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AUTOMATIC EMERGENCY LIGHT

CONTENTS

Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………6
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………...7
Chapter 1

1.1. Block Diagram ………………………………………………………………………...10


1.2. Block diagram with explanation of each block ………………………………………..11
Chapter 2

Design details ……………………………………………………………….12-22


2.1. Transformer ……………………………………………………………………………13
2.2. 7808 voltage regulator ………………………………………………………………….13
2.3. LM324 quad operational amplifier ……………………………………………………..14
2.4. Photo transistor ………………………………………………………………………….15
2.5. 2n2222 npn transistor ……………………………………………………………………19
2.6. 2955 pnp power transistor ………………………………………………………………..20
2.7. BD140 pnp medium power transistor ……………………………………………………21
2.8. SL100 npn transistor ……………………………………………………………………..21
2.9. 3.3v zenor diode ………………………………………………………………………….22

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Chapter 3

Circuit diagram ……………………………………………………………..24

Circuit diagram with operational details …………………………………25-37


3.1. LM324 quad operational amplifier …………………………………………………25
3.1.1. Introduction
3.1.2. General description
3.1.3. Unique characteristics
3.1.4. Advantages
3.1.5. Features
3.1.6. Representative circuit diagram of LM324
3.1.7. Circuit description
3.1.8. Performance characteristics of LM324

3.2.7808 voltage regulator ………………………………………………………………..31


3.2.1. General description
3.2.2. 78xx series of regulators
3.2.3. Ripple voltage

3. 3.SL100 npn transistor ………………………………………………………………..33

3.4. 2n2222 npn transistor ………………………………………………………………33


3.4.1. General description
3.4.2. NPN characteristics curves
3.4.3. Photo sensor

3.5. Photo transistor ………………………………………………………………………36


3.5.1. General characteristics and features

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3.5.2. Applications
3.5.3. Opto isolator
3.5.4. Optical switch
3.5.5. Retro sensor

3.6. RESULT ……………………………………………………………………………….38

3.7. CONCLUSION ………………………………………………………………………..38

3.8. FUTURE SCOPE ……………………………………………………………………...38

3.9. REFERENCES ………………………………………………………………………...38

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ABSTRACT

Today, in industries and as well as in household applications an emergency light is employed


where there is frequent non uniform voltage distribution occurs. Many types of emergency lights
from rechargeable torches to systems like generators are available in market. All of them require
a switch to operate them when frequent power failure occurs. The present one deals with a model
which senses the mains as well as daylight to switch on the emergency light. This emergency
light holds requirements of domestic purposes also. There is no need to search the switch in the
dark as it switches on /off automatically.
There are some special features in this project which are as follows:
 When mains power is available, it senses and switches off the lamp instantly. This may be
a common feature in any of the emergency power systems.
 It incorporates an opto-eye which senses the ambient light and when the ambient light
reaches a present low level when there is no power, it switches on the emergency light
automatically. The switching is instantaneous.
 In most of the emergency lights there is a drawback. The discharge level of the battery is
not being controlled to a safe level. The batteries get discharged completely and lose their
life rapidly. This is a very serious complaint from the users. In this one, cut-off is
provided at predefined manufacturers minimum discharge level which gives the specified
life of the battery.
The opto-eye mentioned in the above features is a special one in this automatic emergency light
and opto-eye consists of a photo transistor and some specific arrangement of resistors. Here
instead of photo transistor a photo diode is also used and we can also increase the sensitivity of

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Photo diode in reverse configuration. We also come across different operational amplifiers,
diodes, light emitting diode. In addition to these we also employ step down transformer and we
also make use of one switch for proper operation of the devise. For different batteries, charging
voltage and lamp can be choosen accordingly to be more illuminated.

INTRODUCTION:

The present mini project deals with the recent requirements of emergency light both for
industries and domestic purposes. Many types of emergency lights from rechargeable torches to
systems like generators are available in the market. When compared to all other emergency lights
this one is quite efficient one as we make use of integrated circuits, voltage regulator and an
excellent feature of opto eye is included in this present mini project. The present one deals with a
model which senses the mains as well as daylight to switch on the emergency light.

The circuit consists of an LM324 quad operational amplifier which


consists of fourteen pins. A logic function is performed by using this type of IC. There are four
ICs involved in this circuitry. Also photo device is also included which makes the use of light
intensity according to which voltage is produced across its terminals. When the wired AND logic
function is fulfilled from the three ICs which work as comparators and the remaining another IC
respond to it according to which the bulb will be glown . It also consists of a Darlington pair of
pnp transistors whose set is capable of delivering the fifteen amperes to the load.

This present one has one on/off switch on operating which the emergency
light glows. In most of the emergency light there exists a drawback. The discharge level of the
battery is not being controlled to a safe level. The batteries get discharged completely and lose
their life rapidly. This is a very serious aspect in order to overcome this a cutoff is provided and
there exists a minimum discharge level which ensures the long life of battery used in the circuit.

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It incorporates an opto-eye which senses the ambient light when the ambient light reaches a
preset level when there is no power and it helps to add some voltage due to the fact that a photo
device like photo transistor is involved.

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CHAPTER-1

BLOCK DIAGRAM WITH EXPLANATION OF EACH BLOCK

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1.1. BLOCK DIAGRAM:

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1.2. EXPLANATION OF EACH BLOCK:

INPUT SUPPLY:- Input supply of 230 volts ac is fed to the main comparator-1 where it will be
rectified. This input supply is not only fed to the mains comparator-1 but also to another block
called mains comparator-2.

MAINS COMPARATOR-1: The function of the this block is to convert ac into dc i.e,
rectification is done in this process by having some basic elements like capacitor and a
unidirectional device. The output delivered from this block will be used for different blocks.

MAINS COMPARATOR-2: The function of this block is to compare the ac mains and the
output delivered from the mains comparator-1. Depending on the status of the ac mains the
output of the mains comparator-2 will be decided for the further process in the circuit.

AMBIENT LIGHT COMPARATOR:-This block includes a unique feature of having an opto


eye which is formed by photo transistor and some resistor chain. This comparator will make use
sense of the photo device and also the output delivered from the mains comparator-1.

CUT OFF LOGIC:- This block plays a major role in lightning up the lamp by deciding the
status of different other blocks and according to which the voltage will be given to the lamp
driver circuit. This block will not enable the battery to discharge in a quick time and hence
improving the life of the battery.

LAMP DRIVER:-This consists of basic circuitry which contains some transistors and other
basic elements which constitute the illumination of the lamp of a specified rating. It also consists
of warming circuit to avoid frequent failure of lamps and this warming circuit will have some
basic elements like diode and a resistor. It also control sudden inrush of current during switching
times.

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CHAPTER-2

DESIGN DETAILS

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DESIGN DETAILS:

2.1. TRANSFORMER:- In this circuit the transformer used is of step down type which
consumes 230 volts as input(primary side) and produces output of 10volts,1 amp. This can be
termed as 230votls primary,10v 1amp secondary step down transformer.

2.2. 7808 VOLTAGE REGULATOR:- In the name itself indicates that it is a 8 volt regulator
i.e., 78 indicates series and 08 indicates voltage. This regulator has three pins for three different
purposes and we can name these as pin1, pin2 and pin3. Pin1 is for input , and pin2 is for ground
and finally pin3 is for output. The below diagram indicates the voltage regulator.

If we consider about the pin configuration of this voltage regulator as already stated first two
digits indicate the series and the last two for indicating voltage. The following figures are the
front view and bottom view of the device

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2.3. LM324 QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER: This device consists of 14 pins. It consists
of four independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated operational amplifiers which
were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages.
Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low power supply current drain is
independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.

Application areas include transducer amplifiers, dc gain blocks and


all the conventional operation amplifier circuits which now can be more easily implemented in
single power supply systems. For example, the lm324 series can be directly operated off of the
standard +5v power supply voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the
required interface electronics without requiring the additional +15v power supplies.

The below is the figure of LM 324 quad operational device showing the function of each pin

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2.4. PHOTO-TRANSISTOR:

Like diodes, all transistors are light-sensitive. Phototransistors are designed specifically to take
advantage of this fact. The most-common variant is an npn bipolar transistor with an exposed
base region. Here, light striking the base replaces what would ordinarily be voltage applied at the
base. So, a photo transistor amplifies variations in the light striking it. Note that photo transistors
may or may not have a base lead(if they do the base lead allows to bias the photo transistor light
response).

Fig(a) Fig(b)

Like other transistors it has three terminals namely collector, base and emitter. But in this photo
transistor we don’t give much difference for base i.e., diagrammatically there is no presence of
base. Light is injected through the base region and arrow in the above figure indicates that the
light is being injected in to the photo device called photo transistor. In the figure (a) a photo
diode is connected across the photo transistor and operational concept of photo diode is same as
that of photo transistor. We can replace photo diode with photo transistor.

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Design fundamentals for Photo Transistor circuits:

The common-emitter amplifier circuit (Fig. 1) generates an output which transitions from a high
state to a low state when light in the near-infrared range is detected by the phototransistor. The
wavelength range for light in the near infrared region is about 700 nanometers (nm) to 1100 nm.
The output is created by connecting a resistor between the voltage supply and the collector pin of
the component. The output voltage is read at the terminal of the collector. It is called an amplifier
circuit because the current generated in the component when light is detected is very small.
However, the component has an internal amplifier (in this case a phototransistor) which
magnifies this current to useful levels.

The common-collector amplifier (Fig. 2) generates an output which transitions from a low state
to a high state when IR light is detected by the phototransistor. The output is created by
connecting a resistor between the emitter pin of the component and ground. The output is read at
the emitter terminal.

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In both circuits the phototransistor can be used in two modes, an active mode and a switch mode.
Operating in the active mode means that the phototransistor generates a response proportional to
the light received by the component up to a certain light level. When the amount of light
surpasses that level, the phototransistor becomes saturated and the output will not increase even
as the light level increases. This mode is useful in applications where it is desired to detect two
levels of inputs for comparison. Operating in the switch mode means that the phototransistor will
either be ”off” (cut-off) or ”on” (saturated) in response to the light.
This mode is useful when a digital output is required for object detection or encoder sensing.
By adjusting the load resistor in the amplifier circuit one can set the mode of operation. The
correct value for the resistor can be determined by the following equations:

Active Mode: VCC> RLx ICC

Switch Mode: VCC< RLx ICC

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Typically a resistor value of 5kΩ or higher is adequate to operate the phototransistor in the
switch mode. The high level output voltage in the switching mode should equal the supply
voltage. The low level output voltage in the switching mode should be less than 0.8 Volts.
The circuits just described can be applied to all two pin IR phototransistor components that
Fairchild Semiconductor offers. They can also be applied to three pin phototransistor
components that have a base lead. A third phototransistor circuit (Fig. 3) involves only the three
leaded components that have a base connection. Access to the base allows a base-emitter resistor
to be connected. A high RBE value will prevent low levels of light from triggering the
phototransistor and help provide a more digital output. The collector and emitter terminals can be
connected in the same way as described above. Fairchild Semiconductor offers the three leaded
component in a hermetic (metal can) package only.

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Finally, the phototransistor should be biased (voltage applied to VCC) with 5 Volts. The
maximum bias is 16 V, however the performance of the component doesn’t change with a
greater bias except when the phototransistor is used as a switch -- the high level output will equal
the higher setting.
Note: Fairchild’s photo Darlington products can be used in the same manner as the
phototransistors. The photodarlingtons will provide greater outputs for the same light level
because they have a greater internal gain, but will have a higher saturation voltage and slower
turnoff than the phototransistor devices.

2.5. 2N2222 NPN TRANSISTOR:


In designing purpose these 2n222 transistor are specified for high current and low voltage values.
And these are used for linear amplification and switching.

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2.6. 2955 PNP POWER TRANSISTOR:

This single-in-line package consists of a circuit mounted on a lead frame and encapsulated within
a plastic compound. The compound will withstand soldering temperature with no deformation,
and circuit performance characteristics will remain stable when operated in high humidity
conditions. Leads require no additional cleaning or processing when used in soldered assembly.

In the figure it is observed that there are three terminals as obvious as a normal transistor. The
three terminals can be named as emitter, base and collector. There are some ratings which are
defined for this specific 2955 transistor and some of the ratings are as follows
1. Collector base voltage
2. Collector emitter voltage
3. Base emitter voltage
4. Continuous collector current
5. Continuous base current

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2.7. BD140 PNP MEDIUM POWER TRANSISTOR:

It is designed for use as audio amplifiers and drivers utilizing complementary or quasi
Complementary circuits.
• DC Current Gain — hFE = 40 (Min) @ IC = 0.15 Adc
• BD 136, 138, 140 are complementary with BD 135, 137, 139
The below figure shows the pin configuration of BD140 pnp medium power transistor. Here the
pin 1 shows that emitter, pin 2 shows collector and pin 3 shows the base.

2.8. SL100 NPN TRANSISTOR:


Here the transistor that is used to be npn type and it is general purpose medium power transistor.
The design of this transistor is as same as the normal transistor .

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2.9. 3.3 VOLT ZENER DIODE:

The use of a 3.3-V device in a 5-V system has become a common theme with today’s denser,
faster microcontrollers. Using these processors in a 5-V design, without redesigning the end
system for 3.3 V.

In recent years there have been numerous voltage-regulation solutions introduced specifically to
generate 3.3-V supply power from 5-V supplies. These are broken into three main groups:
passive zener diode, active switching and active linear regulators. The zener diode is the simplest
and least expensive solution, but has a slower response than an active supply. It also requires
strong current biasing, and may dissipate a good deal of power, as the difference voltage is
dropped across the diode and bias resistor.

The nature of this solution is that the current supplied by the 5-V power supply is nearly
constant; this means that as the load current decreases the current is shunted through the zener
diode. The increased current through the zener diode causes a corresponding increase in the
voltage across the zener diode. Because of this, when using this solution, care must be given to
insure that variations in the load do not result in excessive variation in the regulated voltage. A
complete analysis of system current requirements must be completed to properly specify the bias
resistor and zener diode. Care must be taken to include all devices that draw current from the
3.3-V power plane. It is also very important that the zener diode be able to handle the maximum
current shunted from the load. If the zener diode is over driven to the point of failure, the only
protection left for the microcontroller is the series bias resistor which will typically result in the
microcontroller being driven with a voltage over the maximum rated Vcc of 3.6 V.

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CHAPTER-3

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM WITH EXPLANATION OF EACH BLOCK

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

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CIRCUIT OPERATION

In comparator IC1a, the non inverting input is connected to the potential divider
formed by R1 and VR1. VR1 is used to set the offset voltage proportional to the
ambient light intensity. This will create a threshold or datum level for the room light.
The inverting input is connected to a DC voltage derived from mains through diode
D3 and RC network. When there is power v- will be higher than v+ and output of
IC2a goes low which pulls down the input voltage of the follower IC2d. This will
switch off the lamp driver. When there is no power, V+ will be more positive than
V- and output goes high. Now the voltage level at V+ of IC2 depends up on the
output of comparators IC2b and IC2c. The combinations of D4, D5, D7 and R8 form
the wired AND logic. When outputs of all comparators are high, the V+ at the
follower will be high which in turn switches on the lamp driver.

In the second comparator IC2b, the non-inverting input is connected to the


threshold level setting of the ambient light intensity. The inverting input is
connected to an opto-eye. The opto-eye is formed by a photo transistor T5 and
terminating resistor chain R2 and R3. Instead of photo transistor, photo diode can
be used with slight changes in R2 and R3 to increase the sensitivity of photo diode
D10, in reverse bias configuration. When light falls on the photo transistor, it
conducts and a voltage will be developed across the resistors due to the low opto-
current. The conductivity of the photo transistor varies with the intensity of the
ambient light. So when the light intensity of the room is more than the set level, the
voltage at V- will be more than that of V+. The output of comparator IC2b will be
low and it pulls down the V+ of the follower IC2d to low value such that it switches
off the lamp driver. When room is dark enough, the comparator output will be high.
Now if output of the comparator IC2a is also high, the voltage at V+ will depend up
on the output of IC2c.

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Comparator IC2c controls the threshold of the battery to increase its life. In the
charged condition the voltage at V+ will be more than at V- and the comparator
output will be high. Assuming the outputs of IC2b and IC2a are high, the voltage at
V+ of IC2d will switch on transistor T4 which keeps the opto eye insensitive to the
emergency light switched on. The inverting input of IC2c is connected to a voltage
reference of 3.3v. When the battery is getting discharged, the voltage at V+ will
also come down. When the voltage reaches 5.5v the V+ will be adjusted by preset
VR2 to just below 3.3v. Now the output of IC2d will go low which in turn switches off
the lamp. When the lamp is switched off the voltage may go up and there is a
chance of oscillation in the comparator. To avoid this, enough hysterisis is provided
by resistors R5 and R6.

The lamp driver is designed to deliver safely an output of 75w from a 6v lamp.
When the output of IC2d is high, transistor T1 will be on and the collector will be
pulled down to vsat. Now T2 and T3 will be on and the lamp will be switched on.
Diode D9 and resistor R16 form a warming circuit to avoid frequent failure of lamps.
This will keep the filament a little warm and hence control the inrush current during
switching. This will increase the life of the battery also.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM WITH OPERATIONAL DETAILS:

3.1. LM324 QUAD OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER:


3.1.1. Introduction:
The LM324 contains four independent high gain operational amplifiers with internal frequency
compensation. The four op-amps operate over a wide voltage range from a single
Power supply. Also use a split power supply. The device has low power supply current drain,
regardless of the power supply voltage. The low power drain also makes the LM324 a good
choice for battery operation.
The LM324 series are low-cost, quad operational amplifiers with true differential inputs. They
have several distinct advantages over standard operational amplifier types in single supply
applications.

3.1.2. General Description

The LM124 series consists of four independent, high gain, internally frequency compensated
operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply
over a wide range of voltages. Operation from split power supplies is also possible and the low
power supply current drain is independent of the magnitude of the power supply voltage.
Application areas include transducer amplifiers, DC gain blocks and all the conventional op amp
circuits which now can be more easily implemented in single power supply systems. For
example, the LM124 series can be directly operated off of the standard a5V power supply
voltage which is used in digital systems and will easily provide the required interface electronics
without requiring the additional g15V power supplies.

3.1.3. Unique Characteristics

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• In the linear mode the input common-mode voltage range includes ground and the output
voltage can also swing to ground, even though operated from only a single power supply
voltage
• The unity gain cross frequency is temperature compensated
• The input bias current is also temperature compensated

3.1.4. Advantages

• Eliminates need for dual supplies


• Four internally compensated op amps in a single package
• Allows directly sensing near GND and VOUT also goes to GND
• Compatible with all forms of logic
• Power drain suitable for battery operation

3.1.5. Features
• Internally frequency-compensated for unity gain

• Large DC voltage gain:100 dB


• Wide bandwidth(unity gain):1 MHz(temperature-compensated) Wide power supply
range:
• Single supply:3VDC to 32 VDC
• Dual supplies:±1.5VDC to ±16VDC
• Differential input voltage range equal to the power supply voltage

• Power drain suitable for battery operation

• Large output voltage swing:0VDC to VCC-1.5VDC

3.1.6. Representative circuit diagram of LM324:

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3.1.7. Circuit Description:

The LM324 series is made using four internally compensated, two stage operational amplifiers.
The first stage of each consists of differential input devices Q20 and Q18 with input buffer
transistors Q21 and Q17 and the differential to single ended converter Q3 and Q4. The first
stage performs not only the first stage gain function but also performs the level shifting and Tran
conductance reduction functions. By reducing the Tran conductance, a smaller compensation
capacitor (only 5.0 pF) can be employed, thus saving chip area. The Tran conductance reduction
is accomplished by splitting the collectors of Q20 and Q18. Another feature of this input stage is
that the input common mode range can include the negative supply or ground, in single supply
operation, without saturating either the input devices or the differential to single ended converter.
The second stage consists of a standard current source load amplifier stage.

3.1.8. Some performance characteristics of LM324 quad operational amplifier:

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3.2. 7808 +8V REGULATOR

3.2.1. General description:

The linear regulator is the basic building block of nearly every power supply used in electronics.
The IC linear regulator is so easy to use that it is virtually foolproof, and so inexpensive that it is
usually one of the cheapest components in an electronic assembly.
This paper will present information that gives the user greater understanding of how a linear
regulator works, and will help to de-mystify regulator specifications and applications. Some
typical circuits will be presented to highlight the commercial regulators that are currently
available.
The primary focus of the new product examples is in the area of Low-dropout regulators, which
offer great advantages over standard regulators in many applications.
Every electronic circuit is designed to operate off of some supply voltage, which is usually
assumed to be constant. A voltage regulator provides this constant DC output voltage and
contains circuitry that continuously holds the output voltage at the design value regardless of
changes in load current or input voltage (this assumes that the load current and input voltage are
within the specified operating range fourth part).
A voltage regulator is a constant voltage source that adjusts its internal resistance to any occurring
changes of load resistance to provide a constant voltage at the regulator output.

3.2.2. The 78xx Series of Regulators

There are many types of regulator IC and each type will have different pin-outs and will need to
be connected up slightly differently. Therefore, this article will only look at one of the common
ranges of regulator, the 78xx series.

There are seven regulators in the 78xx series, and each can pass up to 1A to any connected
circuit. There are also regulators with similar type numbers that can pass a higher or lower
current, as shown in the table below. In addition, variable regulators are available, as are
regulators that can provide negative regulation voltages for circuits that require them.

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Type Number Regulation Voltage Maximum Current Minimum Input Voltage
78L05 +5V 0.1A +7V
78L12 +12V 0.1A +14.5V
78L15 +15V 0.1A +17.5V
78M05 +5V 0.5A +7V
78M12 +12V 0.5A +14.5V
78M15 +15V 0.5A +17.5V
7805 +5V 1A +7V
7806 +6V 1A +8V
7808 +8V 1A +10.5V
7812 +12V 1A +14.5V
7815 +15V 1A +17.5V
7824 +24V 1A +26V
78S05 +5V 2A +8V
78S09 +9V 2A +12V
78S12 +12V 2A +15V
78S15 +15V 2A +18V

3.2.3. Ripple Voltage

If you are using a regulator after the smoothing block of the power supply, then you shouldn't
need to worry about the ripple voltage, since the whole point of using a regulator is to get a
stable, accurate, known voltage for your circuits! However, if the ripple voltage is too large and
the input voltage to the regulator falls below the regulated voltage of the regulator, then of course
the regulator will not be able to produce the correct regulated voltage. In fact, the input voltage
to a regulator should usually be at least 2V above the regulated voltage. In our power supply
circuit, the input to the 7805 regulator is around 12V, and the regulation voltage is 5V, so there is
plenty of headroom. The maximum input voltage to any 78xx regulator is 30V.

3.3. SL100 NPN TRANSISTOR:

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The device specification of SL100 transistor is as follows:
TYPE: SL100
POLARITY: NPN
APPLICATION: General purpose medium power transistor
PACKAGE: TO-39

Some of the important characteristics of this transistor are as given below:

• Collector-Emitter voltage
• Collector-Base voltage
• Emitter-Base voltage
• Total power dissipation @ Ta=25deg Celsius
• Collector current
• Operating & storage junction temperature

3.4. 2n2222 NPN TRANSISTOR:

3.4.1. General description:

In general depends upon their operation transistor are two types and those are pnp and npn types.
These can be shown in the below forms:

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A bipolar junction transistor consists of three regions of doped semiconductors. A small current
in the center or base region can be used to control a larger current flowing between the end
regions (emitter and collector). The device can be characterized as a current amplifier, having
many applications for amplification and switching.

3.4.2. NPN Characteristic Curves:

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For IB = 10 µA, 20 µA, 30 µA, ... , 80 µA

3.4.3. PHOTO SENSOR

The photo sensor circuit operates in the following way: When light shines on the Cadmium
Sulfide photocell, the resistance across the leads of the photocell decreases. This decrease in
resistance brings the base of the 2N2222 transistor "closer" to ground and, therefore, starts to
turn off the transistor. If enough light illuminates the photocell, the transistor will shut off and the
input pin to the PIC16C84 will be pulled "high" by the 10K resistor. Otherwise, as long as the
transistor is on, the input pin of the PIC16C84 will be pulled "low" through the collector-emitter
junction of the transistor. The 47K ohm variable resistor is used to set the threshold level of the
light detection circuit. The 150 ohm resistor is used to keep from frying the transistor in the event
that the 47K ohm variable resistor is adjusted such that there is NO resistance across the 47K
ohm variable resistor (the base of an NPN transistor is shorted to the emitter via a diode - if you
were to put a regular diode in the forward bias position across a battery or power supply, you
would see exactly what would happen to the transistor if the 150 ohm resistor was left out and
the 47K ohm variable resistor was adjusted to "NO" resistance).

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3.5. PHOTO TRANSISTOR:

3.5.1. General characteristics and features:


Phototransistors are solid state light detectors that possess internal gain. This makes them much
more sensitive than photodiodes of comparably sized area. These devices can be used to provide
either an analog or digital output signal. This family of detectors offers the following general
characteristics and features:
• Low cost visible and near-IR photo detection
• Available with gains from 100 to over 1500
• Moderately fast response times
• Available in a wide range of packages including epoxy coated, transfer molded, cast, hermetic
packages, and in chip form
• Usable with almost any visible or near infrared light source such as IREDs; neon, fluorescent,
incandescent bulbs; lasers; flame
Sources; sunlight; etc.
• Same general electrical characteristics as familiar signal transistors (except that incident light
replaces base drive current)

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3.5.2. Applications

Phototransistors can be used as ambient light detectors. When used with a controllable light
source, typically an IRED, they are often employed as the detector element for optoisolators and
Tranmissive or reflective optical switches. Typical configurations include:

3.5.3. Optoisolator
The optoisolator is similar to a transformer in that the output is electronically isolated from the
input.
3.5.4. Optical Switch
An object is detected when it enters the gap of the optical switch and blocks the light path
between the emitter and detector.
3.5.5. Retro Sensor
The retro sensor detects the presence of an object by generating light and then looking for its
reflectance off of the object
to be sensed.

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3.6. RESULT:
Hence the IC controlled emergency light can be constructed from the components
mentioned above in which automatic feature is involved by making use of the photo devices like
photo diode, photo transistor, photo sensor, e.t.c.

3.7. CONCLUSION:

This circuit can also be extended to a higher output voltage for which the charging voltage and
the load are to be chosen accordingly. All the other components involved in the circuit are of
same value.

3.8. FUTURE SCOPE: The emergency light which uses IC is a reliable one comparing to other
non IC emergency lights and there is an automatic feature by which itself get glows.

3.9. REFERENCES:

Websites:

 www.google.com

 www.wikipedia.org

 www.datasheetcatalog.com

Text books:

 Linear and Digital circuit IC applications by Roy Choudary

 Electronic devices and circuits by Jocab Milliman

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