Poli Sci 362 Midterm Rubab Khan

Answer to Question 1 The development of the U.N. was established after the Second World War. Before the U.N. we had the League of Nations. It was dissolved once it failed in preventing a Second World War. The League of Nations was simply formed with the primary function to disarm Nations. The U.N. was formed with a plethora of functions outlined in its charter with different organs overseeing different tasks. The U.N. has been fairly successful in most of its roles because it learned from its predecessor the League of Nations. The term, United Nations was first used by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Roosevelt and Churchill developed The Declaration of the United Nations on January 1, 1942. It was actually formed between all nations fighting against the Axis Powers (Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union), promising not to form any other alliances. It was basically stating that once the war was won, a formal peacekeeping organization, called the United Nations, would be officially established to promote peace. By 1952 it was up and running (Lecture). It took into account problems of its predecessor the League of Nations. The U.N. speaks from its outset of a more expanded role. Unlike the League of Nations it’s primarily role is not just peace and security. The role of safeguarding peace is given to the Security Council and General Assembly. The Security Council is made up of five permanent members-The U.S., China, France, UK and Germany. There are also ten members elected for two-year terms. The P-5 hold veto power (theory of UN collective

has one strong point that the League of Nations never had and that is the .pg 319) Henig suggests that the League was endowed with five roles :it was to act as a standing international conference on disputes . In contrast the League of Nations was made to make sure no more wars would happen. According to Smith (International Politics. will not impede on state rights.pg 9).N.pg 320-322). as a part of and executor of the post-war settlement. World War II caused the League of Nations to fail in its primary purpose. Veto Power basically means any one decision made by the Security Council can be overturned if even one member of the P-5 vote against it. It was to keep the balance as well as mutual peace. speaks from its outset of an expanded role. The main problem was that most nations did not want to submit to the League (Smith. human rights and collective security (Lecture). The General Assembly is an open forum of discussion where all states are represented. The U.N. The Charter outlines that the U.N. It had some successes however but these successes were not a requirement of its formation. It was basically made to insure peace. as a guarantee body. and as a co-coordinator of 'non political' and technical bodies.N.N. are also elected here (Theory of U.pg7-8). The U. Heads of different organizations oversee functions of U. It will respect sovereignty of other states. as an agency for pursuing disarmament. It wants to promote development. free trade. The League was responsible for the Geneva Conference which till this day is cited and followed (Lecture). collective Security.Security. It’s main basis was to keep Germany down. Unfortunately.

the U. mission is never a success but when observing the charter and the type of body the U. At times in the past. However.N. regulatory body. it has not failed in its role of diplomacy. It is soft power not hard power that will work.N. Each section of the U. was formed and separated into subdivisions to carry out multiple operations. is and continues to perform the duties of a diplomatic body. such as in the 1970s and 80s the U.U.N. The U. is. It has had its successes and failures. was put on the back burner. he means no one nation can do as they please because in the modern world of today all countries are intertwined with one another. serves a specific purpose but all work together to promote the goals of the U. the U.N.N. made decisions outside of the U.N. is not there as a governing body. charter. The League of Nations failed because it’s main purpose of being created was as a body to disarm other nations and prevent a Second World War. The U. Answer to Question 2 When Ghali speaks of ending absolute sovereignty in relation to peacekeeping.S. According to its preamble and charter.N (Introduction Theory of U.S. The rise of Nazi Germany and World War II showed that the League of Nations failed in its main purpose. it is operating successfully. The Kuwait operation when troops were sent to stop Saddam Hussein can be cited as a success. Each U. However. the U. Sovereignty no longer means the same as it did since the formation of the League of . as its member. Collective Security). It is also determined not to make the same mistakes as the League of Nations.N. It is there as a plural and decentralized body (Introduction Theory of U.N.N.N. Collective Security). is a diplomatic. However.N.

of securing justice and human rights and of promoting. charter was ratified.N. Ghali goes on to state conviction has grown. Since the U. in the words of the Charter. States give up their absolute sovereignty to achieve a greater goal-collective security. countries pool their resources together to form an army. One could even say they are there as baby sitters. When going to a different country. These troops may not attack (Lecture). freedom from external control and autonomy according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary. "social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom". peace keeping has changed from something forced to something overseen. They are simply there to keep states in check. Introduction).a United Nations capable of maintaining international peace and security.N. especially over a political body. They are all entangled with one another and work with each other to maintain as well as achieve international security. The thing is that in Ghalis an Agenda for peace he says The United Nations is a gathering of sovereign States and what it can do depends on the common ground that they create between them (An Agenda for Peace. When we look at the definition of Sovereignty it basically means supreme power. When troops are needed and sent by the U. If you ask me. Their presence alone is supposed to deter and change international . This army is no longer under the control of its state.Nations. This opportunity must not be squandered.N. they are not allowed to impede upon a states rights. In a way. Troops do as little as possible. It is under the mandates of the U. Introduction). among nations large and small. this means that no one state can be completely autonomic. that an opportunity has been regained to achieve the great objectives of the Charter . The Organization must never again be crippled as it was in the era that has now passed (An Agenda for Peace.

Conversely. Effectually if you do not remain peaceful the U. will force you to remain peaceful. pg 11).N. To say whether the U. pg 23). It is the Security Council alone that decides when and what force .N. In today’s world we need ‘soft laws’.N. peacekeeping missions (International Peace and Security. International Organizations.N has been successful in peacekeeping operations or not depends on ones Point of View. sent troops as a military observer group in 24rth January 1949. Troops are not supposed to get in the way. troops are not allowed to use force. pg. monitoring and reporting. Troops who violate these mandates are sent home. when the partition between Pakistan and India occurred. Peace keeping in the 90s was mainly buffering. From 1995 to December 2004 NATOS presence in Bosnia is an example of successful U. It can take on multiple forms when a formal agreement is not possible. It acknowledges the responsibility to protect and seen as the soft law basis for humanitarian intervention especially when peoples rights are not protected by a state. ethnic cleansing or other major human rights violations the R2P comes in (Mingst. The violation changes diplomacy credibility of the U. When these rights are at risk and can cause genocide.N (Lecture). peacekeeping goals are mainly to not intervene but just oversee and report back (lecture). However. U. This is endorsed in 2005 in the UN sponsored World Summit endorsement. U. For example. when you look at peacekeeping from the United Nations perspective.N.N. they have been successful. This is because U. U. They act as a buffer and monitor.N. 22-23).relations. Reliance on Regional Organizations cannot be done to maintain security as in the example of Zimbabwe and the African Union (International Peace and Security. The United Nations Charter itself states that it will respect state sovereignty but will keep states in check (Lecture).

the United Nations main goal is not to engage in active combat during peacekeeping missions. Though U.N. Again. No one state has complete power.N. Ideally. Ideally. pg5). It is to act as a cushion and cause fear of hurting international relations. Rather Sovereignty of States has become more of a de facto Sovereignty because all states are now intertwined with each other. There is still the U. member states (International Peace and Security.N. to answer to as well as risk of hurting international relations. peacekeeping may not completely stop violence. No one government can conquer another or disturb peace in fear of retribution from fellow U.N.N.N. one could say that successful U. its outright disapproval and presence of troops can go a long way to send a clear message. peacekeeping is done once troops have landed at their designated spot because their presence alone is supposed to have an effect on international relations. charter it has been agreed that all states ban together to prevent each other from using coercion to gain advantage. The theory is basically that the United Nations presence should be force enough to perpetuate peace. it is the hope that this presence alone persuades an end to the conflict. charter. Since the ratification of the U. . This is why conditions of truly effective U.will be used (Lecture).N. peacekeeping are more conceptual. Sovereignty has without a doubt changed since the ratification of the U.

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