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The “Vit”-Roots

in the Anglo-Saxon Pedigree


Joannes Richter

Abstract
This paper documents a number of “wit”- and “tiw”-roots in the chapter Anglo-Saxon Genealogy in
Grimm's Teutonic Mythology. “Wit”-roots refer to Woden and “Tiw”-roots refer to the god “Tiw”,
“Tuw” or “Tue”.
The Saxon Chronicle says the Jutes occupied Kent and the Isle of Wight, the Saxons Essex, Sussex
and Wessex, the Angles Eastangle, Mercia and Northumberland.
The names of Woden's posterity in the pedigrees for Kent (Wôden → Wecta / Wehta → Witta →
Withgils) and Mercia (Woden → Withelgeatus → Waga → Wihtleagus) contain “wit”-cores.
Odhinn had three sons. One of these sons (Vegdeg) ruled over East Saxony; his son was called
Vitrgils, and had two sons, Ritta (al. Picta, evid. Witta, Wicta).
Tuisco seems to be cognate to Tiw, which may represent a reversed form of Wit. In Gothic dialect
the god would be Thiudiska, in OHG. Diutisco, the offspring of the people (thiuda, diot) itself.
Summary
In Saxony the ruling dynasty seems to be based on the cores “Wit” and “Wet”1, representing “Tiw”,
“Vut”, and “wit” (“we two”, etc.). The Saxon rulers therefore may have based the naming
conventions for Wittekind (Widukind), Wittenberg, Wettin, vitin (etc.) on the principal runes “ᚠᚢᚦ”
(“Vuth” or “Wyth”), which may have to be interpreted as “sacred” words.
All Anglo-Saxon pedigrees go back to Wôden, who seems to form a common ancestor. Wôden's
ancestry does not refer to “wit”-roots.
In Teutonic Mythology Jacob Grimm describes Kent's pedigree as Wôden → Wecta / Wehta2 →
Witta → Withgils. Witta and Wada are also found in The Traveller's Song.
Mercia's posterity may be described as Woden, Withelgeatus, Waga, Wihtleagus, …
Odhinn had three sons, Vegdeg, Beldeg, Sigi, who ruled over East Saxons, respectively Vestfal and
Franken. Vegdeg (al. Veggdegg, Vegdreg) rules over East Saxons; his son was called Vitrgils, and
had two sons, Ritta (al. Picta, evid. Witta, Wicta).
Tuisco seems to be cognate to Tiw, which may represent a reversed form of Wit. In Gothic dialect
the god would be Thiudiska, in OHG. Diutisco, the offspring of the people (thiuda, diot) itself.

1 The Traces of "Wit" in Saxony


2 In Florence of Worc. 566, the name “Vecta” is also written as “Wehta”: 'Vecta sive Wehta, Witta, Wihtgisilus';
The Anglo-Saxon Genealogy
Jacob Grimm analysed the names of Bede's Anglo-Saxon pedigree, which basically is restricted to
Kent. The other lists have been reconstructed from later papers. All derived pedigrees go back to
Wôden, who seems to form a common ancestor.
It is convenient to divide these genealogies in two halves, a Descending series and an Ascending. At
Woden's sons they begin to split, in him they all unite. Jacob Grimm will first describe Wôden's
posterity (descending from Wôden) and then deal with Wôden's Ancestry, which is the same for all.

Woden's posterity
The Anglo-Saxons, who left Germany for Britain in the 5-6th centuries, carried with
them data of the descent of their noblest families. These all go back to Wôden, and
some of them a great deal higher, naming a whole series of gods or deified heroes as
Wôden's ancestors. After the conversion to Christianity, they tried to connect this line of
kings and gods with the O.T. tradition of the earliest race of man3.

Our forefathers, caught in a natural delusion, began early to ascribe the origin of the
seven days names to the native gods of their fatherland. William of Malmesbury,
relating the arrival of the Saxons in Britain, says of Hengist and Horsa, that they were
sprung from the noblest ancestry:

Erant enim abnepotes illius antiquissimi Voden, de quo omnium pene barbararum
gentium regium genus lineam trahit, quemque gentes Anglorum deum esse delirantes,
ei quartum diem septimanae, et sextum uxori ejus Freae perpetuo ad hoc tempus
consecraverunt sacrilegio (Savile 1601. p. 9). More circumstantially, Geoffrey of
Monmouth (lib. 6. ed. 1587, p. 43) makes Hengist say to Yortigern: Ingressi sumus
maria, regnum tuum duce Mercurio petivimus. Ad nomen itaque Mercurii erecto vultu
rex inquirit cujusmodi religionem haberent? Cui Hengistus: deos patrios Saturnum,
atque ceteros, qui munclum gubernant, colimus, maxime Mercurium (as in Tac. 9.),
quern Woden lingua nostra appellamus.4

Beyond all doubt these pedigrees were pre-christian, were known to Angles and Saxons
in their old home, and therefore must have been equally diffused among other German
nations on the Continent: every part of them shows connexion with national names and
old heathen poetry. I am inclined to credit the Frisians, Westphals, and also Franks with
possessing similar genealogies, though the emigrant Anglo-Saxons alone have
preserved them for us. We know that the Anglo-Saxons formed 7 or 8 distinct
kingdoms, founded on a pre-existing diversity in the immigrant tribes, and thus
answering exactly to the difference of their genealogies.

3 Page 1170-1171 (chapter: Anglo-Saxon Genealogies) in Teutonic Mythology Vol. 2 (Phoenix Edition)
4 Page 128 in 12106034 Grimm Teutonic Mythology Vol 1 – by Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm (Vol. 1, 1882)
The Saxon Chronicle says the Jutes occupied Kent and the Isle of Wight5, the Saxons
Essex, Sussex and Wessex, the Angles Eastangle, Mercia and Northumberland. Of
Wessex, the state that soon overtopped and finally swallowed up the rest, the genealogy
is the most fully preserved. Those of Kent, Mercia, Deira (Brit. Deifyr) and Bernicia
(Brit. Bryneich, Northumbria) are also handed down in old documents. Less genuine, or
not so well accredited in certain names, appear the lines of Eastangle, Essex and
Lindesfarn-ey.6

I begin with the general remark, that seven sons are here ascribed to Wôden (for
Bernicia and Wessex keep together till the third generation). But some chroniclers give
him only three ; thus William of Malmesbury, speaking of the Mercian line, says p. 17:

possem hoc loco istius (Idae) et aliorum alibi lineam seriatim intexere, nisi quod ipsa
vocabula, barbarum quiddam stridentia, minus quam vellem delectationis lecturis
infunderent. Illud tamen non immerito notandum, quod, cum Wodenio fuerint tres filii,
Weldegius, Withlegius et Beldegius, de primo reges Cantuaritarum, de secundo reges
Merciorum, et de tertio reges Westsaxonum et Northanimbrorum originem traxerunt.'

5 A Wight (Old English: wiht) is a creature or living sentient being. In Domesday Book Isle of Wight is named Wit; the
modern Welsh name is Ynys Wyth (ynys = island). These are all variant forms of the same name, possibly Celtic in
origin. It may mean "place of the division", because the island divides the two arms of the Solent.
6 Page 1170-1171 (chapter: Anglo-Saxon Genealogies) in Teutonic Mythology Vol. 2 (Phoenix Edition)
Beda
Our earliest authority for these pedigrees is Beda [d. 735], and he only mentions that of
Kent, yet in such a way that we may safely suppose he knew them all. Succeeding
centuries furnish fuller accounts.

Wôden's pedigree

Fig. 1: Wôden's Posterity (in Grimm's Teutonic Mythology Vol. 2 (Phoenix Edition))

In Kent Wôden's pedigree starts with the names: Wôden → Wecta / Wehta7 → Witta → Withgils.
The four initial names of this pedigree seem to be founded on the roots Wôd, Weht, Wit, With.
In the following chapters I quote Grimm's relevant documentation for the eight departments (Kent,
Eastanglia, Essex, Mercia, Deira, Bernicia [Northumberland], Wessex, Lindisfaran), in which the
“wit”-roots respectively “Tiw”-roots are marked in yellow respectively green.

7 In Florence of Worc. 566, the name “Vecta” is also written as “Wehta”: 'Vecta sive Wehta, Witta, Wihtgisilus';
Kent
According to Grimm the Saxon Chronicle specifies the initial segment of Kent's posterity as
follows:
'Hengest and Horsa that waeron Wihtgilses suna, Wihtgils wæs Witting, Witta Wecting,
Wecta Wôdning, fram tham Wôdne âwôc eall ûre cynecynn, and Sûdhanhymbra eác.'

• In Ethelwerd the 3 links between Wothen and Hengest are Withar, Wicta, Wyhrtels;
• in Florence of Worc. 566, 'Vecta sive Wehta, Witta, Wihtgisilus;
• and in Henry of Hunt. Vecta, Wicta, Widgils.
In contrast to the “wit”-root Grimm suggests the names Wictgisl, Wicta, Wecta are cognate to
horses:
The names Hengest and Horsa are taken from the horse; one might also suspect in
Wictgisl, Wicta, Wecta the presence of wicg, OS. wigg, ON. vigg (equus), conf. Lat.
Vehere8.

The name Witta may also be a Suevian / Swabian king's name in the Traveller's Song:
The Traveller's Song, line 43, brings up a Witta, king of the Swæfas (Swabians) ; could
this name serve to explain the obscure wittu in our Hildebrand-lied ?9

In fact also the name “wada” (in line # 44) contains a relevant “wad”-root10:

2 Witta and Wada in The


Traveller's Song

8 The Saxon Chron. p. 15 : quoted on Page 1712 in Grimm's Teutonic Mythology Vol. 2 (Phoenix Edition) pdf
9 Page 1712 in Grimm's Teutonic Mythology Vol. 2 (Phoenix Edition) pdf
10 The Anglo-Saxon poems of Beowulf, the Travellers Song and the .
Mercia
According to Grimm the Saxon Chronicle specifies the initial segment of Mercia's pedigree as
follows:
The Sax. Chr. p. 33-4: Penda wees Wybbing, Wybba Crŷding, Crŷda Cynewalding,
Gynewald Cnebbing, Cnebba Iceling, Icel Eomæring, Eomær Angeltheowing,
Angeltheow Offing, Offa Wærmunding, Wærmund Wihtlæging, Wihtlæg Wôdening.

In Florence 566 : Woden, Withelgeatus, Waga, Wihtleagus, Weremundus, Offa,


Angengeatus, Eomerus, Icelius, Cnebba, Cunewaldus, Creoda sive Crida primus rex
Merciorum, Wibba ;

Langhorn seems to draw from Florence : Vitelgeia, Vaga, Vitlegius, Veremundus, Offa
al. Uffa, Angongeta, Eumerus, Icelius, Cnebba, Cunevaldus, Crida.

Langhorn, Florence, Matthew and Gale's App. insert betw. Wôden and Wihtlæg two
names that are wanting in Ralph and the Chron., Wihtelgeát (Frethegeat) and Waga
(Gueagon).

As Florence puts Angen-geat for Angel-theow, his Vithelgeát might elsewh. have been
Vithel-theow, but Gale too has Guedol-geat.

Wihtlæg seems faultless, Will. Malmesb. p. 17 has Withlegius, and even Guithlig in
Gale confirms the short æ or e.

Yet Ralph s Witlat agrees better with the ON. Vigletus in Saxo Gram. 59; and it is a
point of importance to our whole inquiry, that the series Vigletus, Vermundus, Uffo of
the Dan. genealogy (Saxo Gr. 59 65) is so evid. the same as the Mercian.
1

Bernicia or Northumberland
Bernicia or Northumberland has its first two descendants of Woden in common with
Wessex. - Sax. Chr. p. 23 (yr. 547) : 'her Ida feng tô rîce, thonon Nordhanhymbra
cynecyn ærost onwôc. Ida wæs Eopping, Eoppa, Esing, Esa Inguing, Ingui
Angenwiting, Angenwit Alocing, Aloc Beonocing, Beonoc Branding, Brand Bældæging,
Bældæg Wodening.'

Wessex
In this series of Westsaxon names, the chief stress is to be laid on Woden's son Bceldceg
(Beldeg, Beldig, Belde in Asser and those who follow him, Balder in Ethelwerd), evid.
the Norse Baldur son of Odin;

Lindesfaran
These were a separate race, who had settled in a small island off the Northumbrian
coast, and named it after them Lindesfarena-ea (Beda, 3, 17. 4, 12. Sax. Chr. ann. 780.
793), otherw. Halig ealand, now Holy Island. I find their genealogy in Flor. 566 :
Woden, Winta, Cretta, Quelpgilfus, Ceadbed, Bubba, Beda, Eanferthus ;
Whitby
Several ancient locations such as Whitby and the Isle of Wight may be cognate to the “wit”-roots. I
documented the name Whitby as follows:
Whitby is home to the ruins of Whitby Abbey, where Cædmon, the earliest recognised
English poet, lived. Jet and alum were mined locally, and Whitby Jet, which was mined
by the Romans and Victorians, became fashionable during the 19th century.

The earliest record of a permanent settlement is in 656, when as Streanæshealh it was


the place where Oswy, the Christian king of Northumbria, founded the first abbey, under
the abbess Hilda. The Synod of Whitby was held there in 664 and established the
Roman date of Easter in Northumbria at the expense of the Celtic one.[6]

In 867, the monastery was destroyed by Viking raiders. Another monastery was founded
in 1078. It was in this period that the town gained its current name, Whitby (from "white
settlement" in Old Norse).

Whitby was called Streanæshalc, Streneshalc, Streoneshalch, Streoneshalh, and


Streunes-Alae in Lindissi in records of the 7th and 8th centuries. Prestebi, meaning the
"habitation of priests" in Old Norse, is an 11th century name. Its name was recorded as
Hwitebi and Witebi, meaning the "white settlement" in Old Norse, in the 12th century,
Whitebi in the 13th century and Qwiteby in the 14th century.[4]

In his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (AD 731) Bede describes the git-sources in Britain as
follows:
Britain has also many veins of metals, as copper, iron, lead, and silver; it has much and
excellent jet, which is black and sparkling, glittering at the fire, and when heated,
drives away serpents; being warmed with rubbing, it holds fast whatever is applied to
it, like amber.

As a "habitation of priests" and the location for Whitby Abbey Whitby may as well be named after
the root word “wit” (“Woden”, “knowledge”, the dual form “we two”) instead of "white settlement"
in Old Norse.
Witan
The witan is defined as “wise man”, who between the 7th century until the 11th century was a
member of an assembly whose primary function was to advise the king:
The Witenagemot (Old English: witena ġemōt, "meeting of wise men"), also known as
the Witan (more properly the title of its members), was a political institution in Anglo-
Saxon England which operated from before the 7th century until the 11th century. The
Witenagemot was an assembly of the tribe whose primary function was to advise the
king and whose membership was composed of the most important noblemen in
England, both ecclesiastic and secular.

Witan is used in sources such as the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle:


But the word carries with it, however unjustifiably, a fustian air of decayed scholarship,
and, in addition, its use may seem to prejudge the answer to an important question: do
we have here an institution, a capitalized 'Witan', as it were, or merely a lower-case ad
hoc gathering of the wise men who were the king's councillors?

For decades Witan and Witenaġemot have been avoided by historians, although these words are
cognate to “wit”:
Henrietta Leyser commented in 2017 that for decades historians avoided using the word
'witan' for assemblies in case they were interpreted as proto-parliaments, and she went
on: "Recent historiography, however, has reintroduced the term since it is clear that it
was generally accepted that certain kinds of business could only be transacted with a
substantial number of the king's wise men, in other words, in the company of his
'witan'" She does not mention the term 'witanagemot'.[6]11

The first recorded act of a witenagemot was the law code issued by King Æthelberht of Kent ca.
A.D. 600, the earliest document which survives in sustained Old English prose; however, the witan
was certainly in existence long before this time.[9]
Even when summoned explicitly by kings, the witenagemots did not represent the
political will of all England: before the unification of England in the 10th century,
separate witenagemots were convened by the Kings of Essex, Kent, Mercia,
Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex. Indeed, even after Wessex became the dominant
power in England, supplanting the other kingdoms, local witan continued to meet until
as late as 1067. 12

The origin of witan is cognate to “witness” (or “to wit”, resp. in Dutch “weten”; German “wissen”
[“to know”]):
It is generally accepted that the English witenagemot had its origins in ancient
Germanic assemblies summoned to witness royal grants of land. Yet whatever their
status in the 4th and 5th centuries, the nature of these assemblies in England was
irrevocably changed when Christianity was introduced, circa A.D.600. Hereafter, church
and state were "inseparably intertwined," and this was reflected in the strong
ecclesiastical element in the witan's membership and concerns; records of decisions
made by witan encompass ecclesiastical and secular jurisdictions alike.[28] 13

11 Terminology (Witenagemot)
12 Constitution and limitations (Witenagemot)
13 Origin (Witenagemot)
Woden's Ancestry
So far we have dealt with Woden's descendants. In treating of his ancestors, we shall
again have to separate the purely heathen ones from those that were added after the
Bible genealogy became known.

Some accounts reach back only 4 generations, others 8 or 16, stopping either at
Fridhuwulf, Geat or Sceaf. Generally speaking, Sceaf is the oldest heathen name in any
of the pedigrees.

Woden's ancestors Notes

1. Sceaf (Bedwig) Sceaf is the oldest heathen name in any of the


pedigrees
2. Bedwig (Hwala)
3. Hwala (Hathra)
4. Hathra (Itermod)
5. Itermon (Heremod)
6. Heremod (Sceaf)
7. Sceldwa
8. Beaw
9. Tsetwa
10. Geat
11. Godwulf (Folcwald)
12. Finn
13. Fridhuwulf
14. Freawine (Frealaf)
15. Fridhuwald
16. Woden
Table 1 Woden's Ancestry

at p. 95 (under Wessex) the line is given more fully and exactly :

Woden Fridhuwalding, Fridhuwald Freawining, Fredwine Fridhuwulfing, Fridhowulf


Finning, Finn Godwulfing, Godivulf Geating, Geat Tsetwaing, Tcetwa Beawing, Beaw
Sceldwaing, Sceldwa Heremoding, Heremod Itermoning, Itermon Hathraing, Hathra
Hwalaing, Hwala Bedwiging, Bedwig Sceafing.

Observe too, that it is side by side with Fin that Beow. 2159-86. 2248 introduces
Hengest, a great name with the [Kentishmen ;must not they have been a Frisian rather
than a Jutish race ?

Fin's grandfather, Folcwald's father, Gedt, was worshipped as a god ; this is expressly
affirmed by many chroniclers, while Woden's divinity is passed over in silence.
Odin's Posterity
It goes on to say, that Odhinn had three sons, Vegdeg, Beldeg, Sigi, who ruled over East Saxons,
respectively Vestfal and Franken.
1 Vegdeg (al. Veggdegg, Vegdreg) rules over East Saxons; his son was East Saxons
called Vitrgils, and had two sons, Ritta (al. Picta, evid. Witta, Wicta) the
father of Heingest, and Sigarr the father of Svebdegg er ver köllum
Svipdag.
2 Beldeg er v. k. Baldr, rules over Vestfal ; his son is Brandr, his son Vestfal
Friodhigar er v. k. Frôdha, his son Freovit (al. Freovin), his son Yvigg,
his son Gevis er v. k. Gave.
3 Sigi (al. Siggi) has a son Verir (al. Rerir) ; from them are descended the Franken
Völsûngar that rule Franken.
Table 2: Odhinn's three sons, Vegdeg, Beldeg, Sigi

Witekind of Corvei
It is much to be lamented that in Continental Germany, where they must have existed,
such pedigrees were never jotted down. Witekind of Corvei14, or his predecessor Bovo
I15, could have given us priceless information about them.

A table in Samuel Reyher's Monum. landgravior. Thuringiae16 (Menken 2, 829. 830),


which brings the fictitious line of a Saxon king Artharicus down to 'Bodo vel Voden',
and then foists in Vecta vel Vichtus, Witta vel Wittich, Witgistus vel Witgislus,
Hengistus, is taken from Petrus Albinus' (d. 1598) Novae Saxonum Historiae
Progymnasmata (Viteberg17. 1585). Albinus had copied an AS. Chronicler.

14 Widukind of Corvey (c. 925 – after 973)


15 Bovo I, Abbot of Corvey (880 - † 890)
16 Monumenta Landgraviorum Thuringiae et Marchionum Misniae, quae adhuc in Thuringia Misnia Saxonia Superiore
Franconia Et Hassia extant: Historico-Genealogica descriptione illustrata
Reyher, Samuel(1635-1714). - Gothae, 1692
17 WITEBERGAE → Wittenberg
Tuisco
Tuisco seems to be cognate to Tiw, which may represent a reversed form of Wit.
Lastly, we turn to Mannus's own father, the earth-born Tuisco. What if the word be
formed like mannisco, and abbrev. from tiudisco ?

The O.Fr. Tydios was shortened to Thyois, Tyois, Tiois, Thiodonis-villa [Dieten-hofen]
to Thion-ville.

In Gothic dialect the god would be Thiudiska, in OHG. Diutisco, the offspring of the
people (thiuda, diot) itself. And the national name Teuto, Tiuto (OHG. Dieto) might be
near of kin to Tiudisco. – But an entirely different derivation, suggested by Lachmann,
seems preferable: Tuisco = Tvisco, the twin, δίδυμος, OHG. Zuisco, meaning perhaps
one of the Dios-curi, the 'Castor Polluxque' of Tacitus (p. 66) ?

The form Tuisto least of all lends itself to explanation, though there are some
derivatives in -st, -ist ; and to connect AS. Taetwa with Teuto or Tuisto would seem
hazardous.

Anyhow we shall not explain everything ; it is enough to have proved that in Tacitus'
German theogony we see an unmistakable connexion with later traditions.18

18 Page 1736 in in Teutonic Mythology Vol. 2 (Phoenix Edition)


Contents
Abstract.................................................................................................................................................1
Summary...............................................................................................................................................2
The Anglo-Saxon Genealogy ..............................................................................................................3
Woden's posterity.............................................................................................................................3
Beda.................................................................................................................................................5
Wôden's pedigree........................................................................................................................5
Kent........................................................................................................................................6
Mercia.....................................................................................................................................7
Bernicia or Northumberland...................................................................................................7
Wessex....................................................................................................................................7
Lindesfaran.............................................................................................................................7
Whitby.............................................................................................................................................8
Witan................................................................................................................................................9
Woden's Ancestry...........................................................................................................................10
Odin's Posterity..............................................................................................................................11
Witekind of Corvei.........................................................................................................................11
Tuisco.............................................................................................................................................12
Appendix – Overview of the published papers of Joannes Richter at Academia.edu........................14
Appendix – Overview of the published papers of Joannes Richter at Academia.edu
• The “Vit”-roots in the Anglo-Saxon pedigree
• The Traces of "Wit" in Saxony
• King Chilperic I's letters (ΔΘZΨ) may be found at the beginning ("Futha") of the runic
alphabet and at the end (WIJZAE) of the Danish alphabet
• Aan het slot (WIJZAE) van het Deense alfabet en aan het begin ("Futha") van het
runenalfabet bevinden zich de letters (ΔΘZΨ) van koning Chilperik I
• The Role of the Ligature AE in the European Creation Legend
• A Concept for a Runic Dictionary
• Concentrating the Runes in the Runic Alphabets
• Traces of Vit, Rod and Chrodo
• De sleutelwoorden van het Futhark alfabet
• The Keywords of the Futhark Alphabet
• Het runenboek met het unieke woord Tiw
• A short Essay about the Evolution of European Personal Pronouns
• The Evolution of the European Personal Pronouns
• De miraculeuze transformatie van de Europese samenleving
• The Miraculous Transformation of European Civilization
• The Duality in Greek and Germanic Philosophy
• Bericht van de altaarschellist over de Lof der Zotheid
• De bronnen van Brabant (de Helleputten aan de Brabantse breuklijnen)
• De fundamenten van de samenleving
• De rol van de waterbronnen bij de kerstening van Nederland
• De etymologie van "wijst" en "wijstgrond"
• The Antipodes Miᚦ and Wiᚦ
• The Role of the Dual Form in the Evolution of European Languages
• De rol van de dualis in de ontwikkeling der Europese talen
• The Search for Traces of a Dual Form in Quebec French
• Synthese van de Germanistische & Griekse mythologie en etymologie
• De restanten van de dualis in het Nederlands, Engels en Duits
• Notes to the Corner Wedge in the Ugaritic Alphabet
• The Origin of the long IJ-symbol in the Dutch alphabet
• Over de oorsprong van de „lange IJ“ in het Nederlandse alfabet
• The Backbones of the Alphabets
• The Alphabet and and the Symbolic Structure of Europe
• The Unseen Words in the Runic Alphabet
• De ongelezen woorden in het runenalfabet
• The Role of the Vowels in Personal Pronouns of the 1st Person Singular
• Over de volgorde van de klinkers in woorden en in godennamen
• The Creation Legends of Hesiod and Ovid
• De taal van Adam en Eva (published: ca. 2.2.2019)
• King Chilperic's 4 Letters and the Alphabet's Adaptation
• De 4 letters van koning Chilperik I en de aanpassing van het Frankenalfabet
• The Symbolism of Hair Braids and Bonnets in Magical Powers
• The Antipodes in PIE-Languages
• In het Nederlands, Duits en Engels is de dualis nog lang niet uitgestorven
• In English, Dutch and German the dual form is still alive
• The Descendants of the Dual Form " Wit "
• A Structured Etymology for Germanic, Slavic and Romance Languages
• The “Rod”-Core in Slavic Etymology (published: ca. 27.11.2018)
• Encoding and decoding the runic alphabet
• Über die Evolution der Sprachen
• Over het ontwerpen van talen
• The Art of Designing Languages
• Notes to the usage of the Spanish words Nos and Vos, Nosotros and Vosotros
• Notes to the Dual Form and the Nous-Concept in the Inari Sami language
• Over het filosofische Nous-concept
• Notes to the Philosophical Nous-Concept
• The Common Root for European Religions (published: ca. 27.10.2018)
• A Scenario for the Medieval Christianization of a Pagan Culture
• Een scenario voor de middeleeuwse kerstening van een heidens volk
• The Role of the Slavic gods Rod and Vid in the Futhorc-alphabet
• The Unification of Medieval Europe
• The Divergence of Germanic Religions
• De correlatie tussen de dualis, Vut, Svantevit en de Sint-Vituskerken
• The Correlation between Dual Forms, Vut, Svantevit and the Saint Vitus Churches
• Die Rekonstruktion der Lage des Drususkanals (published: ca. 27.9.2018)
• Die Entzifferung der Symbolik einer Runenreihe
• Deciphering the Symbolism in Runic Alphabets
• The Sky-God, Adam and the Personal Pronouns
• Notities rond het boek Tiw (Published ca. 6.2.2018)
• Notes to the book TIW
• Von den Völkern, die nach dem Futhark benannt worden sind
• Designing an Alphabet for the Runes
• Die Wörter innerhalb der „Futhark“-Reihe
• The hidden Symbolism of European Alphabets
• Etymology, Religions and Myths
• The Symbolism of the Yampoos and Wampoos in Poe's “Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym
from Nantucket”
• Notizen zu " Über den Dualis " und " Gesammelte sprachwissenschaftliche Schriften "
• Ϝut - Het Nederlandse sleutelwoord
• Concepts for the Dual Forms
• The etymology of the Greek dual form νώ (νῶϊ)
• Proceedings in the Ego-pronouns' Etymology
• Notities bij „De godsdiensten der volken“
• The Role of *Teiwaz and *Dyeus in Filosofy
• A Linguistic Control of Egotism
• The Design of the Futhark Alphabet
• An Architecture for the Runic Alphabets
• The Celtic Hair Bonnets (Published Jun 24, 2018)
• Die keltische Haarhauben
• De sculpturen van de Walterich-kapel te Murrhardt
• The rediscovery of a lost symbolism
• Het herontdekken van een vergeten symbolisme
• De god met de twee gezichten
• The 3-faced sculpture at Michael's Church in Forchtenberg
• Over de woorden en namen, die eeuwenlang bewaard gebleven zijn
• De zeven Planeten in zeven Brabantse plaatsnamen
• Analysis of the Futhorc-Header
• The Gods in the Days of the Week and inside the Futhor-alphabet
• Een reconstructie van de Nederlandse scheppingslegende
• The Symbolism in Roman Numerals
• The Keywords in the Alphabets Notes to the Futharc's Symbolism
• The Mechanisms for Depositing Loess in the Netherlands
• Over het ontstaan van de Halserug, de Heelwegen en Heilwegen in de windschaduw van de
Veluwe
• Investigations of the Rue d'Enfer-Markers in France
• Die Entwicklung des französischen Hellwegs ( " Rue d'Enfer "
• De oorsprong van de Heelwegen op de Halserug, bij Dinxperlo en Beltrum
• The Reconstruction of the Gothic Alphabet's Design
• Von der Entstehungsphase eines Hellwegs in Dinxperlo-Bocholt
• Over de etymologie van de Hel-namen (Heelweg, Hellweg, Helle..) in Nederland
• Recapitulatie van de projecten Ego-Pronomina, Futhark en Hellweg
• Over het ontstaan en de ondergang van het Futhark-alfabet
• Die Etymologie der Wörter Hellweg, Heelweg, Rue d'Enfer, Rue de l'Enfer und Santerre
• The Etymology of the Words Hellweg, Rue d'Enfer and Santerre
• The Decoding of the Kylver Stone' Runes
• The Digamma-Joker of the Futhark
• The Kernel of the Futhorc Languages
• De kern van de Futhark-talen
• Der Kern der Futhark-Sprachen
• De symboolkern IE van het Nederlands
• Notes to Guy Deutscher's "Through the Language Glass"
• Another Sight on the Unfolding of Language (Published 1 maart, 2018)
• Notes to the Finnish linguistic symbolism of the sky-god's name and the days of the week
• A modified Swadesh List (Published 12 / 17 / 2017)
• A Paradise Made of Words
• The Sky-God Names and the Correlating Personal Pronouns
• The Nuclear Pillars of Symbolism (Published 10 / 28 / 2017)
• The Role of the Dual Form in Symbolism and Linguistics (Oct 17, 2017)
• The Correlation between the Central European Loess Belt, the Hellweg-Markers and the
Main Isoglosses
• The Central Symbolic Core of Provencal Language (Oct 7, 2017)