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Define RMS

The r.m.s. value of an alternating current is given by that steady (d.c.) current which

whenflowing through a given circuit for a given time produces the same heat as produced by the

alternatingcurrent when flowing through the same circuit for the same time.

The average value Ia of an alternating current is expressed by that steady current which

transfersacross any circuit the same charge as is transferred by that alternating current during the

sametime.

In the case of a symmetrical alternating current (i.e. one whose two half-cycles are

exactly similar,whether sinusoidal or non-sinusoidal), the average value over a complete cycle is

zero. Hence, intheir case, the average value is obtained by adding or integrating the

instantaneous values of currentover one half-cycle only. But in the case of an unsymmetrical

alternating current (like half-waverectified current) the average value must always be taken over

the whole cycle.

Alternative words used for Real Power (Actual Power, True Power, Watt-full Power, Useful Power,

Real Power, and Active Power)

In a DC Circuit, power supply to the DC load is simply the product of Voltage across the load and

Current flowing through it i.e., P = V I. because in DC Circuits, there is no concept of phase angle

between current and voltage. In other words, there is no Power factor in DC Circuits.

But the situation is Sinusoidal or AC Circuits is more complex because of phase difference between

Current and Voltage. Therefore average value of power (Real Power) is P = VI Cosθ is in fact

supplied to the load.

In AC circuits, When circuit is pure resistive, then the same formula used for power as used in DC as

P = V I.

Power Formulas in DC, AC Single Phase and and AC Three Phase Circuits.

Real Power formulas:

P=VI (In DC circuits)

P = VI Cosθ (in Single phase AC Circuits)

P = √3 VL IL Cosθ or (in Three Phase AC Circuits)

P = 3 VPh IPh Cosθ

P = √ (S2 – Q2)or

P =√ (VA2 – VAR2) or

Real or True power = √ (Apparent Power2– Reactive Power2) or

kW = √ (kVA2 – kVAR2)

B) Reactive Power: (Q)

Also known as (Use-less Power, Watt less Power)

The powers that continuously bounce back and forth between source and load is known as reactive

Power (Q)

Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive

power

The unit of Active or Real power is Watt where 1W = 1V x 1 A.

Reactive power represent that the energy is first stored and then released in the form of magnetic

field or electrostatic field in case of inductor and capacitor respectively.

Reactive power is given by Q = V I Sinθ which can be positive (+ve) for inductive, negative (-Ve)

for capacitive load.

The unit of reactive power is Volt-Ampere reactive. I.e. VAR where 1 VAR = 1V x 1A.

In more simple words, in Inductor or Capacitor, how much magnetic or electric field made by 1A x

1V is called the unit of reactive power.

Reactive power formulas:

Q = V I Sinθ

Reactive Power=√ (Apparent Power2– True power2)

VAR =√ (VA2 – P2)

kVAR = √ (kVA2 – kW2)

6. Explain real and reactive power

Active power/real (P or W)

It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit

resistance. P = I2R = VI cos φ watts reactive power (Q)

It is the power developed in the inductive reactance of

the circuit.

Q = I2XL = I2 .Z sin φ = I . (IZ). sin φ = VI sin φ volt-amperes-reactive (VAR)

To recognize the importance of this factor in AC power computations, the term cos(θ) is referred

to as the power factor (pf). Note that the power factor is equal to 0 for a purely inductive or

capacitive load andequal to 1 for a purely resistive load; in every other case

1) Power delivered is constant. In single phase circuit the power delivered is pulsating and

objectionable for many applications.

2) For a given frame size a polyphase machine gives a higher output than a single phase machine.

3) Polyphase induction motors are self starting and are more efficient. Single phase motor has no

starting torque and requires an auxiliary means for starting.

4) Comparing with single phase motor, three phase induction motor has higher power factor and

efficiency.

Three phase motors are very robust, relatively cheap, generally smaller, have self-starting

properties, provide a steadier output and require little maintenance compared with single phase

motors.

5) For transmitting the same amount of power at the same voltage, a three phase transmission line

requires less conductor material than a single phase line. The three phase transmission system is

so cheaper.

For a given amount of power transmitted through a system, the three phase system requires

conductors with a smaller cross-sectional area.

This means a saving of copper and thus the original installation costs are less.

6) Polyphase motors have uniform torque whereas most of the single phase motors have pulsating

torque.

7) Parallel operation of three-phase generators is simpler then that of single phase generator.

8) Polyphase system can set up rotating magnetic field in stationary windings.

9. Derive an expression for power consumed in a 3 phase circuit by using two wattmeter method

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