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Qasim Iftikhar 0031

 Company name
 National food
 Product name
 National refined salt
 Total asset
 US $ 1 million
 No. of employees
 790 as of 2019 ( local employees 80 )
 Website
 www.Nfoods.com
 Introduction
 National food company is a Pakistani food company founded in 1970.now it’s a
major food company in Pakistan. In 1988 national foods became the certified
vendor of McCormick United state. In the same year private national food
company converted into public limited company. With the range of 250 food
products in over 10 major categories. (introduction of national foods, 2018)
 Why we go international
 Enlarge the customer base
 Enter new markets
 Create jobs
 Increase sales and profitability
 Explore untapped markets with the power of internet
 Host country
 Russia
 Why we choose Russia
 Russia have growing economy
 Russia has banned importing salt from European union and Ukraine
 Russia have 142 million population
 People represent a huge market opportunity for participants in many industries
 Gross domestic product has grown an average of 6 percent annually over the past
10 years

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 Economic life cycle
Year Inflation Unemployment GDP Interest Rate
2014 7.82% 5.16% 2056.58 5.50%
2015 15.53% 5.57% 1363.71 17%
2016 7.05% 5.56% 1282.66 10.50%
2017 3.67% 5.21% 1578.42 10%
2018 2.88% 4.74% 1630.66 8%
2019 4.99% 4.43% 1610.38 7.75%
2020 4.52% 4.21% 1667.46 7.50%
2021 4.20% 4.15% 1724.62 7.75%
2022 4.10% 3.91% 1783.01 7.75%
2023 4% 3.50% 1845.88 8.10%
2024 4% 3.45% 1920.94 8.90%

18.00%

16.00%

14.00%

12.00%

10.00%

8.00%

6.00%

4.00%

2.00%

0.00%
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024

Inflation Unemployment Interest Rate

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GDP
2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024

GDP

(statista, 2019) (trading economics, 2019)


 Economic factors
 Economic system
 Russia have mixed economy system (nation multimedia, 2018)
 Trading bloc of Russia
 Eurasian economic union (EAEU ) (nation multimedia, 2018)
 Permanent normal trade relations ( PNTR )
 General agreement on trade services ( GATS )
 Commonwealth of independence state ( CIS )
 Level of economic integration
 FTA ( free trade area ) (nation multimedia, 2018)
 ( EAEU ) ( CIS )

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Umar farooq 0039

Political factors

Risk analysis Political risks Political


strategies

 Macro political risk  Expropriation Hiring locals


 Type of govt risk
Local
 Democracy  Russia has poor
production
 Judicial system government
 Court system records Good relation
 Corruption  World bank with labor
 Russia have major corruption show that Russia
issues is below the
 135th rank out of 170 countries emerging
European
average
 Freezing assets
movement

 Micro political risk Tax rate is 13% in Due to low tax


 Taxes Russia rate we put a
 Local laws low price on
Hygienic requirements
 Industry regulation for food additives
product and
according to
Safety requirements local laws and
for food additives industry
regulations we
Flavoring and make strategies
technological aids

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(your article library, 2019) (research gate, 2019)

Technological factors

Elements Pakistan Russia Gaps Strategies

Technological Infrastructure Russia have Yes We want to adopt


infrastructure of Pakistan in advanced the strategy of
technology is technology host country
growing and
rising

Potential to
expand more
in future

Employee 55-64 age In Russia Yes Training


expertise people have 95% of adults
(education) 38% literacy have
rate secondary
education and
45-54 age
Russia spend
people have
4.9% of its
46% literacy
GDP in
rate
education
25-34 have
57% literacy
rate

15-24 have

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72% literacy
rate

Customer Most of the Russia also No No


awareness awareness use used
in Pakistan advertisement
through
advertisement
and online
networking

(pakistan today, 2019) (technologist, 2019)


Qasim Iftikhar

E l e m e n t s o f C u l t u r e

E l e m e n t s Home country (PAK) Host country B a r r i e r s S t r a t e g i e s


( R U S S I A )
R e l i g i o n Is Islamic state 95% - 98% are Muslims O r t h o d o x y , Y E S Religion training
Christianity
L a n g u a g e Urdu , English ( other is Punjabi, Pashto , Sindhi ) R u s s i a n Y E S Learn language
Hire translator
E d u c a t i o n 62.3 % ( male 72.5 % and Female 51.8 % ) 99.68 % ( Male 99.73% and Female 99.65 % ) Y E S Improve education system

Social structure Family and individual structure Individual and family Structure N o N o
P o l i t i c a l Democratic Parliament (elected form of governance) Democratic N O n o
EconomicIdeology Mixed economy syste m Transition and Mixed economy N O n o
Invalid source specified.Invalid source specified.

Qasim iftikhar

H o f s t e d e C u l t u r e D i m e n s i o n s

Dimensions Ho m e C ou nt r y( P AK ) Host Country(RUSSIA) B a r r i e r s Strategies


Power Distance 5 5 % 9 3 % Y e s To devide power with equal rights
Individualism 1 4 % 3 9 % Y e s Care for the group and working organization

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Collectivism 8 4 % 6 1 % Y e s n o
Masculinity 5 0 % 3 6 % Y e s To value people and relationships
Femininity 5 0 % 6 4 % Y e s n o
Uncertainty avoidance 7 0 % 9 5 % Y e s n o
Long term orientation 5 0 % 8 1 % N o n o
Short term orientation 5 0 % 1 9 % Y e s To adopt host country developments
Indulgence 0 % 2 0 % Y e s n o
Invalid source specified.

Umar Butt

 Business Etiquette in RUSSIA


Business mentality
it is difficult to do business with Russia without help of local people connections. Patience is
very important with Russians and the negotiation can be slow. Russian don’t make immediate
decisions in meeting.

Greetings
Shake hands and maintain direct eye contact. Avoid hand shaking in rooms or houses. Remove
gloves while shaking hands otherwise it will consider to be rude. They have two modes of
addressing. The formal form you ( vy ) and informal one ( ty ) .

The art of conversation


Russians appreciate an interest from foreigners in the Russian language so learn their language or
at least speak with them in their language is a good idea. Many Russian speaks English they
taught them in the school. Russians not speaks loudly in public areas. Do not be just a listener be
the speaker also. If you are a parent do not hesitate to show the pictures of your children. Also
avoid the complain of Russia to any Russian.

Business meetings and meals


Formal dress is more traditional in offices for both women and men. If you are going to meet
with Russians be on time otherwise they will not give you any importance. Handing a business
card is common in Russia. Always print one side by your language and other side in Russian
language. At dinner Russian people don’t do something before the host does and in family home
dinner bring a small gift.

Body language
To maintain eye contact and never show the soles of your shoes it will be consider as rude. Don’t
stand with your hands in the pocket. It is consider to be insulting someone with the forefinger.

Fun facts
Russia is the first country to launch a man into space. The name of the man was yuri Gagarin.
Moscow is the biggest city in the Europe. Red is a famous color in Russian history and culture. If

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you have decide to give some flowers as a present to some Russian make sure the numbers of
flowers is in the odds.
(today translation, 2019)

 Organization culture
The organizational culture of Russia is hierarchy to person. In the four type of cultures Eiffel
tower, guided missile, incubator, and family culture.
Russia have family culture.
(research gate, 2019)

Communication Barriers ( Qasim )


Elements Home Host country Barriers Strategy
country (RUSSIA)
(PAK)
Culture Barrier Pakistani is In Russia Yes Need to learn
Islamic culture Christianity host country
and historical culture and also culture
culture and some historical
non Muslims in
culture
Language Urdu Russian Yes Learning the
Barrier language of host
country
Perceptual In Pakistan In Russia also is No No
Barrier perceptual barrier average of
is medium level perceptual barrier

Porter five forces

1. Threats of new entrants : (QASIM)

Statements Yes Moderate No Remarks Reference


+ -
1) Do large firms have cost or  Salt market is (prnewswire,
performance advantage in rapidly 2019)
your segment of the growing year
industry? by year in
Russia
2) Are there any proprietary  Doing (slideshare.net,
product differences in salt business in 2019)

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industry? Russia you
must have
considered
the patent
rights of
competitor
3) Are there any establish  Himalayan (europages,
brand identities in salt pink salt, salt 2019)
industry? land RU and
some more
4) Do your customer incur any  Customers (prnewswire,
significant cost in switch can easily buy 2019)
suppliers? it in retail
stores
5) Is a lot of capital needed to  The capital (rbth, 2019)
enter salt industry? need in
Russia for
salt
businesses is
average
6) Is serviceable used  We have no
equipment expensive? serviceable
equipment
7) Does the newcomer to your  In Russia salt (market watch,
industry face difficulty in business is 2019)
accessing distribution not easy there
channels? are many
competitors
8) Does experience help you  To lower cost (market watch,
to continuously lower experience is 2019)
costs? very helpful
9) Does the newcomer have  It is not very (getting the
any problem in obtaining important in deal through,
the necessary skilled Russia to 2019)
people, materials or train the
supplies? employees
10) Does your product have any  Our product (rbth, 2019)
proprietary feature which have not yet
give you lower costs? have this
feature
11) Are there any licenses,  Getting (prnewswire,
insurance which are licenses in 2019)
difficult to obtain? Russia is
different
compare to
other

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countries
12) Can the newcomer expect  To enter new (slideshare.net,
strong retaliation on market 2019)
entering the marketing? newcomers
have average
retaliation

2. Bargaining power o buyers : (QASIM )

Statements Yes Moderate No Remarks Reference


+ -
1) Is there a large number of  Russia have (importer
buyer relative to the large number trade key,
number of firms in the of salt buyers 2019)
business?
2) Do you have a large  It is the basic (the culture
number of customers each need of life trip, 2019)
with relatively small
purchases?
3) Does the customer face any  Customers (the culture
significant cost in switching does not have trip, 2019)
suppliers? need of any
significant cost
4) Does the buyer need a lot of  Important (importer
important information? information in trade key,
salt business 2019)
does not have
any
5) Is the buyer aware of the  Does not have (prnewswire,
need for additional any 2019)
information?
6) Is there anything which  There is no (the culture
prevent your customer from need trip, 2019)
taking your function in
house?
7) Your customer are not  Russian people (the culture
highly sensitive to price? demands trip, 2019)
quality
8) Your product is unique to  Our product (getting the
some degree or has does not have deal
accepted branding? any through,
uniqueness 2019)
9) Your customers business  We have all (getting the

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are profitable ? kinds of deal
customers through,
2019)
10) You provide incentives to  There is no (getting the
the decision markers? need to deal
provide through,
incentives 2019)

3. Threat of substitutes : (QASIM )

Statement Yes Moderate No Remarks Reference


+ -
1) Substitutes have  There is no (the nation,
performance limitations need to justify 2019)
which do not completely
offset their lowest price or
their performance advantage
is not justified by their
higher price.
2) The customer will incur  Russian (the nation,
costs in switching to a people 2019)
substitute. demands
quality
3) Your customer has no real  Our
substitute? customers
have many
substitute
4) Your customer is not likely (the nation,
to substitute. 2019)

4. Bargaining power of suppliers : (UMAR)

Statements Yes Moderate No Remarks References


+ -
1) My inputs are standard  our salt (google books,
rather than unique or equipment 2019)
differentiated. have standard
there is no
uniqueness
2) I can switch between  Switching (euro pages,
suppliers quickly and suppliers is 2019)
cheaply. quickly but

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not much
cheaply
3) My suppliers would find it  For suppliers (salt of the
difficult to enter my its not earth, 2019)
business or my customer difficult to
would find it difficult to enter in salt
perform my function in business in
house. Russia
4) I can substitute inputs  It is very (salt of the
readily. difficult or earth, 2019)
impossible to
create
substitute of
salt
5) I have many potential  In salt (panjiva,
suppliers. business there 2019)
are many
potential
suppliers
6) My business is important to  Its important (panjiva,
my supplies. that the 2019)
supplies of
salt must be
quickly in the
market
7) My cost of purchases has no  Purchases (global reach,
significant influence on my cost have an 2019)
overall costs. average
influence on
my overall
costs

5. Competitors : (UMAR)
Statements Yes Moderate No Remarks Reference
+ -
1) The industry is growing  Salt industry (tass, 2019)
rapidly. of Russia is
growing fast
year by year
2) The industry is not cyclical  Our product (panjiva,
with intermittent over have no 2019)
capacity. cyclical or
seasonal
3) The fixed costs of the  Our fixed cost (europages,

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business are relatively low is high 2019)
portion of total costs. because of
shipping
charges
4) There are significant  The product (trust in time,
product differences and is seem to be 2019)
brand identities between the likely or same
competitors.
5) The competitors are  The (trust in time,
diversified rather than diversified 2019)
specialized. and
specialized of
our
competitors
have an
average rate
6) It would not be had get out  We can end (prnewswire,
of this business because our business 2019)
there are no specialized at any time
skills and facilities or long
term contract commitments,
etc
7) My customers would incur  There is no (google
significant costs in cost for books, 2019)
switching to a competitor. customer to
switch the
product
8) My product is complex and  Our product (google
requires a detailed is not books, 2019)
understanding on the part of complex and
my customer. also does not
need any
understanding
detail
9) My competitors are all of  My (trust in time,
approximately the same size competitors 2019)
as I am. have the large
firms than me

6. Overall industry rating : in% (UMAR)

Favorable Moderate Unfavorable


Threats of new entrants. 80% 10% 10%
Bargaining power of buyers. 40% 10% 60%
Threat of substitutes. 34% 33% 33%

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Bargaining power of suppliers. 60% 30% 10%
Competitors. 10% 10% 80%

CPM: (Qasim)

We are assumed the weights and rates of our company.

Score = weights x rates

Elements weights National foods Himalayan pink salt Saltland.Ru


Rates Score Rates Score Rate Score
Product price 0.10 3 .30 3 .30 4 .40
Product .20 4 .80 2 .40 3 .60
quality
Distribution 0.05 2 .10 3 .15 4 .20
channel
Advertisement .10 3 .30 4 .40 3 .30
Technology .15 4 .60 2 .30 4 .60
Customers 0.05 3 .15 1 .05 3 .15
loyalty
Economy .10 3 .30 3 .30 3 .30
Transportation .10 2 .20 4 .40 3 .30
cost
Brand loyalty 0.05 2 .10 2 .10 4 .20
Good will .10 2 .20 3 .30 4 .40
Total =1 =3.05 =2.70 =3.45
UMAR ( 0039)

Planned entry

Our planned entry is exporting strategy

Advantages

 Exporting strategy saves our huge cost. We have no need to install all our equipments and
plants in host country. We deal with all this in home country
 This strategy is very ideal to operate in risky country. Though Russia is a risky country.
We just produced our product in a home country and sell in the Russia. The distributor
who purchase from us they distribute our product in Russia. In this case we have no risk.

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 To export in Russia there is also a threat of corruption because Russia have the rank 135th
out of 170th most corrupted countries . this is not a threat for us because we produce
goods in home country

Disadvantages

 The main disadvantage to export in Russia is that we have no control over foreign
business. Distributor can misuse our product or not sale in the market timely that is a bad
threat to us
 To export from Pakistan to Russia there is a very high shipping cost that we bear.
Transportation cost is too much high.

UMAR ( 0039 )

Operational strategies

Pressure of local responsiveness (PLR)

Pressure of local Home Host Barriers Strategies


responsiveness
customer taste In Pakistan food Almost all dishes no no
and preferences without salt is of Russian foods
hard to found is made by salt
and overall and they prefer
Pakistanis prefer salt in every dish
food with salt that they made
Infrastructure In home country The lack of yes Home country
and practices the infrastructure infrastructure needs to improve
is underused and investment over their
right now last 10-20 years infrastructure
Pakistan faces has dropped they must have
the battle against Russia to 93rd adopt the host
poor globally and now country strategy
infrastructure Russia is
growing their
infrastructure
very fast
Distribution Pakistan have Russia have large yes Need to improve
channel some large no of distribution distribution
distribution channels in their channels in small
channels in big country and they cities as well
cities now they are developing
develop in the more
small cities as
well

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Host country The gov of We can export
demand Russia added salt salt to Russia
to the list of because Russia
products that are have major needs
banned for of salt
import from the
countries that
imposed against
Russia so
demand of salt
increases in
Russia
(geneious wordpress, 2019) (rbth, 2019) (wikipedia, 2019) (ey, 2019) (export gov, 2019) (tass,
2019)

QASIM

Pressure of cost reduction ( PCR )

Statements Yes Moderate No Remarks Reference


+ -
1) The industry is growing  Salt industry (tass, 2019)
rapidly. of Russia is
growing fast
year by year
2) The industry is not cyclical  Our product (panjiva,
with intermittent over have no 2019)
capacity. cyclical or
seasonal
3) The fixed costs of the  Our fixed cost (europages,
business are relatively low is high 2019)
portion of total costs. because of
shipping
charges
4) There are significant  The product (trust in time,
product differences and is seem to be 2019)
brand identities between the likely or same
competitors.
5) The competitors are  The (trust in time,
diversified rather than diversified 2019)
specialized. and
specialized of
our
competitors
have an
average rate

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6) It would not be had get out  We can end (prnewswire,
of this business because our business 2019)
there are no specialized at any time
skills and facilities or long
term contract commitments,
etc
7) My customers would incur  There is no (google
significant costs in cost for books, 2019)
switching to a competitor. customer to
switch the
product
8) My product is complex and  Our product (google
requires a detailed is not books, 2019)
understanding on the part of complex and
my customer. also does not
need any
understanding
detail
9) My competitors are all of  My (trust in time,
approximately the same size competitors 2019)
as I am. have the large
firms than me

Operation strategy

We use the localization strategy

Why we use the localization strategy

 Reasons
 Our pressure of local responsiveness is high. We draw the table of PLR so you
can see there are barriers that can warn us to use PLR in Russia
 We draw the table of competitors analysis in which we can see there is a minor
chance that PCR is going to high but the most chances are is that PCR is reduce
and the pressure of cost reduction in Russia is low.
 So we decided to launch the localization strategy.

UMar 0039

Staffing policy
We use the polycentric approach because we have localization.

Reasons

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It is clear that when we export to Russia we didn’t want to hire a Pakistani person in Russia for
our distribution. Obviously a Russian national can do it. We use polycentric approach because
we do not have need to hire the manager but we can hire a distributor and it must be Russian.

Qasim 0031

International marketing strategy

Product
Levels of adoption

Our PLR is high so we use selling modified product in host country

Features

Our product is national salt that we are going to export in Russia. Our product is white salt
basically that Russia wants.

How much costly ?

Our product is less costly that a person can easily afford.

How and where customer use ?

Our customer use it in home and hotels or in any food they want to. Our brand is national salt

Place
Retail concentration

We use fragmented so we use large number of small retailers

Channel length

Manufacturer to wholesaler and wholesaler to retailer

Channel exclusivity

It is easy to enter the market of salt in Russia

Channel sophistication

The channel members of Russia is literate and developed

Distribution strategy

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We use the intensive distribution strategy

We choose Russia to export salt and we are planning to launch our product in big cities that can
purchase more salt from us. Like Moscow capital of Russia and some other big cities. We can
start with the small distribution channels and we will also study our competitors.

Price
We set different price for the host country as compare to home country.

Objectives

Our objective is to increase sale

Cost consideration

Distribution cost and promotion cost

Competitor prices

Our price is same as our competitor

Pricing strategy

Our pricing strategy is competitive pricing

Final price

The price we use is the same as our competitor and we use odd pricing

Promotion
Level of distribution

The level we use is PULL

Type of product

Our type of product is industrial so we PULL the product

We use different types of product promotion

1. Use social media


2. Create video tutorials
3. Start a blog
4. Use Facebook ads

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5. YouTube ads
6. Email marketing

(mind tools, 2019) (entrepreneur, 2019)

UMar 0039

Concerns of host country


There are major four concerns related to host country

Non government organization ( NGO )


There are many non-profit organizations in Russia. Some NGO’s is internationally and some is
American. According to the Moscow times the all organization who is non-profit said that the
salt seems like a magic cure and most of the complaints run of the mill and other posts seem
dramatic.

(the moscow times, 2019)

Activist organization
Now a days in Russia the activist organizations faces government threats to there own survival
for having accepted foreign grant and donation for their cause. They have been ordered to
register as foreign agent because the international support conversation recently condemned by
the Russian govt.

(latimes, 2019)

Government
The industry regulations of Russia requires that the hygienic requirements of food additives and
safely requirements for food additives and also flavoring and technological aids must be on
Russian standard otherwise the govt. of Russia take strict action.

Society
When Russia became the member of world trade organization Russia decrease their tariff rates
by 10% and 2017 decrease by 7.8% on industrial sector. US exports of salt to Russia now is ban
according to Russian govt.

(wikipedia, 2019) (exportgov, 2019)

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Plans we have
Russia applied a ban on American food and agriculture and Russia also applied a ban of some
European countries that gives us opportunity to deal or build good relationship with Russia and
provide or export some quality products to Russia. Russia have also banned some countries
whom it purchase salt from. We plan to export salt in Russia because we have opportunity.

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P a g e | 21
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