Bultan Sarkar Govt. College of Engg. & Textile Tech.

Any operation (other than preparation and coloring) that improves the appearance and/or usefulness of fabric after it leaves the loom or knitting machine. Finishing is the final series of operations that produces finished textile fabric from grey goods.

The word "finish" means all the different treatments applied to a fabric to change such things as its Appearance, Feel or hand, Wear ability or care requirements.

Classification of Finishes
Textile Finishes are classified in several ways:
According to function

Aesthet ic Finishe s

Functio nal Finishe s

Aesthetic Finishes
Aesthetic Finishes modify the appearance and /or hand or drape of the fabrics. Mercerization Napping And Sueding Shearing Softening Stiffening

Functional Finishes
Functional Finishes improve the performance properties of the fabric ; like durability, strength etc. Antimicrobial/Antiseptic Antistatic Crease resistant Flame Resistant Mothproof Shrinkage Control

According to the quality

Tempora ry Semi Permane nt

Permaan ent

Temporary Finishes
A finish which is not stable and goes off after the first wash is known as temporary finish and these finishes disappears during subsequent washing and usage.
Calendering Embossing Starching Softening

Semi permanent Finishes
A Finishing on the fabric is said to be semi permanent finish if it is stable to more than 5 to 10 washes and not afterwards.
Schreiner Calendering.

Permanent Finishes
If the finishing effect in the fabric does not disappear and remains unaffected through all the conditions of wear and washing treatments, then the finish is said to be permanent finish.

Sanforising Resin Finish Water Proof Flame Proof

According to type of machinery

Chemica l Finishes

Mechanic al Finishes

Chemical Finishes
Chemical finishes are usually applied to fabric by padding followed by curing and drying. These are also called as wet Finishes.
Stiff and transparent Flame Retardant Soil Release Water Proof Crease Resistance Softening

Mechanical finishes
Mechanical Finishes usually involved specific physical treatment to a fabric surface to cause a change in fabric appearance. This is also known as dry finish.
Calendering Sanforising Milling


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Calendering machines

Types of calender ing

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Treatments enhancing appearance include such processes as napping and shearing, singeing,
 

Finishes enhancing appearance

Napping and shearing
Napping is a process that may be applied to woollens, cottons, spun silks, and spun rayons, including both woven and knitted types, to raise a velvety, soft surface. The process involves passing the fabric over revolving cylinders covered with fine wires that lift the short, loose fibres, usually from the weft yarns, to the surface, forming a nap. The process, which increases warmth, is frequently applied to woollens and worsteds and also to blankets.


cuts the raised nap to a uniform height and is used for the same purpose on pile fabrics. The amount of shearing depends upon the desired height of the nap or pile, with such fabrics as gabardine receiving very close shearing. Shearing may also be applied to create stripes and other patterns by varying surface height

Also called gassing, singeing is a process applied to both yarns and fabrics to produce an even surface by burning off projecting fibres, yarn ends, and fuzz. This is accomplished by passing the fibre or yarn over a gas flame or heated copper plates at a speed sufficient to burn away the protruding material without scorching or burning the yarn or fabric.

Singeing machines

These are final processes applied to set the warp and weft of woven fabrics at right angles to each other, and to stretch and set the fabric to its final dimensions. Tentering stretches width under tension by the use of a tenter frame, consisting of chains fitted with pins or clips to hold the selvages of the fabric, and travelling on tracks. As the fabric passes through the heated chamber, creases and wrinkles are removed, the weave is straightened, and the fabric is dried to its final size. When the process is applied to wet wools it is called crabbing;

Tentering / stentering machines

A crepe effect may be achieved by finishing. In one method, which is not permanent, the cloth is passed, in the presence of steam, between hot rollers filled with indentations producing waved and puckered areas. In the more permanent caustic soda method, a caustic soda paste is rolled onto the fabric in a patterned form; or a resist paste may be applied to areas to remain unpuckered and the entire fabric then immersed in caustic soda. The treated areas shrink, and the untreated areas pucker. If the pattern is applied in the form of stripes, the effect is called plissé; an

Crepe effect

1. Napping Using wire-covered rolls to "dig out" individual fiber ends to the surface 2. Sueding Using abrasive-covered rolls (sandpaper, emery cloth, etc.) to produce shorter pile surface - does cause an apparent shade change. Special type of raised surface fabric is corduroy Sueding, sanding- creates softer hand of fabric.

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Fire Resistant finishes:
With synthetic fiber which melt on igniting by a flame, the molten moss is itself quite dangerous and a fire resistant treatment is desirable for certain end uses. Polyester fabrics can be made flame resistant by treatment with an aqueous emulsion  of xylene soluble 2,3dibromopropyl phosphate in a pad-cure sequence. A semi-permanent effect can be produced by treating with a mixture of ammonium bromide and brominated phosphoric acid esters.

Stain and Soil Resistant Finishes –
prevent soil and stains from being attracted to fabrics. Such finishes may be resistant to oil-bourne or waterbourne soil and stains or both. Stain and soil resistant finishes can be applied to fabrics used in clothing and furniture.

Soil Release Finishes –
These finishes attract water to the surface of fibres during cleaning and help remove soil.

Anti-microbial finishes:
With the increasing use synthetic fibers for carpets and other materials in public places, anti-microbial finishes have assumed importance. Anti microbial finish   Eco-friendly anti microbial finishing agent for cotton fabrics & Garments.Useful for eliminating bacterial growth due to sweat. Products which are commonly applied are brominated phenols, quaternary ammonium compounds, organo-silver and tin compounds which can be applied

Waterproof Finishes

-Aallows no water to penetrate, but tend to be uncomfortable because they trap moisture next to the body. Recently, fabrics have been developed that are waterproof, yet are also breathable .

Water-Repellent Finishes - Water-repellent finishes resist wetting. If the fabric becomes very wet, water will eventually pass through. Applied to fabrics found in raincoats, all-weather coats, hats, capes, umbrellas and shower curtains .

Peach Finish:
Subjecting the fabric (either cotton or its synthetic blends) to emery wheels, makes the surface velvet like. This is a special finish mostly used in garments.

Finishes for Synthetic fibers

Heat Setting: Heat setting of synthetic fabrics eliminates the internal tensions within the fiber generated during manufacture and the new state can be fixed by rapid cooling.


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