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Chapter 2

Review related literature

Importance of food
Food is very important, because it provides people with nutrients for

energy and good health Iftekhar Hossain(2017). it also helps in prevention and

cure of diseases. Good nutritive food makes healthy while bad or unhealthy food

give rise to several diseases (Khayati Gosain 2018).

Base on this article. Food is what people eat to survive, it usually comes

from animals and plants. Food contains the nutrition that most people need to be

strong and healthy. Food is important for life. To be healthy and active, should

certainly have enough food. But the foods we eat should also be safe and rich in

all the nutrients our body needs. We should choose from a wide variety of foods

and we should eat them regularly. The function of the food in the body can

manage the growth and development of a person, develop strong muscles,

bones and teeth, help our brains function properly and develop the proper

working of organs: heart, lungs, kidneys and liver.

It is a universal fact that food plays very vital role in maintaining proper

health and also helps in prevention and cure of diseases. Good nutritive food

makes health while bad or unhealthy food give rise to several diseases (Khayati

Gosain 2018).
This article stated that, every people in the world really need food for

survival and to have a strong and healthy body by eating the foods that are rich

in nutrients. As part of the basic necessities of every living being and creature,

food is considered the number one need. Healthy food helps all the organs and

veins of the body function well and it is one of the sources of energy in the body.

A lot of people are suffering from different health problems because of not taking

healthy food three times a day. Without food specifically healthy food the body

cannot survive and may lead every individual to severe diseases.

For a student all the right food should be given as it helps grow mentally

and physically. Having good food is very important to every student’s daily lives

because it helps the student to be active, strong, and healthy and perform all the

task that the teacher told so.

Importance of food value

The body needs a variety of the following 6 nutrients - protein,

carbohydrate, fat, water, vitamins and minerals - from the food we eat to stay

healthy and productive. Food provides the body with the energy, protein,

essential fats, vitamins and minerals to live, grow and function properly. During

the teenage years of every students food the right amount of nutrients is

important because the body needs a variety of vitamins and minerals to grow,

develop and stay healthy.

A person needs a wide variety of different foods to provide the right

amounts of nutrients for good health. Every individual should eat well-balanced
meals, eat grains every day to maintain adequate energy intake from

carbohydrate. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits every day to get vitamins,

minerals and dietary fibers. Drink milk and eat green/yellow vegetables, beans,

and small fish to get a sufficient amount of calcium intake, avoid salty, oily, fatty

foods and make a balanced choice of fat derived from animal, plant, and fish. It

takes about 40 nutrients in order for our bodies to function properly. Different

nutrients have different roles, so it is important to eat a variety of foods,

particularly fruits and vegetables. However, for most people, any food can fit into

a balanced diet if the portion size and frequency is right ( Minnesota Department

of Health., 2014).

Proteins help the body to grow, develop and repair muscles and tissues.

Some protein foods such as milk and eggs give us strong bones and teeth.

Provide energy for the body. According to science publishing group (2012) The

typical Filipino protein sources include animal foods such as meat like pork and

carabeef, fish, poultry, tinapa or smoked fish, dried fish , milk eggs and legumes.

Base on this article, protein is an important component of every cell in the

body. The body uses protein to build and repair tissues. The best sources of

proteins include beef, chicken, pork, fish, eggs and cheese. Bodies need a fair

amount of protein to function well. Extra protein doesn't give you extra strength.

According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.,(2018),

Teenage boys and active men can get all the protein that need from three daily

servings for a total of seven ounces. For children age two to six, most women,

and some older people, the government recommends two daily servings for a

total of five ounces. For older children, teen girls, active women, and most men,

the guidelines give the nod to two daily servings for a total of six ounces and for

infant eleven grams per day.

Are the sugars, starches and fibers found in fruits, grains, vegetables and

milk products and provide fuel for the central nervous system and energy for

working muscles.

According to the Iowa state university.,2018, carbohydrates has six

function in the body these are: Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose,

sparing the use of proteins for energy, breakdown of fatty acids and preventing

ketosis, biological recognition processes, flavor and Sweeteners and dietary fiber

SparkNotes LLC.,(2018).

This statement concludes that, carbohydrates are the body’s main source

for energy. Not getting enough carbs can cause problems. Without sufficient fuel

of carbohydrates, the body gets no energy for every daily activities. Not all

carbohydrates that we consume in our daily lives is healthy and good for our

health. There are some sources of carbohydrates that can cause different health

problems. The healthiest sources of carbohydrates are unprocessed or minimally

processed whole grains, vegetables, fruits and beans. White bread, pastries,
sodas, and other highly processed or refined foods are the sources of

carbohydrates which is not good for the health. These items contain easily

digested carbohydrates that may contribute to weight gain, interfere with weight

loss, and promote diabetes and heart disease.

Is the secondary source of our energy, It provides more calories than any

other nutrient, but they are harder to burn off. Fat is found in butter, lard, milk,

cheese and certain types of meat (Pulvirenti.,2018). Fats are essential to give

your body energy and to support cell growth. They also help protect your organs

and help keep your body warm. Fats help your body absorbs some nutrients and

produce important hormones, too. Your body definitely needs fat (American

heart association.,2018).

Base from this statement, fat are important for several health related

aspects and for optimal functioning of the human body. The function of fats in

the body is that it provides energy, absorbs certain nutrients and maintains your

core body temperature. A consumer should choose foods that contain healthy

fats instead of foods that contain saturated fats and trans fats. Fatty foods

contain cholesterol, a waxy substance that can clog an artery and cause it to

harden. Although these life- threatening events usually do not strike until later in

adult life, the time practicing prevention is now by reducing the amount of fat in

the food. The best source of protein includes Marula nut, ground nut, butter,

margarine, cooking oil, and seeds.

Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamin means ‘vital for life’. Vitamins and minerals are compounds

necessary for the healthy functioning of our bodies. We need vitamins and

minerals to help us grow, to see correctly, to form bones, muscles, skin and

organs, as well as to help us battle infections. Deficiencies in certain vitamins

and minerals can lead to severe health problems (Healthy kids.,2013).

Base from this study of (Healthy kids.,2013), vitamins and minerals has

many role in the body. It helps the body to work properly. Although you get

vitamins and minerals from the foods you eat every day, some foods have more

vitamins and minerals than others. During the teenage years of every students

the right amount of nutrients is important because the body needs a variety of

vitamins and minerals to grow, develop and stay healthy.

Eating foods that are rich good nutrients can help cure and prevent

different health problems in the body. Every student must consume healthy food

which contains good nutrients. Fruits, vegetables, fish, milk groups, meat and

whole wheat food are some sources of good nutrients which will help the body

do the daily activities and brain to function properly. Eating unhealthy foods such

as junk foods, snacks high in fat, soft drinks, beverages that contain alcohol,

sodium and sweet treats may result to different diseases. Without the good

nutrients, a person may suffer stress, tiredness, and the risk of developing some

illnesses and other health problems such as: being overweight or obese, tooth

decay and high blood pressure.

Importance of Nutritional facts

The nutrition facts label is required by the Food and Drug Administration

,(FDA) on most packaged of foods and beverages the nutrition facts label

provides detailed information about of foods nutrients, such as the amount of

fat, sugar, sodium and fiber it has(Mayo foundation for Medical Education and

Research.,2018). Every packaged, or processed, product should have a label.

Some restaurants also have nutrition facts information available. The label

includes amounts in the areas below. They are listed per serving and as a

percentage of the daily value (American Academy of Family Physicians.,2018).

Nutritional facts are a helpful tool in terms of food that serves as your guide for

making choices that can affect your long-term health.

According to Gordon.,2017, there are some quick guidelines in terms of

reading the nutrition facts or label. These are step one start with the serving

size, step two check out the total calories, step three let the percent daily values

be your guide, step four check out the nutrition terms, step five choose low in

saturated fat, added sugars and sodium. Step six gets enough vitamins, minerals

and fiber and the last step is consider the additional nutrients.

Nutritional facts are important to the consumers who purchase the food.

It provides information to the nutrient content of the food that every people

consumed. Nutritional facts can help the consumer determine the right food and

the right nutrients that the body needs.

Food standards
The canteen in schools and DepEd offices shall not sell foods and

beverages high in fat and sugar and sodium including, but not limited to the

foods. There shall be a shift towards healthier fat assumption by providing more

of foods with unsaturated fats and limiting foods laden with saturated and trans

fats( DepEd, 2018). Food standards are such those that specify the maximum

allowable level of contaminants in food, or the amount of food additives

permitted, are an important instrument for the assurance of food safety. This is

particularly the case in international trade, where the food commodity being

traded is manufactured in another country, and the history and conditions of

manufacture may not be fully known (Elsevier B.V, 2019). Food Standards are

designed for many purposes. The main concern is quality and safety, but any

standard/regulation cannot be set to the zenith level of quality; therefore, above-

average quality is generally taken into consideration in enforcement on a wider

scale (Science Direct, 2018). Quality level and safety are of prime focus during

the formulation of laws or standards to ensure the availability of nutritious food

and fair trade practices across countries.

Food value awareness

Base from the study of Baltimore.,(2017), Enough and proper nutrition is

an aspect of a healthy lifestyle. Therefore, it is necessary to promote an

awareness of the nutrients contained in foods in relation to their roles in the

body maintenance, growth, reproduction, health, and disease prevention in


Appropriate nutrition is important because it helps to prevent nutrition-

related diseases through diet containing the right amount of food component

such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water, required for

body building and defense, energy supply and regulatory function.

Awareness, as describe by Biesta and Osberg, is one’s ability to notice

things, a state of being fully conscious of what one knows has learned.

Nutritional awareness seems to be directly linked to nutritional knowledge,

attitudes, and actions which may have an effect on people’s eating practices.

According to the American Cancer Society, processed meats, fried meats,

and alcohol are associated with an increased risk for certain types of cancer,

such as of the colon or liver. Food that contributes to obesity is also indirectly

linked to cancer since obesity increase the overall risk for developing cancer. This

statement just want to address or tell all the people that awareness to food value

is a must because there are different consequences if every individual are not

aware to the food that are consumed every day are unhealthy and which leads

to different kinds of health problems.

Many teenager especially the grade eleven students of Nazareth high

school have an unhealthy food pattern containing too much saturated fats,

sugar, and a lack of dietary fiber. The fact that the students spends many hours

in schools each day including lunchtime, causes the school environment to be an

important out of home setting where children consume at least one main meal a

day . Almost ninety percent of all secondary schools canteen, especially the

canteen of Nazareth high school are selling soft drinks, snacks, candy bars, deep

fried products, powdered juices and a lot more that is not good for every

student’s health. Every student must adapt the awareness of food value because

it can help them to know the healthy and unhealthy nutrients that the body

consumed every day. And also it can help the students to determine what food

are rich in nutrients and that can help the body function and work well.

DepEd Regulation school canteen food services

Schools are the best venue for health promoting strategies. Public school

canteens have now been ordered by the Department of Education (DepEd) to

stop selling powdered juice drinks, chocolate, soft drinks, instant noodles, fish

balls, chips or chichiria, among others.

The Department of Education (DepEd) has released an order, dated March

seventeen and signed by Education Secretary Leonor Briones, that details new

guidelines for public school canteens, which private schools are encouraged to

adopt (GOVPH 2017). According to the Department of Education (DepEd) 2017,

DepEd order 13, section of 2017 was issued for the promotion and development

of healthy eating habits among the youth and DepEd employees by making

available healthy, nutritious, and affordable menu choices, and for setting food

Healthy diet , as defined in the order, refers to a balance in food intake

which achieves energy balance and a healthy weight limits energy , as defined in

the order, refers to a balance in food intake which intake from total fats and

shifts fat consumption away from saturated fats to unsaturated fats and toward

the elimination of trans-fatty acids increases consumption of fruits and

vegetables, legumes, whole grains, and nuts limits the intake of free sugars

limits salt (sodium) consumption from all sources (Jee Geronimo., 2017).

The policy is not about no to food instead it is all about increasing the

availability of healthy foods, leading to increased consumption and positive

eating behaviors of the pupils/students. and also the policy is all about learning

how to read information from nutritional facts and use it in evaluating whether

the food that every students consumed every day is beneficial to one’s health or

not .To implement the order, DepEd is categorizing foods by color. Foods in

the GREEN category should always be available in the canteen, YELLOW are for

foods that should be served sparingly, and RED is for foods not to sell in the

canteen. The nutrition label found on the back of food packages serves as a

guide in categorizing food (Smart Parenting Philippines.,2018).

Base from the statement, each school shall develop their own healthy

menu, with food and drinks that are nutritious and affordable. The canteens in

public and private schools shall not sell foods and beverages high in fat and/or sugar

and/or sodium. There shall be a shift towards healthier fat consumption by providing

more of foods with unsaturated fats and limiting foods laden with saturated and trans
fats. According to U.S Department of Health and Human service.,2017, Food and

beverage choices available requirements in canteens shall adhere to the requirements

of a healthy diet as defined in section lllA.