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Define RMS
The r.m.s. value of an alternating current is given by that steady (d.c.) current which
whenflowing through a given circuit for a given time produces the same heat as produced by the
alternatingcurrent when flowing through the same circuit for the same time.

2. Define Average value

The average value Ia of an alternating current is expressed by that steady current which
transfersacross any circuit the same charge as is transferred by that alternating current during the
In the case of a symmetrical alternating current (i.e. one whose two half-cycles are
exactly similar,whether sinusoidal or non-sinusoidal), the average value over a complete cycle is
zero. Hence, intheir case, the average value is obtained by adding or integrating the
instantaneous values of currentover one half-cycle only. But in the case of an unsymmetrical
alternating current (like half-waverectified current) the average value must always be taken over
the whole cycle.

3. Define Form factor

4. Define Peak factor

5. Compare real and reactive power

A) Real Power: (P)

Alternative words used for Real Power (Actual Power, True Power, Watt-full Power, Useful Power,
Real Power, and Active Power)
In a DC Circuit, power supply to the DC load is simply the product of Voltage across the load and
Current flowing through it i.e., P = V I. because in DC Circuits, there is no concept of phase angle
between current and voltage. In other words, there is no Power factor in DC Circuits.
But the situation is Sinusoidal or AC Circuits is more complex because of phase difference between
Current and Voltage. Therefore average value of power (Real Power) is P = VI Cosθ is in fact
supplied to the load.
In AC circuits, When circuit is pure resistive, then the same formula used for power as used in DC as
P = V I.
Power Formulas in DC, AC Single Phase and and AC Three Phase Circuits.
Real Power formulas:
P=VI (In DC circuits)
P = VI Cosθ (in Single phase AC Circuits)
P = √3 VL IL Cosθ or (in Three Phase AC Circuits)
P = 3 VPh IPh Cosθ
P = √ (S2 – Q2)or
P =√ (VA2 – VAR2) or
Real or True power = √ (Apparent Power2– Reactive Power2) or
kW = √ (kVA2 – kVAR2)
B) Reactive Power: (Q)
Also known as (Use-less Power, Watt less Power)
The powers that continuously bounce back and forth between source and load is known as reactive
Power (Q)
Power merely absorbed and returned in load due to its reactive properties is referred to as reactive
The unit of Active or Real power is Watt where 1W = 1V x 1 A.
Reactive power represent that the energy is first stored and then released in the form of magnetic
field or electrostatic field in case of inductor and capacitor respectively.
Reactive power is given by Q = V I Sinθ which can be positive (+ve) for inductive, negative (-Ve)
for capacitive load.
The unit of reactive power is Volt-Ampere reactive. I.e. VAR where 1 VAR = 1V x 1A.
In more simple words, in Inductor or Capacitor, how much magnetic or electric field made by 1A x
1V is called the unit of reactive power.
Reactive power formulas:
Q = V I Sinθ
Reactive Power=√ (Apparent Power2– True power2)
VAR =√ (VA2 – P2)
kVAR = √ (kVA2 – kW2)
6. Explain real and reactive power
Active power/real (P or W)
It is the power which is actually dissipated in the circuit
resistance. P = I2R = VI cos φ watts reactive power (Q)
It is the power developed in the inductive reactance of
the circuit.
Q = I2XL = I2 .Z sin φ = I . (IZ). sin φ = VI sin φ volt-amperes-reactive (VAR)

7. Define Power factor

To recognize the importance of this factor in AC power computations, the term cos(θ) is referred
to as the power factor (pf). Note that the power factor is equal to 0 for a purely inductive or
capacitive load andequal to 1 for a purely resistive load; in every other case

8. Advantage of 3 phase system

1) Power delivered is constant. In single phase circuit the power delivered is pulsating and
objectionable for many applications.
2) For a given frame size a polyphase machine gives a higher output than a single phase machine.
3) Polyphase induction motors are self starting and are more efficient. Single phase motor has no
starting torque and requires an auxiliary means for starting.
4) Comparing with single phase motor, three phase induction motor has higher power factor and
Three phase motors are very robust, relatively cheap, generally smaller, have self-starting
properties, provide a steadier output and require little maintenance compared with single phase
5) For transmitting the same amount of power at the same voltage, a three phase transmission line
requires less conductor material than a single phase line. The three phase transmission system is
so cheaper.
For a given amount of power transmitted through a system, the three phase system requires
conductors with a smaller cross-sectional area.
This means a saving of copper and thus the original installation costs are less.
6) Polyphase motors have uniform torque whereas most of the single phase motors have pulsating
7) Parallel operation of three-phase generators is simpler then that of single phase generator.
8) Polyphase system can set up rotating magnetic field in stationary windings.

9. Derive an expression for power consumed in a 3 phase circuit by using two wattmeter method