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Final project

Sapphire textile mill weaving and processing unit 6

Submitted By :-
Raja sharoon

Submitted To :-
NFC Institute of Engineering and Fertilizer Research

Faculty of Mechanical Technology

It is hereby certified that the report has been thoroughly and carefully read and
recommended to the faculty of mechanical technology for acceptance of final
internship report by (Raja Sharoon 2015-UET-NFC-TECH-MECH-16)of the
requirement for the degree of Bsc engineering & technology (Mechanical) at NFC
Institute of Engineering and Fertilizer Research Faisalabad.

Assigment by:

Assistant General Manager

I thank first and foremost, ALLAH SUBHANAALLAHA-
TALLA for having enabled me to complete the effort of writing
such an assignment that would not be possible for me to
complete without his help in all stage of its preparation. May his
mercy and peace be upon over beloved prophet and all his
messengers who brought his message of peace and property of
Mankind. I am deeply thankful to MR. ZUBAIR KHAN
(Assistant General Manager) and MR. ZOHAIB SHAHID
(Deputy manager) it could not have been possible for me
without his support and encouragement to complete his report.
He provided me the related instructions for this report.
I am also grateful to MR. ZUBAIR TAHIR (Senior
Maintenance Engineer) in Sapphire Textile Mill Unit 6 (Power
House) for their kind support and guidance have been of great
value in this study.
Dedicated To
Our Dearest and most respected
Parents and Teachers. Whose effort
and prayers are great source of
strength to us in every noble venture.
Their love inspired us to the higher
idea of life.


Our mission is to be recognized as premier supplier to the markets we serve by
providing quality yarns, fabrics and other textile products to satisfy the needs of
our customers Our mission will be accomplished through excellence in customer
service, sales and manufacturing supported by teamwork of all associates We will
continue our tradition of honesty, fairness and integrity in relationship with our
customers, associates, shareholders, community

To be one of the premier textile company recognized for leadership in Technology flexibility,
responsiveness and quality. Our customers will share in our success through innovative
manufacturing, certifiable quality, exceptional services and creative alliances. Structured to
maintain in depth competence and knowledge about our business, our customers and worldwide
markets. Our workforce will be the most efficient in industry through multiple skill learning, the
fostering of learning and the fostering of team work and the security of the safest work
environment possible recognized as excellent citizen in the local and regional community
through our financial and human resources support and our sensitivity to the environment.


 Development of an integrated automated power.

 Reducing line losses minimizing tripping
 Stop load shedding for industry line
 Saving in consume LESCO
 Provide electricity at cheapest rate.
Engine Definition:-
A machine that turns energy into mechanical force or motion, especially one
that gets its energy from a source of heat, such as the burning of a fuel. The
efficiency of an engine is the ratio between the kinetic energy produced by the
machine and the energy needed to produce it.

Internal Combustion Engine:-

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel
occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal
combustion engine, the expansion of the high temperature and high -pressure gases
produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. This
force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves
the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful
mechanical energy.
The term internal combustion engine usually refers to an engine in which
combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke
piston engines, along with variants, such as the six piston engine and the Wankel
rotary engine. A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous
combustion , gas turbines, jet engines and most rocket engines, each of which are
internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described.

Diesel Ignition Process

Diesel engines and HCCI (Homogeneous charge compression ignition) engines rely solely on heat and
pressure created by the engine in its compression process for ignition. The compression level that occurs
is usually twice or more than a gasoline engine.

Engine Classification

Automobile, truck, locomotive, light aircraft, marine, portable power system, power generation
Basic engine design
Reciprocating engines (in turn subdivided by arrangement of cylinders: e.g., in-line, V, radial,
opposed), rotary engines (Wankel and other geometries)
Working cycle
Four-stroke cycle: naturally aspirated (admitting atmospheric air), supercharged (admitting recompressed
fresh mixture), and turbocharged (admitting fresh mixture compressed in a compressor driven by an
exhaust turbine), two-stroke cycle: crankcase scavenged, supercharged, and Turbocharged.

Fuel Used

 Liquid Fuels
liquid fuels: diesel. Air is compressed and diesel is spray by fuel injector.

 Gaseous fuels
Liquid Petroleum Gas ( LPG ), Natural gas ( NG ), air/gas mixture use and ignition with
spark plug.

Flash point of fuels

Auto ignition
Fuel Flash point

Ethanol (70%) 16.6 °C (61.9 °F) [3] 363 °C (685 °F) [3]

Gasoline (petrol) −43 °C (−45 °F) 246 °C (475 °F)

Diesel >62 °C (144 °F) 210 °C (410 °F)

Jet fuel >60 °C (140 °F) 210 °C (410 °F)

Kerosene (paraffin oil) >38–72 °C (100–162 °F) 220 °C (428 °F)

Use of the Engine
1. Marine engine: for propulsion of ships at sea.
2. Industrial engine: for power generation on land.
3. Automotive engine: for transport.
STM Power house:
Total load of Sapphire Textile Mill unit 6 is about Seven Megawatt(7Mw). It is maintaining by
take 80% from its power house and 20% from Sapphire power generation or sometimes use
LESCO.STM Power house has nine generator or engine in which number of gas engine is seven
and two diesel engine.

Dual fuel combustion provision (Gas & Diesel) has been made for all its engine. Requirement of
Gas on 80% load factor and 20% is used Diesel oil to meet its full load of STM (Sapphire Textile

Engine Hall:
STM Power house has two engine hall.
 One engine hall has four Gas engine.
 Second engine hall has three Gas engine and two are Diesel engine.

Figure 1 (Engine Hall no #1)

Figure 2 (Engine Hall no #2)

Sapphire Power House Engine

STM Power house has five Gas engine which manufacture by GE-JENBACHER Company.GE-
JANBACHER is an Australian company which manufacture different type of engine.


GE-JENBACHER Type3 is shorted by JGS-320(JGS show manufacture company and 320 its
type and electrical out power). Basically 320 mean 3 is the type of engine and 20 is the cylinder
of engine. JGS-320 has 20 cylinder and it is V type cylinder engine.
Figure 3 GE-JENBACHER 320 Gas Engine
Table 1.1: GE-JENBACHER 320 Specifications


Rated power 1064KW
Maximum ambient Temperature 40C
Rated power factor 1
Rated frequency 50Hz
Rated voltage 400v/231
Phase 3
Rated current 1536A
Max site attitude of installation 500m
Mass 10900Kg
Performance class G2
Series 1C-92X
Model 2005
Cylinder 20
Generator motor
R.P.M 1500RPM
Voltage 400/231
Power factor of motor 0.8
Rated KVA 1360
Rated KVAR 1330
Dc voltage 64V
Dc current 3.7A
Generator weight 3130Kg
Firing order
A1- B17- A7- B13- A3- B19- A9- B15- A5- B20
A10- B14- A4- B18- A8- B12- A2- B16- A6- B11

Maintenance schedules
Daily routine inspections
1-Air cooler(s)

2-Charge air cooler(s), charge air filter(s), fuel and lubricating oil filter(s)

3-Gauges and indicators

4-Governor, actuator

Daily maintenance
1-Clean engine air filters 2- Clean air chamber filters 3- If any fault occurs in engine then
solve it.

Interval: 1000-1500 operating hours

1-Tappet adjustment 2- Change tappet gas kit

Interval: 2000-3000 operating hours

1- Lube oil change 2- Lube oil filter change 3- Fill makeup lube oil tank 4- Duct Filter
Interval: 4000-4500 operating hours
1- Greasing all engine

Interval: 10,000 operating hours

1- Turbo charge maintenance

Interval: 16,000 operating hours

1- Change spark plug 2-change spark plug ring

Interval: 40000-45000 operating hours

1- Change Vibration Damper


Cylinder block
Figure 20-cylinder block

A cylinder block is an integrated structure comprising the cylinder(s) of a reciprocating engine

and often some or all of their associated surrounding structures (coolant passages, intake and
exhaust passages and ports, and crankcase).

In the basic terms of machine elements, the various main parts of an engine (such as cylinder(s), cylinder
head(s), coolant passages, intake and exhaust passages, and crankcase) are conceptually distinct, and
these concepts can all be instantiated as discrete pieces that are bolted together.

Cylinder head

Figure 21-cylinder head

In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head)
sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder, forming
the combustion chamber. This joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head also
provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, and that allow the exhaust
to escape. The head can also be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, and fuel.
Cylinder liner

Figure 22-cylinder liner

A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the space in which
a piston travels. Multiple cylinders are commonly arranged side by side in a bank, or engine block, which
is typically cast from aluminum or cast iron before receiving precision machine work.

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas
compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other
Figure 23 Piston

Similar mechanisms. It is the moving component that is contained by a cylinder and is made gas-tight
by piston rings. In an engine, its purpose is to transfer force from expanding gas in the cylinder to the
crankshaft via a piston rod and or connecting rod.

Cylinder head valve

A Cylinder head valve is a valve consisting of a hole,
usually round or oval, and a tapered plug, usually a disk
shape on the end of a shaft also called a valve stem. The
shaft guides the plug portion by sliding through a valve
guide. In most applications a pressure differential helps to
seal the valve and in some applications also open it.
Connecting rod

Figure 24 connecting rod

In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod connects the piston to
the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple mechanism that converts
linear motion into rotating motion. Connecting rods may also convert rotating motion into linear

Fuel injection pump

An Injection Pump is the device that pumps fuel
into the cylinders of a diesel engine or less
typically, a gasoline engine. Traditionally, the
pump is driven indirectly from the crank
shaft by gears, chains or a toothed belt (often
the timing belt) that also drives
the camshaft on overhead-cam engines
( OHC ).
Push rod
A valve operating push rod for an internal combustion engine comprises a metal
tube having end members with outer hardened surfaces of arcuate shape
welded to the respective ends of the tube.

Fuel injector
As shown in the diagram, there are only a few parts to a fuel injector. The pressurized fuel rail supplies
fuel which passes through a small and very fine fuel filter. This filtered fuel is held up in a plunger
assembly that is opened by a solenoid when an electrical signal is received from the ECU. A spring shuts
the plunger when the signal is removed. The fuel goes to the tip, which then sprays it in a fine atomized
mist to help create the air: fuel mixture in the intake tract of the cylinder just upstream of the intake
valve. Understanding this structure is the key to keeping it working as well as possible. The first
requirement is good fuel supply.
Rocker arm
Generally referred to within the internal combustion engine of
automotive, marine, motorcycle and reciprocating aviation engines,
the rocker arm is a reciprocating lever that conveys radial movement
from the cam lobe into linear movement at the poppet to open it. One
end is raised and lowered by the rotating lobes of the camshaft (either
directly or via a tappet(lifter) and pushrod) while the other end acts on
the valve stem. When the camshaft lobe raises the outside of the arm,
the inside presses down on the valve stem,

Crank shaft

Figure 26 operational panel

A crank is an arm attached at right angles to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is imparted
to or received from the shaft. It is used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating
into circular motion
Came shaft
A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a
cam forms an integral part

In internal combustion engines with pistons, the camshaft is

used to operate poppet valves. It then consists of a cylindrical
rod running the length of the cylinder bankwith a number of
oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve. The cams
force the valves open by pressing on the valve, or on some
intermediate mechanism as they rotate.

Fly wheel
A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device that is used to
store rotational energy. Flywheels have a significant moment,
and thus resist changes in rotational speed. The amount of
energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its
rotational speed. Energy is transferred to a flywheel by
applying torque to it, thereby causing its rotational speed, and
hence its stored energy, to increase.
Thrust baring

Figure 27 thrust bearing

A thrust bearing is a particular type of rotary bearing. Like other bearings they permit rotation
between parts, but they are designed to support a high axial load while doing this.
between parts, but they are designed to support a high axial load while doing this.

Gudgeon pin
In internal combustion engines, the gudgeon pin (UK, wrist
pin US) is that which connects the piston to the connecting
rod and provides a bearing for the connecting rod to pivot
upon as the piston moves
Charge air cooler
A charge air cooler (also known as an intercooler) is used
to cool engine air after it has passed through
a turbocharger, but before it enters the engine. The idea is
to return the air to a lower temperature, for the optimum
power for the combustion process within the engine.

Heat exchanger
A heat exchanger is a piece of equipment built for efficient heat transfer from one medium to another.
The media may be separated by a solid wall, so that they never
mix, or they may be in direct contact.[1] They are widely used
in space heating refrigeration, air conditioning, power plants,
chemical plants petrochemical plants, petroleum
refineries, natural gas processing, and sewage treatment. The
classic example of a heat exchanger is found in an internal in
which a circulating fluid known as engine coolant flows through
radiator coils