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I. Concepts of Anthropology
A. Definition of Anthropology
- comes from the Greek words: anthropos, meaning human and logus, the study of
- study of humankind in all times and places
B. Anthropology and its Fields
B.1 Physical Anthropology (Biological Anthropology) - the systematic study of humans
as biological organisms. Concerns with human evolution and human variation
B.2 Archaeology – the study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of
material remains and environmental data
B.3 Linguistic Anthropology – study of human languages
B.4 Cultural Anthropology (Social or Sociocultural Anthropology) – the study of
customary patterns in human behavior, thought and feelings. It focuses on humans as
culture-producing and culture-reproducing creatures
- Two main components of Cultural Anthropology
o Ethnography – detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on
fieldwork. Fieldwork is a term anthropologists use for on-location research.
Participant observation is technique of learning people’s culture through social
participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as
well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an
extended period of time
o Ethnology – the study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or
historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts and developing
anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or
similarities occur among groups
C. Schools of Thought in Cultural Anthropology
C.1 Early Evolutionism (E. Taylor and Lewis Henry Morgan) – states that most
societies were believed to pass through the same series of stages, to arrive
ultimately at a common end
C.2 Historical Particularism – Franz Boas believed that it was premature to
formulate universal law since there is a need to study the context of society in which
they appeared
C.3 Diffusionism – (British, German and Austrian Anthropologists) spread the idea
that most aspects of civilization had emerged in culture centers and later diffused
C.4 Functionalism (Bronislaw Malinowski) holds that all culture traits serve the
needs of individuals in a society; the function culture traits is to satisfy some basic
needs of the people. E.g. magic
C.5 Structural Functionalist Approach (Radcliffe Brown) assumes that the
various aspects of social behavior maintain a society’s social structure (network of
relationships) rather that satisfying individual needs. It works in the ff assumption:
stability, harmony, equilibrium and evolution
C.6 Psychological Approaches – seek to understand how psychological factors
and processes may help us explain cultural practices (Edward Sapir, Ruth Benedict,
Margaret Mead)
C.7 Later Evolutionism (Leslie White) – states that culture evolves as the amount of
energy harnessed per capita per year is increased or as the efficiency of the
instrumental means of putting the energy to work increased
C.8 Structuralism (Claude Levi-Strauss) sees culture as it is expressed in art, ritual
and the patterns of daily life, as a surface representation of the underlying patterns of
the human mind
C.9 Ethnoscience (ethnography) explains culture from the way people used to
describe their activities
C.10 Cultural Ecology seeks to explain the relationship between culture and the
social environment
C.11 Political Economy centers on the impact of external political and economic
processes, particularly as connected to colonialism and imperialism on local events
and cultures in the underdeveloped countries
C.12 Sociobiology – involves the application of biological evolutionary principles to
the social behavior of animals including humans. (refers to the biological explanation
of social behavior)
C.13 Interpretive Approaches – consider cultures as text to be analyzed for their
hidden meanings
C.14 Feminist Anthropology – includes women’s issues in the study of culture and
C.15 Conflict Theory – advocates of this theory ask: Who control scarce resources?
It assumes that society can be explained based on the ff assumptions: eco.
determinism, dialectical process and social action

II. Concepts of Sociology

A. Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups. It primarily
focuses on the influence of social relationships upon people’s attitudes and behavior
and on how societies are established and change
B. Importance of Sociology
B.1 To obtain factual information about our society and the different aspects of our
social life
B.2 To enable us to see the connection between our own personal experiences and
the social forces in the bigger social world which influence our life [sociological
C. Sociological Perspectives
C.1 Structural – Functionalism
 Emphasizes the elements of cohesion shared values, and social equilibrium
as bases of social order
 The different parts of each society contribute positively to the operation or
functioning of the system as a whole.
 Functionalism attempts to explain the relationship of different parts of the system
to each other, and to the whole. These parts are usually work together in an
orderly manner, without great conflict. The different parts are usually in
equilibrium, or moving toward equilibrium, with consensus rather than conflict
governing the inter-relationships of the various parts.
C.2 Conflict Theory
 Views society as shaped by the interest of powerful and dominant groups
 Antagonisms of opposing classes (capitalist vs. proletariat) in order to control
the distribution of scare resources
 Conflict theorists see an arena in which groups fight for power
 Sees civil law as a way of defining and upholding a particular social order that
benefits some at the expense of others
 Conflict theorists focus on the shifting balance of power among competing
C.3 Symbolic – Interactionist Model
 Studies the smallest units of social interactions
 Herbert Blumer, a student and interpreter of Mead, coined the term "symbolic
interactionism" and put forward an influential summary of the perspective: people
act toward things based on the meaning those things have for them; and
these meanings are derived from social interaction and modified through
C.4 Evolutionist Theory
 Society develops interdependent with the environment
 Society evolves from simple to complex
 Example is from agricultural society to industrial to post-industrial society
(information/knowledge society)
C.5 Social Exchange Theory
 Rewards and cost of exchange
 Social exchange theory views the exchange relationship between specific
actors as “actions contingent on rewarding reactions from others.”

III. Biology and Evolution

A. Belief About Human Beings
A.1 Divine Theory – depicts the Book of Genesis emphasizes human uniqueness and
concept of time. Creation is depicted as a series of actions occurring over the course of
six days. God’s final act of creation is to fashion the first human from earth in his own
A.2 Systema Naturae (System of Nature) by Carl Linneaus
- he outlines his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it
into the animal kingdom (Regnum animale), the plant kingdom (Regnum vegetabile) and
the "mineral kingdom" (Regnum lapideum).
A.3 Jean Baptiste Lamarck – species could evolve in accordance with natural laws.
- environment gives rise to changes in animals.
- life was structured in an orderly manner and that many different parts of all bodies
make it possible for the organic movements of animals
A.4 Erasmus Darwin – inheritance of acquired characteristics - (“with the power of
acquiring new parts, attended with new propensities, directed by irritations, sensations,
volitions and associations, and thus possessing the faculty of continuing to improve by
its own inherent activity, and of delivering down these improvements by generation to its
posterity, world without end!”
A.5 Charles Lyell – Principles of Geology
- the central argument in Principles was that "the present is the key to the past:" That
geological remains from the distant past can, and should, be explained by reference to
geological processes now in operation and thus directly observable. Lyell's interpretation
of geologic change as the steady accumulation of minute changes over enormously long
spans of time was also a central theme in the Principles, and was a powerful influence
on the young Charles Darwin.
B. Theory of Natural Selection proposed by Charles Darwin
- proposes that organisms best adapted to a particular environment produce the most
offspring overtime
C. Gregor Mendel’s Experiments
- Mendel’s research in genetics and DNA and RNA led us to understand the
mechanisms by which traits may be passed from one generation to the next
- study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. Mendel showed that the inheritance of
traits follows particular laws
- Father of genetics
D. Sources of Biological Variation
D.1 Genetic recombination – random assortment, segregation, and –crossing-over
D.2 Mutation – change/alteration in DNA sequence
E. Factors in Human Variation
E.1 Genetic Drift - is the evolutionary process of change in the gene frequencies of a
population from one generation to the next due to the phenomena of probability in which
purely chance (random) events determine which variants of a gene within a reproductive
population will be carried forward while others disappear.
E.2 Gene Flow - (also known as gene migration) is the transfer of alleles (one member
of a pair or series of different forms of a gene) of genes from one population to another.
- One of the most significant factors is mobility, as greater mobility of an individual tends
to give it greater migratory potential.
E.3 Influence by Physical Environment
E.4 Influence by Social and Cultural Environment
F. Humans are product of the interaction of biological and cultural evolution
G. Physical Variation among Humans
G.1 Genetic variation
G.2 Body build
G.3 Facial construction
G.4 Skin color
G.5 Height
G.6 Lactase deficiency
H. Problems of Human Variation
H.1 Racism (racial discrimination)
H.2 Sexism (gender discrimination)
I. Diagram of Human Evolution

Time (years ago) Geologic Epoch Fossil Record Archaeological Major Cultural
Periods Developments
550 (3500BC) Bronze Age Cities and States;
Social inequality;
Full-time craft
10,000 (8,000BC) Neolithic Domestication of
plants and
permanent villages
Mesolithic Broad spectrum
food collecting;
Pleistocene Early human in sedentary
new world communities;
many kinds of
14,000 (12,000BC) Upper Paleolithic Cave paintings;
female figurines,
many kinds of
blades tools
40,000 Modern humans Middle Paleolithic
Homo sapiens
200,000 Neanderthal Religious beliefs;
burials; Mousterian
300,000 Homo erectus
700,000 Lower Paleolithic
1,800,000 Pilocene Homo habilis Hunting;
oldowan tools
2,000,000 Earliest hominids Earliest stone tools
Miocene Australopithecus
22,500,000 Diversification of
Apes Sivapithecus
29,000,000 Oligocene Dryopithecus
Earliest Apes
32,000,000 Propliopithecus
38,000,000 Eocene
50,000,000 Paleocene Earliest
53,500,000 Parapithecids e.g.
70,000,000 Ampipithecus

Earliest primates
Source: Ember, 2005

J. Broad spectrum collection (Mesolithic Period) was associated with the development of
sedentary life
K. Domestication of Plants and Animals (Neolithic Revolution)
L. Population generally increased after plant and animal domestication

IV. Growth of Cities

A. Cities and Culture Change
B.1 Agricultural Innovation
o The first culture change characteristic of early civilizations occurred in farming
methods. For example, ancient Sumerians built extensive canals to irrigate their
farmlands, thus increasing their agricultural productivity. The increased crop
yields is a factor contributing to the high population density of ancient civilization
B.2 Diversification of Labor
o With specialization came the expertise that led to the invention of new ways of
making and doing things. Bronze Age was a period marked by production of
tools and ornaments made of metal. Early civilizations developed extensive
trade systems to procure raw materials needed for their technologies. Thus boats
and other means of transport gave way to imports and exports
B.3 Central Government – the emergence of governing elite , a strong central authority
was required to deal with the challenges of new cities because of their size and
complexity. Government functions as protector from enemies, levied taxes, provided
legal system, guaranteed safety of life and property
o Evidence of Centralized Government
- monumental buildings, writings, presence of “tokens” [ceramic piece with
different shapes indicative of different commercial objects]
- excavations of city structures provides further evidence that early cities were
planned. Example of early cities are Mesoamerican city Teotihuacan.
o The Earliest Government
- Mesopotamian city which was ruled by Hammurabi [Babylonian king]. He
issued a set of rules notable for its thorough detail and standardization in terms
of taxes, property rights, loans, family rights etc.
- the government of Inca in Peru manifested an extra governing abilities through
strong bureaucracy that was so efficient.
B.4 Social Stratification
- emergence of social classes
- symbols of special status and privileged appeared in the ancient cities of
Mesopotamia and people were ranked according to the kind of work they did or
the into which they were born
- people who stood near the head of the government were the earliest holders of
high status

V. Race and Racism

A. History of Human Classification
o Early European scholars classify homo sapiens into sub-species or races based on
geographic or phenotypic features such skin color, body size, head shape, hair
o Linnaeus divided human in ‘white’ [all Europeans], ‘black’ [Africans], ‘red’ [American
Indians]. ‘yellow’ [Asians]
o Blumenbach classified humans as ‘Caucasian’ [all light skinned people of Europe
and parts of western Asia], ‘Ethiopian’ [dark skinned Africans], ‘Mongolian’
[inhabitants of Asia including China and Japan], ‘Malay’ [indigenous Australians,
Pacific islanders, others]
o These earlier classifications of humanity showed factual errors, ethnocentric
prejudices with respect to the concept of race. This was disastrous in the sense that
it gives the notion of superior and inferior races which justify slavery to mass murder
or genocide.
o By the early 20th century, some scholars challenge the concept of racial hierarchies.
Franz Boas criticized the false claims of racial superiority. Ashley Montagu he
devoted his career by combating scientific racism. He went to the US and fought
racism through his academic and public lectures. He further asserts that race is just
only a “social myth”.
B. Race as Biological Concept
B.1 Race – as a subspecies differing geographically, morphologically or genetically from
other populations of the same species.
C. Social Significance of Race: Racism
C.1 Racism – a doctrine of superiority by which one group justifies the dehumanization
of others based on their distinctive physical characteristics.
C.2 Race and Behavior
o The assumption that behavioral differences exist among races remains an issue
to which many people today cling stubbornly. Common myths involve the
coldness of Scandinavians or warlike attitudes of Germans or lazy nature of
Africans. These unjust characterizations rely upon a false notion of biological
o High crime rates, alcoholism and drug use can be explained with reference to
culture rather than biology.
C.3 Race and Intelligence
o It is a false notion to correlate race and intelligence. Intelligence is a product of
culture and any group of people is equally capable of learning or mastering certain
competencies given the opportunities.
o But there are still some researchers who insist that significant differences in
intelligence among human populations exist like Richard Herrnstein and Charles
Murray. They argued that the differences in IQ scores among Americans of African,
Asian and European descent is primarily determined by genetic factors. Of course
they were criticized by various social scientists.

VI. Culture
A. Definition of Culture
- shared by human beings
- group personality that forms the overall cultural orientation with which there is a
considerable variation
- anything that is socially learned and transmitted behavior
- the often unconscious standards by which societies operate.
- these standards are socially learned rather than acquired through biological inheritance

B. Elements of Culture
B.1 Language - an abstract system of word meanings and symbols for all aspects of
culture; the foundation of culture; verbal and nonverbal
B.2 Norms - are established standards of behavior maintained by a society; it must be
shared and understood
– Formal Norms - rules that are written down; punishment is strictly implemented
to violators e.g. laws
– Informal Norms - generally understood but are not precisely recorded e.g. one
person who comes to school dressed differently from everyone
– Mores - are norms deemed highly necessary to the welfare of society because
they embody the cherished principles of a people; violation of mores can lead to
severe punishment
– Folkways – norms governing our everyday behavior whose violation raises
comparatively little concern; it is our customary way of doing things; habits
B.3 Sanctions - penalties or rewards for conduct concerning social norms e.g. (positive
sanctions) pay, promotion, medals, word of gratitude or (negative) fines, imprisonment,
threats, stares, ostracism
B.4 Values - are collective conceptions of what is considered good, desirable and
proper or bad, undesirable and improper in a particular culture; values are use to
evaluate the behavior of others
C. Aspects of Cultural Variation
C.1 Subculture - segment of society which shares a distinctive patterns of mores,
folkways and values which differs from the pattern of the larger society e.g. celebration
fiesta among Filipinos varies
C.2 counterculture – subculture that rejects societal norms and values and seeks
alternative lifestyles e.g. gay lingo
C.3 culture shock - when one person is immersed in an unfamiliar culture, s/he may
feel strangely disoriented, uncertain, out of place and even
C.4 xenocentrism – belief that the products, styles or ideas of one’s society are inferior
to those that originate elsewhere
C.5 ethnocentrism – tendency to assume that one’s culture and way of life are superior
to others
D. Ability of Human to produce and acquire Culture can be attributed to the following
biological characteristics:
B.1 Large brain
B.2 Bipedal
B.3 Opposable thumb
B.4 Well-developed vocal chords (speech)
B.5 Long period of dependency
B.6 Reproduction is not seasonal
E. Theories about the Development of Personality
E.1 Theory of Freud – origin of society hypothesis-oedipal complex (incest and
E.2 Malinowski – matrilineal family
E.3 Benedict and Mead – emphasized the ways of culture develops individual
E.4 Kardiner – illustrated the presence various personality types in a culture.
Personalities differ due to variations in cultural institutions
E.5 M. Whiting and L. Child suggest that childrearing practices develop certain
personality types
F. National character – modal characteristics of a people [modal personality is the body of
character traits that occur with the highest frequency in a culturally bounded population]
G. Two ways in which culture can be internalized
G.1 Habituation – human being s learn certain techniques of doing things (habits,
routines in our daily life)
G.2 Education –skills are taught; formal and directed learning process
H. Socialization – process through which a person acquires the skills and behavior
necessary for social living
I. Social Status - refers to the position assigned by a person in a group or organization
 Types of Status
o Ascribed Status – social position “assigned” to a person without regard for the
person’s unique characteristics or talents
o Achieved Status - social position “attained” by a person largely through his or
her own effort
o Master Status - status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s
general position in society
J. Roles - behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status. Individual holds a
status and perform a role
 Role Set – a number of roles attached to a single person e.g. the woman occupies a
status of wife, mother, teacher, researcher, friend
 Role conflict – incompatibility among roles corresponding to two or more statuses
e.g. a mother = parenting and work
 Role strain - incompatibility among the roles corresponding to a single status e.g. A
supervisor who is friendly with the employee but also strict in the implementation of
rules in the production line.
K. Language and Culture
K.1 Language - a system of communication using sounds and/or gestures that are put
together in meaningful ways according to a set of rules
K.2 Communication is a function of language
K.3 Forms of communication – verbal and non-verbal
K.4 Structural Linguistics tries to discover the rules of phonology (patterns of sounds):
morphology (patterns of sound sequences and words), syntax (patterns of phrases
and sentences)
K.5 Sociolinguistics concerns about the ethnography of speaking e.g. social status and
speech, sex differences and speech

VII. Deviance and Social Control

A. Deviance - the process by which those who violate group norms are identified as norm
violators. Recognized violation of cultural norms
B. Deviants - are people who diverges from group norms
C. Crime - violation of criminal law system enacted by the state (government)
C.1 Crime is composed of two element:
o act (failure to do what the law requires)
o intent (guilty mind)
C.2 Types of Crimes
o Crimes against property involve theft of goods belonging to others e.g. burglary
(entry of structure to commit serious crime), theft, arson
o Crimes against the person are crimes that involve violence or the threat of
violence against others e.g. murder, aggravated assault, rape
D. Social Control - Refers to all those attitudes and behaviors originating in the social
environment that have the effects or directing or restricting the attitude and behaviors of an
individual or group. Attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior
E. Theories on Deviance
E.1 Anomie Theory - groups with fewer opportunities achieve success or goals will
have greater motivation to violate norms
E.2 Subculture Theory - the greater the motivation to violate norm will result in
different patterns of deviance depending upon the availability of illegitimate opportunities
in the neighborhood
E.3 Differential Association Theory - specific direction of a person’s motivation and
action depends upon frequency and intensity of interaction with others
- Theorized by Edwin Sutherland
E.4 Labeling Theory - a dominant or powerful group labels a person or group deviant
- assertion that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do, but
from how others respond to those actions

VIII. Social Stratification - Refers to the classification of group members according to certain
criteria which may differ according to the nature of the group. Structured ranking of people in
society that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in society. Is influence by the
economic status of an individual
A. Criteria of Stratification
o Income/Wealth
o Power
o Prestige
B. Social inequality - describes a condition in which members of a society have different
amounts of wealth, prestige and power
C. Social Mobility - refers to movement of individuals or groups from one position of a
society’s stratification to another
C.1 Types of Social Mobility
o Horizontal Mobility - movement of a person from one social position to another
of the same rank e.g. electrician who becomes a funeral director
o Vertical Mobility – movement of a person from one social position to another of
a different rank e.g. electrician who becomes a lawyer or doctor
o Inter-generational Mobility - involves changes in the social position of children
relative to their parents e.g. parents who are rich but their children become poor
o Intra-generational Mobility – involves changes in a person’s social position
within his/her adult life e.g. a poor boy who struggle to become a successful

IX . Economic System
A. Cultural Adaptation- a complex of ideas, activities and technologies that enable people
to survive and even thrive. Although environments do not determine culture, they do present
possibilities and limitations. For ex., people from coastal areas tend to become fishermen and
people in uplands are farmers or loggers. Ecosystem is a system composed of both natural
environment and all the organisms living within it. Cultural ecology is a term that refers to the
dynamic interaction of specific cultures with their natural environments.
B. Modes of Subsistence
A.1 Food Foraging Societies - hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods
o Characteristics of food foraging life: mobility, small group size, egalitarianism,
communal property, flexible division of labor by gender
A.2 Food Producing Societies [Neolithic revolution – domestication of plants and
animals by people with stone based technologies]
o Pastoralism - breeding and managing migratory herds of domesticated grazing
animals such as goats, sheeps, cattles. This is effective in dry, cold, steep, rocky
o Crop Cultivation: Horticultural - with the advent of plant domestication, some
societies took horticulture in which small communities of gardeners work with
simple hand tools, using neither irrigation nor plow. Ex. kaingin
o Crop Cultivation: Agriculuture – is crop cultivation that involves using
technologies other than hand tools, such irrigation , fertilizers, and wooden or
metal plow pulled by harnessed draft animals. Some developed countries used
fuel-powered tractors to cultivate large tract of lands
A.3 Industrialization: Replacing human labor and hand tools with machines
B. Subsistence and Economics
B.1 Economic System – an organized arrangement for producing, distributing, and
consuming goods [and services]
B.2 Control of Lands and Water Resources
o All societies regulate the allocation of valuable natural resources esp. water and
land. In premodern society, land is often controlled by kinship groups such as
the band or lineage rather than by individuals
B.3 Technology Resources
o Every society has the means of creating and allocating tools that are used to
produce goods. Technology are tools and other material equipment, together
with knowledge of how to make and use them
B.4 Labor Resources and Patterns
o Division of labor by Gender - practices commonly regarded as women’s work
tend to be those that can be carried out near home and that are easily resumed
after interruption. The tasks historically regarded as men’s work tend to be those
requiring physical strength, rapid mobilization of high burst energy, frequent
travel, assumption of high level of risk and danger
o Division of Labor by Age – elderly people are not expected to contribute much
food. However older men and women alike play an essential role in spiritual
matters. Elder with their past experiences are considered as repositories of
knowledge and wisdom esp. in non-literate society. In many traditional societies,
children as well as older people may make a greater contribution to the economy
in terms of wok and responsibility that is also common to industrial society.
o Cooperative Labor – cooperative labor can be found everywhere. If the effort
involves the whole community, a festive spirit permeates the work. Ex.
o Craft Specialization - in contemporary industrial society, there is a greater
diversity of specialized tasks to be performed. By contrast, in small scale society,
division of labor typically occurs in terms of gender or age. With division of labor,
there is specialization or development of expertise
B. Distribution and Exchange – in society without money, rewards for labor are directly
o Reciprocity - the exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value,
between two parties. Ex. gift-giving
o Redistribution – is form of exchange in which goods flow into a central place
where they are sorted, counted and reallocated. It involves power. Goods are
stored in one central place and then distributed by the leaders in order to gain or
maintain his power; to assure support of his followers; and to establish alliances
o Market Exchange - the buying and selling of goods and services, with prices by
set by rules of supply and demand. Money is an important means in order to
facilitate exchange in the market

X. Political Institutions
A. Power – the ability to impose one’s will over other despite resistance
B. Authority – legitimated power
B.1 Types of Authority
o Traditional Authority - ex: datu who inherent his power/authority from his father
o Legal Rational Authority – ex: a leader who is elected to be their mayor
o Charismatic Authority – ex: a leader who is followed by people because of his/her gift
of grace or aura
C. Legitimacy - the right of political leaders to govern – to hold, use and allocate power –
based on the values a particular society holds.
D. Political Participation
o Involves acts of individuals and groups seeking to influence the political decisions
o Examples of political participations:
- voting
- lobbying
- revolution
- campaign/advocacy
o Actors are individuals and groups such as political parties, lobby groups or interests
XI. Sex, Marriage and Family
A. Control of Sexual Relations – culture plays a significant role in sexual behavior,
helping to determine when, how and between whom sex takes place
A.1 Regulating Sexual Relations and Marriage
o Through laws e.g. Judeo-Christian law (adultery is punishable by death or
Shariah law (women found guilty of adultery is sentenced to death through
o Marriage – culturally sanctioned union between two or more people that
establishes certain rights and obligations between the people, between them and
their children, between them and their in-laws.
A.2 Incest Taboo - is the prohibition of sexual intercourse or marriage among mother
and son, father and daughter, or brother and sister. Incest taboo is universal, however
Incan and Hawaiian royal families allow incest
o Theories on the Universality of Incest Taboo
- Childhood-Familiarity Theory – children raised together are not sexually
attracted to each other when they grow up
- Freud Psycho-analytic Theory – suggests that the son may be attracted to
the mother but the father may retaliate against the son. Thus such feelings must be
- Family Disruption Theory – sexual competition among family members may
create tension and rivalry, thus may result to disruption of the functions of the family
- Cooperation Theory – incest taboo promotes cooperation among family
- Inbreeding Theory – emphasizes the destructive consequences of inbreeding

A.3 Endogamy – marriage within a particular group or category of individuals

A.4 Exogamy - marriage outside the group
B. Forms of Marriage
B.1 Monogamy - marriage in which both partners have just one spouse. Serial
monogamy is a marriage form in which an individual marries or lives with a series of
partners in succession
B.2 Polygamy – one individual having multiple spouses at the same time. Polygyny is
a marriage of a man to two or more women at the same time. Polyandry is a marriage
of a woman to two or more men at the same time.
B.3 Group Marriage (co-marriage) – marriage in which several men and women have
sexual access to one another.
C. Family and Household
C.1 Family – two or more people related by blood, marriage or adoption. Family may
take many forms like single parent, a married couple, polygamous spouses.
C.2 Household – basic residential unit where economic production, inheritance, child
rearing and shelter are recognized and carried out.
C.1 Forms of the Family
o Nuclear Family – group consisting of one or two parents and dependent
offspring which may include step parent, step sibling, and adopted children
o Extended Family - several closely related nuclear families clustered into a large
domestic group
o Nontraditional Families and Nonfamily Household
- single-parent household
D. Residence Patterns
D.1 Patrilocal – residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality
associated with the husband’s father’s relatives
D.2 Matrilocal – residence pattern in which a married couple lives in the locality
associated with wife’s parents
D.3 Neolocal – pattern in which a married couple establish their household in a location
apart from either the husand’s or the wife’s parents.

XII. Kinship and other Groups

A. Kinship – a network of relatives within which individuals possesses certain mutual rights
and obligations
B. Descent Groups – any kinship group with a membership lineally descending from a real
(historical) or fictional common ancestor
o Unilineal Descent – descent that establishes group membership exclusively through
either the male or female line
- Patrilineal – descent traced exclusively through the male line to established
group membership
- Matrilineal – descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish
group membership
- Other Forms
 Ambilineal descent – a person has the option to affiliate with either
the mother’s or father’s descent group
 Double descent – very rare system whereby descent is reckoned
both patrilineally and matrilineally at the same time
 Bilateral descent – when descent derives from both the mother’s and
father’s families equally.
C. Social Groups
C.1 Types of Groups
 Primary Group – refers to small group characterized by intimate, face to face
association and cooperation e.g. street gang, family
 Secondary Group – refers to formal, impersonal group in which there is little
social intimacy or mutual understanding e.g. class, social clubs
 In-group – any group to which people feel they belong. Every member is
regarded as “We” or “us”
 Out-group – group to which people feel they don’t belong
 Formal group – social organization
- presence of written rules and regulation
- hierarchy of authority
 Informal group - arises spontaneously our of social interaction
 Reference group - any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating
themselves and their own behavior.
 Dyad – two-member group
 Triad – three-member group
 Coalition - temporary or permanent alliance toward a common goal
C.2 Ferdinand Tonnies’ Gesellschaft and Gemeinschaft
 Gemeinschaft
- typifies rural life
people share a feeling of community
- interactions are intimate and familiar
- spirit of cooperation
- task and personal relationships cannot be separated
- less individuality
- informal social control
- less tolerance to deviance
- emphasis on ascribed status
 Gesellschaft
- Typifies urban life
- Little sense of commonality
- Interactions are task-specific
- Self interests dominate
- Privacy is valued
- Formal social control
- Greater tolerance for deviant behavior
- Emphasizes achieved status
C.3 Bureaucracy as a formal organization
 Characteristics of a Bureaucracy (Max Weber)
 Division of Labor
 Hierarchy of Authority
 Written Rules and Regulation
 Meritocracy
 Impersonality

XIII. Spirituality, Religion and the Supernatural

A. Religion – an organized system of ideas about the spiritual sphere or the supernatural,
along with associated ceremonial practices by which people try to interpret and/or
influence aspects of the universe otherwise beyond their control
A.1 Elements of Religion:
- beliefs
- rituals
- church
B. Spirituality – concern with the sacred, as distinguished from material matters.
Spirituality is often individual rather than collective and doesn’t require a distinctive
format or traditional organization
C. The Practice of Religion – participation in religious ceremonies may bring a sense of
personal lift – wave of assurance, an emotion being overpowered by joy, having a peace
of mind, feeling of closeness to fellow participants
C.1 Supernatural Beings and Power
o Gods and Goddesses – great and remote being who control the universe e.g.
o Ancestral Spirits - a belief in ancestral spirits is consistent with the widespread
notion that human beings are made up of two closely intertwined partners:
physical body and spirit self. The spirits retained an active interests and even
membership in society
o Animism – belief that nature is enlivened or energized by distinct personalized
spirit beings separable from bodies. Spirits or souls are believed to dwell in
humans and animals (even in stones, mountains, sun). Spirits are considered
part of the nature rather being superior.
o Animatism - belief that nature is enlivened or energized by an impersonal
spiritual power or supernatural potency
C.2 Religious Specialists – individuals who guide and supplement the religious
practices. They are highly skilled people utilizing supernatural forces. They even
undergone special training to perform their tasks
o Priests and Priestesses – full time religious specialists formally recognized for
his/her in guiding the religious practices of others and for contacting and
influencing the supernatural forces e.g. priest, minister, imam, rabbi
o Shamans - a person who enters an altered state of consciousness to contact
and utilize an ordinarily hidden reality in order to acquire knowledge, power, and
help others e.g. traditional healers
D. Rituals and Ceremonies
D.1 Religious rituals are the ways which people relate to the supernatural. Rituals serve
to relieve social tensions and reinforce group solidarity. It even lessen the social
disruption and individual suffering like crisis or death
E. Witchcraft – an explanation of events based on the belief that certain individuals posses
an innate psychic power capable of causing harm, including sickness or death
E.1 Functions of Witchcraft – witchcraft manages tension in society

XIV. Collective Behavior - Relatively spontaneous and unstructured behavior or a group of

people who are reacting to a common influence in an ambiguous situation
A. Forms of Collective Behavior
A.1 Crowds – temporary groupings of people in close proximity who share a common
focus or interest. e.g. spectators in Pacquiao-Mayweather Fight, participants in pep rally,
A.2 Disaster Behavior – disaster refers to a sudden or disruptive event that overtaxes a
community resources so that outside support is needed
A.3 Fads – temporary patterns of behavior involving large number of people; they
spring up independently of preceding trends and do not give rise to successors. e.g.
adult roller skating
A.4 Fashions – pleasurable mass involvements that feature a certain amount of
acceptance by society and have a line of historical continuity. E.g. punk haircuts
A.5 Panic – a fearful arousal or collective flight based on a generalized belief which may
or may not be accurate. In panic people commonly perceive that there is insufficient
time or inadequate means to avoid injury. e.g. in battlefields, burning buildings, stock
market crashes
A.6 Craze – is an exciting mass involvement which lasts for a relatively long period of
time. e.g. If there is a news that govt was not able to contract rice import from Thailand,
then this is sustained in media, people will stock more rice which will result to actual
shortage of rice.
A.7 Rumors – a piece of information gathered informally which is used to interpret an
ambiguous situation. Rumors are spontaneous social products, devoid of ulterior
motives and underlying strategies. e.g. rumors about celebrities have long been popular
pastime around the world
A.8 Social movements - organized collective activities to promote or resist change in
an existing group. Social movements aim at more fundamental and long-term changes.
They are more structured, leadership is well organized. e.g. animal rights society, civil
rights movement, environ groups, etc.
A.9 Public opinion - refers to the expressions of attitudes on matters of public policy
which are communicated to decision makers. e.g. polls, survey by SWS or Pulse Asia or
even by TV networks

XV. Population
A. Demography is the scientific study of population, territorial distribution and other social
characteristics (e.g. occupation, marital status)
B. Birth rates and death rates are important components of demographic change
C. Population growth is due to: fertility, mortality and migration

XVI. Process of Change

A. Mechanisms of Change
A.1 Innovation – any new idea, method, device that gains widespread acceptance in
o Primary innovation – creation, invention or chance discovery of a completely new
o Secondary innovation – new and deliberate application or medication of an
existing new idea
A.2 Diffusion - spread of certain ideas, customs or practices from one culture to another
A.3 Cultural Loss (obsolescence) – abandonment of an existing practice or trait. Ex.
cart and chariot gave way to camels (camels are better means of transport)
B. Repressive Change
B.1 Acculturation – massive culture changes that people are forced to make as a
consequence of an intensive firsthand contact between their own group and another,
often more powerful, society
B.2 Ethnocide - the violent eradication of an ethnic group’s collective identity as a
distinctive nation. Ex. criminalizing one’s language, destroying one’s religion
B.3 Genocide – physical extermination of one people by another, often in the name of
progress, either as a deliberate act or an accidental outcome of activities carried out by
one people with little regard for their impact on others
B.4 Directed Change – bringing people in one reservation
C. Reaction to Repressive Change
C.1 Revitalization of Movements - efforts toward radical cultural reforms in response to
widespread social disruption and collective feelings of anxiety and despair
D. Rebellion and Revolution
D.1 Rebellion – organized armed resistance to an established government or authority in
D.2 Revolution- radical change in a society or culture. In the political arena, it involves
the forced overthrew of an old government and establishment of a completely new one
E. Modernization – process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing
societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial societies

XVII. Globalization
A. Cultural Future of Humanity
A.1 Global Culture - human populations have always been on the move. But today,
more people travel faster and farther than ever before due to modern means of transportation.
Moreover, revolutions in communication technology, from print media to telegraph to radio to TV,
satellites and the internet, make it possible to exchange information with more people faster and
over greater distances. This global flow of humans, products, ideas plays a major role in culture
- There is a popular belief since 1900s that the future world will see a homogenous
A.2 Is the world coming together or coming apart
o Reduction of autonomy among political institutions
o Fragmentation of big empires of the past into smaller independent state
o Threat of political collapse in a multi-ethnic states
A.3 Global Culture: A good idea or not
o The global culture might diminished conflicts and misunderstandings although
distinctive worldviews will persist
A.4 Ethnic Resurgence
o Still cultural differences are still with us today
o In fact there is a growing resistance to globalization
o Cultural reaction like the Muslim fundamentalists
A.5 Cultural Pluralism
o Multiculturalism – mutual respect and tolerance for different cultures
A.6 Rise of Global Corporations
o The global corporations cut across the international boundaries between states,
thus they are a force for worldwide integration
o These global corporations has tremendous power to the extent that they thwart
the wishes of national governments or international organizations
o They even influence the foreign policies of countries
o Multinational companies are constantly in search of cheap labor
o The power of these mega corporations has become all greater thru control of
mass media [use for marketing]

B. Structure of Power in the Age of Globalization

o Structural Power – power that organizes and orchestrates the systemic
interaction within and among societies, directing economic and political forces on
the one hand and ideological forces that shape public ideas, values and beliefs
on the other.
o Hard Power – coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force
o Soft Power – pressing others through attraction and persuasion to change their
ideas, beliefs, values and behaviors
C. Problems of Structural Violence – structural violence refers to the physical or
psychological harm [including repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness]
caused by impersonal, exploitation, and unjust social, political and economic systems.
C.1 Overpopulation and Poverty
C.2 Hunger and Obesity
C.3 Pollution
C.4 Culture of Discontent


Directions: Analyze carefully each item. The five items could serve as your guide on how to
analyze an item. Choose the letter of the best answer in each item and try to justify your choice.

1. ‘Posivitism’ is a social theory of Auguste Comte's which refers to __________.

A. a theory that emphasizes the positive aspects of society
B. the precise, scientific study of observable phenomena
C. a theory that posits difficult questions and sets out to answer them
D. an unscientific set of laws about social progress

Answer: B

Positivism is a social theory that limits truth and knowledge to what is observable and
measurable. Auguste Comte (1798-1857)…three historical periods…theological era,
things explained in reference to spirits and gods…metaphysical era, things explained in
terms of causes, essences, inner principles…positive period, thinkers did not attempt to
go beyond observable, measurable fact
2. In Marxist's theory, what is the best manifestation of 'mode of production'?
A. the specific organization of economic production in a given society and it includes
the means of production used by a given society, such as factories and other facilities,
machines, and raw materials.
B. how the worker under a capitalist mode of production becomes estranged from himself, from
his work, and from other workers.
C. human consciousness as a process of evolution from simple to more complex categories of
D. the relationship between those who own the means of production (the capitalists or
bourgeoisie) and those who do not (the workers or the proletariat).

Answer: A

The Mode of Production is the unity of the productive forces and the relations of
production. Production begins with the development of its determinative aspect – the
productive forces – which, once they have reached a certain level, come into conflict
with the relations of production within which they have been developing. This leads to
an inevitable change in the relations of production, since in the obsolete form they
cease to be indispensable condition of the production process. In its turn, the change
in the relations of production, which means the substitution of the new economic basis
for the old one, leads to more less rapid change in the entire society. Therefore, the
change in the Mode of Production comes about not through peoples volition, but by
virtue of the correspondence between the productive relations to the character and
level of development of the productive forces. Due to this, the development of society
takes the form of the natural historical change of socio-economic formations. Conflict
between the productive forces and the relations of production is the economic basis of

3. How do the structural-functionalist sociologists describe society?

A. a complex network of interaction at a micro-level
B. a source of conflict, inequality, and alienation
C. an unstable structure of social relations
D. a normative framework of roles and institutions

Answer: D 4.

The structural-functional approach is a perspective in sociology that sees society as a

complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. It asserts
that our lives are guided by social structures, which are relatively stable patterns of
social behavior. Social structures give shape to our lives - for example, in families, the
community, and through religious organizations. And certain rituals, such as a handshake
or complex religious ceremonies, give structure to our everyday lives. Each social
structure has social functions, or consequences for the operation of society as a whole.
Education, for example, has several important functions in a society, such as
socialization, learning, and social placement.

Prof. X is always analysing social issues like corruption, global warming, and education reforms
from the point of feminist. The term 'feminist standpoint' suggests _________.
A. taking a stand on the issues neglected by feminism
B. studying society from the perspective of women
C. the recognition of difference and diversity in women's lives
D. a tendency to ignore the gendered nature of knowledge
Answer: B

Feminist theory is devoted to the tasks of critiquing women's subordination, analyzing

the intersections between sexism and other forms of subordination such as racism,
heterosexism, and class oppression, and envisioning the possibilities for both
individual and collective resistance to such subordination. Insofar as the concept of
power is central to each of these theoretical tasks, power is clearly a central concept
for feminist theory as well. And yet, curiously, it is one that is not often explicitly
discussed in feminist work. This poses a challenge for assessing feminist
perspectives on power, as those perspectives must first be reconstructed from
discussions of other topics. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify three main ways in
which feminists have conceptualized power: as a resource to be (re)distributed, as
domination, and as empowerment. After a brief discussion of theoretical debates
amongst social and political theorists over how to define the concept of power, this
entry will survey each of these feminist conceptions.

5. What is the process of discarding former behavior patterns and accepting new ones as part
of transition in one’s life?
A. resocialization
B. anticipatory socialization
C. reverse socialization
D. education

Answer: A

Resocialization is profound transformation of personality arising from being placed

within a situation or environment that is not conducive to maintaining a previous
identity. Socialization as a college freshman cannot be considered resocialization.
Some choose resocialization or transformation of personality by entering a monastery
or a nunnery while others have it forced on them by being sentenced to penitentiary.

6. When sociologists Peter Berger and Thomas Luckmann said that reality is socially
constructed, they articulating that _____________.
A. scientists are guided in their work by social values and interests, so they define and measure
phenomena that will support their theories
B. people negotiate shared definitions of their situation and live according to these, often
forgetting that these social worlds are not fixed and external
C. sociologists decide what constitutes social reality and measure only that
D. terms like 'reality' have no deeper meaning beyond the level of discourse

7. Which of the following statement refers to ethnic identity?

A. the objective categories of ethnicity used in the census
B. a felt sense of group membership on the basis of religion, language, or history
C. the imposition of a racial label on a minority by a powerful majority
D. the fragmented and pluralistic nature of ethnicity

8. What could be the possible consequence if a deviant act is 'normalized'?

A. recognised as breaking an important norm of behaviour
B. seen a temporary aberration from an otherwise 'normal' character
C. the first step in establishing a deviant career
D. attributed to the person's genetic or anatomical make up

9. Many developed countries like Japan and Singapore are undergoing 'demographic transition'
which is a social trend that involves ____________.
A. a reduction in population size, caused by a higher rate of emigration than immigration
B. a change in the principal causes of death and disease since industrialization
C. increased birth and death rates, resulting in a relatively young population
D. a decline in the birth rate, greater life expectancy, and an ageing population
10. In Emile Durkheim's sociological theory, what is being referred to the term 'collective
A. effervescent ceremonies that create a feeling of belonging
C. images of gods or totems that are widely recognized
C. shared ideas and moral values, often symbolized by an object or figurehead
D. ideological tools used to obscure class divisions

11. According to Max Weber, the 'spirit of capitalism' could be traced back to ________.
A. the movement towards religious pluralism
B. inspirational Protestant groups who revived religious ideas
C. new religious movements who rejected traditional forms of labour
D. Calvinists who engaged in ascetic practices to gain signs of salvation

12. What is the composition of a 'nuclear family'?

A. a group of people sharing living accommodation and meals
B. a network of relatives extended within or between generations
C. the new family created when an adult leaves home and gets married
D. a two generation unit of parents and their children

13. Which of the following statements about crime and deviance is false?
A. the concept of 'deviance' is much broader than 'crime'
B. deviance and crime very often overlap
C. the concept of deviance can be applied to individuals and groups
D. deviance is normally sanctioned by law

14. Which among the following concepts describes repeat offending by those who have been in
A. rehabilitation
B. deterrence
C. recidivism
D. reform

15. The World Bank and IMF imposed the different structural adjustment program (SAP) 1980s
and 1990s through __________.
A. the expansion of private security companies
B. the building of private prisons
C. the introduction of market disciplines to measure police performance
D. all of the above

16. When we say that the Philippines is an 'open' society, we mean ___________.
a) grants every member equal status
b) does not have any official secrets in its government
c) has permissive attitudes towards sexual behaviour
d) allows people to move between levels of the hierarchy

17. The 'absolute' poverty line is drawn to show ___________.

A. the most extreme level of poverty that is found in a society
B. the estimated minimum level of income needed for subsistence
C. households that are poor, relative to the norms and values of their culture
D. the areas of a city in which poverty is concentrated

18. What is inter-generational mobility?

A. movement into a different occupational category over a person's lifetime
B. movement into a higher occupational category
C. movement into different occupational categories between generations
D. movement into an occupation that generates a lower income

19. The term 'hegemony' refers to ___________.

A. the tendency for the working class not to realize their own interests
B. a dominant ideology that legitimates economic, political and cultural power
C. a form of dual consciousness based on ideology and everyday experiences
D. a mode of payment given for outstanding teachers and workers

20. Which of the following is not a characteristic of totalitarian societies?

A. indoctrination and propaganda
B. freedom of movement for citizens
C. one-party system
D. a centrally planned economy

21. Pluralist theories suggest that _________.

A. the state's power can be exercised through several different administrative structures
B. the ruling elite is composed of people from various class backgrounds
C. political parties must compete for the votes of 'consumers' in the electorate
D. there is a close alignment between class background and party preference

22. What do ‘separatist’ movements in southern Philippines would like to achieve?

A. recognition of the equal rights of an ethnic group within a nation state
B. the creation of an independent nation state
C. the expulsion of an ethnic group from a disputed region
D. acceptance of an ethnic group’s right to use a separate, minority language

23. Which of the following best adhere to the concept of religious fundamentalism?
A. strict or literal adherence to basic religious principles and beliefs
B. acceptance and use of violent means to transform secular societies
C. commitment to the fundamental beliefs of charismatic leaders
D. religious beliefs associated with new age sects

24. Who theorized that we might be witnessing the ‘clash of civilizations’?

A. Paul Krugman
B. Amartya Sen
C. Samuel Huntington
D. Francis Fukuyama

25. A public school teacher will have role relations with students, with the teachers of other
public schools and with his fellow or co-teachers as a member of his professional association
and so on. It can be best categorised as __________.
(a) Role set
(b) Role taking
(c) Role concurrence
(d) Plural role


1. Which of the following is a characteristic of anthropology?

A. It is concerned with both human biology and culture
B. It is concerned with human variation, evolution, and adaptation
C. It focuses only on prehistoric societies
D. a and b

2. What do anthropologists mean when they refer to the concept of "integration" in regards to
A. Different kinds of people should learn to live together in peace.
B. Any successful behavior, strategy, or technique for obtaining food and surviving in a new
environment provides a selective advantage in the competition for survival with other creatures.
C. The best way to study another culture is by working with a team of researchers from different
academic disciplines.
D. All aspects of a culture are interrelated.

3. Which of the following is the best meaning of culture?

A. entirely learned during our lifetimes
B. the full range of learned behavior patterns and knowledge acquired by people as members
of a society
C. what made it possible for humans to transform themselves from relatively insignificant plant
and dead animal scavengers in Africa to a truly global species capable of controlling the fate of
all other species
D. all of the above

4. Which field of anthropology is primarily concerned with the non-cultural aspects of humans
and near-humans?
A. archaeology
B. biological anthropology
C. linguistic anthropology
D. cultural anthropology
E. none of the above

5. Which field of archaeology would most likely be interested in ancient pre-literate societies
around the world including those of most early or pre-colonial Filipinos?
A. classical archaeology
B. historical archaeology
C. prehistoric archaeology
D. primatology
E. none of the above

6. The belief that one’s ethnic or cultural back group is centrally important, and all others are
measured in relation to one's own.

7. What is the mode of production that involves growing crops with the use of plowing, irrigation,
and fertilizer?


8. What is the mode of production that includes the gathering of food that is available in nature,
by gathering, fishing, or hunting?
A. Agriculture
D. Foragin

9. An artifact is ________.
A. Any manufactured
B. An work
of art
C. Only something made by a
D. Something that has been consciously

10. We may best picture the relationships among all species as _________.
A. A ladder of increasing
B. A chain of species going from least to most
C. A tree with a few
D. A dense bush with countless branches and

11. According to the social evolutionists, what is the measure of success under natural
A. How many offspring are
B. Whether an individual lives or
C. How well an individual overcome the different life’s
D. How well adapted the
species is

12. When genes are exchanged or mixed between populations within a species, the process is
called __________.
A. Gene
B. Genetic
D. Selfish

13. The maximum population of a species allowed by existing environmental conditions is

known as _________.
A. Carrying
B. Environmental
C. The top of the food
D. Population

14. What is the kind of culture that is produced by ordinary members (masa) of society, is for
sale as a commodity, depends on mass production, and is often regarded as low-quality or
A. high culture
B. folk culture
C. one-world culture
D. popular culture

15. Which of the following is not a human characteristic?

A. Dependence on
B. Grasping
D. Small brain size

16. The apelike primate that began to walk on two legs and led to humans is called a(n)
A. anthropos
B. proto-human
C. hominid
D. pre-human

17. Which of the following statements defines gene flow?

A. the migration of species populations to new areas
B. the exchange of genes during fertilization
C. the movement of genes between species populations
D. mating between close relatives

18. Which of the following best describes genetic drift?

A. random changes in gene frequency in a population
B. generational fluctuations in gene frequencies that produce no effect
C. changes due to interbreeding with other species populations
D. the effect of mutations as they spread through neighbouring populations

19. The earliest known Homo species is _________.

A. sapiens
B. erectus
C. academicus
D. habilis

20. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are an example of __________ in the evolutionary approach.
A. a defense
B. pleiotropic effects
C. an environmental mismatch
D. an arms race

21. What is epidemiological transition?

A. a change in levels of diabetes in overweight adults
B. the change of mortality from infectious diseases to degenerative diseases
C. the changing prevalence of vitamin D deficiency
D. the change in birth defects due to genetic abnormalities

22. When close relatives mate, there is evidence for the increased possibility for __________.
A. greater fitness
B. inbreeding depression
C. larger number of offspring
D. smaller number of offspring

23. How can an anthropologist obtain evidence of ancient diets?

A. wear on teeth
B. bone chemistry
C. cavities in teeth
D. all of the above
24. How could we determine the sex of an unknown skeleton?
A. epiphysis
B. pelvic bone
C. vertebrae
D. teeth

25. What is this attitude that you can understand or judge another culture in terms of your own
culture or group?
A. cultural relativism
B. cultural anthropology
C. ethnocentrism
D. ethnoculturalism


1. What is the theoretical framework or perspective that is ascribed to Bronislaw Malinowski?

A. Evolutionism
B. diffusionism
C. structural functionalism
D. functionalism

2. Clifford Geertz and Victor Turner are commonly associated with _____________.
A. structuralism
B. Marxismc
C. neo-evolutionism
D. symbolic/interpretive anthropology

3. The study of rules and practices for making and using sounds in a language are called
A. phonology
B. morphology
C. syntax
D. sociolinguistics

4. The study of rules and practices for constructing meaningful "bits" of language like words is
called _________.
A. Phonology
B. morphology
C. syntax
D. sociolinguistics

5. What is this custom or cultural practice in some societies of murdering a woman who shames
the family by her behaviour?
A. mercy killing
B. female infanticide
C. honor killing
D. female genital mutilation

6. If you are sociologist, what will you do to measure human physical characteristics, to
determine individual and collective traits?
A. anthropometry
B. racial ideology
C. metric anthropology
D. ethnicity

7. What is the process or a phenomenon of racial mixing or interbreeding?

A. mestizo
B. apartheid
C. multiculturalism
D. miscegenation
8. Which of the following is typically an "achieved" status in most societies?
A. age
B. education
C. sex/gender
D. race

9. What is this practice in which a woman or her family gives property or money to her potential
husband in order to make a marriage?
A. dowry
B. bride service
C. bridewealth
D. inheritance

10. If the power is based on the threat or use of force, it is called ________.
A. Power
B. authority
C. persuasion
D. coercion

11. It refers to the political system most closely associated with the foraging production system.
A. State
B. chiefdom
C. tribe
D. band

12. What is the idea that some or all things in the world (plants, animals, natural objects, etc.)
have a spiritual part (a "soul")?
A. animatism
B. animism
C. ancestor spirit
D. anito

13. According to world systems theory, the poor states of the world constitute the _____ of the
A. Core
B. metropole
C. exception
D. periphery

14. What is the cultural-dynamic process in which some old aspect of culture ceases to be used
or practiced?
A. innovation
B. diffusion
C. culture loss
D. secondary innovation

15. What is the destruction of the people of another group or society, by killing them or
preventing their births?
A. acculturation
B. genocide
C. ethnocide
D. ethnogenesis


Answer Key
Part II – Analyzing Test Items

Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct
no. option no. option no. option no. option no. option
1 B 7 B 13 D 19 B 25 A
2 A 8 B 14 C 20 B
3 D 9 D 15 D 21 C
4 B 10 C 16 D 22 B
5 A 11 D 17 B 23 A
6 B 12 D 18 C 24 C

Part III- Enhancing Test Taking Skills

Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct
no. option no. option no. option no. option no. option
1 D 7 D 13 A 19 B 25 C
2 D 8 D 14 D 20 D
3 D 9 D 15 D 21 D
4 B 10 A 16 C 22 B
5 C 11 D 17 C 23 D
6 A 12 A 18 A 24 B


Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct Item Correct
no. option no. option no. option no. option no. option
1 A 7 D 13 D
2 D 8 B 14 C
3 A 9 A 15 B
4 B 10 D
5 C 11 D
6 A 12 A