springs are made of steel, usually 410
stainless that is stress relieved, hardened, and tempered for maximum wear resistance.
For more corrosive applications, channel may be made from 316 stainless. Feather
valve strips may be made of Inconel 17-4 PH materials for greater corrosion
resistance.

PLASTIC COMPOSITES
Plastic plates, if correctly formulated and manufactured, have lower differential
pressure and temperature limits, about 1500 psi and 400°F for PEEK (polyether-ether-
ketone) based compounds and somewhat lower for the nylon based materials. They
are, however, far superior to any metal element in resistance to impact fatigue,
corrosion resistant, and the ability to resist damage from dirt and liquids. Plastic
elements cause very little seat wear and cannot cause damage to the cylinder if they
fail.

32
SPRINGS
The springs used on the sealing elements of valves include AISI 410 and 420 for
feather and channel valves; for coil springs 17-4 PH, Inconel, and cadmium-plated
chrome-vanadium steels are used, depending on the manufacturer and service
conditions.

3.2.3 FUNCTIONS OF COMPRESSOR VALVE COMPONENTS

 Valve seats must resist the differential gas pressure and wear on the surfaces in
contact with the valve sealing element (discs, strips, or channels).
 The guard or stop plate, frequently the most misunderstood part of a valve
assembly, has a threefold purpose:
 Provides a guide for motion of the valve sealing element
 Controls the lift of the valve
 Retains the valve return spring

Because guards are not exposed to differential pressures, they need only to resist the
impact forces of the sealing elements making contact.

 Valve sealing elements function by alternately moving to open the valve when it is
exposed to differential pressures (allowing gas to pass through) and then moving in
the reverse direction (blocking gas flow),
 Valve springs close the valve at the end of the piston stroke when the differential
pressure across the valve approaches zero. Each spring is designed for the
particular environment it will encounter. The substitution of springs with different
characteristics may introduce serious reliability and safety risks.

3.2.4 VALVE LIFT

Valve lift is defined as the distance the valve sealing elements move from closed to
fully open. The life of any valve depends upon the amount of lift, which varies
according to compressor speed, valve diameter, pressures, and molecular weight of the
gas. Too high a lift will cause premature valve failure due to impact fatigue. Too low a
lift will result in excessive gas velocity through the valve, high losses, and
consequently inefficiency. These facts must be reconciled in a sound commercial
design.

33
3.2.5 VALVE FAILURE ANALYSIS

Valve failures can be classified as resulting from three general causes:


1. Wear and fatigue
2. Foreign materials
3. Abnormal mechanical action

WEAR AND FATIGUE


Wear, as such, cannot be completely eliminated. It can be minimized by proper
lubrication, design, and selection of materials. Fatigue is the result of repeated cyclic
stress. The stress level, as well as the stress range, must be considered in any design.
However, barring abnormal action, well-designed valves have a good record of
withstanding fatigue.

FOREIGN MATERIALS
Foreign materials may be listed in the following categories:
1. Liquid carryover
2. Dirty gas
3. Carbon formation
4. Corrosive elements

• Liquid carryover from a process or from interstage coolers is apt to cause premature
failures, particularly on intake valves. A slug of liquid is particularly hard on valves
and may even break a seat. Liquid also destroys lubrication, thus, accelerating wear.
Liquid slugs can also be formed when saturated gas comes in contact with the
compressor cylinder walls. This can be prevented by maintaining the compressor
cylinder jacket water temperatures 1C) to 15 degrees above the temperature of the
incoming gas stream.

• Dirty gas causes all sorts of problems. It accelerates wear very rapidly at all guiding
points since it acts as a grinding compound. Foreign matter between the coils of
springs is a frequent cause of spring failure and subsequent failure of other valve
parts.

• Carbon or sludge resulting from an unfortunate combination of particular oil and the
gas being compressed may hinder proper valve action. Too much lubrication of the
discharge valves often causes carbon build-up on the valve surfaces and becomes a
flake-shaped impurity. This affects the action of the valve and flakes breaking loose
may cause leakage in the subsequent stages.

34
• Corrosion can cause high localized stress and subsequent failure.
Springs are apt to fail first. In some cases, properly sized scrubbers or chemical
washers can eliminate or reduce contaminants before they enter the compressor. Low
velocity of the gas is mandatory for effective liquid separation in suction vessels. In a
few cases simply increasing jacket water temperature or preheating the gas has
eliminated condensing out of corrosive elements.

ABNORMAL MECHANICAL ACTION


There are four causes of abnormal operation, although there is some interrelation
between them:
1. Slamming
2. Fluttering
3. Resonance or pulsation
4. Flow pattern

 Slamming can occur when a valve opens or when it closes. Valves normally have
little tendency to slam except possibly when the discharge valve is opening.
 Fluttering is a result of insufficient pressure drop through the valve. The pressure
drop is a function of velocity, density, and flow coefficient. The inertia of the
valve may cause into fully open against its stop, but pressure drop is insufficient to
hold it there. Consequently, it starts to close again. The solution to fluttering is to
lower the lift and/or to use lighter springs.
 Resonance or pulsations can upset normal valve action. A pulsation can cause late
closing, thus slamming, as previously mentioned. In some cases, the sealing
elements will pound against the seat and guard many times during a single piston
stroke, causing breakage from impact fatigue. The problem can be solved by
eliminating pulsation through piping changes.
 Flow pattern failures are infrequent, but they have happened. There may be a
disturbance within the cylinder passage leading to a valve that causes some type of
erratic valve action. The cure is to change the lift and/or springing (depending on
the type of failure), or even to change the valve type.

3.2.6 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF COMPRESSOR


VALVES

The efficiency and reliability of a compressor depend to a great degree on proper


valve maintenance. Valves should be inspected periodically and worn components
reconditioned or replaced.

35
3.3 COMPRESSOR PISTON ROD PACKING

Piston rod packing is almost always the "full floating" type. It


consists of several annular cups, segmental rings, and a flange-
like gland held in the cylinder head stuffing box as a complete
assembly by properly proportioned studs and nuts that secure
it against a sealing gasket. The segmental packing (sealing
rings) is contained in the cups and is held together as an
assembly by garter springs that hold the rings firmly on the
piston rod. These rings are free to "float" in the cups. This
packing is essentially a precision mechanical seal with ground
or lapped surfaces.

3.3.1 PACKING RINGS

Packing rings are the heart of the


packing assembly, sealing along the
piston rod and between themselves
and the packing case. The tangent
ring is cut into three segments so
that each cut lies on the side of an
equilateral triangle. The cuts of this
ring maintain sealing contact
regardless of variations of the ring's
inside diameter. As wear occurs, the ring segments will close radially to compensate
while still maintaining sealing contact at the tangential joints. The clearance provided
at the end of each tangent joint to allow for such compensation allows a direct leakage
path. To seal these joints, a ring cut radially into three segments is paired with and
pinned to the tangent rings so that its segments form a seal along the rod at the edge of
the tangent ring. The gaps in the radial ring provide access for pressure buildup and
relief over the ring's outside diameter tangent ring. The gaps in the radial ring provide
access for pressure buildup and relief over the ring's outside diameter.

3.3.2 HOW COMPRESSOR PACKING WORKS

The higher the pressure, the more seal rings will be required. The volume of leakage
will increase with an increase in the differential pressure across the rings. It will also
increase with the time that the differential pressure exists. In other words, the higher

36
the differential pressure and the longer the
differential exists, the greater will be the volume of
leakage.

3.3.3 PACKING RING SIDE


CLEARANCE

To ensure that the packing rings are full-floating under operating temperatures, they
must have proper side clearances. Side clearance is the axial opening, or depth of the
cup less the thickness of the rings that are installed in the cup.

3.3.4 MAJOR SOURCES OF PACKING PROBLEMS

1. Normal Wear
2. Leakage

3.3.5 PACKING PROBLEMS

1. Segment Reversal
2. Dislocated Packing
3. Wrong side of packing facing pressure
4. Break-in Time
5. Prelube
6. Packing box lubrication
7. Particulate Matter

3.3.6 MAINTENANCE OF PISTON ROD PACKING

1. The cups, rings, and piston rod must be clean.


2. The ring seating surfaces must be parallel with the face of the cup, and cups must
be parallel to each other.
3. The side clearance of the rings must be within the tolerances given by the
manufacturer. Sufficient end clearances must exist to permit rings to seat properly
against the piston rod.
4. The faces of the packing rings must be parallel. Tangent cut rings must contact
each other squarely to prevent leakage.
5. The bore of the packing rings should be no more than .002" larger than the
diameter of the rod. To prevent blow-by on starting, the rings are frequently lapped
to fit the rod.

37
6. Garter springs should be of the correct length and be free in their grooves to give
the packing the required pressure on the rod. If they are worn or have lost their
tension, replace them.

3.4 COMPRESSOR CONTROL SYSTEMS

Compressor capacity control is the method by


which the output of a compressor is regulated
to provide, as nearly as possible, only that
amount of air or gas required at a particular
instant. The ideal governing arrangement
would be to obtain such infinite control that the
compressor capacity would be exactly equal to
the demand at all times. The majority of
compressors sold, however, operate at fixed speeds and use synchronous or induction
motor drives. Because of the constant speed nature of these prime overs, the capacity
of the compressor must be altered by some means other than speed.

3.4.1. CAPACITY CONTROL

Compressor regulation falls into two categories—manual and automatic—and


involves elements needed to accomplish three basic functions:
1. Sense pressure changes
2. Relay pressure changes
3. Unloading mechanisms

MANUAL CONTROL

The operator may control the compressor by starting or stopping the driver, throttling
the driver, or manually adjusting the capacity. Other control modes are occasionally
employed in special applications.
In order to manually adjust the capacity, the compressor cylinders can be equipped
with suction valve unloaders, suction valve lifters, and fixed or variable clearance
pockets.

AUTOMATIC CONTROL

The elements found in most automatic control schemes make use of five basic
mechanisms:

38
1. Pistons and cylinders to perform work. Inside unloaders use pistons and
cylinders for operation.
2. Diaphragms. The outside-type unloaders and some pressure switches are
diaphragm-operated.
3. Solenoids. These devices use the basic principles of electromagnetism to
perform work and are used widely for relaying. Solenoid operated relays
control the flow of water and air and are used extensively in the circuits of
modern control schemes.
4. Valves of all types. Both manual and automatic valves are used throughout
automatic control schemes to control and regulate the flow of air, water, and
oil.
5. Electronic and electric switches and relays. These perform the simple task of
opening and closing contacts. They are applied in most electronic and electrical
circuits found on modern capacity controls.

3.4.2. BYPASS CONTROL

The simplest, and therefore, the most widely used agent of regulation is suction valve
unloading of which the bypass control is typical. The actual process involves drawing
the gas into the cylinder on the discharge stroke through the same valves used for
entry. Gas is permitted to move freely in and out of the cylinder, with no compression
taking place. At a preset pressure limit called the cut-out point, a pressure sensing
element pilot device causes air to be admitted to the suction valve unloaders. Pressure
sensing elements typically include trigger switches, pressure switches, and instrument
pilots.

The unloader mechanism, attached directly to the suction valve, consists of valve
fingers operating in the unloader cylinder directly on the valve strips. The spring-
loaded fingers are forced to the unloading position either by the movement of the
diaphragm stem through a piston and power spring in the unloader cylinder or directly
by the stem. This mechanism, when actuated, holds the suction valve strips in the
open position allowing the air or gas to pass freely in and out of the suction valves
without compression in the cylinder, thus reducing the delivered capacity of the
cylinder and unit. Air pressure applied to the diaphragm through action of the control
unit, causes the diaphragm stem to move downward forcing the valve fingers, through
the unloader mechanism, to open the valve strips and hold them solidly against the
valve guard.

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3.4.3 START AND STOP CONTROL

The compressor in this instance shuts itself down when the demand is low and
automatically restarts on an increase of air requirements. Start-stop controls are
composed of the same elements that make up two-step bypass capacity control. These
controls have, in addition, a time-delay relay and an automatic water valve.

3.4.4 DUAL CONTROL

Sometimes, the conditions of service within a plant favor both types of control, bypass
and start-stop. For instance, the air requirements may be reduced to only a small
fraction of the compressor capacity on Saturday and Sunday. Plant-specific conditions
obviously call for a combination control employing the best elements of the two
previously mentioned control types, bypass and start-stop.

3.4.5 THREE-STEP VARIABLE CONTROL

This control, which uses


suction valve unloading,
regulates capacity in steps of
100%, 50% and 0% of full
capacity and is activated by
some sort of governor. The
actual unloading of the
compressor can take place
electrically and pneumatically, or pneumatically only. Normally, for a 100 psig air
system, the pressure switches would be set to completely unload at 100 psig. When
the pressure falls to 95 psig, the compressor would load to 50% capacity, and if the
pressure continues to fall to 93 psig, the compressor would be completely loaded.

3.4.6 CLEARANCE CONTROL

Suppose that a particular application requires an additional step so that the compressor
can operate at a point offering 50% capacity. This control would then be a three-step
type, permitting operation at any three points, 0%, 50% or 100% of full capacity. By
supplementing the bypass control with a clearance pocket, intermediate unloading can
be accomplished. The clearance pocket, when open, increases the cylinder clearance
volume, which causes the compressor capacity to decrease. An indicator card taken
from a cylinder end with a 50% capacity reduction.

40
3.4.7 FIVE-STEP CAPACITY CONTROL

When more control is required, it is possible to use suction valve unloaders and a
clearance pocket in each cylinder to regulate the capacity in steps of 100%, 75%,
50%, 25%, and 0% of full compressor capacity.

With a five-step capacity control, the compressor does not normally operate over the
entire range of control. Only a sudden change in demand would cause the compressor
to unload completely. Because the compressor usually floats between two steps of

unloading, the pressure fluctuation of the system is less with five-step control than
with a three-step control.

3.4.8 REVERSE FLOW CONTROL

The reverse flow regulation used by Hoerbiger is a step less capacity control system
that can be used on reciprocating compressors. It allows close adjustment of the output
of a piston compressor to the demands of a process.

3.4.9 MAINTENANCE OF COMPRESSOR CONTROLS

Compressor control systems that have been properly set initially are generally trouble-
free and require little maintenance. Probably the greatest problems are caused by dirt
and moisture entering the pneumatic system and plugging orifices. It is, therefore,
important to maintain and change any strainers and filters that are included in the
system.

41
3.5 COMPRESSOR CYLINDER COOLING

3.5.1. BENEFITS OF CYLINDER JACKET COOLING

The major benefits of water cooling come from its role in reducing gas temperature
rise during compression. This is important. Gas discharge temperature is a major
factor in compressor maintenance.
High temperature results in:
1. Less effective lubrication
2. Deposits on valves
3. Shorter valve life
4. Higher cylinder maintenance costs
5. Increased risk of fires in discharge piping
Another benefit of lower gas temperatures is higher efficiency and lower power
requirements. Water-cooled units also can be designed for higher single-stage
pressures, that is, 125 vs. only 100 psig in air compressors exceeding 100 horsepower.
Additionally, water cooling maintains a more even temperature in the cylinder, thus
reducing distortion. Multistage compression with intercooling between stages permits
control of the compression ratio and limitation of gas discharge temperature to
acceptable levels; for example, approximately one percent (1%) specific power saving
for 10°F intercooling, based on air compressed to 100 psig in two stages. More
specifically, efficiency gains can be attributed to:
1. Dissipation of frictional heat generated by piston rings.
2. A flow of relatively cooler gas through the cylinder and jacket cooling that
prevents the temperatures of rubbing surfaces from rising too high.
3. Water jacketing that allows the existence of a high viscosity lubricating oil film on
the cylinder wall to reduce friction and wear.

3.5.2 AVOIDANCE OF OVERCOOLING—AN IMPORTANT


ISSUE

While low gas temperature is usually beneficial, cooling should be controlled to avoid
harmful condensation of vapor that is always present in air and in many gases. This is
important and must be emphasized, as it is often overlooked. Condensation can impair
lubrication or cause formation of rust in the cylinder bore. This condition can
accelerate wear of the cylinder and piston and, in non-lubricated units, Teflon rings
and wearing bands. Condensation in cylinders can usually be prevented by regulating
the cooling water rate to control the water outlet temperature. The correct water outlet
temperature is a function of inlet gas temperature, moisture content, and discharge

42
pressure. No one value is best for all conditions. An outlet water temperature of
approximately 100°F to 130°F is a good average figure for many installations. Unduly
low jacket cylinder cooling water temperatures will result in the following difficulties:
1. Piston ring wear
2. Cylinder bore wear
3. Wear of valve seats
4. Valve sealing element wear and breakage
5. Packing wear and leakage
6. Piston rod wear

3.5.3 CYLINDER COOLING SYSTEMS

SERIES SYSTEMS
In series flow, the water passes through the intercooler or Aftercooler first and then
through the cylinders. One of the two coolers, but not the jacket, should receive the
coldest water. In the intercooler, this results in the greatest power savings. In the
Aftercooler, it permits the greatest moisture removal. In multistage compressors, the
possibility of moisture condensation in the cylinder is greater at high pressures than at
low pressures. Therefore, in a two-stage unit, the water should flow through the low-
pressure cylinder jacket first, then through the high-pressure cylinder.

PARALLEL FLOW
Parallel flow is preferred in cases of warm water, or low water pressure, or both. With
warm water (approximately 95°F and higher), there is little danger of causing
condensation, and the problem is to achieve effective cooling, assuming sufficient
water is available. Cylinder cooling is improved slightly because the water is not
preheated in the cooler. Also, due to lower pressure drop in parallel circuits, higher
flow rates are possible. Higher flow rates may be needed with warm water. Lack of
water pressure differential available to the compressor frequently necessitates parallel
flow. This may be due to low inlet pressure or high back pressure.

OPEN WATER SYSTEM


While its use in new installations is declining, open raw water systems are still in wide
use today. Usually, a city water supply, river, pond, lake, or stream is used and it is
normally quite cold. Although this cold water provides the greatest possible amount of
cooling, it is often necessary to restrict the water flow so as not to drop the cylinder
operating temperature too much. Excessively low water temperatures can prove
bothersome when handling partially or completely saturated gases.

43
THERMOSTATIC AND THERMOSYPHON SYSTEMS
They make use of the natural thermal circulation that results when the cooling water is
heated in the cylinder. In these systems, the jackets are filled with water, oil, or
ethylene glycol, and the heat of the cylinder is distributed by convection currents.

CLOSED WATER SYSTEM


The most common form of compressor cooling water system involves a closed, soft or
treated water arrangement. The water coming from the compressor cylinder or
cylinders is cooled by either an air radiator system, a cooling tower, or by a water-to-
water heat exchanger

3.5.4 MAINTENANCE

Frequent cleaning of the heat exchanger and replacement of the coolant with one
having better heat removing capacity may be required. Obviously, system components
such as pump impellers pump seals, and thermostatic elements need periodic
maintenance or replacement, but typical time intervals should be years, not weeks or
months.

3.6 NON-LUBRICATED COMPRESSOR MAINTENANCE

It is important to understand the basic difference between lubricated and conventional


non-lubricated cylinders. In reciprocating compressors, pistons work against pressure
and must have a sliding seal to allow the piston to compress the gas without leakage
past the piston. The piston rings provide this sealing. Rings are made with "spring,"
which tends to push out against the cylinder wall, making a tight sliding fit. The piston
rings float in the ring grooves of the piston and seal only they do not support the
piston off the cylinder wall. The piston is supported off the cylinder wall by only the
liquid lubrication film. The conventional non-lubricated piston and piston ring has no
liquid oil film to support the piston off the cylinder wall; therefore, the metallic piston
must be kept away from the metallic cylinder wall by other means, or serious damage
could result. The piston is kept off the cylinder wall by using guide rings, which are
referred to as "bull" rings or rider rings. The outside diameter of the piston is smaller
relative to the lubricated piston to allow clearance between the piston OD and the
cylinder wall. This allows the rider ring to wear somewhat before approaching metal-
to-metal contact. Conventional non-lubricated compressors require more attention to
installation and maintenance than oil-lubricated ones. When servicing a non-lubricated
compressor, be aware of its weaknesses. The greatest drawback of the non-lubricated
compressor is its sensitivity to dirt, abrasives and moisture.

44
Contamination and failure risks are reduced by the following:

1. Air (or gas) filtration. An efficient filter capable of filtration down to 10 microns
is required, and it must be carefully maintained. It is typically sized larger than one for
the lubricated compressor.

2. Suction and interstage piping. These must be maintained clean of rust and scale.
If a problem of rusting persists on typical air compressors, the piping should be
replaced with aluminum or stainless steel.

3. Moisture. Moisture may act as a lubricant; however, more care is required to assure
that the system remains corrosion-free. Cylinder ports of air compressors are treated
with phenolic or epoxy paints to prevent rusting.

4. Cylinder cooling. Teflon is a poor conductor of heat. It softens, thus extruding


more easily, when hot. Friction heat is generated during operation and is not
transferred through the Teflon. It is important that good jacket water cooling is
maintained and scale deposits are minimized. It is also strongly recommended that an
automatically controlled solenoid-operated valve be placed in the piping to shut
off water flow when the compressor is out of service for an extended period of time.

5. Alignment. For both piston and packing rings, it is very important that true
alignment be maintained. This ensures that, in the reciprocating motion of the piston
and rod assembly, the piston and/or rod does not rise and fall. Such action would
result in high loadings at the sealing surfaces.

6. Surface finishes. These finishes must be maintained to prevent abnormal and rapid
wear of the piston rings, rider bands, and packing rings. It has been shown that Teflon
performs optimally on cylinder bore surface finishes of 8 to 16 RMS and 8 to 10 RMS
surface finishes of piston rods. Teflon wears and fills the uneven metallic structure
resulting in Teflon against-Teflon contact. It is not unusual that an initial set of rings
wears rapidly because of this phenomenon. Surfaces that are too smooth do not allow
Teflon to deposit and may result in higher ring wear.

45
4. TROUBLESHOOTING COMPRESSOR
PROBLEMS

Troubleshooting the mechanical condition and performance of machinery is a talent


that falls into the natural, analytical thought process of some fortunate individuals,
but, for most of us, it must be learned through experience and developed through
rigid, disciplined analytical procedures.

The old approach could be paraphrased as "change a part and wait to see if it fixes the
problem. If it does great, fine, if it does not, we will do something else."
Unfortunately, this has caused:

 Many hours of wasted manpower


 Great losses due to replacement of unnecessary parts and components
 Unnecessary downtime and lost production
 Excessive power losses

4.1 INSTRUMENTATION TABLE


Sr No Parameter Range Normal Reading
1 Intercooler air I/L temp 0-2000C 1500C
2 Intercooler air O/L temp 0-1000C 330C
3 After cooler I/L temp 0-2000C 1300C
4 After cooler O/L temp 0-1000C 300C
5 Oil Cooler CW O/L temp 0-1000C 270C
6 Gross CW O/L temp 0-1000C 350C
7 Lub oil pressure 0-6 kg/cm2 4.0 kg/cm2
8 LP Discharge pressure 0-10 kg/cm2 2.2 kg/cm2
9 HP Discharge pressure 0-16 kg/cm2 8.1 kg/cm2
10 Outlet water header pressure 0-6 kg/cm2 2.3 kg/cm2
11 Motor Current - 170 Amp

4.2 TROUBLESHOOTING TABLE

46
4.3 EXPLANATIONS WITH REASONS

1. BEARINGS WORN OR NEED ADJUSTMENT


If the foundation bolts become loose or is uneven, the compressor will vibrate more
and more current will be drawn from the motor. Consequently, the pressure of
lubricating oil will decrease.

2. LP DISCHARGE VALVE OPEN


When the valve gets damaged or the gasket gets blown on valve cage assembly, the
discharge valve remains open. Since less air will enter the intercooler, the temperature
at inlet will decrease. The temperature of cooling water will also reduce. The
discharge pressure of LP and HP both will decrease.

3. HP DISCHARGE VALVE OPEN


There will be no effect on intercooler. But the discharge pressure of HP will decrease
and the temperature at inlet of Aftercooler will decrease. The temperature of cooling
water will decrease.

4. LP DISCHARGE VALVE STUCK CLOSED


If excessive carbon gets deposited on discharge valves or valves are improperly
seated, the valves get closed. The temperature of cooling water will increase. Since
less air will enter the intercooler, the inlet temperature will decrease. The discharge
pressure will be high at LP and low at HP. Hence the Aftercooler inlet temperature
will decrease.

5. HP DISCHARGE VALVE STUCK CLOSED


If excessive carbon gets deposited on discharge valves or valves are improperly
seated, the valves get closed. The discharge pressure will be high at HP. Since less air
will enter the Aftercooler, the temperature at its inlet will decrease.

6. INTERCOOLER PASSAGES CLOGGED


If the passages in the intercooler get clogged owing to obstruction caused by particles,
air will get accumulated. The pressure and temperature will increase at the inlet. The

54
accumulated mass of air will exert pressure in the opposite direction in LP and hence
its discharge pressure will decrease. The temperature of the cooling water will also
increase. Since less air will enter the HP cylinder, less air will be compressed. The
discharge pressure of HP will decrease. The temperature of air inlet at Aftercooler will
also decrease.

7. INTERCOOLER PASSAGES LEAK


If the passages in the intercooler leak, less air will get cooled by intercooler and the
temperature at its outlet will decrease. The temperature of cooling water will decrease.
The discharge pressure at LP and HP will reduce. Consequently, the temperature at
Aftercooler inlet will decrease.

8. HP DECREASED CLEARANCE
When the piston ring or piston cylinder suffers excessive wear or carbon has deposited
on the cylinder, the clearance volume will reduce. Consequently rubbing takes place
and the motor draws more current. The work done during compression will increase
and Aftercooler inlet temperature will increase. The temperature of cooling water will
decrease. The outlet water header pressure will also decrease.

9. LP DECREASED CLEARANCE
When the piston ring or piston cylinder suffers excessive wear or carbon has deposited
on the cylinder, the clearance volume will reduce. Consequently rubbing takes place
and the motor draws more current. The work done during compression will increase
and intercooler temperature will increase. The temperature of air at outlet of the
intercooler will also be high. The temperature of the cooling water will be high. The
discharge pressure at HP cylinder will be high. The pressure of outlet water will be
high. The temperature of the air at Aftercooler inlet will be high.

10. HP INCREASED CLEARANCE


As the connecting rod goes out of alignment, bent or twisted, the clearance volume in
the piston reduces. The work performed during compression will reduce and less air
will get compressed. The temperature at inlet of Aftercooler will decrease and so will
the temperature of cooling water.

11. INTERCOOLER RELIEF VALVE OPEN

55
As the relief valve is open, the temperature and pressure at LP discharge and HP
suction becomes equal to NTP conditions. So the LP discharge pressure decreases and
becomes equal to atmospheric pressure. Also Intercooler air inlet (i.e. LP discharge)
temperature decreases. Due to decrease in this temperature, the heat absorbed by
cooling water will be less and so Gross Cooling Water outlet temperature decreases.
Also the work done is less and so motor current drawn is low.

12. INTERCOOLER RELIEF VALVE STUCK CLOSED


As the relief valve is closed, the temperature and pressure at LP discharge and HP
suction increases in case there is a pressure increase in intercooler. This results into
higher air temperature at Intercooler inlet and outlet. Also the temperature at HP
discharge (i.e. Aftercooler inlet) will be high. Due to increase in this temperature, the
heat absorbed by cooling water will be more and so Gross Cooling Water outlet
temperature increases. Also the work done increases and so motor current drawn is
high.

13. AFTERCOOLER SAFETY VALVE OPEN


As the safety valve is open, the temperature and pressure at HP discharge becomes
equal to NTP conditions. So the HP discharge pressure decreases and becomes equal
to atmospheric pressure. Also Aftercooler air inlet and outlet (i.e. HP discharge)
temperature decreases. Due to decrease in this temperature, the heat absorbed by
cooling water will be less and so Gross Cooling Water outlet temperature decreases.
Also the work done is less and so motor current drawn is low.

14. AFTERCOOLER SAFETY VALVE STUCK CLOSED


As the safety valve is closed, the temperature and pressure at HP discharge increases
in case there is a pressure increase in Aftercooler. This results into higher air
temperature at Aftercooler inlet and outlet. Due to increase in this temperature, the
heat absorbed by cooling water will be more and so Gross Cooling Water outlet
temperature increases. Also the work done increases and so motor current drawn is
high.

15. LP JACKET COOLING WATER LOW FLOW


Due to low flow in LP jacket, the compressed air won‘t be cooled properly and so LP
discharge (i.e. Intercooler Inlet) temperature increases. Also since there is less water
more heat is transferred to it and so Gross Cooling Water outlet temperature increases.

56
The reason for increase in water temperature is that intercooler has to absorb more
heat to bring back the air temperature at normal conditions.

16. HP JACKET COOLING WATER LOW FLOW


Due to low flow in HP jacket, the compressed air won‘t be cooled properly and so HP
discharge (i.e. Aftercooler Inlet) temperature increases. Also since there is less water
more heat is transferred to it and so Gross Cooling Water outlet temperature increases.
Another reason for increase in water temperature is that Aftercooler has to absorb
more heat to bring back the air temperature at normal conditions.

17. INTERCOOLER WATER QUANTITY INSUFFICIENT


Due to insufficient water, the air won‘t be cooled properly and Intercooler air outlet
temperature increases. The low quantity of water also results in increase of Gross
Cooling Water outlet temperature. Due to increase in Intercooler outlet temperature,
the HP discharge (i.e. Aftercooler inlet) temperature increases and so the work done
by the compressor. This increase in work requirement increases the current drawn by
the motor.

18. AFTERCOOLER WATER QUANTITY INSUFFICIENT


Due to insufficient water, the air won‘t be cooled properly and Aftercooler air outlet
temperature increases. The low quantity of water also results in increase of Gross
Cooling Water outlet temperature.

19. LUBRICATION INADEQUATE


Due to inadequate lubrication, there will be friction in parts of crank casing (i.e. main
bearings, crank shaft, crank pin bush etc...). Large amount of heat will be produced
due to friction, as the result, oil will get heated and so, the water in the oil cooler will
get heated too.
Due to inadequate lubrication, there will be friction in parts of crank casing (i.e. main
bearings, crank shaft, crank pin bush etc...). As the result of friction there will be wear
and tear in the parts of crank case due to which motor have to do more work to
produce same pressure in the receiver. Hence more current is drawn by the motor.

20. AFTERCOOLER PASSAGE CLOGGED OR LEAKS


Due to leaks or clogs in after-cooler, the water flow rates will be reduced. Due to
which effective cooling will not take place. Hence the outlet temperature of after-
cooler will be increased.

57
As the outlet of after-cooler is at high temperature, the gross outlet temperature will
also be increased.

21. LP- WATER JACKET DIRTY


Dirty LP- water jacket will result in in-effective cooling in LP jacket. Hence
intercooler inlet temperature is increased.
As the temperature of air in LP is increased the, the work done required by the motor
to develop the same pressure is increased. Hence, current drawn by the motor will be
increased.

22. HP-WATER JACKET DIRTY


Dirty HP- water jacket will result in in-effective cooling in LP jacket. Hence
intercooler inlet temperature is increased.
As the temperature of air in LP is increased the, the work done required by the motor
to develop the same pressure is increased. Hence, current drawn by the motor will be
increased.

23. MOTOR SPEED HIGH


Due to high speed of motor the air in the LP and HP cylinder is compressed to the
same pressure at higher rate hence the temperature of air in LP is increased.
Due to high speed of motor the air in the LP and HP cylinder is compressed to the
same pressure at higher rate hence the temperature of air in HP is increased.
Oil will be heated more as the parts to be lubricated by oil will move faster and
produce more heat. Hence oil cooling water will also get heated.
Higher the motor speed higher is the pressure developed by lubricating oil pump.
For higher speed more current will be drawn by the motor.

24. MOTOR SPEED IS LOW


Due to low speed of motor the air in the LP and HP cylinder is compressed to the
same pressure at lower rate hence the temperature of air in LP is decreased.
Due to low speed of motor the air in the LP and HP cylinder is compressed to the
same pressure at lower rate hence the temperature of air in HP is decreased.
Oil will be heated less as the parts to be lubricated by oil will move slower and
produce less heat. Hence oil cooling water will also get less heated.
Lower the motor speed lower is the pressure developed by lubricating oil pump.
For lower speed less current will be drawn by the motor.

25. DISCHARGE PIPE RESTRICTED

58
Due to clogs in discharge pipe air flow is restricted; hence high pressure is developed
at inlet and outlet of after-cooler.
To develop high pressure due to clogs more work is required by the motor, hence
more current is drawn.

26. DISCHARGE PIPE LEAKS


As discharge pipe leaks, less pressure is developed in the discharge pipe, so less
pressure is developed in the HP cylinder.
Low work done less is the current drawn by the motor.

27, 28. OIL RELIEF VALVE DEFECTIVE


Due to defective oil relief valve the heated oil will get accumulated and hence it will
heat the cooling water.
Due to clogging in relief valve, lube oil pressure will be increased or due to leaks in
valves it can get lower too.

29. AFTER-COOLER PASSAGE CLOGGED


Due to clogging there will be restricted flow of air hence pressure developed will be
high.
To develop high pressure, more work is required hence large current is drawn.

30. AIR SUCTION FILTER CLOGGED


As the suction filter is clogged, for less capacity of air pressure reached in both first
and second stage decreases and so does the discharge temperatures respectively. Due
to the decreased temperature of air the Gross cooling water outlet temperature also
decreases. Also, less current is drawn from the motor for lower capacity of air intake.

31. INTAKE PIPE RESTRICTED


As the intake pipe is restricted, for less capacity of air pressure reached in both first
and second stage decreases and so does the discharge temperatures respectively. Due
to the decreased temperature of air the Gross cooling water outlet temperature also
decreases. Also, less current is drawn by the motor for lower capacity of air intake

32. LP SIDE UNLOADER DEFECTIVE/STUCK


Since air is continuously compressed by the LP Cylinder, it gets accumulated in the
intercooler. As a result its pressure at inlet and outlet of the intercooler increases and
so does temperature. Due to the increased temperature, cooling water temperature

59
increases while cooling the air in intercooler. LP Side Pressure increases since suction
valve at HP is kept open by unloader and HP Discharge pressure decreases since HP is
unloaded. Current drawn by the motor increases as it is working against higher
pressure.

33. LP SIDE UNLOADER/SUCTION VALVE OPEN


Since the suction valve is continually open, compressed air flows back through it and
thus for less capacity of air, pressure reached at the discharge decreases and so does
the temperature. Due to lower supply at HP inlet, the pressure reached is less as well
as the temperature. Cooling water temperature is decreased while cooling the cooler
air from HP discharge. Lower current is drawn for lower capacity as the LP Side
behaves as unloaded.

34. HP SIDE UNLOADER DEFECTIVE/STUCK


Since LP side is unloaded, lower pressure and temperature is obtained at discharge. As
this low pressure air is compressed again and again, temperature at discharge
increases along with lower pressure gained at HP discharge. Gross cooling water
temperature increases so as to cool the high temperature air. More current is required
to be drawn to reach the same pressure.

35. HP SIDE UNLOADER/SUCTION VALVE OPEN


As the slightly compressed air flows back from the HP Cylinder, high pressure and
temperature is created in intercooler. Gross cooling water temperature increases in the
intercooler. LP discharge pressure is high and due to leakage in valve, less pressure is
created for HP discharge. Less current drawn by motor for less pressure.

36. LP SUCTION VALVE CHOKED


As the suction valve is chocked, for less capacity of air pressure reached in both first
and second stage decreases and so does the discharge temperatures respectively. Due
to the decreased temperature of air the Gross cooling water outlet temperature also
decreases. Also, less current is drawn from the motor for lower capacity of air intake.

37. HP SUCTION VALVE CHOKED


As the valve is chocked at HP Suction side, high pressure and temperature is created
in the intercooler. Due to less capacity at HP Side, less pressure generation takes place

60
and thus the decreased temperature. Gross cooling water temperature increases in
intercooler. Moreover, less current drawn for less capacity at the HP Side.

38, 39. LP SIDE PISTON RINGS/CYLINDER WORN


As the piston rings or cylinder is worn, outlet temperature increases as compressed gas
leaks through the clearances and is compressed again and again before being
discharged at the differential pressure on LP discharge. Cooling water temperature
increases in the intercooler. Less pressure generated due to the leakages through the
clearance and therefore less pressure in the subsequent stage as well. Low current
drawn by the motor for compressing less air.

40, 41. HP SIDE PISTON RINGS/CYLINDER WORN


As the piston rings or cylinder is worn, outlet temperature increases as compressed gas
leaks through the clearances and is compressed again and again before being
discharged at the differential pressure. On HP discharge. Cooling water temperature
increases in the Aftercooler. Since less air is drawn in HP than that generated by LP
Side, pressure in intercooler increases. Low current is drawn by the motor for
compressing less air.

42. LP INCREASED CLEARANCE


As the connecting rod goes out of alignment, bent or twisted, the clearance volume in
the piston reduces. The work performed during compression will reduce and less air
will get compressed. Since less air will enter the intercooler, less pressure will be
exerted and hence air inlet temperature will decrease. The temperature of cooling
water will decrease. Consequently, the motor will draw less current.

43. PACKING RINGS TIGHT


Due to improper assembling, packing rings become tight and the load acting on bolts
fastened to the piston will increase .As a result, the air will not be able to leak out. The
temperature at the inlet of intercooler will increase. More current will be drawn from
the motor. The discharge pressure from LP will increase.

44. PACKING RINGS LEAK


Due to improper tightening of the bolt, heavy leakage will occur from packing rings.
As a result, less air will enter the intercooler and the temperature will decrease at the

61
inlet of intercooler. The discharge pressure of LP will decrease. The temperature of
cooling water will decrease.

45. BELTS LOOSE


If flywheel or the pulley will become loose, the belts will become loose and less
current will be drawn from the motor.

46. BELTS MISALIGNED


Due to vibrations in compressor, misalignment of belts occurs and more current is
drawn from the motor.

62
VISUAL BASIC CODE
DB Control Class:

Imports System.Data.OleDb

Public Class DBControl


' CREATE YOUR DB CONNECTION
Private DBCon As New OleDbConnection("Provider=Microsoft.ACE.OLEDB.12.0;" & _
"Data Source=Compressor.accdb;")

' PREPARE DB COMMAND


Private DBCmd As OleDbCommand

' DB DATA
Public DBDA As OleDbDataAdapter
Public DBDT As DataTable

' QUERY PARAMETERS


Public Params As New List(Of OleDbParameter)

' QUERY STATISTICS


Public RecordCount As Integer
Public Exception As String

Public Sub ExecQuery(ByVal Query As String)


' RESET QUERY STATS
RecordCount = 0
Exception = ""

Try
' OPEN A CONNECTION
DBCon.Open()

' CREATE DB COMMAND


DBCmd = New OleDbCommand(Query, DBCon)

' LOAD PARAMS INTO DB COMMAND


Params.ForEach(Sub(p) DBCmd.Parameters.Add(p))

' CLEAR PARAMS LIST


Params.Clear()

' EXECUTE COMMAND & FILL DATATABLE


DBDT = New DataTable
DBDA = New OleDbDataAdapter(DBCmd)
RecordCount = DBDA.Fill(DBDT)
Catch ex As Exception
Exception = ex.Message
End Try

' CLOSE YOUR CONNECTION


If DBCon.State = ConnectionState.Open Then DBCon.Close()
End Sub

' INCLUDE QUERY & COMMAND PARAMETERS


Public Sub AddParam(ByVal Name As String, ByVal Value As Object)
Dim NewParam As New OleDbParameter(Name, Value)

63
Params.Add(NewParam)
End Sub

Public Sub searchf(ByVal n1 As String, ByVal n2 As String, ByVal n3 As String,


ByVal n4 As String, ByVal n5 As String, ByVal n6 As String, ByVal n7 As String, ByVal
n8 As String, ByVal n9 As String, ByVal n10 As String, ByVal n11 As String)
Dim i As Integer = 0
Dim j As Integer = 11
Dim pc(10) As Integer

' OPEN A CONNECTION


DBCon.Open()

' CREATE DB COMMAND


DBCmd = New OleDbCommand("SELECT * FROM Compressor", DBCon)

' EXECUTE COMMAND & FILL DATATABLE


DBDT = New DataTable
DBDA = New OleDbDataAdapter(DBCmd)
RecordCount = DBDA.Fill(DBDT)
Do While (j > 6)

Dim d As Integer = 0
For i = 0 To DBDT.Rows.Count - 1
Dim c As Integer = 0
If n1 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("1").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n2 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("2").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n3 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("3").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n4 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("4").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n5 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("5").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n6 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("6").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n7 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("7").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n8 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("8").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n9 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("9").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n10 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("10").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If n11 = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("11").ToString() Then c = c + 1
If c = j Then

Result.ListBox1.Items.Add(DBDT.Rows(i).Item("Problems").ToString())
Result.TextBox1.Text = DBDT.Rows(i).Item("Probable
Causes").ToString()
d = d + 1
End If
Next

If d <> 0 Then
Exit Do
Else : j = j - 1
End If
Loop
' CLOSE YOUR CONNECTION
If DBCon.State = ConnectionState.Open Then DBCon.Close()
End Sub

End Class

64
Troubleshooting Form:
Public Class Troubleshooting
Dim i1 As String = "N"
Dim i2 As String = "N"
Dim i3 As String = "N"
Dim i4 As String = "N"
Dim i5 As String = "N"
Dim i6 As String = "N"
Dim i7 As String = "N"
Dim i8 As String = "N"
Dim i9 As String = "N"
Dim i10 As String = "N"
Dim i11 As String = "N"
Private Access As New DBControl

Private Function NotEmpty(ByVal text As String) As Boolean


Return Not String.IsNullOrEmpty(text)
End Function

Private Sub Form1_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


MyBase.Load
'TODO: This line of code loads data into the 'CompressorDataSet.Compressor'
table. You can move, or remove it, as needed.
Me.CompressorTableAdapter.Fill(Me.CompressorDataSet.Compressor)

End Sub

Private Sub Label1_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


Label1.Click

End Sub

Private Sub Label2_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


Label2.Click

End Sub

Private Sub Label3_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


Label3.Click

End Sub

Private Sub Label5_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


Label5.Click

End Sub

Private Sub Label11_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


Label11.Click

End Sub

Private Sub Label6_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


Label6.Click

End Sub

Private Sub DataGridView_CellContentClick(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As


DataGridViewCellEventArgs)

65
End Sub

Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


Button2.Click
Database.Show()
End Sub

Public Sub TextBox1_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox1.TextChanged
If TextBox1.Text <= "145" Then
i1 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox1.Text >= "155" Then
i1 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox1.Text < "155" And TextBox1.Text > "145" Then
i1 = "N"
End If

End Sub

Private Sub TextBox2_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox2.TextChanged
If TextBox2.Text <= "30" Then
i2 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox2.Text >= "36" Then
i2 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox2.Text < "36" And TextBox2.Text > "30" Then
i2 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox3_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox3.TextChanged
If TextBox3.Text <= "125" Then
i3 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox3.Text >= "135" Then
i3 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox3.Text < "135" And TextBox3.Text > "125" Then
i3 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox4_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox4.TextChanged
If TextBox4.Text <= "27" Then
i4 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox4.Text > "33" Then
i4 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox4.Text < "33" And TextBox4.Text > "27" Then
i4 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox5_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox5.TextChanged
If TextBox5.Text <= "25" Then
i5 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox5.Text >= "29" Then
i5 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox5.Text < "29" And TextBox5.Text > "25" Then
i5 = "N"

66
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox6_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox6.TextChanged
If TextBox6.Text <= "33" Then
i6 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox6.Text >= "37" Then
i6 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox6.Text < "37" And TextBox6.Text > "33" Then
i6 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox7_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox7.TextChanged
If TextBox7.Text <= "3.7" Then
i7 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox7.Text >= "4.3" Then
i7 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox7.Text < "4.3" And TextBox7.Text > "3.7" Then
i7 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox8_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox8.TextChanged
If TextBox8.Text <= "2" Then
i8 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox8.Text >= "2.4" Then
i8 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox8.Text < "2.4" And TextBox8.Text > "2" Then
i8 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox9_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox9.TextChanged
If TextBox9.Text <= "7.7" Then
i9 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox9.Text >= "8.5" Then
i9 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox9.Text < "8.5" And TextBox9.Text > "7.7" Then
i9 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox10_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox10.TextChanged
If TextBox10.Text <= "2.1" Then
i10 = "L"
ElseIf TextBox10.Text >= "2.5" Then
i10 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox10.Text < "2.5" And TextBox10.Text > "2.1" Then
i10 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub TextBox11_TextChanged(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs)


Handles TextBox11.TextChanged
If TextBox11.Text <= "165" Then
i11 = "L"

67
ElseIf TextBox11.Text >= "175" Then
i11 = "H"
ElseIf TextBox11.Text < "175" And TextBox11.Text > "165" Then
i11 = "N"
End If
End Sub

Private Sub SearchMember(ByVal n1 As String, ByVal n2 As String, ByVal n3 As


String, ByVal n4 As String, ByVal n5 As String, ByVal n6 As String, ByVal n7 As
String, ByVal n8 As String, ByVal n9 As String, ByVal n10 As String, ByVal n11 As
String)
' ADD PARAMETERS & RUN QUERY
Access.AddParam("@i1", n1)
Access.AddParam("@i2", n2)
Access.AddParam("@i3", n3)
Access.AddParam("@i4", n4)
Access.AddParam("@i5", n5)
Access.AddParam("@i6", n6)
Access.AddParam("@i7", n7)
Access.AddParam("@i8", n8)
Access.AddParam("@i9", n9)
Access.AddParam("@i10", n10)
Access.AddParam("@i11", n11)
Access.ExecQuery("SELECT Problems,[Probable Causes] " & _
"FROM Compressor " & _
"WHERE ([1] LIKE @i1) AND ([2] LIKE @i2) AND ([3] LIKE @i3) AND ([4] LIKE @i4)
AND ([5] LIKE @i5) AND ([6] LIKE @i6) AND ([7] LIKE @i7) AND ([8] LIKE @i8) AND ([9]
LIKE @i9) AND ([10] LIKE @i10) AND ([11] LIKE @i11) ")

' REPORT & ABORT ON ERRORS


If NotEmpty(Access.Exception) Then MsgBox(Access.Exception) : Exit Sub

' FILL DATAGRIDVIEW


' dgvData.DataSource = Access.DBDT

End Sub

Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click
Access.searchf(i1, i2, i3, i4, i5, i6, i7, i8, i9, i10, i11)
Result.Show()
End Sub

End Class

Database Form:
Public Class Database

Private Sub CompressorBindingNavigatorSaveItem_Click(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal


e As EventArgs) Handles CompressorBindingNavigatorSaveItem.Click
Me.Validate()
Me.CompressorBindingSource.EndEdit()
Me.TableAdapterManager.UpdateAll(Me.CompressorDataSet)

End Sub

Private Sub Form2_Load(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal e As EventArgs) Handles


MyBase.Load

68
'TODO: This line of code loads data into the 'CompressorDataSet.Compressor'
table. You can move, or remove it, as needed.
Me.CompressorTableAdapter.Fill(Me.CompressorDataSet.Compressor)

End Sub

Private Sub CompressorBindingNavigator_RefreshItems(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal


e As EventArgs) Handles CompressorBindingNavigator.RefreshItems

End Sub

Private Sub CompressorDataGridView_CellContentClick(ByVal sender As Object, ByVal


e As DataGridViewCellEventArgs) Handles CompressorDataGridView.CellContentClick

End Sub
End Class

Result Form:
Public Class Result

Private Sub CheckedListBox1_SelectedIndexChanged(ByVal sender As System.Object,


ByVal e As System.EventArgs)

End Sub

Private Sub ListBox1_SelectedIndexChanged(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e


As System.EventArgs) Handles ListBox1.SelectedIndexChanged

End Sub

Private Sub Result_Load(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles MyBase.Load

End Sub
End Class

69
70
71
SOME GENERAL
DISCUSSIONS
Q.1. What is FAD?
Ans. FAD (Free Air Delivery) (f.a.d) is the actual quantity of
compressed air converted back to the inlet conditions of the compressor. The units for
FAD are CFM in the imperial system and l/min in the SI system.
Free air delivery or ―free air‖ is actually the measure of an air compressor‘s internal
capacity. It is the actual quantity of compressed air measure at inlet conditions of the
compressor. It is used to define the volume of the air flow in the outlet when measured
in the same conditions as the inlet i.e., both the pressure and the temperature would be
kept the same.
So, in other words, a compressor can be assessed for its efficiency and effectiveness
using this scale or measure. How one measures it is scientific by compressing the air
to the compressor‘s internal design pressure and then sending it back into the
atmosphere keeping in mind the inlet‘s air pressure. The SI unit is I/min.

Q.2. What are different types of belt drive arrangements


available?
Ans. Belts are classified in many types according to usage,position,shape like flat, v-
belt, round ropes etc., but Belt drives are different from the belts, these are described
as the combination of pulleys according to their position and also their carrying or
transmitting power from one pulley to another pulley.

Belts drives are classified as


 Flat belt drives
 Compound belt drives
Flat belt drives
In this flat belt it can transmit the power from one pulley to another pulley where the
axes of pullies are parallel to each other. And again these flat belt drives further
classified into
 Open belt drive.
 Crossed belt drive.
 Quarter turn belt drive.
Open belt drive

72
In open belt drive the axis of two pulleys are parallel to each other and there is no
need to have same size means required size. Open belt drive transmits power by using
friction produced between the belt & pulley. The pulley having low surface finish to
produce friction. The rotation of pulleys in same direction
Crossed belt drive
It is similar to open belt drive but the difference between these two belts drives are in
crossed belt drive the direction of rotation is opposite to each other. Here the
pulleys are set up to offset position. By providing some misalignment between two
pulleys.
Quarter turn drive
In quarter turn drive the two axes of pulleys are right angle to each other. These drives
are used in industries for parallel power to tangential power transmission.
Compound belt drives
In these the axes of pulleys are not parallel to each other compound belt drives are
shown below and these compound belt drives are used to transmit power in any
direction and it uses number of pulleys .

Q.3. What are elastomers and elastomer seals?


Ans. An elastomer is a polymer with viscoelasticity (having both
viscosity and elasticity) and very weak inter-molecular forces, generally having
low Young's modulus and high failure strain compared with other materials. The term,
which is derived from elastic polymer, is often used interchangeably with the
term rubber, although the latter is preferred when referring to vulcanizes. Each of
the monomers which link to form the polymer is usually made
of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen or silicon. Elastomers are amorphous polymers existing
above their glass transition temperature, so that considerable segmental motion is
possible. At ambient temperatures, rubbers are thus relatively soft and deformable.
Rubbers like solids with elastic properties are called elastomers. Polymer chains are
held together in elastomers by weakest intermolecular forces. These weak binding
forces permit the polymers to be stretched. Natural rubber, neoprene rubber, Buna-s
and Buna-n are elastomers.
Elastomer seals are basically gas permeable. The overall process of gas penetration is
called gas permeation and is dependent on the material, the type of gas and the
ambient conditions - especially the temperature. In addition, elastomers are subject to
outgassing. In vacuum-compatible elastomers, the outgassing rate decreases and after
a sufficiently long evacuation time, the permeation dominates and with constant
ambient conditions, a constant gas rate penetrates the seal. Permeation and outgassing
are dependent on the diffusion. High gas tightness causes slow outgassing, leading to

73
a long period of time until a steady permeation gas flow sets in. The time period can
be as long as several hundred hours, which can be greatly accelerated by the baking
out method. If the vacuum system has no major sources of gas, for example, due to
desorption or leaks, elastomeric seals can significantly determine the final pressure.
Example: the material FKM (fluoroelastomer) has a low gas permeability for air. For
a seal with a nominal diameter of DN 500 ISO-K, the permeation of atmospheric air
with 60 % humidity is approximately 4 · 10-7 Pa · m3/s. In vacuum systems with FKM
seals, an operating pressure greater than 1 · 10-8 hPa is therefore rarely achieved.

Q.4. How to identify HP and LP cylinder by size?


Ans. The larger cylinder is always the LP cylinder and the smaller cylinder is always
the HP cylinder.
The reason behind such a variation in size is that the pressure is inversely proportional
to the area. As the area of piston is increased more force is required to produce a
certain amount of pressure.
Hence to reduce the force requirement in HP cylinder to develop a certain amount of
pressure the size of piston is kept low and so the size of cylinder also remains low.
Same is the case with LP cylinder. As the force applied by the motor is same to both
HP and LP cylinder, to produce low pressure in LP cylinder the area of piston is kept
high and so the size if LP cylinder goes high.

Q.5. What if back EMF starts generating in the pump?


Ans. A spinning motor also acts like a generator. A motor has coils turning inside
magnetic fields, and a coil turning inside a magnetic field induces an emf. This emf,
known as the back emf, acts against the applied voltage that's causing the motor to
spin in the first place, and reduces the current flowing through the coils of the motor.
At the motor's operating speed, enough current flows to overcome any losses due to
friction and other sources and to provide the necessary energy required for the motor
to do work. This is generally much less current than is required to get the motor
spinning in the first place.
If the applied voltage is DV, then the initial current flowing through a motor with coils
of resistance R is:
I = DV/R
For example, I = 120V/6W = 20A
When the motor is spinning and generating a back emf e, the current is reduced to:
I = (DV-e)/R

74
If the back emf is e = 108 V, we get:
I = (120-108)/6 = 12/6 = 2A
It takes very little time for the motor to reach operating speed and for the current to
drop from its high initial value.

Q.6. What are pipeline schedule number/designation?


Ans. Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes
used for high or low pressures and temperatures. "Nominal" refers to pipe in non-
specific terms and identifies the diameter of the hole with a non-dimensional number
(for example – "2-inch nominal steel pipe" consists of many varieties of steel pipe
with the only criterion being a 2.375 inch outside diameter). Specific pipe is identified
by pipe diameter and another non-dimensional number for wall thickness referred to
as the Schedule (Sched. or Sch., for example – "2 inch diameter pipe, Schedule 40")

For example:
NPS ⅛ to NPS 3½

Wall thickness [in (mm)]


OD
NPS DN [in SCH SCH
SCH SCH SCH SCH SCH
(mm)] 40s/40 80s/80 XXS
5s 10s/20 30 120 160
/STD /XS

0.404 0.035 0.049 0.057 0.068 0.095


⅛ 6 — — —
(10.26) (0.889) (1.245) (1.448) (1.727) (2.413)

0.540 0.049 0.065 0.073 0.088 0.119


¼ 8 — — —
(13.72) (1.245) (1.651) (1.854) (2.235) (3.023)

0.675 0.049 0.065 0.073 0.091 0.126


⅜ 10 — —
(17.15) (1.245) (1.651) (1.854) (2.311) (3.200)

0.840 0.065 0.083 0.095 0.109 0.147 0.188 0.294


½ 15 —
(21.34) (1.651) (2.108) (2.413) (2.769) (3.734) (4.775) (7.468)

1.050 0.065 0.083 0.095 0.113 0.154 0.219 0.308


¾ 20 —
(26.67) (1.651) (2.108) (2.413) (2.870) (3.912) (5.563) (7.823)

1.315 0.065 0.109 0.114 0.133 0.179 0.250 0.358


1 25 —
(33.40) (1.651) (2.769) (2.896) (3.378) (4.547) (6.350) (9.093)

75
1.660 0.065 0.109 0.117 0.140 0.191 0.250 0.382
1¼ 32 —
(42.16) (1.651) (2.769) (2.972) (3.556) (4.851) (6.350) (9.703)

1.900 0.065 0.109 0.125 0.145 0.200 0.281 0.400


1½ 40 —
(48.26) (1.651) (2.769) (3.175) (3.683) (5.080) (7.137) (10.160)

2.375 0.065 0.109 0.125 0.154 0.218 0.250 0.344 0.436


2 50
(60.33) (1.651) (2.769) (3.175) (3.912) (5.537) (6.350) (8.738) (11.074)

2.875 0.083 0.120 0.188 0.203 0.276 0.300 0.375 0.552


2½ 65
(73.03) (2.108) (3.048) (4.775) (5.156) (7.010) (7.620) (9.525) (14.021)

3.500 0.083 0.120 0.188 0.216 0.300 0.350 0.438 0.600


3 80
(88.90) (2.108) (3.048) (4.775) (5.486) (7.620) (8.890) (11.125) (15.240)

4.000 0.083 0.120 0.188 0.226 0.318 0.636


3½ 90 — —
(101.60) (2.108) (3.048) (4.775) (5.740) (8.077) (16.154)

Q.7. What are different types of cranes?


Ans. A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist rope, wire
ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to
move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting
them to other places. The device uses one or more simple machines to
create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a
human. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and
unloading of freight, in the construction industry for the movement of materials, and
in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment.
The various types of cranes are as follows:

 Mobile crane.
 Tower crane.
 Gantry crane.
 Wheel mounted crane.

 Jib crane.

 Truck mounted crane.


 Crawler crane.

76
 Overhead travelling crane.

 Power operated crane.


 Pulpit operated crane.

Q.8. What are the different emission norms/standards in India?


Ans. Bharat stage emission standards (BSES) are emission standards instituted by
the Government of India to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal
combustion engines and Spark-ignition engines equipment, including motor vehicles.
The standards and the timeline for implementation are set by the Central Pollution
Control Board under the Ministry of Environment & Forests and climate change.

The standards, based on European regulations were first introduced in 2000.


Progressively stringent norms have been rolled out since then. All new vehicles

77
manufactured after the implementation of the norms have to be compliant with the
regulations. Since October 2010, Bharat Stage (BS) III norms have been enforced
across the country. In 13 major cities, Bharat Stage IV emission norms have been in
place since April 2010 and it‘s enforced for whole country from April 2017. In 2016,
the Indian government announced that the country would skip the BS-V norms
altogether and adopt BS-VI norms by 2020. The phasing out of 2-stroke engine for
two wheelers, the cessation of production of Maruti 800 & introduction of electronic
controls have been due to the regulations related to vehicular emissions. While the
norms help in bringing down pollution levels, it invariably results in increased vehicle
cost due to the improved technology & higher fuel prices. However, this increase in
private cost is offset by savings in health costs for the public, as there is lesser amount
of disease causing particulate matter and pollution in the air. Exposure to air pollution
can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, which is estimated to be the cause
for 6.2 lakh early deaths in 2010, and the health cost of air pollution in India has been
assessed at 3% of its GDP.

Q.9. What is the information provided by the stampings on bolt


head?
Ans. Information about the bolt diameter, length, and thread
pitch of a fastener can often be found on its head. However,
there‘s a lot of other information that manufacturers put on
the head of a bolt. That information can make a big
difference in the type of bolt we choose for our application.
Property Class Marking
There are some numbers on the head of your bolt. This is
typically represented as a number, followed by a decimal
point, and then another number. These digits can tell you a world of information about
your fastener.
Tensile Strength
The number that appears before the decimal point indicates the approximate tensile
strength of the bolt. This is the minimum load at which the bolt can be expected to
fail. To ascertain the load of your bolt, multiply this number by 100. That will give
you the approximate tensile strength in Megapascals (MPa). For example, a fastener
with a 10 before the decimal point has a tensile strength of 1,000 MPa.
Proof Load
Proof load is defined as the maximum tensile force that can be applied to a bolt that
will not result in plastic deformation. In other words, the material must remain in its
elastic region when loaded up to its proof load. Proof load is typically between 85-
95% of the yield strength.

78
Tensile strength tells when a bolt is likely to fail, but there‘s a lot of room between
whole and broken. Bolts can flex and stretch quite a bit before they fail. Within limits,
a bolt will return to its original shape after deforming. The range that a bolt can endure
before permanent deformation occurs is the proof load. While that number isn‘t
usually stamped on the bolt, you can figure it out using the yield load.
Yield Load
Yield strength can be defined as the tensile force that will produce a specified amount
of permanent deformation (most commonly 0.2%) within a specific fastener.
The number following the decimal point tells the yield point of the bolt. When a bolt
reaches the yield point, permanent deformation occurs. The bolt is not broken, but it is
damaged to the point where it will not return to its original shape when the load is
removed. Multiplying this number by 10 gives you the percentage of the tensile
strength at which the bolt will reach yield load. On a bolt with 10.9 stamped on the
top, the yield load is 90% of the 1,000 MPa tensile strength. If a load of approximately
900 MPa were applied to this bolt, the bolt would likely suffer permanent
deformation.
Bolt Materials
These same numbers can also give you an indication of the type of steel used to make
the bolt. For bolts with an 8.8 or lower marking, the metal is usually a medium carbon
steel. Bolts marked higher than this are usually made from harder alloy steels. Many
people assume that a higher class bolt is better for every application, however this
isn‘t always the case.
Strength vs. Ductility
Strength is very important in a bolt, but it‘s not everything. As strength increases, so
does brittleness. This makes higher class bolts less desirable for applications where a
lot of flexing or movement is expected. A bolt with higher ductility can flex and
distort to a greater degree before reaching the yield load or breaking altogether.
Manufacturer Markings
The head of the bolt should also have a marking indicting which company
manufactured the bolt. This is the company that has tested the bolt and can verify that
the other markings accurately reflect the strength of the bolt. For example, a bolt
stamped FNL 8.8 is a bolt made by Fastenal with a tensile strength of 830 MPa and a
yield load of 660 MPa.

Q.10. What are different types of gaskets available?


Ans. A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating
surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while
under compression. Gaskets allow for "less-than-perfect" mating surfaces on machine

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parts where they can fill irregularities. Gaskets are commonly produced by cutting
from sheet materials. Gaskets for specific applications, such as high pressure steam
systems, may contain asbestos. However, due to health hazards associated with
asbestos exposure, non-asbestos gasket materials are used when practical.
Sheet gaskets
When a sheet of material has the gasket shape
"punched out" of it, it is a sheet gasket. This can lead to
a crude, fast and cheap gasket. In previous times the
material was compressed asbestos, but in modern times
a fibrous material such as graphite is used. These
gaskets can fill various different chemical requirements
based on the inertness of the material used. Non-
asbestos gasket sheet is durable, of multiple materials,
and thick in nature. Material examples are mineral,
carbon or nitrile synthetic rubber. Applications using
sheet gaskets involve acids, corrosive chemicals, steam or mild caustics. Flexibility
and good recovery prevent breakage during installation of a sheet gasket.
Solid material gaskets
The idea behind solid material is to use metals which cannot
be punched out of sheets but are still cheap to produce. These
gaskets generally have a much higher level of quality control
than sheet gaskets and generally can withstand much higher
temperatures and pressures. The key downside is that a solid
metal must be greatly compressed in order to become flush
with the flange head and prevent leakage. The material choice
is more difficult; because metals are primarily used, process
contamination and oxidation are risks. An additional
downside is that the metal used must be softer than the flange — in order to ensure
that the flange does not warp and thereby prevent sealing with future gaskets. Even so,
these gaskets have found a niche in industry.
Spiral-wound gaskets
Spiral-wound gaskets comprise a mix of metallic and filler
material. Generally, the gasket has a metal (normally carbon rich
or stainless steel) wound outwards in a circular spiral (other shapes
are possible) with the filler material (generally a flexible graphite)
wound in the same manner but starting from the opposing side.
This results in alternating layers of filler and metal. The filler
material in these gaskets acts as the sealing element, with the metal
providing structural support. These gaskets have proven to be
reliable in most applications, and allow lower clamping forces than
solid gaskets, albeit with a higher cost.

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Double-jacketed gaskets
Double-jacketed gaskets are another
combination of filler material and metallic
materials. In this application, a tube with ends
that resemble a "C" is made of the metal with an
additional piece made to fit inside of the "C"
making the tube thickest at the meeting points.
The filler is pumped between the shell and piece.
When in use, the compressed gasket has a larger
amount of metal at the two tips where contact is
made (due to the shell/piece interaction) and these two places bear the burden of
sealing the process. Since all that is needed is a shell and piece, these gaskets can be
made from almost any material that can be made into a sheet and filler can then be
inserted.
Kammprofile gaskets
Kammprofile gaskets are used in many older
seals since they have both a flexible nature and
reliable performance. Kammprofiles work by
having a solid corrugated core with a flexible
covering layer. This arrangement allows for very
high compression and an extremely tight seal
along the ridges of the gasket. Since generally
the graphite will fail instead of the metal core,
Kammprofile can be repaired during later
inactivity. Kammprofile has a high capital cost for most applications but this is
countered by long life and increased reliability.
Fishbone Gaskets
Fishbone Gaskets are direct replacements for
Kammprofile and Spiral wound gaskets. They are
fully CNC machine manufactured from similar
materials but the design of the gaskets has
eliminated inherent short comings. Fishbone
gaskets do not unwind in storage or in the plant.
The rounded edges do not cause flange damage.
The added "Stop Step" prevents the Fishbone gaskets from being over
compressed/crushed, often caused by hot torque techniques on plant start up. The
bones of the gasket remain ductile and adjust to thermal cycling and system pressure
spikes resulting is a durable and reliable flange seal that out performs all other gaskets
of this nature significantly.

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Flange gasket
A flange gasket is a type of gasket made to fit between two sections
of pipe that are flared to provide higher surface area. Flange gaskets
come in a variety of sizes and are categorized by their inside
diameter and their outside diameter.

Q.11. What are different types of Flanges available?


Ans. A flange is an external or internal ridge, or rim (lip), for strength, as the flange of
an iron beam such as an I-beam or a T-beam; or for attachment to another object, as
the flange on the end of a pipe, steam cylinder, etc., or on the lens mount of a camera;
or for a flange of a rail car or tram wheel. Thus flanged wheels are wheels with a
flange on one side to keep the wheels from running off the rails. The term "flange" is
also used for a kind of tool used to form flanges. Pipes with flanges can be assembled
and disassembled easily.

Q.12. List the different types of bearings.


Ans. Bearings are highly engineered, precision-made components that enable
machinery to move at extremely high speeds and carry remarkable loads with ease and
efficiency.
Bearings must be able to offer high precision, reliability and durability, as well as the
ability to rotate at high speeds with minimal noise and vibration.
Bearings are found in applications ranging from automobiles, airplanes, computers,
construction equipment, machine tools, DVD players, refrigerators and ceiling fans.
If something twists, turns or moves, it probably has a bearing in it.

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The different types of bearings are as follows:

TYPES OF
BEARINGS

SLIDING ROLLER
CONTACT CONTACT
BEARING BEARING

SLEEVE SLIDER/ GUIDE ROLLER


BALL BEARING
BEARING BEARING BEARING

WITH RESPECT CYLINDRICAL


WITH RESPECT DEEP GROVE
TO ROLLER
TO DIRECTION BALL BEARING
LUBRICATION BEARING

RADIAL THIN FILM/ ZERO FILM/ ANGULAR SPHERICAL


THRUST THICK FILM
BEARING BOUNDARY SELF CONTACT BALL ROLLER
BEARING LUBRICATION
(JOURNAL) LUBRICATION LUBRICATING BEARING BEARING

TAPERED
PIVOT COLLAR HYDROSTATC THRUST BALL
ROLLER
BEARING BEARING BEARING BEARING
BEARING

CONICAL NEEDLE
FLAT PIVOT FLAT COLLAR HYDRODYNAM SELF ALIGNING
COLLAR ROLLER
BEARING BEARING IC BEARING BALL BEARING
BEARING BEARING

CONICAL
SINGLE COLLAR
PIVOT
EARING
BEARING

MULTI COLLAR
BEARING

Ball Bearings:
Rolling function is provided by a ball
Low friction, high speed, and light to medium loading
Light and general machine applications
commonly found in fans, roller blades, wheel bearings, and

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under hood applications on cars etc.

Cylindrical & Needle Roller Bearings:


Where the rolling function is provided by a cylinder of
some kind. May also be referred to as needle roller
bearings (where length is much greater than diameter)
-Low friction, medium to heavy radial loading
Commonly found in general machine applications
including gearboxes and transmissions, machine tool
and construction equipment.

Tapered Roller Bearings:


A tapered version of a roller bearing is used for
combined axial and radial loads, such as in wheel
applications on trucks
commonly found in heavy industrial, truck and wheel
applications with combined radial and axial loads. Some
examples are manual transmissions, gearboxes, power
generation and other process equipment.

Spherical Roller Bearings:


- A roller bearing that has a barrel shaped roller.
- Medium friction, medium to heavy loads and
misalignment capabilities
- Generally used for very high load applications with
misaligned shafts to housings.

Commonly found in gearboxes, conveyors, pulp and


paper machines and other process equipment.

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