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# UTILITIES UNIT

Mirpur Mathelo

INDEX
Sr
TOPIC Page
No:
1 Principle 3
2 General Description of engine parts, Specification, parameters etc. 5
3 Fuel supply system 12
4 Combustion air intake & exhaust System 15
5 Cylinder & Highly hot parts cooling system HTW system 17
6 Low temperature water cooling (LTW) system 20
7 Lubrication system 21
8 Initial starting system 22
9 Engine Shutdown System 27
10 Detail about trips 28
11 Working of the governor and its parts 30
12 MG 702 local panel indications & their display reasons set points etc. 36
13 Electricity (Basic) 37
14 Power factor 39
15 Description of the generator 41
16 Start up diesel generator 45
18 Shutdown diesel generator 48
19 Trouble shooting 49
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36

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PRINCIPLE:-

If in an enclosed cylinder in which a piston and connecting rod is fitted and an explosion mixture
containing diesel oil vapors and air, is charged and it is compressed then due to compression its
pressure will rise and so on its temperature will rise also. At a certain high temperature the
mixture will catch fire and will explode. This explosion will cause production of heat energy in
the form of high increase in pressure. This high pressure moves the piston along with connecting
rod in reverse direction. This is the way that the diesel generator creates actual power. Because
the connecting rod moves to and fro i.e. reciprocating motion. So it is connected to the
crankshaft, which converts it to the rotary motion. This rotary motion drives the generator.

Energy is spent for initially i.e. suction of intake air, for compression charging of the fuel vapors
and finally to discharge the explosion products. So difference of powers is the net power.

In real all the process is completed in four strokes; although there are two strokes diesel generator
available but here we are connecting only four strokes diesel generator.

## STROKES OF THE DIESEL GENERATOR ARE AS:

(1) SUCTION STROKE: In this stroke inlet valve (I.V) remains open and exhaust
Valve (E.V) remains closed. The descending piston draws in a fresh charge of air to
fill the cylinder with it. The air taken in during suction stroke is nearly at
atmospheric pressure. Line ab in the indicator diagram represents stroke.

(2) COMPRESSION STROKE: In this stroke I.V and E.V remain closed. Piston
moves up and air is sucked in during section stroke. Air is compressed to high
pressure and temperature (nearly 3.5 kgs/cm2 and 600 deg C). This stroke is
represented by the line bc in indicator diagram.

(3) EXPANSION OR POWER STROKE: During this stroke I.V and E.V both
remain closed. Injection of diesel fuel in the vapor form through the fuel valve
starts just before the beginning of this stroke. A calculated amount of fuel is
charged which depends on load and speed. Due to compression the temperature
inside the cylinder becomes high enough to ignite the fuel as soon as it is charged /
injected. The fuel is injected into the cylinder in atomized from and in such a way
that fuel burns at constant pressure. In diagram cd represents the fuel burning
operation. The ignited mixture of air and fuel expands and forces the piston
downwards. Expansion stroke is represented by de.

(4) EXHAUST STROKE: This stroke is represented by ea the diagram in this stroke
E.V, remains open and rising piston forces the burnt gases out of the cylinder.
During the operation of exhaust stoke, the suction stroke is a little bit overlapped.
This causes exhaust easier.

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The exhaust of gases takes place at a pressure little above the atmospheric pressure because of
restricted area of exhaust passages which do not allow the gases to move out of cylinder quickly.

Main difference of diesel engine and petrol or gas engine is: In diesel engine combustion takes
place due to high compression which causes high rise of temperature. While in the latter engines
combustion takes place due to sparking of the sparking plug. It is obvious that for the diesel
engine cylinders high temperature & pressure bearing material is required.

It is clear when in one cylinder one type of stroke is working; in the other cylinder different type
of stroke is working. So at least four cylinders are required for four-stroke diesel engine. Other
sets can contain eight, twelve or sixteen, twenty cylinders etc.

## DESCRIPTION UNITS PARAMETERS

ENGINE MODEL - SACM
240/G/16/V/S.
2200 C.H
SPEED RPM 1000
DIRECTION OF ROTATION - CCW(LOOKING FROM
WEST)
HORSE POWER - 2200
CYLINDER DIA m.m. 240 circumference=
753,98mm
STROKE LENGTH m.m. 220
MAXIMUM PRESURE IN THE BAR 15.7
CYLINDER.
PISTON SPEED m/sec 7.3
IGNITION SPEED RMP 70
FUEL CONSUMPTION(At fuel Load) LITERS 400
TOTAL DISPLACEMENT IN LITERS 163.5
CYLINDER
ENGINE WEIGHT WITHOUT OILS MTRIC TONS 15.8
& WATER
CAPACITY OF LUBE OIL LITERS 400
400
WATER CAPACITY IN CYLINDER LITERS 200

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Here in FFC MM diesel generator 2200 HP and has 16 cylinders. Its capacity is 1.55 MW
maximum. Its model No is as : SACM 240.G.16 V.S

## GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ENGINE PARTS

(This description includes all types of SACM 240 G diesel engines mean straight-line type and
V- type. The vender provided this description).

CYLINDER BLOCK:

The cylinder block is the mainframe work of the engine. It is made in one piece with generous
transverse and heavily ribbed. It gives the engine great rigidity and ensures the permanent
alignment of the main bearings. Due to large vertical and movement of inertia of this part, unit
based on the engines can employ all types of flexible mountings or even, with certain limits,
deformable supports.

Usually the cylinder block is cast as single piece of iron and steel having high tensile strength.
For certain applications, however demanding either special shock resistance or stringent weight
limitations. Then cast iron is abandoned in favor of a welded fabricated structure from steel cast
elements.

The block is arranged to carry the cylinder liners either in a bank of 6 or 8 in the case of in-line
engines or in two banks of suitable number separated by an angle of 50 deg: for the V-engines.

The lower part of the cylinder incorporates 7,9 or 12 split main bearings. The caps of bearing are
removable downward. At the level of bottom of the cylinders, and each bank; 7,9 or 12 bearing
with removable bushes having an anti-friction surface layer; it provides the camshaft mounting.

6,8 or 10 circular doors provide simple excess to the bigger end bearings from both sides of the
engine. Other that are similarly dimensioned at the level of liner locating bosses, give access to
the valve gear adjustment. A sheet steel oil sump is bolted to the under side of the cylinder block.

CRANKSHAFT

## The crankshaft is a one-piece, chrome-molybdenum steel forging. It is treated before machining

to give an elastic limit and high resistance to break.

To increase resistance to wear the main bearing journals and crankpins, are surface hardened
after semi-finishing trued and polished.

The quality of the steel and effectiveness of the various treatments are checked during
manufacture. The metalloscopic and dimensional checks are particularly precise to ensure the
elimination of any defect capable of impairing operational life.

## Counterweights clamped to the crank webs ensure centrifugal balances.

The crankshaft is carried on bearings. Two piece thrust blocks on both sides of the end bearings
locate it longitudinally, where the main thrust load is located.

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At the opposite ends, the crankshaft carries the timing drive pinion and a torsional-vibration
damper. It is so dimensioned at to allow the transmission of half the power produced by the
engine.

CONNECTING-ROD ASSEMBLIES

In case of the in-line engines, the big end bearings are of the classic oblique split type, but in the
V-engines the system of main and articulated rod is applied. The articulated rod is carried on the
main rod by a fully-floating pin, maintained by circlips. This arrangement allows the provision of
big end bearing much larger in area than would be possible while retaining reasonable specific
pressures.

The obliquely-split big end allow the use of a large journal diameter while still permitting the
removal of connecting –rod assemblies through the cylinder. 4 screws and 2 bolts of high tensile
steel, which are easily accessible through the inspection doors, retain the big-end cap. The seat of
the two parts that’s casting is done to eliminate any possibility of sliding and of loss of
concentricity of the bearing carries.

The small ends of main and articulated rods carries a removable steel bush with a copper-lead –
tin layer in the bore.

BEARINGS

Pairs of steel half shells carrying a layer of copper-lead form the big end and main bearings. A
thin coating of electrolytic tin-lead alloys gives the surface excellent friction characteristics.
These thin-wall bearings are held by small tongues in the case of the main bearings and by lugs in
the big end bearings. They are completely machined independent of their housing; thus ensuring
perfect interchangeability, without any form of fitting being needed before assembly.

CYLINDER LINERS

Centrifugally cast in a special iron, the cylinder lines have high wear-resistance characteristics.
The bores are so finished as to ensure both extreme dimensional precisions and a surface
condition that allows a good ring to be attained in a minimum of precisions and a surface
condition that allows a good ring to be attained in a minimum of time.

These interchangeable liners are carried in locations provided in the cylinder block is achieved by
means of two heat, oil and water resistant synthetic rubber sealing rings. These seats allow the
liner to expand downward freely with variation of temperature. At the upper ends, a rubber seal
that is provided by hearing of the flange upon the block.

PISTONS

The pistons are die-cast in an aluminum-silicon alloy. They are attached to the connecting rods or
articulated rods by hardened and tempered gudgeon pins of ample diameters with which are fully
floating in high-precision bushes and held by circlips. The outer surface is super finished, and the
bore is carefully checked to eliminate any risk of fracture. Three sealing rings and an oil control

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ring are carried above the gudgeon pin. The top ring is being chromed on its outer diameter in
order to reduce wear of the ring and the liner to a minimum.

The open combustion chamber is located in the piston crown. Shape and dimensions of this
chamber vary according to the type of fuel used and the compression ratio adopted.

Although the high heat transmission co-efficient of light alloys ensures a rapid evacuation of the
heat radiating from the combustion chamber. Oil jet cooling is used for this purpose. A nozzle
mounted on cylinder block aims a continuous jet towards an opening drilled in the piston, which
emerges under the combustion chamber. After cooling the piston bottom walls, the oil is thrown
toward an opening situated above the small end of the connecting rod, thus ensuring abundant
lubrication of the bushing of the connecting rod small end bearing as well as the gudgeon pin.

Each cylinder is enclosed at its upper end by a separate cylinder heat of high tensile cast iron.
The heat bears on the flange of the cylinder liner, with an interposed super-soft steel gasket. Eight
chrome-molybdenum equally spaced around the liner hold it.

Two valves of ample dimensions are located in the head, one at each side of the boss of the
centrally situated liquid fuel injector. The inlet valve is made of chrome-molybdenum-silicon-
alloy steel, while the head of the exhaust valve is made of special heat-resistance steel, and has a
stellited seating face. The valve steams are treated to minimize wear in cast iron guides. These
are forced in on bores in the head and are also effectively cooled. The valves are carried on
inserted valve seat of special alloy steal. These are pressed fitted into recessed and are also
machined in the head. This design reduces the frequency of valve grinding and facilitates its
replacement.

Each valve is forced to its seat by three concentric rings. The springs are attached to the valve by
means of split collects engaging a conical face in the spring retaining plate and an annular groove
in the upper end of valve stem.

DISTRIBUTION

For each cylinder rod, distribution is ensured by means of a camshaft located in the cylinder
block. With V-type engines, the two camshafts are located toward the outer sides of the engine,
in order to facilitate access during maintenance operation. The camshafts are driven by a helical
gear system located in a casting fixed at the end opposite to the main power takeoff. The gear
train also drives the speed governor, the water pump, oil pumps and starting air distributor.

The valves are operated through roller cam followers, tubular push rods with ball and socket ends
including the rocker arms. The hollow push rods also serve conduct lubricating oil to the valve
gear carried on the cylinder head. Hydraulic tappet renders frequent adjustment of valve
clearance unnecessary.

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LUBRICATIONS

To gear pumps carry out the lubrication of oil engine. They are mounted below the cylinder
block; from that place they take suction. Part of the oil supplied by these pumps, feeds the nozzle
provided for piston cooling (Only with certain types of supercharging turbo-compressors
independent oil splash is used).

The oil pressure is regulated by a series of calibrated valves; the pumps are designed to provide
an oil supply considerably greater than the requirement for lubrication and piston cooling. The
excess oil released by the series of calibrated valves is returned to the oil cooler. Safety valve
incorporated in the bodies of the oil pumps avoid the occurrence of excessive pressure due to
high viscosity when starting.

## OIL FILTRATION AND DRAINING

To ensure efficient oil filtration, two filters are arranged in the series in the main lubrication
circuit of the engine.

The oil may be moved by means of priming electric pump mounted on the engine without
withdrawing the drain plug below the crankcase. This pump is also used to prime the oil circuit
before starting the engine. The preliminary priming is absolutely essential in order that the
hydraulic devices may take up the valve clearances.

## COOLING WATER PUMPS

The cooling water pumps are operated by drive take-offs arranged on the timing case.
They are centrifugal pumps with shaft carried in ball bearings, and require periodic lubrication.

One pump (which is said high temperature water pump) serves each bank of cylinder bores,
heads and turbo charger. A supplementary pump supplies the water (low temperature water
pump) to cool the lubricating oil (lube oil cooler).

INJECTION PUMPS

The cams situated on the main camshaft driving the valves drive the individual pumps.

The movement is transferred from the cam to the pump by means of a balancing arm and a
sliding piece, which are both mounted so as to prevent positively any leakage of fuel falling into
the oil pan of the engine.

The rotating movement of the plunger pistons, the ramps of which open the suction port during a
longer or a shorter period, according to their angular position, control the pump delivery. Hollow
toothed racks drive the rotation of the plunger pistons.

Inside this rack, a special device links the tooth rack to the driving arm, and that is done in quite
and determined position, but in such a manner that any abnormal stress acting on the control
device results in disengaging the toothed rack. When this disengagement has taken place, a spring
puts the rack back into stop position. This device prevents a general blocking of the injection

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control unit, due to accidental damage on a pump. At the same time, it is possible, owing to this
device, to cut off Diesel operating supply to one cylinder and to keep the engine running. By this
way we can operate the engine on reduced load to meet an emergency.

The control of the advance in injection is obtained by displacing the cap type screw which is
mounted on the balancing arm which drives the sliding piece by means of a double ball-swivel.

INJECTORS

The injectors are of the automatic needle multiple-hole type. The needle is lifted when the
pressure in the pipe from the pump to the injector overcomes the spring, which has held the
needle on the seat. When the needle is being lifted the fuel is injected into the combustion
chamber by the way of several small-diameter holes. At the outlet of these holes the spray breaks
up and the finally atomized fuel is dispersed in the combustion chamber.

SUPERCHARGING

To increase the engine power, the cylinder charging must be pressurized in order to provide a
large amount of air needed for the combustion of additional fuel.

The turbo blower consisting of a centrifugal blower and a gas turbine moved by exhaust gases
does supercharging. Air intercoolers are provided in order to increase the output without
increasing the thermal load.

According to the design type, turbo charger rotors rotate on ball roller bearing or on shell type
bearings. In the first case the lubrication is independent from the engine oil-circuit, in the second
case the bearings are lubricated by an diversion on the engine main oil circuit.

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To meet emergency MG 702 remains on “Auto” mode. In case of failure of normal supply it
furnishes 6.3 KV supply to the busbar ‘E’ which is emergency busbar. (Detail will be discussed
later on)

Now we shall discuss different circuits, which are the requirement of the diesel generator.
(Some detail of the parts will also be discussed)

## These circuits include:

(1) Fuel supply system i.e. fuel oil circuit.
(2) Combustion air intake and exhaust system.
(3) Cylinders & highly hot parts cooling system i.e. hot temperature water
(HTW) system.
(4) Low temperature water (LTW) system.
(5) Lubricating system.
(6) Initial starting system.
(7) Engine shutdown system.

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## DIESEL ENGINE FUEL

Diesel engine fuels consist of longer chain-hydrocarbons than petrol or gas engine fuel. Diesel oil
has higher calorific valve than gasoline. The main characteristics of diesel engine fuel are that it
should easily ignite below compression temperature. There should be as short an indication lag as
possible. This mean it is essential that the hydrocarbons molecules in a diesel fuel should be as
far as possible the straight chains ones, with a minimum admixture of aromatic and side-chain
hydrocarbons molecules.

The suitability of a diesel fuel is determined by its “Cetane Number”. This number indicated the
ease with fuel ignites when injected.

Cetane number or valve is the %age of hexadecane in a mixture of hexadecane and two –
methylnaphthalene that has the same ignition characteristic as the diesel fuel oil in question.
The Cetane number of a diesel fuel an be raised by the addition of small quantity of certain
“pre ignition dopes like ethyl nitrate, iso-amyl nitrate, acetone peroxide etc

The usual diesel engine fuel is diesel oil or gas oil, a fraction obtained between 250 to 320 deg: C
during the fractional distillation of crude petroleum. This oil generally contains 85% C, 12%H.
Its calorific value is about 11000 k.cal/kg.
Suitable “Cetane numbers of diesel oil are as:
High speed diesel (HSD) >50
Low speed diesel (LSD) 35

## FUEL FIRING IN DIESEL GENERATOR (MG-702):

Diesel oil is stored in a storage vessel having 3000 liters capacity. Normally it works as day tank.
Actually fuel is moved form 09-area main storage tank according to the requirements. The day
tank is horizontal cylindrical having its both sides spherical. A bent type vent tube, a capped hole
(for dip rod), tubes connections for capacity for capacity measurement gauge, outlet line, drains
line and return lines connections are done. Valves on suitable points are also provided.

When the diesel engine is started (with starting air) fuel oil is pumped by a pinion gear pump
which is driven by the engines main shaft. A manual hand pump is provided in between the tank
and the shaft driven pump. This manual pump is used for priming, removal of air etc. After the
shaft driven pump, the fuel oil leads to the filters from where it is fed to the pressure regulator
and injectors. If its pressure exceeds more than 02 kgs/cm sq.then the excess oil is automatically
fed to the fuel tank. A ball valve and a line mounted on the fuel filters serves the purpose.

The fuel is injected into the cylinders as an atomized spray by means of injectors consisting of
injector valve and injector holder. Both parts are being matched and form a compact assembly.

The injector valve serves the purpose of spraying the fuel into the cylinder, where there is already
hot air under high pressure. It is made up of the two component parts. The spray tip and the
needle.

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The injectors holder serves to convey the fuel toward the injector valve, to set the so called
“calibration pressure” , to drain “of” the fuel leaks from the injector valve.

The injector valve ,fastened by means of the nut and injector holder body are ground and lapped
in-in order to ensure fuel tight sealing.

The jam nut locks the calibrating screw, the calibrating spring, and the push rod.

The top nut and gasket to which the leak returns tubulature should be connected.

## WORKING OF THE INJECTOR

The fuel flows through injector holder into the circular grooves, then through the hole into the
chamber. The seat of the needle of spray tips opturates the outlet opening. Consisting of a plurity
of capillary holes. This seat must be perfectly tight in order that the residual pressure (below the
calibration pressure) in the chamber does not cause drip.

When the pressure of the fuel delivered a right time by the injection pump exceeds the calibration
pressure by a small amount, the injector needle gets lifted, compressing the calibrating spring
with its stem, through the push rod.

The aim of the control linkage is to transmit without lash the control motions producing from the
governor, simultaneously to the injection pumps control rack rod. In this way injection pumps
delivery is always proportional to the angular position of the governor control shaft.
The governor fitted at timing gear end, of the engine transmits the governing motion by its
control shaft to the flexible link rods of the injectors pump in succession by the following parts.
The set of levers, the transverse shaft, the side shaft.

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FUEL DISTRIBUTION

The fuel is injected into the cylinders as an atomised spray by means of the injector
consisting of the injector valve and the injector holder both parts being matched and
forming a completed assembly.
a) The injector valve services the purpose of spraying the fuel into the cylinder, where
there sis already hot air under a high pressure.
It is made up of the two component parts the spray tip-B and the needle A.
b) The Injector Holder serves to convey the fuel toward the injector valve to set the so
called “Calibration Pressure” to drain off the fuel leaks from the injector valve.
The injector holder comprises a body on which the following parts are fitted.
The injector valve, fastened by means of the nut, The bearing surfaces between the
injector valve, nut and injector holder body are ground and tapped in-in order to ensure
fuel light sealing.
The calibration screen, the calibring spring, and the push rod, locked by the jam nut.
The top nut, and gasket, to which the leak return tablature shall be connected.

The control linkage aim is to transmit whit out lash the control motions proceeding
governor, simultaneously to the injection pumps control rack rod. In this way the injection
pump delivery is always protional to the angular position of the governor control shaft.
The governor (1) fitted at the timing gear end of the engine transmits the governing
motions by its control shaft (2) to the flexible link rod (3) That motion is applied to the
rack rods (10) of the injection pumps (11) in succession by the following parts.
- The set of leavers (4) (7) and (8)
- The transverse shaft (6)
- The side shaft (5)
The side shafts (5) are supported by plain bearings fastened shaft (6) goes through the
liming gear casing and is supported by two ball bearings nested outside the timing gear
casing. The oil tightness to the casing. The angular stroke of the shafts (5) is limited on
one side by the stop screen (14) and on other side by the load limiting screen (15).

## WORKING OF THE INJECTOR

The fuel flows through the injector holder into the circular governor, then through the hole
(v) into the chamber (v), into the chamber (v), the seat (s) of the needle on spring tip
opturates the outlet opening, consisting of a plurality of capillary holes.
This seat (s) must absolutely be perfectly pressure light in order that the residual pressure
(below the calibration pressure) in the chamber (v) does not cause the injector valve to
trip.
When the pressure of the fuel delivered at the right time by the injection pump exceed the
calibration pressure by a small amount the injector needle gets lifted compressing the
calibrating spring with its steam, through the push rod.

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ROCKER SYSTEM

The oil issuing from the lowest seat of the push rod ball joint riser into the hollow push
rod and reaches then the upper ball joint owing to severed drillings machined in the
adjusting screen and in the rocker it self the oil is directed to the rocker axle and to the
rocker end in which is cold inserted the ball joint seat of the hydraulic near compare
seating device. The in flow of the oil under pressure into the hydraulic compensating
device is controlled through a ball valve. The excess oil falls by gravity along the valve
steams ensuring the valve guides, the valve springs and valve seats lubrication.
The flexible link rod (3) allows to bring the rock rods on stop

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The side shafts are supported by plain bearings, fastened to the cylinder block. The transverse
shaft goes through the timing gear casing and is supported by two ball bearings, nested outside
the timing gear casing. Two sleeves fastened to the casing provide the oil tightness. The angular
stroke of the shaft is limited on one side by the stop screw and on the other side by the load
limiting screw. The flexible link rod allows bringing the rack rod on ‘stop’ to stop the engine;
even when the governor control lever is set on full injection. The engine can be stopped either by
hand or mechanically.

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## (2) COMBUSTION AIR INTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM

It consists of pipes for the supply of air an exhaust of the gases. Filters are provided to remove
dust etc. In the exhaust system flame arrestor and sometimes silencer are provided. The duties of
intake system are as follows:

## (1) To clean the intake air intake supply.

(2) To silence the intake air.
(3) To supply air for super charging..

The intake air must cause a minimum pressure loss to avoid reducing engine capacity and raising
the specific fuel consumption. Filters must be cleaned periodically to prevent pressure
loss form clogging.

The air is provided to the engine by the force of turbo charger / super charger. Turbo
charger/supercharger is basically a gas turbine machine, which operates on hot exhaust gases
exiting from the cylinders to the turbo charger and then toward stack.On the same shaft a
centrifugal blower is fitted to suck intake air and then it discharges it to the engine. Increasing the
overlap between the intake valve openings could do this and exhaust valve closing__say to about
140 deg. In this interval when both valves are open, pressurized air sweeps out combustion
products remaining at the end of exhaust stroke and cools cylinder wall, piston and valves_ to
permit this intake pressure must be significantly higher than exhaust pressure which is done by
special engineering techniques (which is not topic of this text).

To increase the engine power, the cylinder charging must be pressurized in order to provide a
larger amount of air needed for the combustion of additional fuel.

Air intercoolers are provided in order to deliver the supercharged air after the blower in order to
increase the output without increasing the thermal load.

According to the design, turbo blower rotor rotates on ball roller bearings. The bearings
lubrication is a diversion of the engines main lube oil circuit.

The air required for the diesel engine passes through combined filter/silencer. This contains oil
(SHELL RIMULA 30) bath for the removal of dirt. The dust is trapped in this oil. Then the turbo
charger centrifugal blower sucks cleaned air.------ A portion with heat insulating inter space
separates the air chamber form other chamber. Sealing air for the labyrinth glands of turbine rotor
is obtained from the blower. This prevents exhaust gases from entering the balance chamber or
the bearing housing. After the blower the combustion air is directed to LTW coolers for cooling.
Two coolers are provided. Each one is for a set of eight cylinders. Cold air has higher density
than hot air. It is why tripping of the engine is effected at 70 deg: C combustion air’s entry in the
cylinders. At this temperature air becomes too much less denser. The low-density air is then led
to the inlet main fold and distributed in 16 lines, which then enters the cylinders for combustion.

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(3) Cylinders & Highly hot parts Colling System i.e. Hot
Temperature water (HTW) system.

If there was no system provided to cool the cylinders: the cylinders temperature could reach up to
1600 to 2000 deg: C. At this temperature whole cylinders can burst or melt and further working
of the engine becomes impossible. In the cylinder after compression, temperature reaches near to
600 deg C then explosion mixture explodes. It is obvious that very low pressure of the cylinders
will not keep the system in working order. Water is provided for cylinders cooling purpose. At
100 deg C water becomes steam, so nearly at 95 deg C of water temperature, it is necessary to
shut down the engine. Below 50deg C water temperature in also unsafe. Water’s specific heat is
one, so it has better heat extraction capacity. One problem again rises. By this way we have to
charge continuous water, while the diesel generators are designed for emergency purposes. So
hot water is further cooled with fans. However there are expansion tanks made to compensate the
lost water.

Hot temperature water (HTW) cooling system: It is also said jacket water. In this system demin
water is used for the cooling purpose. RD 11 chemical (It contains sodium nitrite and some
additives) is used for to avoid corrosion. It keeps pH of water near to 10. Its strength is
maintained at 2.25 ppm. HTW cools cylinders block, cylinders liners, cylinder heads and turbo
charger casing. HTW temperature is kept 55 to 70deg C.

Initially (hen engine is in stop position) demin water is filled in HTW tank (expansion tank) and
the motor driven pump is started. HTW heater is also taken in service. HTW keeps above said
equipments warm. Warming temperature is 45 to 50 deg C. whenever the engine is being started
(on ‘Auto’ or “Manual”)the HTW motor driven pump and heater becomes off on ‘Auto and vice
versa. Later on the HTW is circulated by the engine’s own shaft driven pump.

The treated water from the discharge of its circulation pump is fed to cylinder blocks, cylinder
heads and casing of the turbo charger. The return water is passed through radiator fans and then
returns to the circulation pump’s circulation points. These fans (two in number) come in service
when temperature of return water becomes 76 deg C. at that moment thermostatic valve on HTW
return line operates and hydrostatic oil system come in service. This system operates the fans.

Cylinder blocks liners cooling: The pump delivery connected to a longitudinal cast in duct
located in the upper part of the cylinder block for the V-type and then in liner type in the side
opposite to the injection pump. The connection is being made on timing gear end. The
longitudinal duct communicates with chamber formed by hollow space inside the cylinder block
between upper ad lower liner centering bores.
Cylinder heads cooling: Around the periphery upper liner centering bores, the serval water
parts are machined for distribution to cylinder heads. Inside the cylinder heads there are cavities
and baffles to ensure the optimum floe in critical location i.e. injection nozzle passage, cylinder
head bottom and valve guider, for improving heat transfer.

Turbo charger cooling: A tapping from the main duct is extracted to feed the HTW to the
turbo charger where it cools flue gas – inlet casing and intake air casing. HTW then returns to the
general circuit.

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Cooling equipment for HTW&LTW cooling (radiator fans): This system comprises of radiator
fans (two in numbers), the blowing air finned elements, hydrostatic oil tank hydrostatic oil pump,
hydrostatic motor oil coolers, controller (regular).

Prime movers of radiator fans are hydrostatic oil (HO) motors (These are hydraulic turbines
which are driven by pressurized HO). The pump is driven by engine’s shaft driven pump. The
pump takes suction from the hydrostatic oil tank which has the capacity of 36φ liters, and is
pressurized up to 220 bars; and is fed either toward the driving motor or back to the tank
depending upon the signal of the controller (regulator). The leakage oil of the oil pump and the
fan driving motors assures lubrication. By this way no special maintenance is needed.

The fans speed is controlled by the controller valve, which depends upon the cooling water
temperature (HTW). The regulator of the hydrostatic oil unit evaluates the pressurized oil
quantity to feed into the driving motor so as to match the motor speed. Consequently the fans
speed is adjusted according to cooling requirements. Maximum speed of the fans, is 1200 rpm.

The fans regulator is mounted on HTW pipes connecting ‘engine’ outlet to cooling entry.
The thermostatic element of the regulator is placed in such a manner that its lower part remains
immersed in the HTW cooling basin. So it remains able to send impulses due to HTW
temperature variation to the regulator operating system. The latter is situated between the oil pipe
under pressure and return pipe carrying oil back to tank.

If HTW is cool, the pressurized oil fed by pump flows directly through control opening of return
pipe to tank via oil cooler, cooled by atmospheric air. In case of cooling water is hot the
thermostatic element will push the operating system to cl9se more and more. By this way
controller lead the hydrostatic oil to the motors and less oil will return to the oil tank. The will
cause an increase in rate of flow in the pressure pipe and so motors and ultimately fans speed will
increase. The fans running with higher speed will increase cooling rate of HTW & LTW. Again
reverse action will take place due to low temperature of the water and a stage will come when oil
pressure will become constant and water temperature will also become constant.

Just like HTW some radiators are used for LTW but control is done only with HTW
controller/regulator

## Here are some parameters etc connecting to LTW & HTW

During stand still when HTW pump stops, and when only heater stops, the pump remains
running.

## Material of the radiators: Copper

Maximum speed of the fans: 1200 r p m

## HTW high engine trip: 95 deg C

HTW high temperature alarm (during running): 85 deg C

UTILITIES UNIT
Mirpur Mathelo

## HTW operating temperature (during running): 55 to 76 deg C

Thermostatic valve’s opening (during running): 75+2=76 normally
HTW heater cut ‘in’ (stand still condition): 45 deg C 47 deg C (Last setting)
HTW heating cut”off” (satnd still condition):50 deg C 50deg C(Last setting)
HTW pre heating fault (stand still condition) &pump stop: 39 deg C
HTW pressure during running: 2.2kgs/cm sq
HTW low-pressure trip: 0.65 bar
HTW low level alarm: 70 %
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## Low temperature water (LTW) cooling system

LTW system is provided for intake air-cooling system and then to cool lube oil.
Temperature of this water remains 45 to 55 deg C during running.

Same quality of water is used for this purpose as stated for HTW. Its expansion tank is also same
just like HTW. LTW is only circulated during running of the engine.

LTW pump is driven by the engine’s shaft First water is fed to the intake air coolers.
Two coolers are provided (each for 08 cylinders). Then the same water is fed to the lube oil
cooler. Due to exchange of heat the water becomes hot, and then it is fed to the radiators for re-
cooling. Inner side radiators (3 for each fan) are for LTW. No controller (regulator) for
temperature control is provided. Temperature control is only done by HTW controller (regulator).
RD.11 chemical is used as corrosion inhabitor. Its strength is maintained at 2.25 ppm.

UTILITIES UNIT
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## LTW pressure during running: 1.7 to 1.8 bars

LTW temperature during running: 45 to 55 deg C
LTW low level indication & alarm: 70%
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## (5) Lubrication System

Frictional forces causes wear and tear of rubbing parts of the engine and thereby its life is
reduced. This requires that some substance should be introduced between them. Such substance
is called lubricant. The lubricant forms a thin film between the rubbing surfaces and prevents
metal-to-metal contact. Moreover the lube oil gets heated because of friction of moving parts and
should be cooled before re-circulation. The functions of good lubricants are as follows:
(i) It reduces wear and tear of various moving parts by minimizing the friction
and ensures smooth running of parts.
I. It helps the piston ring to seal the gases in cylinder.
II. It removes the heat generated due to friction and keeps the parts cool.

Sheel rimula 30 oil is used for lubrication purpose, -------Lube oil from its sump is pressurized to
about 07-kegs/cm sq by & it is cooled in lube oil cooler by low temperature water (LTW). Any
dirt or foreign material is filtered by filter. Two filters are provided which are connected in
parallel through a change over device so that each one can be taken in service. This oil will then
be used for lubrication of various parts and then return to the sump. A pressure relief valve is
provided in case of high pressure, which releases the excess pressure by draining the excess oil; it
operates through spring-loaded plug acted upon by oil before filter.

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Centrifuge is also provided for the cleaning of oil by removing water and dirt. The pressure of the
lube oil operates it
Two gear pumps carry out the lubrication. They suck oil from the oil sump. The sump is situated
below the cylinder block. An electric motor driven pump is also provided for pre-lubrication of
engine parts in case of stand still of engine. It must remain in running whenever engine is in stop
condition. When engine is stopped, it automatically cuts ‘in’ and cuts ‘off’ when engine is started
(whatever is its mode). A manual pump is also provided if electric pump fails to work. An
electric heater is also provided which automatically cuts ‘in’ due to low temperature of lube oil
whenever it is in stand still condition and also cut ‘off’ due to high temperature of lube oil
whenever it is in stand still condition and also cut ‘off’ due to high temperature of lube oil or
engine is running.

Thermostatic valve: During running the oil is cooled by LTW cooler. The temperature of lube oil
is controlled by thermostatic valve, which bypass the LTW cooler and feeds some or whole oil
directly or through the cooler.

The oil pumps are being mounted outside the oil sump, the lube oil enters the cylinder block
through one of the four transversal cast in ducts located at both ends of the cylinder block and are
connected to the median cast in oil gallery; which is located under the cooling water duct, in the
longitudinal axis of the engine.

## The following parts are lubricated.

Main bearing: Through passages drilled at each bearing and connected to the median gallery.

Oil spray nozzle for piston cooling: Directly connected to the median oil gallery though an
intermediary part.

Timing gear: The upper intermediary gear supports are directly located on the transverse ducts.
The lower intermediary gear supports for oil pumps and motion take___off are
fitted on a support plate. The lubrication is made through external ducts connected to an oil-
distributing flange and to the pinion supports.
Two nozzles mounted on the oil-distributing flange lubricate the teeth.

## Camshaft on articulated rod side:

A connecting flange fastened to the outside of the cylinder block on the opening of the
transversal ducts at the flywheel end leads the oil toward the hollow shaft on which the roller
supporting levers are journalized and which is subdivided into three sections with a hole bored in
the middle of each of these sections and corresponding to a same housing bore. The three
sections of the hollow shaft are spaced apart and form between them oil chambers registering
with drilled holes for communication between the hollow shaft and the camshaft. As the housing
bores of the hollow shaft and the camshaft are connected by drilled holes; the oil is supplied to
the camshaft by the hollow shaft.

Camshaft on master rod side: The oil is conveyed in the same way by a connecting flange; but the
oil delivery pipe is directly connected to this flange.

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Roller supporting levers: Two holes are drilled 180 deg apart in the hollow shaft in coincidence
with the location of each roller-supporting lever, duct oil to the bushing of the roller-supporting
lever.

In the swing are machined 3 holes, which distribute the oil to the roller axle floating bushing and
likely to the seat of the push rod ball joint.

Swing levers and pump pushers: The injection control swinging levers are being mounted on
the roller supporting levers axles. Their lubrication principle is same as for roller supporting
levers. A supplementary longitudinal drilling directs oil to the lower seat of the ball joint of the
pump control connecting member, which is hollow as to duct oil up to the upper ball joint seat.

Racker System: The oil issuing from the lower seat of push rod ball joint rises into the
hollow push rod and then reaches the upper ball joint. Owing to several drillings machined in the
adjusting screw and the rocker itself, the oil is directed to the rocker axle and to the rocker end in
which in mounted the cold inserted ball joint seat of hydraulic wear compensating device. The
inflow of the oil under pressure into the hydraulic compensating device is controlled through a
ball valve. The excess oil falls by gravity along the valve stem ensuring the valve guides, valve
springs and valve seat’s lubrication.

Piston cooling by lubrication: The pistons are cooled by lube oil under pressure directed by
the oil nozzles in the piston skirt, which is machine, drilled. This drilling opens in a hollow space
located under the combustion chamber.

Lubrication of upper and lower ends of the connecting rods (Master and articulated ones):
The upper end are lubricated with oil taken from the annular chamber of the pistons:
which follows into a supply cavity provided in the external surface of the upper ends.

## Capacity of the oil sump: 400 liters

Lube oil pressure during running: Before filter=6.4 kgs / cm sq / approx
After filter=5.8kgs/cm sq- approx
Lube oil low pressure: Alarm = 5.0 kgs/cm sq
Trip = 405 kgs/cm sq
Lube temperature during running = 55 to 65 deg C
Lube low flow alarm & trip = zero flow
Lube oil heater cut’ in’ (stand still condition): 40 deg C
Lube oil heater cut’ off’ (stand still condition): 50 deg C
Lube oil cooler thermostat cut ‘in’ (during running): 55 deg C
Pre-lubricating fault: At stand still condition motor pump stopped.

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## (6) Initial Starting System

As stated before to start a 4-stroke diesel engine 1st suction and then compression strokes are
required. Without spending any initial power these strokes are not possible. Low capacity engines
are started with D.C operated motor, which is operated by the battery or set of batteries. It is also
called ‘self’ start. Heavy duty diesel engines are started with high pressure stored compressed air.
Start up system consist either air turbine, which is mounted at the main shaft near the flywheel or
applying air pressure to half its cylinders at the suction point. This pressure causes all the
cylinder pistons to dance accordingly. By this way fuel is charged in some cylinders and firing
becomes initiated. Speed gradually rises and at a prescribed speed, air supply becomes cut ‘off’.
Latter on engine’s speed rises according the fuel signals of the governor.

Here for the diesel generator 40-kgs/cm sq air pressure is used for to start the engine.

Three air compressor are provided to make up the starting air pressure. Two compressors are
electric motor driven; in which one is heavy duty, while the third one is petrol engine driven. The
petrol driven compressor is used in case of total power failure. Compressed air having 40-kgs/cm
sq pressure is stored in two cylindrical and vertical vessels. An instrument airline having 5-
kgs/cm sq pressure is extracted for the engine’s instruments. Another such line is also provided
for main instrument header for further security. Stored higher pressure iar in the vessels is
capable for three starts up trials.

As stated before 40 kg /cm sq pressure air is provided for start up. This air is fed to the distributor
which distributes it to the master rod side eight cylinders. A cock valve (which normally remain
open). And an air filter is provided on the line. A pneumatic valve (No: 13 on the drawing) is
provided up stream to the aforesaid equipments, which receives actual start up signal. A
lubricator is provided on the upstream of the pneumatic valve. When pneumatic signal is given to
the No: 13-valve high pressure air is fed to the cylinders, which compels pistons to dance.

Up stream the pneumatic valve a 40-kgs/cm sq airline is extracted for the governor’s booster. It
boosts up governor’s speed simultaneously.

Engine can be started by two ways i.e. from pneumatic panel or start switch.

ACTION: (I) Push button ‘start’ on SOV. Reset over speed signal if it is displaying.
During a time-lapse д T2 (it can 0 to 60 seconds, seconds operation is better).
# Starting air valve will open.
# Injection rack by the ram will be unlocked.

If during the time д T2 the pressure of the safety devices appears: then # Starting
air valve will get closed.
# Manametric switch P.4 ‘Engine running’ will be pressurized, and the injection
racks (ref 10) will become and remain pressurized.

If due to any reason the engine does not start the following happenings/indications
will appear.
# Closing of the starting air valve.

UTILITIES UNIT
Mirpur Mathelo

## # Locking of the racks of the ram ref: 10

# Display starting failure by signal appearing on the desk.
# Remote display ‘starting failure’ by signal appearing on the desk.
# Display of the fault which has caused starting failure.
# If have forgotten to reset ‘over speed trip’ indication ‘ over speed’ will also
appear.

## 2ND ATTEMPT FOR START

It is possible you have depressed the push button ‘stop’ .It means you have acknowledged.

Restarting the engine will not be possible until the operator will have depressed the push button
‘local shutdown’ on the desk’. This action will delete the displayed fault.

ACTION (2) Operate E.V .1 from the pneumatic panel. Engine will start by the same way as
stated before.

## Connect jumper to the terminals 11 & 8.

Connect jumper-out put terminal 2 of ‘start button’ to out put terminal 9.

When start up signal is provided (either ‘Manual’ or ‘Auto’). We actually energize a solenoid.
Which energize solenoid EV 1. This signal is later shifted to the starting solenoid (D.I). And
finally it opens the pneumatic valve No:-13. Ultimately engine’s speed increases up to 70 rmp,
then fuel solenoid No: D.2 becomes ‘on’ and the solenoid D.1 becomes off . Now pneumatic
valve no: 13 has closed and ‘quick release valve’ has opened. This ‘quick valve’ operates the
lever’ injector full rack’. Now governor start feeding fuel to the injector through rocker arm
signal.
By operating from the pneumatic panel, start up solenoid is bypassed and signal is directly
shifted to E.V .I.

Normally governor is set on 1000 rmp. Within 8 seconds speed of the engine rises to 1000 rmp.
Later on fuel is regulated and the speed is controlled according to the demand of the load. Due to
load increment speed drops a little bit, which is manually regulated the speed adjustment device.
Small fluctuations in speed are automatically adjusted.

## WATCHING DURING OPERARTION

AFTER STARTING
# Let the engine warm up-running idle, until the lube oil temperature reaches 30
deg C.
# Cheek if the water pump of the cooling circuits are properly primed; below off (if
needed.)
# Check that the lube oil pressure gauge reads at least 03 bars.
# Load the engine gradually until the temperature of the lube oil reaches to 40 deg
C.

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DURING RUNNING

# Check that the engine is warmed and is running at rate speed. The following
temperature and pressure must be checked up.
# Oil pressure after strainer should be 6 to 6.5 bars.
# Oil pressure on cam bar should be 3 bars minimum
# Oil temperature entering the engine should be 70 deg maximum.
# Temperature of the HTW leaving the engine should be 80 deg C maximum.
# Temperature of the LTW should be 45 deg C minimum.
# Do not load the engine until outlet temperature of LTW outlet reaches to 55 deg.

ABNORMAL NOISE

## A regular sharp clatter may originate from:

# The valves (broken spring, broken tappet or excessive valve lash).
# The excessive backlash of the upper ends of the connecting rods (master &
articulated).
# Seizing of any piston.
# An excessive play of piston pins etc.

Stop the engine at once and crank it with a bar. A piston seizing results in an
abnormal resistance.

## (7) Engine shut down system

Immediate closing the fuel supply valve does hut down. It suddenly cut off the fuel supply.

When we stop the engine form the control panel, we actually energize a solenoid. The signal is
shifted the solenoid EV.2, which finally cuts ‘off’ instrument air to ‘quick release valve’ the
effect is release of the holding spring and causes ‘injection full rack’ to close immediately.
Ultimately fuel becomes cut ‘off’.

Crankcase over pressure is operated through solenoid EV.3, which finally stops fuel supply in the
same above said procedure. Trip operation of other switches is stated onward.

## SHUTDOWN OPERATIONAL WAY IS AS:

(1) Operate the push button or SOV causes.
# Release air pressure from ref: 10
# Below off air circuit feeding the P4 monostatic switch.

## (2) Automatic shutdown can:

# Locking of the racks----- with.
# Pressure switch ‘engine running’ is being released.
# The signal corresponding to the triggered safety device is being displayed.
# With optional electrical remote monitoring action by ‘power cut off’.

UTILITIES UNIT
Mirpur Mathelo

## (3) To stop bypassing EV.2

# connect jumper between terminal No: 12 & 15.

## Security pressure switch on the pneumatic box has 3 functions.

i. For remote engine running indication.
ii. For stop of pre-lubrication & HTW pump.
iii. Operates P.4 security which opens the circuit breaker (CB.42.G2)
Either circuit breaker is already open; this security operates and is displayed by
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## DETAIL ABOUT TRIPS

LUBE OIL LOW PRESSURE (S.1): At 405 bar this trip operates .At this pressure lube oil
becomes in sufficient for the engine. Due to low pressure oil passing in the trip device becomes
unable to hold pneumatic air pressure and so contacts in the trip limit switch are closed. In the
panel M.2 relay is operated.

HTW LOW PRESSURE: (S.2):- At 0.65 bar this trip operates. At this pressure HTW cannot
control cylinders temperature. So it works like dual trip for HTW high temperature effect. Due to
low pressure, water passing in the trip device, cannot hold pneumatic air pressure and so contacts
in the trip limit switch are closed. In the panel M.1 relay is operated.

HTW OVER TEMPERATURE (S.3):- HTW over temperature trip operates at 95 deg C.
Operation above this temperature means that ater is near to boil. Later on it will escape from the
expansion tank’s vent. It means soon there will be no ater in the circuit. No: 5 contacts in the
device are closed. Pneumatic air is released from No: - 17 hole in the trip device. In the panel
R>S.2 switch is operated.

OVER SPEED (S.4):- If due to sudden cutting ‘off’ the load are any reason, which can be
wrong adjustment on the governor, this trip operate. At 1200 rpm a pin mounted in side the shaft
comes out side due to centrifugal force. It triggers the over speed lever, which ultimately causes
the limit, switch No: - 7 contacts to close. Pneumatic air is released from No: - 17 holes in the
trip device. In the panel R.S.I switch is operated.

CRANK CASE OVER PRESSURE (S.5): - At 60 m.m water column pressure, this trip
operates. Normally crankcase should operates at ordinary atmospheric pressure. It means no
external thrust is acting on it. Crankshaft is delicate equipment. It can break quickly no external
thrust. Pressure in the crankcase can be due to any leakage from the connecting rod glands tc. In
the trip device pneumatic air pressure causes to close the limit switch contacts. In the panel E.V.3
solenoid is operated.

SUPER CHARGED AIR HIGH TEMPERATURE 9S.6): - Trip operates at 70 deg C. At this
temperature combustion air has very low density and contains too less oxygen to maintain fuel air
ration. No: -6 contacts in the device are closed. Air is released from No: - 17 hole in the trip

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device. In the panel R.S.3 switch is operated. Air pressure causes to close the limit switch
contacts. In the panel E.V.3 solenoid is causes to close the limit switch contacts. In the panel
E.V.3 solenoid is operated.
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## P.1 Start refuses remote.

P.2 HTW over temperature 95 C
P.3 Turbo charger over temperature 70 C
P.4 Motor not running. (Generator fault or electric fault).
P.5 HTW no pressure. 65
P.6 Crank case over pressure. 60 mm
P.7 Over speed. 1200
P.8 Lube oil no pressure. 4.5

## SOME REMARKS CONCERNING TO STRAT UP TROUBES #

#(a) The triggering of the safety devices for over speed, water over temperature and air super
charging over temperature may be simulated by disconnecting the corresponding lines.

#(b) Since all safety devices are working by lack of air pressure or supply voltage. So in case
the engine is being stopped; if no fault is found in the sensor or on the cabinet, check whether the
line or wire between engine or cabinet is not cut off.

#(c) Before any intervention makes sure that the engine stoppage is not due to the air supply
cut off.

# (d) The checking as well as the replacement of components should be carried out in the above
stated sequential order.

# (e) The signal disposed on the pressure switch shows whether this switch is piloted.

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SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
(Actually system is pneumatic)

## (1) Start up signal given to EV. 1. (26), (25,), (25,,)

(2) Start up signal is proceeding to start up relay and then to SOVs D.I & D.II.
(3) SOV D.I is opening pneumatic air valve for 40kgs/cm sq starting air to master rod side
eight cylinders.
(4) Simultaneously SOV D.II is opening quick release valve for fuel (100%) and is initiating
governor. (Later on fuel is controlled by the governor according to load demand).
(5) An indication is proceeding to GCR (engine started)(18)
A signal is proceeding to trip pre-lubrication system & HTW pump.(19)

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
(Actually system is pneumatic)

## MG-702 START UP FAILED

After start up initiation I.e. dancing of 8 pistons of master rod with starting air, SOV DII receives
a feed back signal from other securities for normalization. At that moment D II remain energize
on two signals: - (a) signal form D I (B) feed back signal from other securities.

(1) After gaining 70rpm, A me relay starts and after 8 seconds start up relay gives signal to D
I to trip. This signal also proceeds to D II but it remains alive/energize on feed back signal
of the securities. Other wise it also trips. In the later case if D II trips due to signal of D I,
an indication ‘over speed’ also displays, with no start indication.
(2) After tripping pneumatic air will be released from starting air valve as well as quick
release valve (both). Pre-lube & HTW pumps will again start on AUTO.
(3) Fuel lever (F) will come to zero and fuel will become shut off.
(4) For reset purpose maintain starting air pressure and again press ‘stop’ push button on
pneumatic panel. This button should also be pressed to reset any trip indication which
have displayed on the pneumatic panel.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
(Actually system is pneumatic)

## MG-702 START UP SUCCEEDED

(1) 70rpm completion & seconds delay signal is provided to trip D I & D II.
(2) Starting air pneumatic valve has closed and its air has released.
(3) D II has gained satisfaction feed back signal from its securities.
(4) Governor has taken charge and is controlling the fuel according to load and speed.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM

UTILITIES UNIT
Mirpur Mathelo

## (1) Respective trip indication will display on the pneumatic panel.

(2) SOV D.II becomes de-energized.
(3) Quick release valve closes.
(4) Fuel (F) lever comes to zero.
(5) Pre-lube & HTW pumps will start on AUTO.
(6) Generator fault 86/2 indication will display. It will cause engine and generator to lock.
Said indication can be reset from S.S. 1.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
(Actually system is pneumatic)

## (1) SOV EV II is energized manually or by a signal from GCR either on AUTO or

MANUAL. SOV EVII can also be energized from pneumatic panel by operating push
button.
(2) EV II signal cuts the alive signal supply to D II and causes to trip the quick release valve.
(3) Fuel (F) lever comes to zero.
(4) Pre-lube & HTW pumps will start on AUTO.
(5) MOTOR fault indication will display.
(6) In GCR engine shutdown indication will display.
(7) If engine is stopped on pneumatic panel ‘on start’ indication will also display.
(8) On electrical fault 86 generator fault relay fault will also display, it will cause engine lock.
86 can be reset from S.S.1.

SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
(Actually system is pneumatic)

## (1) Trip will be initiated from E.V.III

(2) Respective trip indication will display on the pneumatic panel.
(3) SOV D.II becomes de-energized.
(4) Quick release valve closes.
(5) Fuel (F) lever comes to zero.
(6) Pre-lube & HTW pumps will start on AUTO.
(7) ‘Motor fault’ indication will display on this fault & other such tripping.
(8) Generator fault 86/2 indication will display. It will cause engine and generator to lock.
Said indication can be reset from S.S. 1.

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DETAIL OF DRAWINGS
Securities/switches etc

## 1= 1b=over 1c=HTW 1d= turbo 1e= If=low

1a=no 1g=l/p
Indication engine speed high charge air h/p pressure
start lube oil
shut down trip temp high temp c/case HTW
Switch box for
2’ 2a 2b 2c 2d 2e 2f 2g
indications
Trip signals
3’ 3a 3b 3c 3d 3e 3f 3g
receiving boxes
Transmitters for
back feed 4a 4b 4c 4d 4e 4f 4g 4h
signals
Trip
transmitters
------ 5a 5b 5c 5d 5e 5f 5g
mounted on the
engine

SOLENOIDS (SOV)

Start Start SOV in Stop Stop SOV in Starting air Quick opening Crankcase
SOV in pneumatic SOV in pneumatic valve opening fuel valve SOV over pressure
panel box panel box SOV trip SOV
EV 1’ EV 1’’ EV 2’ EV 2’’ DI D II EV 3

VALVES

Main D I signal Isolating valve for Isolating valve for Quick opening
isolating starting valve instrument air from instrument air to valve for fuel
valve main header pneumatic box
7a 7b 7c 7d 11

## EQUIPMENTS, SIGNALS ETC

Pneumatic
Fuel shut-off
starting relay booster Governor fuel shut-off Filter lubricator
device
valve
6 8 9 10 11 12 13
Air to Over speed
Pressure MG 702 started Indication
PRV PSV pneumatic signal on
gauge indication to GCR Motor fault
box local panel
14 15 16 16’ 17 18 18’
Pre-lube & Pre-lube & Stop signal
Stop signal Stop signal from
HTW pumps HTW pumps DI D II from local
form ‘Auto’. GCR
stopped started panel
19 19/ 20 21 22 23 24’
Stop signal Start signal
Start signal Start signal Initial start-
from from
from local form GCR or up failure --------- ------
pneumatic pneumatic
panel Auto signal
panel box
24’’ 25’ 25’’ 26 27 28 29

UTILITIES UNIT
Mirpur Mathelo

## WORKING OF THE GOVERNOR AND ITS PARTS

Make: - WOODWARD
Type No: - UG.8 Dial Governor
The governor of the diesel generator is hydraulic cum fly ball type.

## Its detail working procedure is as:-

OIL PUMP (10):-

The oil pump system is housed in the bottom of the contolet.The controlet is mounted directly to
the base. The oil pump system consists of two gears and four check valves. One gear is the part
of rotating and the other part is part of the laminated drive. The rotating bushing is driven by the
governor drive shaft, which is driven by the prime mover. As the bushing rotates it rotates the
laminated drive. The oil pump gears can be driven either CW or CCW.

Oil flow is directed through a check valve system into the accumulator system.
ACCUMULATOR (11):-

It consists two cylinders housed in the controlet. The accumulator consists of two spring-loaded
pistons. Oil is pumped into the cylinders and pressure is raised up to 120 psi by the accumulator
springs. Oil is released back to sump through a relief port in each cylinder. This stored pressure is
used later on to restore the system’s working. Oil flows from the accumulator through passages
(39) to the top of the power piston (9) and to the pilot valve (40) system.

## POWER PISTON (9)

The power piston is also housed in the controlet. It is differential type equipment. Oil pressure is
applied on both sides that are top and bottom side (as the case may be). The upper end of the
power piston is connected to the terminal (out put) shaft (18) through a power lever and link
assembly.

The bottom of the piston has a larger area than the top of the piston (as shown in the figure).
Therefore less oil pressure is required on the bottom, than the top to keep the piston stationary. If
the oil pressure is kept same on both sides, the piston will move upward to rotate the terminal
shaft and so will cause to increase the fuel. The piston moves downward only when oil under the
piston released to the sump.

Oil to and from the bottom of the power piston is regulated by the pilot valve (40) system.

## PILOT VALVE SYSTEM (40):-

The pilot valve system is housed in the controlet. It consists of the rotating bushing (mentioned
previously), and the pilot valve plunger. The bushing is rotated by the device shaft and through
rotation; friction between pilot valve and plunger is reduced. The pilot valve plunger (PVP) has a
control land that regulated oil flow through ports in bushing.

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When PVP is lowered high-pressure oil flows to the bottom of the piston, raising the power
piston. The high pressure on the top on the top of the piston forces the piston downward. When
the PVP is in the centered position the control land covers the control port (as shown in the
drawing), and there is no movement of the power piston.
The PVP movement is controlled by the ballhead through links 12 and 20.

The ballhead system consists of a ballhead (30), flyweights (27) speeder spring (28), thrust
bearing (29), speeder plug (33) and speeder rod (22). The ballhead is geared and is driven by the
laminated drive. The flyweights are attached to the ballhead with the pivot pins. A thrust bearing
rides on the toe of the flyweights. The speeder spring is held in position on the thrust bearing by
the speeder plug. As the ballhead rotates the flyweights pivot becomes outward due to centrifugal
force and they lift the rotary part upward by the lever force of their edges. At the same time
speeder spring is forcing the thrust bearing downward on the flyweight toes. This downward
force opposes the centrifugal force of the flyweights. Increasing the drive force increases the
centrifugal force. Compressing the speeder spring with speeder plug increases the down ward
force and in turn increases the governor speed setting. The prime mover must run faster to
produce a higher centrifugal force to overcome the speeder spring force and rebalance the
system.

Speeder spring force or speed setting is adjusted/controlled manually through the synchronizer
(speed) (25) adjusting knob. When the governor is equipped with a speed adjusting motor (37)
the speed setting may be controlled remotely from the control room or local panel.

COMPANSATING SYSTEM:-

The purpose of the compensation system is to fine control the fuel supply though rod (20). Two
pistons an actuating (1) and a receiving piston (3) along with a needle valve (2) forms the
compensating system.

The actuated piston is linked to the terminal shaft (18) by a compensating adjusting lever (20). A
pivot able fulcrum rides on the adjusting lever. Changing the adjusting position allows the
adjusting lever to control the amount of stroke available for the actuating compensating piston.

The receiving piston is connected through a floating lever (12) to the (PVP) pilot valve plunger
(40) and the speeder rod (20).

The needle valve (2) controls the flow of oil between the oil sump and the actuating piston along
with receiving piston.

Moving the actuating piston downward forces oil under the receiving piston. As the receiving
piston is forced upward, it lifts the PVP to close off the control port, which stops the flow of oil
the bottom of the power piston.

UTILITIES UNIT
Mirpur Mathelo

## LOAD LIMIT CONTROL:-

The purpose is to be fine adjust the fuel according the demand of the load.

The load limit control consists of an indicator disc (17) geared to the load limit rack (16). The
control knob is attached to the load limit cam (15). Load is limited mechanically by positioning
the load limit knob. When the load indicator reaches the preset point the PVP is lifted stopping
any further increase of fuel.

Prime mover shutdown is possible by turning the control limit to zero. This turns the cam,
forcing the load limit lever and shutdown strap downward. As right end of the load limit
shutdown lever is forced downward it pivots about its fulcrum and lifts the PVP by
releasing the oil from under the power servo. CAUTION:- DO NOT MANUALLY FORCE
PRIME MOVER LINKAGE TO INCREASE FUEL WITHOUT FIRST POSITION (NO
10 ON THE SCALE).

SYNCHRONIZER:-

The synchronizer is the speed adjusting control and is used to change engine speed for a single
unit. If engine is paralleled with other generators/machine, it is used to change engine load. The
upper knob, SYNOCHRONIZER’ (25) is the control knob while the lower knob; ‘SYN TURNS
INDICATOR’ (26) indicates the numbers of revolutions of the synchronizer control knob.
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SPEED DROOP

Speed droop consists of a control knob, cam (36) and linkage (35) , which can preset, varies the
compression of the speeder spring (28) as the terminal shaft rotates. Increasing the fuel reduces
speeder spring compression and in turn the governor speed setting. The unit gradually reduces its
speed as loads is applied. This relationship between load and speed acts as a resistance to load
changes when the unit is interconnected with other units either mechanically or electrically.

Setting the speed droop automatically divides and balances between prime mover that drives the
same shaft or is paralleled in an electrical system.

Reducing droop to zero allows unit to change load without changing speed. Normally, zero
setting is done on the engines running alone. On interconnected units, se the least amount of
droop possible to provide satisfactory load division.
For alternating current units tied in with other units set droop sufficiently high (30 to 50 on dial)
to prevent interchange of load between units. If one unit in the system has enough capacity, set its
governor on zero droop and it will regulate the frequency of the prime mover system. If its
capacity is not exceeded this unit will handle all load changes.

Operate the, ‘SYNCHRONIZER’ (25) of the governor with zero droop, to adjust the system
frequency. Operate the ‘Synchronizers’ (25) of the governors that have speed droop system to
distribute load between units.

UTILITIES UNIT
Mirpur Mathelo

## (1) DECREASE IN LOAD:-

Assume the prime mover is running on load; i.e. the control land of the PVP is centered over the
control port of the rotating bushing. The flyweights are in a vertical position for normal steady
state operation.

A reduction in load causes an increase in speed. As speed increases the centrifugal force of the
flyweight increase, overcoming the opposing speeder spring (28) force. The flyweight’s tips
move outward, causing to raise the speeder rod and the right hand end of the floating lever (12).
This raises the PVP, by dumping oil from under the power piston. As the power piston moves
downward the terminal shaft (18) is rotated in the decrease fuel direction.

As the power piston moves downward the actuating compensating piston (1) moves upward. This
applies suction to the small receiving compensating piston (3) pulling it downward. The left hand
of the floating lever (12) is pulled down forcing the PVP downward and closing off the control
port. The compensation system in essence, anticipates the amount of fuel required to accept the
new load changes. The amount of movement (compensation) of the actuating compensation
piston is controlled by the compensation adjustment and fulcrum.

The terminal shaft and power piston’s movement is stopped in the new decreased fuel position
required to run the prime mover at normal speed with the decrease in load.

As oil dissipates through the needle valve from the compensation system, the receiving
compensation piston is returned to normal at the same rate as the speeder rod. This keeps the PVP
in its centered position.

Again, assume prime mover is running on speed. The PVP is centered and the flyweights are in
vertical position.

An increase in load will cause decrease in speed and also decrease in centrifugal force of the
flyweights. Which will allow them to tip inward and they will decrease the upward force on the
speeder spring (28). The speeder spring will force the speeder rod downward (20). Ultimately
PVP will come down. Pressurizes oil will be released through the control port into the lower
cylinder of the power piston.

The power piston (9) will be forced upward by the pressurized oil acting on the lower surface
area of the power piston. The terminal shaft (18) will be rotated in the fuel increase direction. ----
---Linkage from the output shaft lifts the compensation-adjusting ever, which pivots at the
fulcrum pushing down on the actuating compensation piston. Oil is forced in the chamber of the
small receiving compensation piston, raising the floating lever and in turn the PVP.

When correctly adjusted the compensation system effectively anticipates the amount of fuel
necessary to bring the engine up to the proper output to accept the increased load.

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The PVP is again re-centered, the speeder spring (28) flyweights (27) forces are re-balanced, and
the terminal shaft (18) is in position to provide the new fuel requirements.

## LOOKING THE FRONT ELEVATION

(1) Top left side dial indicator & knob:- Speed droop
Range ________________________: 0 to 100
Reference_____________________:- No:- 36 on schematic diagram

(2) Lower left side dial indicator & knob: Load change
Range_____________________: - 0 to 10
Reference__________________: - No: - 17 on schematic diagram

(3) Top right side dial indicator & knob: - Speed adjuster (synchronizers)
Range_____________________: - 0 to 10 x 200
Reference__________________: - No: - 26 on schematic diagram

(4) Lower right side dial indicator & knob:- Load limit cam
Range_____________________: - 0 to 20
Reference__________________: No:- 15 on governor’s schematic diagram

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MG 702 LOCAL PANEL INDICATIONS AND THEIR DISPLAY REASONS SET POINTS ETC

Indications Motor Crank case Low HTW Low lube oil Turbo charged HTW o/temp Trip
fault Trip Over pressure Pressure Trip Air over temp
pressure Trip Trip
Trip

## Set limits Electrical 60 0.65 bar 405 bar 70 deg C 95 deg C

fault m.m.w.g.
Indications Over speed Starting air HTW Pre- Lube oil Pre- Oil pre lub- Fuel very low
/general failure trip heating fault heating fault fault (stand still level fault
problem (stand still (stand still condition)
trip condition) condition)
Set limits 1200 rpm No start 39 deg C 40 deg C Zero flow 700 liters
Indications Low level Low level Oil filters Low lube oil Low lube oil HTW over
HTW fault LTW fault clogged pressure during level fault temperature during
fault running fault running fault

## Set limits 70 % 70 % P 0д1 5.0 bar 0 level of L.G 85 deg C

kgs/cm sq
Indications Emergency G Generator Generator fault
stop fault relay relay 86/2
86/1
Set limits Push Engine Engine
button +generator +generator
pressed locked both lock

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ELECTRICITY (BASIC)

Electric current is basically movement of electric charges; these can be positive or negative or
both. The protons that make up part of the atomic nucleus have positive charge. Electrons have
negative charge and they revolve around the nucleus due to repulsion force.

Electricity flows easily in conductors. Every conductors has at least one free (random) electron.
The free electron or electrons moves or move freely through the conductor in ionic reactions.
Batteries work due to ionic reactions. In other system these free electrons cause the shifting of
electric charges. Metals have such free electrons and it is also a conductors of electricity.
However graphite also has such free electrons and it is also conductor of electricity. Glass, mica,
plastic, cotton and rubber have no free electrons. These are bad conductors and are called
insulators .So these are used for electric cables, switches and other appliances protections. Some
substances as germanium, silicon and arsenic are neither good conductors nor insulators. They
are called semi conductors. They have their wide use in electronics. Prosperities of electrons,
which deal with magnetism, heat and light, are said as electricity . While properties of electrons,
which concern with intelligence for example seeing, recording and distinguishing etc are said
electronics.

To procedure an electric current some type of non-electric energy must be converted into
electromotive force (EMF). Batteries create this EMF by chemical reaction. Electrons from
chemical reaction move in conductors and so change chemical energy into electrical potential
energy. Battery has a potential difference between its terminals that causes electrons to flow in a
conducting material

.In generators magneto motive force (MMF) acts for electricity generation.
COULUMB: It is the basic unit of charge =6.25 x 1018 electrons.
AMPERE: It is the basic unit of current = flow of one coulomb charge in a
circuit for every second.
VOLT: -It is the EMF unit =flow of one ampere current in a circuit having one
ohm resistance.
OHM: - 01 ohm resistance is equal to produce a potential difference of one volt
when current is one ampere.
MHO:- It is the unit of conductivity. A conductance 9capacity to pass electricity)
of one mho will pass a current of one ampere when potential difference is one volt. Micro mho
unit is normally used.
WATT: It is the unit of power. One watt=flow of one ampere current when
resistance is one ohm or watt = E x I (volt x ampere). Normally watts in hours or watt hrs (watts
x hrs) are used. Watt is also equal to 01 Joule /second.
FARAD: It is the unit of capacitance. A conductor has a capacitance (storage
capacity) of one farad when a charge of one coulomb produces a potential difference of one volt.
Normally microfarad unit is used.
HENRY: It is the unit of inductance (electricity production capacity). A circuit has
an inductance = one Henry if a current change of one ampere per second causes one volt to be
induced.
OHM’S LAW: It states that in a D.C circuit, current is directly proportional to
voltage and it can also be stated that ratio of potential difference between the ends of conductor

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and the current flowing in the conductor is constant. This ratio is also denoted as resistance. In
short current=voltage/resistance.
DIRECT CURRENT (D.C):- It flows continuously in one direction through a circuit because
the polarity of source voltage never changes.D.C. has an advantage over A.C. it can be stored in
batteries in the form of chemical energy. Latter on these charged batteries furnish D.C. supply
when the main supply is cut off.

ALTERNATING CURRENT (A.C): Its valve changes rapidly in both directions. Polarity is
changed at regular interval negative to positive and again positive to negative causing the
direction of current flow to reverse also.

Power loss during the transmission of A.C from the generating station to the user is much less
than with D.C. Transformers are used to step up or step down the generated A.C.supply.
Transformers also isolate the generating station from the load. Power transformer operates on the
principle of mutual induction. D.C cannot be transformed by this way.

Electrical load in A.C is affected by three types of circuits i.e. resistance, inductance and
capacitance.

RESISTANCE ONLY: It is just like friction in machines. Long and thin wires have more
resistance than small and thick wires. Resistance in metal wires decrease (in sequence) silver,
copper, aluminum, bronze, brass, etc. Resisters give off energy as heat that is merely a loss.

In these circuits current is right in step with voltage where the load is pure resistance. For most
lighting load, electric heaters include in this category.

## CAPACITANCE: when an insulator called a dielectric separates two plates, capacitance or

storage of electricity takes place. If well insulated; electric charge can be stored for many hours.
Because charge is stored, so current leads voltage.

INDUCTANCE: It begins with making wires into a coil design. Magnetic field is created and
induces a counter voltage in coil as a whole. Induced voltage is opposite to that impressed on the
coil.
In this circuit current lags voltage. Induction motors at low load are examples because rated
current remain low.

POWER FACTOR:
An A.C electrical system produces two types of power.

## (I)Active power in WATTS; ____________ that pulls the load.

(II)Relative power in VARS (volts x ampere x resistance); ______that generates electro magnetic
energy in inductive equipment. If we consider as vector co-ordinates then their sum i.e
hypotenuse will show apparent power (V x A). Power factor is cosine of the angle between active
and apparent power, or ratio of these can be said.

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Hypotenuse x A

Angle=φ
Perpendicular

BASE=Watts

IMPEDENCE TRIANGLE

LAGGING POWER FACTOR: It is also called as low power factor. It is due to; any device
having magnetic field or magnetic coil. It requires reactive power or VARS. All induction,
motors especially at low load, under excited synchronous motors, uncorrected fluorescent
lighting, reactors, ballasts, chokes, coils, mercury vapor lightings, induction heating and such like
load requires VARS to go into the load. This means that generators have to supply VARS. It is
purely loss of energy.

LEADING POWER FACTOR: Any device that have the characteristic of capacitors provide
leading power factor. All loaded induction motors, over excited synchronous motor, under
excited generators and all capacitors produce leading VARS or power factor.

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT: (I) Under load or unloaded induction motors tends to
decrease power factor. So increase load to improve power factor.
(II) Proper maintenance, using correct insulation, lubrication of
induction motors, improve power factor.
(III) Some times without load generator (Here it works as
synchronous motor.) is run for power factor improvement.
(IV) Use of capacitors also improve power factor. Do not operate
equipments more than rated volts.

## POWER FORMULAE FOR A.C: Single phase: V x A x cos φ

Three phase: V x A x cos φ x √3
VARS FORMULAE FOR A.C: Single phase: V x A x sin φ
Three phase: V x A sin φ x √3

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UTILITIES UNIT
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## MODEL No: - NRD.125G 95.75 143-

Make:- UNILEC-FRANCE
933/1
KVA:- 1900 KW:- 1520
Power factor:- 0.8 to onward Volts:- 6300
Rpm: - 1000 No: of poles:- -6
Frequency: - 50 HZ or (cycles/sec) Phase: - 3
Line amperes:- 174 Maximum Insulation type: -F
EXCITATION
Voltage: At No load = 33.5 volts Current: - At No load = 0.9
At 1.52 MW load=67.0 volts At 1.52 MW load=1.8 ampere

Generator for the diesel generator has a rotor having six poles with alternate North and South
poles to its outer rim. Its armature winding is mounted on stationary element called stator and
field winding on at rotating element called rotor.

It is a machine with massive or interleaved salient poles, the magnet wheel excitation power of
which ranges from 5000 watts.

The excitation system is brushless. Its exciter is an electro magnet current amplifier with
stationary armature and revolving field. It generates in the alternator armature via a diode ridge
consisting of six diodes. The revolving armature and diode bridge are mounted on the same
alternator shaft.
The excitation system can be divided into two units.
(a) Initial exciter set (b) Generator exciter set

To the initial exciter set d.c supply is provided in the stator winding. Generation of this d.c
supply is discussed in the coming paragraph. It can also be said as a mini generator. Her D.C is
converted to a/c supply. While three rectifiers mounted on the rotor converts it again to d.c in the
generator set. In real this d.c is used as excitation current.

The aforesaid d.c supply induces a.c in the stator windings. The outputs volts of this A.C are 6.3
KV, which is fed to BUSBAR ‘E’.

Three current transformer on the amin 6.3 KV output R,S,T. lead for current sensing, measuring
and protection. Another three impulse leads are extracted just like C.T for P.T (Potential
transformer).

All C.T and P.T impulse leads are fed to AVR (auto voltage regulator). The output of AVR is fed
to SCRs (silicone controlled rectifiers). The SCRs are basically forward biased diodes. Output of
SCRs id fed to the initial stator input. A semi auto voltage regulator is also connected: it boosts
the function of AVR.

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After shutdown, residual voltage, work for initial generation of excitation. These voltages remain
stored for long period even 6 months. If we have to perform any maintenance, then these residual
voltages are manually discharged. After the completion of work recharging is necessary for
future start up.
GENERATOR PROTECTIONS

Every type of engine’s trip signal proceeds to trip main circuit breaker (CB.42G.2). P4 security
actuates it. So motor fault means generator’s CB.42G.2 opening indication appears. It causes no
difference generator’s breaker is ‘open’ already. Other trip signals initiated by the electrical fault
proceed to SOV.EV.II (MG.702 stop SOV), which again initiates P4 signal to trip/open
CB.42.G2.
Following are the securities for the operation of the diesel generator.
(i) OVER CURRENT PROTECTION.
(ii) GROUND OVER CURENT PROTECTION.
(iii) DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION.
(iv) OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION.
(v) AUXILIARY RELAY.

## OVER CUURENT PROTECTION:-

Some times it is also called over load relay. It is most important protection. Copper losses are
proportional to the square of the winding current. The heat generated/resulted from I2R los is
directly applied to the insulation. Since heat deteriots insulating material, the current cannot be
allowed to be so high of the device.
This protection relay operates when a large or serious fault occurs in a circuit as short circuit
between three phases. Any phases breakdown, earthed or any such situation causes instant relay
operation with flag and isolates the system in moments. 2nd type relay is time delay relay; a timer
is provided for this relay. This relay operates when the load on the diesel generator becomes
larger than the allowable limits. It is an induction type relay. It has two contacts:- (a) Normally
fixed contacts (normally closed) (b) tripped contacts (set points are written on another
paper).

DIFFERENTIAL POTECTION:-
Every three phase generator is normally connected by “star”. The algebric sum of R, S, T.
currents become zero. So a neutral point is normally extracted from the R, S, T. connections.
Any difference of current in three phases cause some current to flow to
this natural point. Differential protection relay actually senses this current. Normally it has range
10% of each phase current. For example for 500 amperes it will be 50amperes.

## GRAND OVER CURENT PROTECTION:

It is double nature relay; i.e ground and over current nature. Over current nature has been
discussed. Here we discuss only ground nature.

Ground or earth fault of any electrical machine can take place: - If any equipment is not properly
earthed or any phase insulation has damaged and its metal part touches to any other part.

Due to ground heavy current flows through output circuit and can cause serious fault to the
generator itself. This relay is located on the protection panel. Its connections are transformer.

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This relay is induction type and when earth fault occurs then due to induction its disc rotates and
closes the contacts. Resulting shutdown occurs. Engine also trips on the operation of this relay.

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION:
This protection relay monitors both the input and output currents. As long as the current flowing
into each winding of the machine is equal to the current flowing from the same winding, no net
current will flow through the relay operation coil. Any leakage of faulty current to other phases
or to ground will upset the balance and sends differential current through the operating winding.
When this current is greater than the pick up of the relay (normally 10% of the flowing current),
its contacts close to activate the tripping.

## OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION:

I f voltage exceeds from the range then the flux will be excessive and core will be more highly
saturated and core losses will increase. As a result the machine will run hotter. The core losses
are approximately proportional op the square of the terminal voltage. 6.8 KV is the tip limit.

AUXILLIARY REALY:
Basically it is the trip relay which trips the generator if due to any reason engine trips.
(For more details set points etc see table G.701A/B&M.G.702 protections)

If any of these securities actuate then generator will be cut-off with grid system by opening its
circuit breaker (CB.42.G2). With the actuation of differential protection engine will also trip. It is
again reminded that this security is actuated by “Motor fault P4”.

## Actuation of ‘Generator fault’ 86/1 & 86/2 indications.

86/1:----- It operates on.----- (I) emergency push button operated. (ii) 87 differential protection.
(iii) Earth isolator closed.

Engine cannot be started without ‘reset’ and so CB.42.G2 will not close.

## It is basically Generator lock.

Both indicators will be ‘reset’ from SS.I.

Recently in Oct, 2005, a new relay is also installed. It has four features.
(i) 32 Reverse power
(ii) 51 Over load
(iii) 81 A Under frequency
(iv) 81 B Over frequency

32 Reverse power
Trip setting+ 03% means 1.52 m x 3% = 0.05 MW=50kw
174x3% Amps = 5.22 Amperes

## 51 – Over load Not connected

(51-over current previous relay is rehed/ in service)

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## 81 –A Under frequency – Indication only at 49 HZ.

81 –A Under frequency – Indication only at 51 HZ.

## START UP OF DIESEL GENERATOR

(1) First check for any indication on local panel. If displaying, remove the fault and reset it.
(2) Check oil capacity in the storage tank. It should be 1200 liters (minimum).
(3) Check pressure of the starting air. It should be 38 kgs/cm sq (minimum).
(4) Check that instrument air and starting air isolating valves are in open position.
(5) Check lube oil level. It should be maximum.
(6) Check that the pre-lubrication oil pump is running.
(7) Check ‘Auto cut in’ lube oil heater if lube oil temperature is less than 40 deg C.
(8) Check that lube oil cooler is in service.
(9) Check the level of HTW &LTW in their tanks.
(10) Check ‘Auto cut in’ of HTW heater if temperature of HTW is less than 40deg c.
(11) Check that HTW pre circulation pump is running position.
(12) Check the lever governor oil, bearing and hydrostatic oil.
(13) Put governor on ‘zero’ setting.
(14) Put selector switch on ‘Manual’ mode.
(15) Check fuel oil supply line valve is open.
(16) Crank the engine by cranking bar in order to cheek that nothing is hinderancing its
rotation.
(17) Now start the engine by operating switch/pushbutton ‘ON’ form GCR, local or pneumatic
panel.
(18) After starting the engine check lube oil pressure. It should be 6kgs/cm sq approximately.
Also check ‘cut off’ of pre-lubricating & HTW pre-circulating pump.
(19) Operate the governor and increase the speed of the diesel generator up to 1000 rpm.
(20) Check the Auto “cut in” of the radiators if HTW temperature has raised upto 77 deg C.
(21) Check for Auto ‘cut off’ of HTW and lube oil heater if temperature exceeds 45 deg C.
(22) Check cylinders temperatures. These should not exceed 200 & 400 deg C during unloaded
and loaded conditions respectively.
(23) Put he load on the engine.

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## There are many ways by which diesel generator can be loaded.

Normally diesel generator remains on AUTO mode. For this purpose both local panel and GCR
mode should be on AUTO. Check periodically PREVIOUS MENTIONED ‘START UP
CHECKS ‘ UP TO 15 OF THE LIST. If due to any reason turbo generators trip or voltage of bus

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bar drops up to 3150 volts; then diesel generator (only engine) starts automatically. After
normalization of 8 to 10 seconds; CB 124 DE becomes opened and at the same instance its signal
the 1st excitation circuit breaker of diesel generator and then CB 42 G2. So automatically bus bar
e is energized. Automatically necessary utilities load approximately 700 KW) which remains on
‘Auto’, is put on bus bar E. Plant operator then have to maintain frequency and line voltages
along with field parameters. WHENEVER THE LOAD BAR ‘D’ IS ENERGIZED BY ANY
OTHER PROCESS OCCURES i.e. CB 42 G2 & EXCITATION, ARE ‘OPENED’
SIMULTANEOUSLY, AND CB 124 DE BECOMES ‘CLOSE’. SO BUSBAR’E’ IS AGAIN
ENERGIZED BY THE INCOMING SUPPLY. (During dead interval- U.P.S bears the load).

## (1) Adjust the speed of diesel generator at 1000rpm.

(2) Put ‘on’ the excitation system by operating the on/off switch.
(3) Check the excitation ampere and voltage and adjust line voltage at 6.3 KV>
(4) Rack in CB 42 G2 from SS 1.
(5) If only diesel generator is running then perform synchronization as stated in next pages.
(7) Maintain electrical parameters of all the machines.
(8) Raise the load on diesel generator up to 1.52MW (maximum).
(9) Check all parameters in the field which can change due to loading.

SYNCHRONIZING

Some time diesel generator is synchronized with turbo generators so it is better to discuss
synchronization here.

Actual meanings are ‘To make agree in time’. In electrical theory it means to do any function to
take two separately generated A.C. supplies on a common bus bar.

For the purpose of synchronization of two supplies; following requirements must be fulfilled.

## (1) Both generators volts must be exactly equal.

(2) Both generators frequency must be equal.
(3) Phase angle/electrical angle should exactly be equal. It means when previous running
generators voltage & frequency are increasing, at the same instance-incoming machine’s
frequency and voltage should also be increasing exactly.
On these generators synchroscope is used for synchronizing.
Synchroscope is a small slip ring motor. On its rotor and stator two separate phase windings are
done. It has four terminals. Two terminals are for previous running machine while other two
terminals are for new incoming machine. Its marked point are equalized, and then synchroscope
is ‘switched on’. ‘Switching on’ the synchroscope from the respective CB bus tie is compulsory
to close the respective circuit breaker. It causes no difference whether we are synchronizing or
not. For diesel generator normally synchronizing is done from CB 42 G2.Synchroscope is
‘switched on’ from 43 G2. Then synchroscope needle starts revolving. Then adjust both
machines frequencies and voltage. When it is noted that needle is moving too much slowly in
clockwise direction and is quietly on the marked point of Synchroscope; then CB 42 G2 is closed
at that instance. Synchroscope clockwise rotation shows that frequency of incoming machine is
little bit more then the running machine. Closing the breaker at that instance will show that new

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running machine has load suction tendency. Otherwise new running machine can trip due to
unload reason. For diesel generator it is further more necessary because diesel generator has not
reverse power protection. Now slowly increase frequency and voltage frequency, voltage &
power factor. All must remain equal. Also increase load on diesel generator up to 300 KW
maximum on first instance. Later on increase load up to 1500 KW maximum within 10 minutes
taking in view previous precautions.
If diesel generator is started manually due to trip of turbo generators then it is synchronized form
other bus tie e.g. CB 124 DE, 42G1 A or G1 B (it depends upon conditions, requirements and
instructions.).

## To cut off diesel generator from synchronism it follows as:

(1) Shift load slowly on turbo generators within 5 minutes. Let 300 KW load remain on diesel
generator. Keep line frequency, voltage and power factors constant for all machines.
(2) Cut off ‘CB 42 G2’. Remaining load will automatically be shifted on turbo generators.
(3) Maintain frequency and line voltage of unloaded diesel generator.
(4) Switch off diesel generator’s excitation
(5) New practice from Oct, 2005 is anti-clock wise. Other wise 32- Reverse power protection
will actuate at-55.2 amperes.
(6) Stop the engine after 5minutes & check whether lube oil and HTW pumps have ‘cut off’.
(7) Select diesel generator on ‘AUTO’ mode, otherwise follow the shift engineer’s
instructions.

NORAML SHUTDOWN
Following rules should be followed for safe shutdown of diesel generator.
(i) Reduce the load up to 300 KW. Then open CB 42 G2 and decrease speed up to
1000 rmp. Cut off excitation. Let it run for some minutes at reduced without load in
order to allow a good equalization of the temperature before shutting down.
(ii) Push the ‘stop’ button ot turn off the start/stop lever.
(iii) Carefully listen the sound when the engine is coming stand still. Note for any
abnormal noise.
(iv) It is better to run to keep running turbo charger for some minutes.
(v) Put diesel generator selector switch on ‘Auto’ if no work is to be done on it.
Otherwise put selector switch on ‘off’ and close starting air valve. Because diesel
generator can mistakenly be started from pneumatic panel.
(vi) Perform an inspection of all lubrication, fuel and cooling system.
(vii) Enter any abnormality in your logbook.

## Lift the stop lever on the rack control gear.

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UTILITIES UNIT
PROTECTION RELAYS OF GENERATOR TG-701 A/B & MG-702
Tag Setting Time
S. # Description of Relays Actions Remarks
No volts Amp (Sec)
1 Ground fault relay Generator breaker trip
2 Anti monitoring relay 32 100 1 5 Generator breaker trip
3 Over current relay 51 1000 0.4 Generator breaker trip
4 Over voltage relay 59 6810 -- -- Generator breaker trip
Cut of
5 Loss of field excitation 40 Generator breaker trip
field
6 Under voltage relay 27 5800 -- -- Generator breaker trip
7 Under frequency relay 81 48HZ 5 Generator breaker trip
8 Rotor earth fault 64F 50 3 Generator breaker trip
Generator breaker +
9 Differential relay 87 10% -- --
Turbine trip
10 Differential earth fault 87G 10% Generator breaker trip
Generator breaker +
11 Field ground relay
Turbine trip
12 Ground over current relay 51G 500 7 Generator breaker trip
13 Lock out relay Generator breaker trip
86/2
14 Auxiliary relay - -- -- Generator breaker trip
86/1
15 Earth fault over current relay 51G 200 0.2
16 Directional over current relay 67A -- 1000 2.0
17 Directional over current relay 67B -- 1000 2.0
18 Over current relay 51C 500 7.0
27D
19 Under voltage relay 3150
G
MG-702 (EDG)
20 Over current relay 51 200 0.9 CB. 42 G.2 trip
21 Earth fault relay =
Generator Breaker +
22 Differential relay 87 10%
Engine trip
23 Over voltage relay CB 42 G 2 trip
27G
24 Under voltage relay 5800 CB 42 G 2 trip
B
Under voltage relay MG-702 27G
25 3150 CB 42 G 2 trip
start on auto B
Only______ indication
26 Under frequency 81 B 49 HZ
CB 42 G 2 trip
51
27 Over frequency 81 A
HZ
5.22 02 Excitation + CB.42G2
28 Reverse Power
Amp sec trip

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Note:
1) On actuation of differential relay Sr. No. 9 and field ground relay Sr. No. 11 the breaker of
generator opens with tripping of prime mover.
2) On actuation of all other protection relays generator breaker trips and prime mover keep
running.
3) On “Turbine emergency push button”. CB.42 G 1A or B will also trip with prime mover.

TROUBLE SHOOTING

Following are some typical trouble shooting other than during normal running.

## 1: Exhaust gases temperature higher than normal. Normally exhaust temperature

remains 400 to 500 deg C. excessive temperature more than 500 deg C shows fault in the
injection system of the engine. Also it is due to the lack of air in turbo charger, Chocking of filter,
too high exhaust pressure and damaging of turbo charger blades can be the cause.

2: Charge air pressure lower than normal. It is due to leaking of air receiver in engine
and gas leakage between engine and turbine. It is also possible that gauge reading may be false or
air is leaking form its connection. It is also caused due to dirty air filter, dirty turbo charger,
damaged labyrinth seal, damaged turbine blades, and damaged blades of nozzle rings and too
high exhaust protection.

3: Charge air pressure higher than Normal: It is caused by fault in injection system and
also due to output of engine higher than expected. It may be due to faulty pressure gauge and
clogging of nozzle ring.

4: Vibration in turbo charger: It is due to serve unbalance of rotor due to dirt or damaged
turbine blades, bent shaft, defective and incorrect assembling.

5: Leaking of casing from turbo charger: thermal stressees, uneven cooling and lack of
water produce cracks. Gas side corrosion is caused due to reaction of moisture and sulpher.
H2SO4 is formed by such reaction. Waterside corrosion is caused absence of baffles at water
inlet.

6: Bearing oil soon becomes dark: It is due to exhaust gas entering in the bearing housing,
blockage of sealing air passage, damaged shaft seal at turbine, and blockage of balancing and
clearance in sealing bush.

7: Loss of lubricating oil: It is due to excessive clearance in sealing bushes and due to
missing of screw plug of bearing chamber cover.

## 8: Moisture in turbo charger or bearing housing: It is due to condensation in bearing

chamber when humidity of atmosphere is too high and cooling water is very cold due to
considerable fluctuation of temperature when turbo charger is not running.

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9: Diesel generator runs irregularly: It is due to the fact that injection pump of fuel lines is
not freed from air. The fuel may contain water; the injector valves and injector pump may be
faulty. It can also be due to fuel or line chocking or injection pump may be broken.

10: Some times thick exhaust gas of blue whitish color comes out from the flue gas stack:
It is due ti burning of lube oil in cylinder caused by wear of piston rings and lines. It is
also possible that oil may be swept from oil bath of air filter. It is also due to the
compressor and scrapper rings damaged.

11: Engine is smoking heavily: It is due to poor working of one or more cylinders caused by
malfunction of injection pump, poor atomization of the fuel and breal down of super
charging unit.

12: Knocking of engine: It is due to sticking of injector needle, wrong fitting of timing gear;
play in connecting rod, pre-mature firing and leakage of between the liner and the cylinder

13: Excessive fuel oil consumption: It is due to out of order of lube oil control rings. If the
power of engine is also decreasing than it will be due to UN proper operation of super
charging unit.

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SECTION III
DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION

INTRODUCTION

Basic UGB operation for all types. The only difference is in the method of setting the speed
auxiliary devices. provide different functions but do not alter the basic operation of the governor.
Along with the text, a schematic diagram, figure 3-1 Is provided for a means of understanding the
visual operation of the UG8 Dial Governor.

DESCRIPTION

Before getting into the operation of the UG8 a brief description of the components will facilitate
understanding the operation.

OIL PUMP

The oil pump system is housed in the bottom of the controlet. The controlet is mounted directly
to the base. The oil pump system consists of two gears and four check valves. One gear is part of
the rotating bushing and the other gear is part of the laminated drive. The rotating bushing is
driven by the governor drive shaft which is driven by the prime mover. The oil pump gears can
be driven either CW or CCW.

Oil flow is directed through the check valve system into the accumulator system.

ACCUMULATOR

The accumulator is also housed (two cylinders) in the controlet.The accumulator consists of two
spring loaded pistons. Oil is Pumped into the cylinders and increased to 120psi by the
accumulator springs. If the oil pressure exceeds 120 psi, oil is released back to sump through a
relief port in each cylinder.

Oil flows from the accumulator through passages to the top of the power piston and to the pilot
valve system.

POWER PISTON

The power piston (servo) is also housed in the controlet. It is a differential type with oil pressure
on both the top and bottom of the piston. The upper end oil of the power piston is connected to
the terminal (output) shaft through a power lever and link assembly.
The bottom of the power piston has a larger area than the top of the piston. Therefore less oil
pressure is required on the bottom than on the top when the piston is stationary. If the oil pressure
is same on both the top and bottom of the piston, the piston is moved upward to rotate the
terminal shaft in the increase fuel direction. The piston moves downward only when oil under the
piston is released to sump.
Oil to or from the bottom of the power piston is regulated by the pilot valve system.

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## PILOT VALVE SYSTEM

The pilot valve system is housed in the controlet. It consists of the rotating bushing (mentioned
previously) , and the pilot valve plunger. The bushing is rotated by the drive shaft and through
this rotation; friction between the pilot valve plunger and bushing is reduced. The pilot valve
plunger (PVP) has a control land that regulates oil flow through ports in the bushing.
When the PVP is lowered high pressure oil flows to the bottom of the piston, raising the power
piston. When the PVP is raised oil is released to sump from under the power piston. The higher
pressure on the top of the piston forces the piston downward. When the PVP is its centered
position the control land covers the control port as shown in the schematic, figure 3-1, and there
is no movement of the power piston.

## The PVP is movement is controlled by the ballhead.

The ballhead system consists of a ballhead, flyweights, speeder spring, thrust bearing, speeder
plug, and speeder rod. The ballhead is geared and is driven by the laminated drive. The
flyweights are attached to the ballhead with pivot pins. A thrust bearing rides on the toes of the
flyweights. The speeder spring is held in position on the thrust bearing by the speeder plug. As
the ballhead rotates the flyweights pivot outward due to the centrifugal force.
At the same time the speeder spring is forcing the thrust bearing downward on the flyweight toes.
This downward force opposes the centrifugal force of the flyweights. Increasing the device speed
increases the governor speed setting. The prime mover must run faster to produce a higher
centrifugal force to overcome the speeder spring force and rebalance the system.

Speeder spring force or speed setting is controlled manually through the synchronizer (speed)
adjusting knob. When the governor is equipped with a speed adjusting motor the speed setting
may be controlled remotely.

COMPENSATION SYSTEM

Two pistons, an actuating and a receiving piston, along with a needle valve make up the
compensation system.

The actuating piston is linked to the terminal shaft by a compensation adjusting lever. A
pivotable fulcrum rides on the adjusting lever. Changing the fulcrum’s position allows the
adjusting lever to control the amount of stroke available for the actuating compensating piston.

The receiving piston is connected through a floating lever to the pilot valve plunger and the
speeder rod.

The needle valve controls the flows of oil sump and the actuating piston and receiving piston.

Moving the actuating piston downward forces oil under the receiving piston. As the receiving
piston is force upward it lifts the PVP to close off the control port which stops the flow of oil to
the bottom of the power piston.

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## LOAD LIMIT CONTROL

The load limit control consists of an indicator disc geared to a load limit rack. The control knob is
also attached to the load limit cam.

Load is limited mechanically by positioning the load limit knob (cam 210).When the load
indictor reaches the preset point the PVP is lifted stopping any further increase of fuel.

Prime mover shutdown is possible by turning he load limit control to zero. This turns the cam,
forcing the load limit lever shutdown strap downward. As the right end of the load limit
shutdown lever is forced downward it pivot about its fulcrum and lifts the pilot valve plunger
releasing oil from under the power servo.

CAUTION

## Do not manually force prime mover linkage to increase fuel

without first turning the load limit control knob to maximum position (10).

SYNCHRONIZER

The synchronizer is the speed adjusting control and is used to change engine speed for a single
unit. On engines paralleled with other units it is used to change engine load. The upper knob is
the “SYNCHRONIZER” control knob while the lower knob “SYN. INDICATOR: indicates the
number of revolutions of the synchronizer control knob.

SPEED DROOP

Speed droop consists of a control knob, cam, and linkage, which when preset, varies the compression of
the speeder spring as the terminal shaft rotates. Increasing the fuel reduces speeder spring compression
and in turn the governor speed setting. The unit/gradually reduces its speed as load is applied. this
relationship between load and speed acts as a resistance to load changes when the unit is interconnected
with other units either mechanically or electrically.

Setting the speed droop control automatically divides and balances load between prime mover that drive
the same shaft or are paralleled in the electrical system.

Reducing droop to zero allows the unit to change load without changing speed. Normally, set zero droop
on units running alone. On interconnected units, set the least amount of droop possible to provide

for ac generating units tied in which other units set droop sufficiently high (30 to 50 on dial) to prevent
interchange of load between units. If one unit in the system has enough capacity, set its governor on zero
droop and it will regulate the frequency of the prime mover system. If its capacity is not exceeded this
unit will handle all load changes.

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Operate the SYNCHRONIZER. of the governor with zero droop, to adjust the system’s frequency.
Operate the SYNCHRONIZERS, of the governors that have speed droop, to distribute load between
units.

## OPERATION OF THE UG8 DIAL GOVERNOR

GENERAL

Refer to figure 3-1 which is a schematic diagram of the dial speed setting UG8 governor. This
schematic is of a basic design and does not included any auxiliary equipment.

Changes in governor speed setting produce the same governor movements as do changes in load
on the engine

Assume the prime mover is running on speed; i.e., the control land of the pilot valve plunger is
centered over the control port of the rotating bushing. The flyweights are in a vertical position for
normal steady state operation.

A reduction in load creates an increase in speed. As speed increases the centrifugal force of the
flyweights increases, overcoming the opposing speeder spring force. The flyweights tip outward
raising the speeder rod and the right hand end of the floating lever. This raises the pilot valve
plunger, dumping oil from under the power piston. As the power position moves downward the
terminal shaft is rotated in the decrease fuel direction.

As the power piston moves downward the actuating compensation piston moves upward. This
applies suction to the small compensation piston, pulling it downward. The left end of the
floating lever is pulled down forcing the pilot valve plunger downward closing off the control
port. The compensation system, in essence, anticipates the amount of fuel required to accept the
new load change. The amount of movement (compensation) of the actuating compensation piston
is controlled by the compensation adjustment and fulcrum.

The terminal shaft and power piston’s movement is stopped in the new decreased fuel position
required to run the prime mover at normal speed with the decrease in load.

As oil dissipates through the needle valve from the compensation system, the receiving
compensation piston is returned to normal at the same rate as the speeder rod. This keeps the pilot
valve plunger in its centered position.

Again, assume the prime mover is running on speed. The pilot valve plunger is centered at the
flyweights are in a vertical position.

An increase in load creates a decrease in speed. As speed decreases, centrifugal force of the
flyweights decreases allowing them to tip inward, decreasing the upward force on the speeder
spring. The speeder spring forces the speeder rod downward which forces the pilot valve plunger

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down. Pressured oil is released through the control port into the lower cylinder of the power
piston.

The power piston is forced upward by the pressured oil acting on the larger lower surface area of
the power piston The terminal shaft is rotated in the increase fuel direction. Linkage from the
output shaft lifts the compensation adjusting lever which pivots at the fulcrum pushing down on
the actuating compensation piston. Oil is forced in the chamber of the smaller receiving
compensation piston, raising the floating lever and in turn the pilot valve plunger.

When correctly adjusted the compensation system effectively anticipates the amount of fuel
necessary to bring the engine up to the proper output to accept the increased load.

The pilot valve plunger is again recentered, the speeder spring and flyweights forces are
unbalanced, and the terminal shaft is in position to provide the new fuel requirements.