{S!

ARTILLERY NOTES

No. 37
",

Digest of Reports, Joint Naval and
Coast Defense Exercises,

August 3.9, 1913

PU8L1SHED

U~DER

SUPFRVISIOS

OF TilE

SCHOOL

BOARD
SCHOOL

COAST ARTILLERY

FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA
~, CO~ST ARTIU£RY SCHOOL PRESS

1914

1

j

j

l

PREPARED

IN TilE OFFICE OF THE

CHIEF OF STAFF,
COAST ARTILLEHY DIVISION

Table of Contents
1. negullltions forJoinl
, 2. 3. Naval and Coast Drfense Exerci~rs, 1913 ••••• ------.------------• ._ Genrral and.Spet'ial Situation!\ ._

1 3

'nst rurtions and Campai~n Orders 1 to 12, 'nrlusive. Issued by Commandpr.in-Chid, Atlantir Fleet, to Division nnd Other Commanders .___________ Diar~' or Evrnts as neportrd by thE' Coast Drfense Commander - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - ________ __ ____ __ _ Extrart from the neport of the Comm:lnding General, Enstrrn Drparl mrnl. _ __________ ____ _ Extract from thr nt'port of tht' Comm:mding Officer, North Atlantir Co:lst Artillery Distrirl __ ._________________ Extrllct from the nl'port of the CommandinROfficer, Coast Dt'frns('s of Long Js!and Sound, with One Apprndix ._ Digpst of Hf'ports of nattie, Fire, MinE' nnd n:lttf'I)' CommAnders, und Army Observ('rs. Anoaland Ashore_______ Hcporl of the noard o~ Eng:nters Extrnrt from the neport Atlantic Fleet Heport of the Commander of the Commandrr.in-Chirf,

13 31) 41 51 60 73

4. 5.

C.
7. 8.

n.

n7
105

to.
11.

of the Torpedo

Flotilla

115

JOINT NAVAL AND COAST DEFENSEEXER~. CISES, AUGUST 3-9,1913

REGULATIONS HEADQUARTERS EASTEHN DEPARTl\IENT, July 23, 1913. The following instructions are published for the information and guidance of those participating in the Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises to be held August 3-9, 1913, at the Eastern Entrance to Long Island Sound.
B~
COM~fAND OF

GOVERNOHS

I SI.AND, N. Y.

l\L\Jon

GENEnAL

BARBY:

\V. G. IIAAN, Lieut. Colonel, General Staff, ' Chief of Staff.
OFFICIAL:

\v.

A. SIl\IPSO~, ."\djutant General, Adjutant.

1. I n no sense are the exercises to he considered a contest; they are being held to practically test, so far as the Army is concerned, coast artillery materiel, and to aITord occasions for exercising command of coast artillery units, organized as prescrihed in regulations (u'nder conditions as nearly like those of service as it is practicable to make them).
SIMULATION OF FInE BY COAST GUNS

2. Targets will be tracked and all of the corrections for range and deflection made as required by the current instruction order. \Vhen the battery commander considers that the tracking i~ satisfactory he may give the proper commands for loading. (Occasionally mortar hattery commands will require the pieces to be relaid.) The 3. All the motions of loading will be simulated.
(I)

,

.
2

ammunition,

including projectile and dummy powder charges,

will be delivered properly at the breech of the gun but not ~
inserted. the pieces properly laid and drill primers inserted. ~)rojectiles will be delivered (for any pbase) by the regularly Installed ammunition service. At the end of the phase projectiles will be returned to their proper places in the magazines. Disappearing guns will not be tripped. 4. The actual firing of the piece (except 3 inch R. F. G.) will be simulated by firing a blank charge from a field piece mounted on the parapet near the battery commander's station. Three-inch H. F .. guns will fire blank charges. 5. The number of blank charges furnished to any battery will be equal to the number of authorized rounds of battle reserYe ammunition actually available. During these exercises the total number of rounds assumed to he fired by any hiece shall not exceed this alIowilIlce. ' G.' Each battery commander will keep track of the kind and number of rounds fired from his battery during any phase, and at the completion thereof report of the same. shall be made to the fire, mine and battle commanders. (See par. 355 D.

l

1

1

I

n.,

C.' A.)

I\IETIIOD

OF DETEHMINATION

OF

IIITS

7. In each battery, fire, mine and battle commander's station there will be detailed an observer, whose duty shall be to keep an accurate log of events and determine and record the hi ts. for the guns and mines concerned. The coast defense commander will detail one experienced enlisted man as ~ssistan t for each <.>bserver. (See nlso reports required by pnr. 19.) .. ' 8. ,The observer at each battery will be supplied from Department lIead,quarters with two hit bags-one (white) for day firing and one (black) for night firing. Each bag will be marked on' the outside indicating" the caliber of the battery for which it is to be used and will contain 100 cubes. 'fhe Cilh~s are numbered as indicated in the probability tables on pages 3 and 4, and their uses are explained in paragraph 9. 9. , To determine a hit, the observer ascertaining fromt the battery commander the range to the target un(!er fire. d,raws from his appropriate bag (day or night) one cube for each piece or pit of four mortars fired. A hit is secured if thG numberof the cube is equal to or grea tel' than the nearest thousand )~ards of range. For example: Hange G750.
,.! .

1

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PHOBABILITY

OF 0:\1':

lilT

I~

PIT

SALVO

12 inch B. L. ~1. ,"s. Dreadnought

Day Firin/il
Marks on Cubes

:'\i~hl

Firing

3 .1

% of

Ilils

='0.

Cubes

%

of Ilil~

:'\0. Cuhe!4

;)
(i

f>G.G G2.7 ;.7.2
51.2 .I;),(i

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fi 6

3R.;• :31.3
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5

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30.9
26.8 2:1.2

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20.9 I" .) 1.11.2

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10

11
12 13
IS

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3
2

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11
Blanks

20.2 17.3 1:>.0

I:>

:n
100

Gl 100
OF

-

Tolal

PHOBABJI.ITY 10 inch or 12 inch

J IrITJ:'\G

B. L. H. n. DrraJnoughl :'\ighl Firing

Day Firin~
1\1arks on Cuhes

% of

Jlils ~IO

:'\0. Cuhl's 3 18 If> 13
H
(i

~~ of Hils

:'\n. Cuhrs

2 :3 1
;) (i

71
;)0

7 8
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87 W :)3 .10 :31
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Hi 13 10 8 7 G

:31 21 16 12
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21 1G 10 8 1

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10 11 12 I')., 11 1;)

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B1ank!i Tntn!

10

29

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100

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100

.4
PHOBABILITY :\Iarks on Cub(.s

OF HITTING,

HAPID

FIHE

ARMAMENT

6-10. orf'}-in. B.F. Day Firing Night Firing
(J~

~-in. P.F. Day Firing Night Firing % Hits' No .. Cubes 30 29 15 8
4

/0

Hils
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gO
63 38
21

--

No. Cubes 22 30 11 10
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2

-- --- -- -- -- --no gO 13
47
21 11 6
3

% Hils

No. Cubes

% Hils

No. Cube<; 48
21

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7 8
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.26 10 5 3 1
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60
31

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10 Blanks Tolal

.1 3 2

10 -- -- -- --- -100 100

2 1 1 2 10

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3

90 42 18 8 il 2
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2

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:3

1 1

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10

--

100

-100

10

If observer draws 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, a hit is secured; if less than 7, a miss. After recording the hit, the observer must return the, cube to its original bag. 10. The following table showing number of hits at average range considered necessary to destroy various types of warships will be employed by battery, fire and mine commanders: .
\Vyoming Utah Delaware Class AA 10 11 18 Submarine Class SM 1 1 1 1 1

Gun

:\Iortar 12-in. 100in. 6-in. 3-in.

---

Vermont l~eorgia Class A 8 10 12

Tonopah Class 1\1: -1
6

Cruisrr Class C .1

Destroyer Clnss V 1 1 1 6 18

/1
.1 21 40

8 70

One-half of the number of hits on any type for any caliber given above will be sufficient to reduce ship's mobility and gun fire by i. II. From time to time the observers in the ba ttery commander's stations will report by telephone to the observers in fire and mine commander's stations the number of hits secured on their respective targets. These reports being

5 consolidated by the observers at the fire or mine commander's stations, will be available for the information of the fire or mine commanders to guide them in determining the time to change to other targets. 12. \Vhile . targets are approach~ng mine fields (actual or assumed) and when prediction is made, the observer will . examine the track and in case of assumed mines will decide Whether contact would be made or not. lie will render his decision when the target has arrived at the line of mines. If a hit is made by contact, either actually or by decision of the observer, the vessel will be considered ou t and report to that efTect will be made to the batlle commander. If judgment fire is resorted to, the chances of material damage will be even, and will be determined by the observer tossing a coin. If the result is "heads" the ship will be reported out: if the result is "tails" the ship is undamaged.
GENERAL INsTHucTToNs

13. Battleships and destroyers will simulate fire by firing blank charges from one gun on the engaged side at rate of one round per minute. 14. A ship that is to be considered neutral will display the annulling flag (International" N") at the fore by day, and "N" on ardois or semaphore at night. 15. In case any vessel covered by a beam of a searchlight desires to have it removed, Ior safety or other reasons, one ship's searchlight will be turned on and elevated at an angle of 45 degrees. 1G. Throughout the period of the exercises the ships of the fleet and the coast defenses will be on a war basis with regard to lookou ts, wa tchrs and ligh ts. 17. Any exercise of the schedule abandoned on account of weather may be omitted altogether and the remainder of the exercises carried on according to schedule. In order thut the continuity of events muy be maintuined, in cuse of such omission, appropriate information will be given out to the Blue forces. 18. Upon the completion of uny exercise, it may be necessary for the ships of the Dluck Fleet to retire. \Vhen in the opinion of the Dlack Commander the retirement begins, i~ will be indicated by day by each ship hoisting the annulling Signal (International "N") at the (ore, or at night by each ship turning on a searchlightund clevuting it at .15 d('grees.

6
REPORTS

19. The battle, fire, mine and battery commanders will submit directly to the coast defense commander by August 20, 1913, reports on the exercises as follows: . Battery Commanders: Copy of record of all messages sen t to or received from fire or mine commanders, with time and date.! A statement of the range, time and date at which assigned targets were identified.

SUfficiency of battle reserve allowance of ammunition. Is present proportion of shot to shell satisfactory? Proportion of shot and shell to be kept filled and fused. Efficiency of ammunition service. Desirability of blending powder prior to an action. Arrangements of personnel and materiel to insure prompt opening of fire in an emergencY.l " Best method of identification of targets. . (Jlorlar BatterlJ) Proportion of powder charges for various mortar zones. . .l/ine Fie/q Officers: Log showing in detail all operations charge. by vessel under his

1

I

Detailed account of the efTect in the mine field of any' operations by the Black forces. Efficiency of ma terieI. Roll/e. Fire or lIline Commander: " Copy of record of all messages sent or received from baltle or baltery commanders, with time and date. . Sufficiency of battle reserve allowance of ammunition. Proportion of sho t and shell. Arrangement of personnel and materiel to insure prompt opening of fire in case of emergency. Best methods of identification of targets. 1fethod of controlling fire. Proper size and composition of fire command. Desirabili ty of mixing calibers in same fire command. Tactical use of fire commands. Tactical stafT required and their duties. Estimating the situation. Employment of General Defense Plans (see par. 567,

i

D. R., C. A.).

7 Searchlights: Number, size and location. Personnel required for. Location, training and equipment of watchers. Tactical designation, assignment and control of. Duties of searchlight officers. ' Should searchlights be permanently assigned to fire and mine commanders? Efliciency of electrical and hand control. Eflicienl range under varying atmospheric conditions. Should searchlights be supplied with azimuth circles? ~ldditional for JUne Commanders: Besllocation of mine fields. Effidency of materiel. Necessity for casemate oflicer. Tactics of submarine mine defense. Cooperation between mine and fire commands. Possibili ty of repairing damaged mine field. EITecl on mine fields of any operations by Black forces. 20. Tile Coasl Defense Commander will require the foregoing reports to be submilled in lime' for him to forw'rird them with his comments and his report on any additional related subjects he may desire, in .time to reach the District Commander not later than September i, 1913. The District Commander will submit all the reports together with a' digest of them and his recommendation's in lime to reach the Department Commander by October 1, 1913; 21. Each authorized observer at a battle, fire, mine or hattery commander's station will keep a diary of events, which should include copies of all orders sent or received, 'with time and date. 22. Each authorized observer afloal will keep a diary of events with time and date, noting particularly the handling and efliciency of shore searchlights, and the efTect of any operations against the mine fields .. "'hile the vessel to which assigned is engaged in any phase, the observer thereon will be on deck. ' 23. All observers will submit their reports by August 20, 191:J, to the Commanding Officer, North Atlantic Coast ArliJJcry District, Fort Totten, ~. Y. -

!


II GENERAL
.'

AND SPEC'IAL
'GENERAL

SITUATIONS

SITUATION

(To b~' r~l~as~~{ to Blu~ C~mma~der July 17th.) On account of the strained relations between Blue and Orange, the Blue Atlantic Fleet arrived at Honolulu June 20th. On July 15th, due, to complications in Green, the Black Ambassador left \Vashington. , On July'15th a Black fleet composed of 5 AA, 7 A, 1 M, 1 C, 2 F, 20 V and 5 Sl\l, with train, passed out English Channel headed wes 1. . Coast Guard is mobilizing.' Second Hegiment N. G. Connecticut is ordered to report to Commanding Officer, Coast Defenses of Long Island 'Sound, for duty as artillery supports, due to arrive New' London 9 A. M., July 2Qth. (l\lovements of troops here, indicated are imaginary.)
SPECIAL SITUATION

Blue. , . (a) (Released, to' Blue Commander 8 A.l\L July 31.) Black scouts reported ofT Nantucket Lightship. Atlantic fleet recalled by radio. " , (b) (Released to Blue Commander noon,Augu'st 3.) 'Black fleet ,has established temporary bases Block J sland Sound and Fort Pond Bay.,

.I'.

',I

Black (a) Heleased to Black Commander noon August 3.) On' August 2 Black fleet established temporary bases Block Island Sound and Fort Pond Bay. 'It is reported that Blue Atlantic fleet has been ,recalled by radio from Honolulu. (b) (Heleased midnight August 2-3.) C. O. Black fleet"Convoy and transports will arrive Block Island morning 'August ,8. Initiate vigorous operations, against Blue Defenses Eastern'Entrance Long Island Sound, with a view to forcing entrance on' arrival of convoy and landing troops for attack of New York City."
"BRIN."

(8)

9 1ST
EXERCISE

..
and d~)'light' and by destroyers

l\10nday, August 4th; between midnight
1\J o./ive:

Preliminary'

reconnaissance

submarines. The I3lack Fleet has established advanced temporary bases in Block Island Sound and. Fort Pond Bay. Before undertaking any operations against the Blue Defenses, the Black Commander decides to send in one division of destroyers and one of submarines to make a general reconnaissance of the fortified line, to drive in' any patrol hoats. to ascertain what coast lights have been extinguished, to discover whether there arc any Blue armed vessels cooperating with the defenses, and, in general, to size up the situation. . Destroyers and submarines arc selected, on account of their speed and inconspicuousness, with the object of aC,complishing the reconnaissance withou t discovery.
2ND EXERCISE

l\londay,

August 4th; forenoon

l\lotipe: Day reconnaissance; establishment of blockade .. The Black Commander having secured the reports from the operations of the preceding night (1st Exercise), d('cides to undertake a day reconnaissance for the purpose of locating in a general way the positions of the various islands known to be fortified; plotting the prominent land marks, small islands (Valiant Rock, Hace Rock, etc.) to be used as aids to navigation, etc.; locating possible shoals; selecting aiming points; etc. Black appears in force in order that the various commanders of individual units may have the benefit of the operation. The morning hour is selected, as it is expected that the sun will be in the gunners' eyes. Before completion of the operation, the Black Commander orders the establishment of a blockade, and issues a blockade proclamation. . In addition to the normal object of a blockade, this operation will tend to keep the garrison at the guns; and frequent sallies resulting in frequent alarms will wear out the endurance of the defenders.
3RD EXERCISE

l\londay,
..fofire: l

August .Hh; afternoon

Heconnaissance for location of batteries. I laving determined that there arc no warships cooperating

10 with the defense, and having located in a general way the best aids to navigation, aiming points, etc., the Black Commander . orders a reconnaissance to determine the location of the various batteries. The location of some of the batteries he already' possesses, having received this information from that c'ollected by the Black General Staff in time of peace. This information he desires to verify, determining if possible the exact position of the hidden mortar batteries believed to exist, and ascertaiIl';' works have been constructed. To ing if any additional satisfactorily locate the batteries he m'ust draw their fire; hence he selects armored ships with orders to scout at extreme range the entire line of fortifications.
4TH EXEHCISE

l\Ionday, August 4th; night . Reconnaissance of searchlight positions. Having located the positions of the batteries, and verified the existence or non-existence of recently constructed works, the Black Commander orders a reconnaissance to determine the numbcr, location, size, and efficicncy of the searchlights. This maneuvcr is most important, since at night the efliciency of gun fire from the defcnses is a direct function of the range and efficiency of the searchligh ts and to a grea t degree depends upon the ability \vith which the lights are handled. To secure these ends it is unnecessary to risk his capital ships; so small, inconspicuous, and swift destroyers are selected. By lengthening the intervals between uni ts in each division to 1000 yards, it is expected that the efliciency of the handling of the lights may be severely tried.
.illolive:
5TH EXEHCISE

Tuesday,

August 5th; forenoon

"'lolive: Heconnaissance for position-finding stations. Since the efficiency of coast guns' fire is dependent da~r or night upon the efficiency of the system of range finding, the Black Commander orders a reconnaissance with a view to locating the position of the individual stations; and, not wishing to risk his capital ships, sends in a division of submarines, which, by "diving" and running awash," can run dose to the fortifications with minimum danger from gun fire, while securing the necessary information.
H

11

The forenoon is selected on account of the advantageous position of the sun.
6Tll EXERCISE

Tuesday,

August 5th; afternoon

.J,t olive: Heconnaissance by battleships to draw fire of batteries. ", Not being satisfied that the position of all batteries has been locate<,l, the Black Commander orders a reconnaissance in force to draw fire, if possible, thereby also causing the Blue Commander to expend some of his limited supply of ammunition.
7TH EXEHCISE

Tuesday,

August 5th; night

..1/ olive: Heconnaissance of mine fields. \Vith the positions now in his possession as a result of previous reconnaissance, the Black Commander can approximately predict the position of the mine fields. In order to verify this, he orders a reconnaissance by one group of destroyers and one of submarines. To create a diversion and to draw the searchlights from the reconnoi tering division, one hat tIeship division will cruise at extreme range.
8TH EXEHCISE

\rednesday,

AUgllst 6th; afternoon

~,/olitle: Haid against position-finding stations. The Black Commander orders a raid against position. finding stations, using special approach formations, in an elIort to confuse the fire control and the prescribed systems of identification of targets, hoping thereby to secure his end with mi~imum exposure of his capital ships.
9TH EXERCISE

\rednesday,

August 6th; night field. of the mine fields, the Black mine fields, and, by creeping and destroyers, to open a operations are in progress a

J'/otit'e: (a) Haid on mine Having located the position Commander decides to raid the and sweeping with submarines passage through them. (b) \Vhile the mine field

12 'determined raid. is ordered on the searchlights to cover the main object of the attack, Le., countermining, etc. 10TH Thursday,
EXERCISE

August 7th; afternoon

Alotive: Day' bombardment. This movement is planned in an endeavor to reduce the efficiency of gun fire and to reduce further the limited supply of ammunition. Special formations of approach will be employed, in an endeavor to confuse the identification and to reduce exposure to a minimum. 11TH Thursday,'
EXERCISE

August 7th; night

}'lotit'e: Night bombardment. This movement is planned under cover of darkness to reduce further the efficiency of gun fire and the available supply of ammunition, preliminary to a run-by. 12TH
EXERCISE

Friday, August 8th; forenoon Alolive: Hun-by. fleet convoying transports. llaving successfully opened a channel through the mine fields and reduced the efficiency of gun fire by repeated raids on range-finding stations and batteries, the Black Commander believes the time has arrived for a run-by, adopting a formation to cover his convoy of transports. 13TH
EXERCISE

Friday, August 8th; night Alotit'e: Fleet convoying transports. (The repetition of a run-by was primarily of training, since it is manifest, in so far as quence between the consecutive exercises is the Joint Exercises terminated with the 12th for the purpose any logical seconcerned, that Exercise.) .

III GENEHAL INSTRUCTIONS AND CA!\IPAIGN OnDERS ISSUED BY TilE CO!\f:\fANDER-IN-CHIEF, ATLANTI C FLEET
.,;

INSTRVCTIO~S

UNITED

STATES

ATLANTIC

FLEET.

V.S.S. \\'lIoming, Flagship, Newport, To: Artillery Hhode Island, July 29, 1913

Subject:

Division Commanders and Co.mmanding Officers. Instructions for Joint Exercises with Coast Defenses, week of August 3-9, 1913.

1. By arrangement between the \Var and Navy Departments, the Schedule of Exercises of the Fleet during the week August 3-9 will include a series of joint exercises with the Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound (Defenses of Fishers Island, Great Gull Island, and Plum Island). 2. These exercises will include the following general features:

(a) Preliminary night reconnaissance by submarines and des troyers; . (b) Day reconnaissance of fortifications and position finding stations by battleships, destroyers, and submarines; (c) Establishment of blockade; (d) Night reconnaissance of searchlight positions and mine fields; (e) Night raid on searchlight and position-finding stations; (f) Night raid on mine fields by submarines and destroyers: (g) Bombardment, day and night; (h) "Run-by," day and night. 3. The principal object of the exercises is to afTord the Coast Artillery an opportunity for the tactical use of the various ·
clements of the defense. There will be no umpires and no decisions will be rendered 3S to the superiority of one SIde.over the other.
(13)

14
GENERAL SITUATION

4. (a) The Blue Atlantic I'""leet is in the Pacific, having arrived at Honolulu on June 20 .. (b) On July 15, due to complications in Central America, the Hed Ambassador left \Vashington. (c) On July 16, a Red Fleet composed of 5AA, 7A, 19V, and 5S:\1 with train left European waters. (This Fleet is represented by the U. S. Atlantic Fleet.) . (d) The Panama Canal is not completed. The Blue mobile coast defense (submarines and torpedoboals) are mobilizing but will not be ready for service before August H. Blue Army and Coast Guard are mobilizing (contructively).
SPECIAL SITUATION

5. (a) On August 3, the Hed Fleet establishes temporary bases in Block Island Sound and Fort Pond Bay. (b) On August 3, the Red Commander receives the following message from his government: "Convoy transports will arrive Block Island morning August eighth. Initiate vigorous operations against Blue Defenses Eastern Entrance Long Island Sound with view to forcing entrance on arrival of convoy and landing troops for attack New York City."
INFOH:\L\TION REGARDING BLUE DEFENSES

6. (a) Th~ Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound form the outer line of the defenses of the Long Island Sound entrance to New York. Fortifications are located as follows: Fishers Island Great Gull Island Plum Island Fort II. G. \Vrighl. Fort l\1ichie. Fort Terry.

(0) Fort II. G. \Vright is known to contain two major caliber batteries and several rapid fire batteries. (c) Fort l\1ichie is reported to contain two major caliber batteries. (d) • battery (e) exist at Fort Terry is reported to contain one major caliber and several rapid fire (3" toG") batteries. Heliaole information indicates that mortar batteries Forts II. G. \Vright and Terry. (f) Blue's system of defense includes GO" searchlights and an efficient system of controllable submarine mines, although

15
thc cfi1cicney of thc latter may bc afTeeted by deep watcr and thc swift currents of thc locality. (g) Therc is good ground for thc belief that thc personnel manning thc Bluc Defenses is limited to onc relief. (h) Therc is also good ground for the belief that Bluc's ammuni tion allowanec is strictly limited.
GENERAL INSTHl:CTIONS

(G). (a) The period of the exercises will be from midnight August 3-.1 to midnight August 8-9. (b) Submarines and tenders will be prepared to get underway from Newport at 1 p.m., Sunday, August 3. (c) Dixie and destroyers will be prepared to gel underway from Newport at .1 p.m., Sunday, August 3. (d) Battleships will be prepared to get underway from Newport at G a.m., l\Ionday, August .Hh, speed 11 knots. (e) Submarines will return to Karragansett Bay Thursday morning, August 7. Battleshirs and destroyers will return to Narragansett Bay Saturday morning, August 9. 7. (n) The ships of the Fleet will he on a slric/ Irar basis throughout the period of the exercises, particularly with regard to arrangement of lookouts and watches, displaying lights, ('conomy of fuel and water, etc. (h) Ships will he "cleared for action" hy g a.m., l\Ionday, August .1, and will remain cleared throughout the rericd of the exercises. Boats will he retained on board and temporary life lines will he rigged except during actual maneuvcrs agair-sl the fortifications. (c) Commanding Officers shall pay particular attenticn to perfecting the war organization of their shirs with present complements, keeping in mind the necessity for conserving the health and strength of the personnel. (d) The" Blockade" of the Eastern Entrance to Long Island Sound will he established l\londay morning, August -I, and will he maintained throughout the week. Divisions of . baltleship; and destroyers will alternate in this duty. S. (a) Ko actual landing frem the shirs will be made. (I» Throughou t the week, standard speed for hat lIeshirs will not exceed cleven knots, except on Friday for U run-hy," When special spced will be ordered; standard speed for destroyers will not exceed t wen ty knots. (c) Opportunities will he given the haUleshirs daily for Sll hcalibcr practice. Tugs will hc furnished Divisions to

16

permit holding ." Subcaliber Exercise." (See ,Fleet. Order No. 14-13.) . . 9.. (a) Battleships will simulate fire by firing blank charges from saluting guns, firing one gun on the engaged side at a rate of one round per minute. (b) If three-inch blank charges are furnished destroyers, the rate of fire will be approximately one round every three minutes. (c) Shore batteries (above 3" in caliber) will simulate fire by firing blank charges at proper intervals from a field piece mounted on parapet; 3" batteries will fire blank charges. (d) Unless specially directed, ships will not score gun fire damage received. For certain exercises ships may be directed to score gun fire damage according to the" full penalty, normal . interval" schedule prescribed by the Rules for Battle Maneuvers. 10. (a) A ship that'is "sunk" or is to be considered neu tral for any reason will display the annulling flag (International "N") at the fore by day and "N" on Ardois or semaphore by night. (b) A vessel designated as a "transport" will fly' Inter- ~ national "T" at the fore. l (c) In case a vessel covered by a searchlight desires to 1 have the beam removed in order to navigate with safety or ' for other reason, she shall turn on one searchlight and point it 45 degrees in the air.l 11. (a) The detailed schedule of exercises is indicated below. This schedule will be considered strictly confidential among the officers of the Fleet. It is especially important that no information shall reach the Blue Forces as to the nature' or time of the intended operations by the Fleet. (b) Any exercise of the schedule abandoned on account of unfavorable weather conditions will be omitted altogether and the remainder of the program carried out as laid down,except that the mine sweeping exercises shall be held in any case, if possible. In order that the continuity of events may be maintained, in the event of the omission of any part of the program, appropriate information will be given to the Blue Forces by the Chief Observer on duty therewith. (c) The detailed orders to carry out the schedule will be issued to the Fleet serially, adhering generally to the campaign order form.

17 Schedule of Joint Exercises with Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound, 'Veek August ~-9. 1913
FIRST EXEHCISE: MONDAY MonNING (BETWEEN MIDNIGHT

AND DAYBREAK)

]\lolive:

Dclail:

9ne

Preliminary Reconnaissance. division destroyers; two submarines.
EXERCISE: MONDAY FORENOON

SECOND

Day Reconnaissance: Establishment of Blockade. Detail: For the reconnaissance, two divisions battleships, two divisions destroyers, and three submarines.
THIRD EXERCISE: MONDAY AFTERNOON

Alotipe:

Afotivc:
Detail:

Reconnaissance for Location of Batteries. One division battleships.
FOURTH EXERCISE: MONDAY NIGHT

A1olive: Reconnaissance Detail: Two divisions opposi te directions.
FIFTH EXERCISE:

of Searchlight Positions. destroyers, approaching
TUESDAY FORENOON

from

]\!olive:

Detail:

Reconnaissance of Position-Finding Three submarines.
SIXTH I~XERCISE: TUESDAY AFTERNOON

Stations.

Jfo:ive: Reconnaissance of Fortifica Lions. Delatl: All hattleships.
SEVENTH EXERCISE:

by Battleships

to Draw

Fire

TUESDAY

NIGHT

Reconnaissance of l\line Firlds. Detail: Two divisions destroyers, two submarines, division ba L tleships.
EIGHTH EXERCISE: WEDNESDAY AFTEHNOON

1\1otive:

one

~'I tit'C: Haid against Position-Finding Stations. o Dc/ail: All battleships. . Note: Special approach formations will be prescribed In the eITorl to confuse coast artillery fire commanders.

18
. NINTH EXERCISE : WEDNESDAY NIGHT

llf olive: (a) Raid on Mine Field (Sweeping and Creeping .Operations). . • (b) Raid on Searchlight Positions. Detail: Two' divisions battleships,' all destroyers, all submannes.
TENTH EXERCISE : THURSDAY AFTERNOON

ers.

llfolive: Detail: Not~:.

Day Bombardment. Two divisions battleships, Special attack formation
ELEVENTH EXERCISE:

two divisions destroywill be prescribed.
NIGHT

THURSDAY

llfolive: Detail:

Night Bombardment. One division battleships,
TWELFTH EXERCISE

two divisions destroyers.
FORENOON

: FRIDAY

.llfolil'e: .Run-by. Detail: All battleships, two auxiliaries (representing transports).
THIRTEENTH EXERCISE: FRIDAY

divisions

destroyers,

all

NIGHT

(BEFORE'

MIDNIGHT),

~Holilie: Run-by. Detail: All battles.hips,

two divisions destroyers.

12. (a) It must be appreciated that these exercises are principally for the benefit of the Coast Artillery and the Commander in Chief desires the active cooreration of all concerned toward making the exercises realistic and of the maximum benefit to the coast defenses. (h) Other important features of the week's work are: perfecting the war organization of the ships and exercise in maintaining them on a war basis; daily snbcaliber practicei (battleshirs) and preparation for the autumn target practices;.! extensive mine sweeping operations by destroyers and sub- ~ marines. 1 CHAS. J. BADGER

i

C.-\~IPAHiN

OIlDEHS

HED FLEET, H'!foming, Fla~ship,
Campaign Order

No.1.
Jo'onCES

:-\ewport, Hhode Island, 3 August 13, S a.m. Defenses of will be on a war footing from midnight August third until midnight August eighth. "General Situation" and "Information ,Heganling Blue Defenses" as given in Commander-in-Chief's letter ~o. 9.lG13 of July 29, 1913. A convoy of Hed transports (constructive) will arrive BLOCK
LONG ISLA!':D SOU!':D

1.

Blue

Coast

(a) Submarine Flotilla' Lieutenant Cause\, Tonopah • Second Submarine Division (1)) Torpedo Flotilla Captain Sims Dixie Second. Third. Fourth. and Fifth Torpedo Divisions (c) BalLleship Fleet First. Third. and Fourth Divisions.
ISLAND

August eighth. This fleet will occupy temporary bases in BLOCK ISLAND SOUND and will conduct vigorous operations against Blue Defenses with view to forcing entrance into LONG ISLAND 2.

SOUND

on arrival of con\'oy. (a) Submarine Flu/ilia will get underway at one p.m. August third and will occupy temporary base in FOBT POr-:D BAY. (b). Turpedo Flo/illa will get underway at four p.m. August third and will occupy temporary base in NAPEAGUE BAY. (c) Ba//leship Flecl will get underway at six a.m. August fonrth and will in general base as follows: First Division 0fT CIIAHLESTOW!': I!':LET; Third Division and H'yoming. west side BLOCK ISLA!'m; Fourth Division 0fT !':OYES POI!':T. (x) Throughout the operations use Battle Signal Book, 1912, and General Signal Book without a blind. Cse radio

:3.

7[>0 meters. will accompany Fleet Flag as Dispatch Train will remain in NABHAGANSETT BAY. G. \\'/Jom;l1[J with Battleship Fleel.

wave

length

-1.

Yankton

Boat.
.

ClIAS. J. BADGElt
Copies to: Division Commanders Flotilla Commander All Commanding Officers Commander-in-Chirf.

lJy (;uard lJoat

20

BED FLEET,
nr!Joming, Flagship,

Campaign Order . No.2.
FOHCES

Newport, Bhode Island, . 3 August 13, 8 :30 a.lll. 1. No further information. 'rhere is good ground for the
1"

(a) First Hcconnaissance Detail Lieut. Commander Mannix Third Torpcdo Division E-2, D-2 (b) Second Heeonnaissance De-

(e)

First Division (d) Fourlh Heconnaissance tail Lieutenant Commander

,belief that the personnel man-, ning the Blue Defenses is limited to one relief and that Blue's tail . ammunition allowance is strictly Commandcr-in-Chicf limited. Third and Fourlh Divisions 2. This fleet will conduct a Fourlh and Fifth Torpedo Divisions series of reconnaissances to deE-l, D-l, D-3 termine location and character Third Heconnuissance D{~lail of Blue's batteries and location. Henr Admirnl Winslow of searchlight and position-findDeDe-

~

I',

~ , ~

J

'II

3. (a) Firsl Reconnaissance Detail 'will make a preliminary 1 . . E-l, D-l, D-3. mg 11t reconnaIssance 0 f enemy., 1 defenses during early morning August fourth, withdrawing be- ~ fore daybreak (FIHST EXERCISE). Submarines in light con-., dition. • • (h) Second Reconnaissance Detail will make a day recon- ~ naissance of enemy defenses during forenoon, August fourth (SECO~D EXEHCISE). Detailed orders contained in com-,,' mander-in-Chiefs Campaign Order No.3. " (c) Third Reconnaissance Delail will make a long range. reconnaissance of enemy's major caliber and mortar batteries during afternoon, August fourth (THIRD EXERCISE). Primary ~ object of reconnaissance to draw fire of enemy's principal batteries. Do not approach closer than seven thousand yards' to fortifications on account of danger from enemy's mines. '1 (d) Fourlh Reconnaissance Detail will make a thorough. reconnaissance of enemy's searchlight positi()ns during night of August fourth and fifth (FOURTH EXEHCISE). Be guided bY' Instructions" forwarded herewith. (e) FiflhReconnaissance' Detail will make a thorough
U

Lany Third and Fifth Torpedo Divisions (e) Fifth Heconnaissance Detail Lieutenant Causey

~ng (fire cont~ol) stations. An '. Important object of all recon- ', naissance operations is to draw,~ • the enemy's fire and tire out his ~ personnel.

l

21 close range reconnaissance of enemy defenses during forenoon, August fifth, to determine location of rapid fire batteries, of searchlight positions and particularly of position-finding stations (FIFTH EXERCISE). Assign one submarine to each of enemy's three forts. Proceed submerged and endeavor to detection. (x) Report results of reconnaissances promptly by radio, using General Signal Book. . CIIAS. J. DADGEH, Rear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief. Copies to: Division Commanders Flotilla Commanders All Commanding Officers avoid

nil

Guard Boat RED FLEET, \ryomi!1g, Flagship,
Newport, Rhode Island, 3 August 13, 8:30 a.m.

INSTRUCTIONS

Fon

FOURTH

HECONNAISSANCE

DETAIL

(To accompany

Commander-in-Chief's

Campaign

Order

No.2.) 1.
illuminate

It is reported
a single

that Blue searchlight details are able to column of vessels without disclosing all

searchligh t posi t ions. 2. The Fourth Reconnaissance Detail will endeavor to compel enemy forts to disclose all searchlight positions by' maneuvering in two columns steaming in opposite directions. 3. Divisions will take station on either flank of fort to he reconnoitered and approach on opposite courses so as to pass each other when abreast the fort. Repeat the maneuver us necessary. Interval between columns when abeam about two thousand yards. Distance between boats in the same column should be relatively great, between five hundred and one thousand yards . .1. The Detail Commander is not limited to the above maneuver nor is he required to use it in the reconnaissance of all of enemy's forts. It is desired, however, to give the maneuVer a thorough trial against at least one of enemy's forts. 5. The best results will probably .be obtainrd by em-

f/19S94-

22
ploying the whole force in the reconnaissance of each of the enemy's forts and completing the reconnaissance of one fort before undertaking the next. 6. Pay particular attention to developing position of all searchlights on RACE POINT (western end FISHERS ISLAND), on eastern point of PLUM ISLAND and on GREAT GULL ISLAND (including western side). ' 7. Plot position of searchlights disclosed as accurately as possible. . . 8. If conditions are favorable, use "smoke effect escape from enemy's llre after searchlights disclosed and plotted. screen" to have been

Copies to: Commanding Officers Third and Fifth Torpedo By Guard Boat

CIIAS. J. BADGER, Rear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief. . Divisions

SECOND Campaign Order No.3.
FORCES

RED FLEET, RECONNAISSANCE DETAIL, \Vyoming, Flagship, Newport, Rhode Island, 3 August 13, 8 :30 a.m. 1. No further information. 2. This force will make a day reconnaissance of Blue Defenses during forenoon of August fourth
(SECOND EXERCISE).

3. (a) j\;[ ain Body will make a reconnaissance of enemy fortiLany cations on FISHERS ISLAND and Fifth Torpedo Division (d) Submarines GREAT GULL ISLAND. Approach Lieutenant Causey will be made from a position ofT First Submarine Section NOYES POINT standing to the southwestward parallel to line of enemy defenses. Formation column. (b) 11line Sweeping Detail will precede main body, interval one thousand yards, and will thoroughly sweep water ahead of main body for enemy mines. Courses wiII be signalled from n'yoming.

(a) Main Body Third and Fourth Divisions (b) Mine Sweeping Detail Lieut. Commander Evans Fourth Torpedo Division (e) Plum Island Detail Lieutenant Commander De-

(c) Plum Island Detail will procced independently, when directed, and will make reconnaissance of enemy fortifications If conditions permit, use on eastern side of PLUM ISLAl'D. "smoke screen" to force passage into and out of GARDINEHS Upon completion of reconnaissance report to First BAY. Division Commander for duty on blockade. (d) Submarines wiII proceed from base in FORT POND BAY, when directed by radio, through TilE RACE and make reconnaissance of 'enemy fortifications on west side of FISHERS and PI.l;~t ISL\ND. Assign one ISLAND, GHEAT GULL ISLAND, SUbmarine to each of enemy's three forts and endeavor to avoid detection. Upon completion of reconnaissance return
to
FOHT POND RAY.

(x) August directed -1.
f>.

Des/royers assemble fourth. Submarines after eight a.m. Yank/un at base west H'/Jo11ling with main

ofT NOYES POINT by eight a.m., be prepared to proceed when of BLOCK ISLAND. body. CIIAS. J. BADGEH, Hear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief.

Copies to: Division Commanders Flotilla Commander All Commanding Officers lJll Guard lJoa/

HED FLEET, \\'yoming, Flagship, Campaign Order No. -1.
FOUCES

~ewport, Hhode Island, 3 August 13, 9:00 a.m.
1. ;.\0 further information-: 2. This force will establish and maintain a close blockade of eastern extrance to LOl'G ISLAND SOVl'D. The blockade will (a) interrupt all commerce (constructively), (b) pre\'l'nt enemy from laying mines, and (c) make demonstrations against enemy fortifications to dra\\' his firr and tire out his personnrl.

illockade Detail Hear Admiral Winslow First Division Fifth Torpedo Division (I» Second Blockade Detail Hear Admiral Usher Third Division Second Torpedo Division (e) Third Blockade Detail Henr Admirnl Beattv Fourth Division . Third Torpedo Division

(n) First

24
3. (a) First Blockade Detail will establish blockade forenoon, August fourth, and maintain it until noon, August fifth. (b) Second Blockade Detail will maintain blockade from .noon, August fifth, until six p.m., August sixth. . . (c) Third Blockade Detail will maintain blockade from six p.m., August sixth, until seven p.m., August eighth. (x) Blockading vessels will remain uQderway. Habitual station during the day will be about fourteen thousand yardS from enemy fortifications, closing in during the night. Prevent enemy from laying mines. Take advantage of every oppor" ~unity to make demonstrations. against enemy defenses in order to draw his fire .and tire out his personnel-not to interfere with regularly scheduled operations. 4. . 5. \Vyoming will not take part in blockade. CIIAS. J. BADGER, Rear Admiral, Copies to: Commander-in-Chief. Division C~mmanders Flotilla Commander All Commanding Officers

By Guard. Boat
RED FLEET,

Wyoming, Flagship,
Campaign Order

No.5.
FORCES

Block Island, 4 August 13, 1 p.m.

(a) Right \Viog Rear Admiral Winslow First Division (h) Center \Vyoming Third Division urt\A:\'ld'Og. I' (c) R car mIra neatly. . l' . . 'our th D'IVlSlon.

1. Location of enemy's principal batteries has been approx" ' imately determined as followS (viewed from the eastward): (a) FISIIEHS ISLAND: About eight twelve inch mortars behind radio station. Two twelve . h lllch and two ten Inc guns .on J 'lI western end of island between SI'L\,ER EEL POND and HACE POINT; position indicated by' con" . tinuous line of cement along top of parapet. (b) CHEAT GULL ISLAND: Two ten inch guns on north-1 eastern point of island. Two twelve inch guns in center of island. Positions indicated by high parapets. •
I""'.

I

(c) PLUM ISLAND: About eight twelve inch mortars on eastern point of island. Two ten inch guns at beginning of neck of land, due north from PLUM ISLAND ROCK. Positions indicated by high parapets. 2. This .force will attack enemy's principal batteries during afternoon August fifth wjth a view to forcing him to expend his ammunition (SIXTH EXERCISE). 3. (a) Right lVing will approach from the northeastward and will attack fortifications on FISHERS ISLAND. (b) Center will approach from the eastward and will attack fortifications on GREAT GULL ISI..AND. (c) Left lYing will approach from southeastward and will attack fortifications on PLUM ISLAND and on GHEAT GULL (x) All divisions rendezvous seven miles cast north cast of CERBERUS SHOAL at one thirty p.m., August fifth. Right and Left \Vings regulate speed during the approach so as to join action simultaneously with the Center. Do not approach closer than six thousand yards to fortifications on account of danger from enemy mines. 4. Yankton at base. 5. \V/Joming with Center. CIIAS. J. BADGER. Rear Admiral. Copies to: Commander-in-Chief. Division Commanders Commanding Officers (13attleships) By Dispatch Boat BED FLEET. l\'yom;ng, Flagship, Campaign Order No. G.
FOHCES

ISLAND.

Block Island. .J August 13. 1 p.m. has mined entrance to GARDINERS BAY. Reliable reports indicate that enemy mine fields extend from PIlOSPECT lULL . (on FISHEHS ISLAND) to CONSTELLATION ROCK; from CONTHE RACE STELLATION ROCK

1.

The

(a) First Sweeping Detail Lieut.-Com. \\'oodward Second Torpedo DiYision (less AI (Call) (I» Second Sweeping Detail Lieut.-Commander Evans Fourlh Torpedo Division (Irs5 Burrows)

enemy and the

to

GHEAT

GULL

26
(c) Third Sweeping Detail Lieut.-Commander IIellweg Burrows. Jl.fcCall Second Submarine Section (d) Battleship Support . Rear Admiral Usher Third Divisiun
EXERCISE). ISLAND; POINT ISLAND. . and from GARDINERS to eastern point of PLUM

2. This force will make areconnaissance of enemy's mine fields during the night of August fifth and sixth to determine their location and extent (SEV~NTII 3. (a) First Sweeping Detail will sweep for mines to the southward and southwestward of PROSPECT HILL. (b) Second Sweeping Detail will sweep for mines to the northward and eastward of CONSTELLATION ROCK. (c) Third Sweeping Detail will sweep for mines between GARDINERS POINT and eastern point of PLUM ISLAND. Submarines in light condition will drag for mine cables with grapnels. (d) Battleship Support will vigorously engage enemy batteries during sweeping operations. Assign one battleship to the support of each sweeping detail. (x) For this exercise do not attempt to clear the mine fields, hut withdraw after locating one or two mines in each field. Plot position of mines or cables located as accurately as possible. The Commander of the I3attleship Support will be in general command and will issue necessary orders for the movements of the whole force. 4. The I3lockade Detail will prevent enemy from replacing mines or mine cables. (Note: In case Army mine planter displays "N". by night or day she is merely engaged in recovering material and shall not be interfered with). 5. \Vyoming at base. CHAS. J. I3ADGER, Rear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief. Copies to: Third Division Commander Flotilla Commander Commanding Officers: Third Division Second and Fourth Torpedo Divisions Second Submarine Section

.)-

-,
RED FLEET, \\'yoming, Flagship, Block Island, 5 August 13, 2 p.m. 1. Location of cnemy's scar,chlight and position-finding stations has been approxima tc1y dctcrmincd as follows:
(a)
FISHERS ISLAr\I>:

Campaign

Ordcr

No.7.
FonCEs

(a) Hight Wing Hear Admiral Winslow First Division (b) Center Hear Admirtll Usher Third Division (c) Left Wing Hear Admiral Beatty Fourth Division

Two

scarchlights

at mortar
POINT.

battcry

(bchind

on castern slopc of PROSPECT HILL; two scarchlights on HACE POINT. Position-finding stations on PHOSPECT HILL, radio station), and on HACE

(b) GHEAT GULL ISLAr\D: Onc scarchlight on northcastcrn shorc; one scarchlight on southwestern shorc; one searchlight on wcstcrn point. Position-finding stations indicatcd by three towcrs on castern point. . (c) PLUM ISLAr\D: Two searchlights on castcrn point; two searchlights on southcrn shore bcaring N. N. \Y. from PLUM ISLAND HOCK. Position-finding stations on castcrn point, on southwcstcrn point and on hill bchind ten-inch battcry. Searchlight positions arc indicated by small sheltcr houscs ovcr lights. Position-finding stations arc indicated by towcrs with cupola. 2. This force will make a raid on cncmy's scarchlight and position-finding stations during aftcrnoon, August sixth
(EIGHT EXEHCISE).

3. (a) Right \ring will approach from the northcastward and will dircct fire on FISHEHS ISI .• ND. A (b) Centcr will approach from the castward and will dircct fire on GREAT GULL ISLAND. (c) Left ,ring will approach from the southeastward and and will direct fire on PLU~I ISl.Ar\D. (x) During the approach, change thc formation, spced, coursc, and distance frequently in ordcr to confusc enemy fire eommanders. HcndczYous Scyen miles cast north cast of CEHBEHUS SHOAL at one thirty p.m., August sixth. Do not approach closcr than six thousand yards to fortifications. '1.

28
5. lVyoming will maneuver independently. CRAS J. 'BADGER, Rear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief.

Copies to:

Division Commanders
Commanding Officers (Battleships) By Dispatch Boat

RED FLEET,
Campaign Order NO.8.
FORCES

(a) Lieut.-Com. \Voodward Firsl Sweeping Delail Second Torpedo Division (less AfcCall) . First Submarine Section (b) Second Sweeping Detail Lieut.-Commander Evans Fourth Torpedo Division (less Burrows) (c) Third Sweeping Detail Lit'ut.-Commander lIellweg Seelion

lVyoming, Flagship, Block Island, ' 6 August 13, 2 a.m. 1. Enemy mine fields are approxima tely located as follows:
(a)
OFF FISHERS ISLAND:

Line of fourteen mines, about seven hundred yards long, general direction of line north and' south, north end of line about three thousand
WILDERNESS

yards

south

of

POINT.

Burrows, AfcCali
Second Support Cd) Eastern Submarine Hear AdmIral \Vbslow First Division (e) "'estern Support Hear Admiral Beatty Fourth (f) Reserve Division

(b) OfT GREAT GULL ISLAND: Line of seven mines, about four hundred yards long, general di. rection of line east and west, west end of line about five hundred yards east of CONSTELLATION (C) HOCK.

OfT PLUM ISLAND: Line \Vyoming of thirty-eight mines at close Third and Fifth Torpedo in tervals, general. direct ion of Divisions line north and south, north end of line about three thousand yards south of EAST POINT of
PLUM ISLAND.

Position of enemy searchlight and position finding stations as given in Commander-in-Chief's Campaign Order No.',. 2. This force will make a night" raid on enemy's mine fields, and searchlight stations during night of August sixth and seventh (NINTH EXERCISE).

29 3. (a) First Sweepi~g Detail will clear enemy mine fields ~fT FI~HERS ISLAND. Submarines in light condition will drag or nunc cables with grapnels. (b) Second Sweeping Detail wiII clear enemy mine field ofT GREAT GULL ISLAND. (c) Third Sweeping Detail will clear enemy mine field ofT P~UM ISLAND. Submarines in light condition will drag for nune cables with grapnels . . (d) Eastern Support wiII take station to the northwestward of CERBERUS SHOAL and will support the First and ~ccon~l Sweeping Details. Direct a vigorous fire on enemy altenes and searchlight stations on FISHERS ISLAND and
GREAT GULL ISLAND.

to the eastward ~f GA~DNERS POINT and will support the Second and Third ..weepmg Details. Direct a vigorous fire on enemy batteries and searchlight stations on GREAT GULL ISLAND and PLUM
ISLAND.

(e) lrestern

Support will take' station

'

Reserve will take station to westward of CERBEHUS between Eastern and \Vestern Supports. Destroyer~ ~ay be directed to attack enemy's light batteries and search19hts Or to make smoke screen for protection of mine sweepers. (x) Entire force rendezvous ten miles east of CERBERUS ~IIOAL, at eight p.m., August sixth. Directions may.be given o turn searchlights on enemy's batteries, position-finding and searchlight stations in the effort to draw his fire, blind his personnel, and protect the mine sweepers. Take particular care not to illuminate sweepers. n' ,4: Upon completion of the exercise, the Third Torpedo . IVISlon (Blockade Division) will assist Army l\line Planter In recOvering material. Return to station when services are no longer required. . (5) ,H!yoming with the Heserve. CHAS. J. BADGER, Rear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief. Copies to: Division Commanders Flotilla Commander AU Commanding Officers
(f)
SHOAL

30

\Vyoming,

RED FLEET, Flagship, Block Island, 6 August 13, 2 a.m.

Campaign Order Ko. 9.
FORCES

(a) Hight Wing Hear Admiral Winslow First Division, Tonopah (b) Left Wing Hear Admiral Usher Third Division, Dixie (c) Mine Sweepers Lieut.-Commander Evans Fourth Torpedo Division (d) Hescrve Wyoming Third Torpedo Division

1. No further information. 2. This force will make a day bombardment of enemy defenses during afternoon, August seventh (TENTH EXERCISE). An irregular attack formation is prescribed with a view to confusing enemy fire commanders. Dixie and Tonopah are assigned stations on firing line in order to induce the enemy to expend his ammu-

nition on these vessels. 3. (a) Right \\'ing will direct fire on FISHERS ISLAND and will maintain station during bombardment on bearings and ranges from !lACE POINT LIGHT indicated below:
Utah Arkansas (Flag) .Yorth Dakota Tonopah Delawarf

80 degrees 100 degrees 110 degrees 118 degrees 125 degrees

between between between between bet ween

13000 13000 12000 11000 11000

and 10000 yards and 10000 yards and 9000 yards and 8000 yards and 8000 yards

(b) Left \\ring will direct fire on GHEAT GULL ISLAND and ISLAND and will maintain station during bombardment on bearings and ranges from LITTLE GULL ISLAND LIGHT as follows:
PLUM

iYew Jersey Rhode Island Dixie . Georgia

120 (Flag) 130 110 150
Sweepers

degrees degrees degrees degrees

between between between between

11000 11000 10000 11000

and and and and

7000 yards 7000 yards, GOOO yards 7000 yards

will sweep enemy mine fields off and off LITTLE GULL ISLAND under cover' of bombardment. Extent of these fields indicated in Commanderin-Chief's Campaign Order No.8. (d) Reserre will in general maintain station bet ween Hight and Left \Vings. Destroyers may be directed to attnck enemy's light batteries or to make smoke screen for protection of mine sweepers.
FISHERS ISLAND

(c) .'line

31

(x) Bombarding vessels must be active on their stations on firing line. Bearings and ranges arc prescribed merely as a guide in maintaining station and frequent changes of speed and of course will be made. 4. Upon completion of the exercise, Dixie return to base in NAPEAGUE DAY; Tonopah proceed to NARRAGANSETT nAY. 5. \Vyoming with Reserve. CIIAS. J. BADGER, Rear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief. Copies to: Division Commanders Flotilla Commander All Commanding Officers By Dispa/ch Boat HED FLEET, \Vyoming, Flagship, Campaign Order No. 10
r"onCES

Block Island, G August 13, 2 a.m. 1. r\o further information. 2. This force will make a night bombardment of enemy defenses during night of August seventh and eighth (ELEVENTH
EXERCISE).

(a) Easlern Delnchmenl Hear Admiral Beally Fourlh Division (b) Weslern Delnchmcnl Caplain Sims Second and Fifth Torpedo Divisions

will bombard fortifications

and PLUl\1 ISLAl'D ISLAND, regular attack formation at discretion. (b) \res/ern Detachment will run by enemy's defenses and bombard from the rear. . (x) Proceed in time to join action simultaneously at ten. Hurty p.m., August seventh. \rithdraw after bombarding 3 hours.

3. (a) Eas/ern Detachment on FISIIEHS ISLA~m, GREAT GULL from the eastward. Adopt an irand keep moving~ Use searchlights

4.
5. \Vyoming at base. CIIAS. J. BADGEH, Hear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief •

32 Copies to:

Fourth Division Commander Flotilla Commander Commanding Officers: Fourth Division Second and Fifth Torpedo

Divisions

By Dispatch Boat

RED Campaign
FORCES

FLEET, Block Island, 7 August 13, 2 a.m.

\Vyoming, Flagship,
Order

No. 11.
(a) Main Body \Vyoming Third Division Fourth Division (b) Fast Wing Rear Admiral \Vinslow First Division (c) Screen Captain Sims Second and Fourth Torpedo Divisions (d) Convoy Commander IIarrison San Franci.'io. Dixie. Panther. Ontario. Sonoma. Patapsco.

No further information. This force will run by enemy defenses during forenoon, August eighth. (TWELFT I1EXEHCISE). 3. BATTLE PLAN NO. 1 (wind from northward). (a) ]\.[ain Body will form at rendezvous in column heading , west. Have steam for fourteen knots. \Vhen signal is made "PROCEED," l\Iain Body will proceed through TIlE RACE passing between RACE POINT LIGHT and VALIANT ROCK and will vigorously engage enemy forts on FISHERS ISLAND, drawing the fire of those forts off the Convoy. (b) Fast lYing will.form at rendezvous in column ahead of l\1ain Body, interval one thousand yards. \Vhen signal'is made" PROCEED," Fast \Ving will proceed at nineteen knots (full power reserve) through TIlE RACE and will turn to the southwestward. Vigorously engage enemy forts On,GREAT GULL ISLAND and PLUM ISLAND. After turning, slow down as necessary to keep forts under heavy fire until convoy and main body have made run-by. in eolumn, leader on (c) Screen will form at rendezvous port beam of \Vyoming, interval three thousand yards. When signal is made "PROCEED," screen will proceed through TIlE RACE passing close to LITTLE GULL ISLAND BUOY. l\1ake smoke screen to protect Convoy from fire of forts on GREAT

1. 2.

GULL ISLAND and PLUM ISLAND. Hcgulate speed to maintain smoke screen betwcen Convoy and forts. Aftcr passing l.ITTLE GULL ISLAND LIGHT, head west. (d) Convo!J ,vill form at rendezvous in column, leader on Order port ?eam of \Vyoming, interval two thousand yards. ~f shIps in column: San Francisco, Dixie, Panther, Ontario, " ~noma, J>alapsco. \Vhen signal is made" PROCEED," Convoy WIll proceed through TIlE RACE passing fifteen hundred yards f rom LITTLE GULL ISLAND BUOY, speed elcl'cn knots. After passing LITTLE Gui.L ISLAND L1GIIT, hcad west. 4. BATTLE PLAN No.2 (wind from southward). (a) Jlfain Body will form at rendezvous in column heading ~est. Have stearn for fourteen knots. \\'hen signal is made . 1'HOCEED," 1\Iain Body ,vill proceed through TilE HACE, pass1Il.g between LITTLE GULL ISLAND LIGIIT and VALIANT ROCK, and WIll vIgorously . en!!age enemy forts on GREAT GULL ISLAND and PI. UM ISLAND,. drawing the fire of those forts olT the Convoy. f (I» Fast H'ing will form at rendezvous in column ahead o 1\lain Body interval one thousand yards. \Vhen signal is Il;ade "1'HOCEED," Fast \Ving will proceed at nineteen knots ~~lll power reserve) through TIlE nACE. Vigorously engage emy forts on FISIIEHS ISLAND. After passing HACE POINT I:IGllT, head for BLACK POINT and take formation to kcep FISIIl-.ns ISLAND batteries under a heavy fire as long as possible. -t (c) Sercl'n will form at rendezvous in column, leadcr on ~\;~rboa:d beam of \Vl/oming, interval three thousand yards. Tn l,en sIgnal is made" PHOCEED," Screen will proceed through b HACE passing close to RACE POINT LlGIIT. l\Iake smoke scrc('n t 0 protect ~convoy from fire of forts on FISIIEHS ISLAND. H ' f cgulate speed to maintain smoke screen bcLween Convoy and orls. After passing HACE POINT LIGHT, head for BLACK POINT. -l (d) Convoy will furm at rendczvous in column, leader on ~)~~board ~)eam of nryoming, interval two thousand yards. s.l( er of ShIpS in formation as givcn in paragraph :3 (d). \Vhen .Ignal is made "PHOCEED" Convo'l' will J)roceed through 1'IIE . . I HACE passmg fifteen hundred yards from HACE POINT 1~IGIIT, speed cl('v~n knots. After passing H:\CE POINT LIGHT, lead for BLACK BOY HOCK (olT BLACK POINT). (' 5. En lire force rendezvous fifteen miles easl of LITTLE 'ULL ISLAND LIGHT at eight thirty a.m., August eighth. CIIAS. J. BADGEH, Hear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief.
u ~

,J

,34 Copies to: Divi&ion Commanders Flotilla Commander All Commanding Officers By Guard Boat

RED FLEET, n'yorning, ~~Iagship, Campaign Order No. 12.
l"ORCES

Block Island, 7 August 13, 2 p.m.
1. No further information. 2. This force will run by ene" my defenses during e~ening Au" gust eighth before midnight
(TIIIHTEENTII EXERCISE).

(a) l\Iain Body Wyoming, First, Third, and Fourth Divisions (b) Screen Lieut.-Commander Dc Lany Third and Fifth Torpedo Divisions

3. (a) Alain Body will pro" ceed through TIlE RACE in coI.. umn. Have steam for fourteen knots. Be prepared to direct fire on enemy forts to windward on signal. Be prepared to turn searchlights on enemy's forts to windward on signal. (b) Screen will form column. to leeward of l\lain Body and will proceed through TIlE RACE with l\lain Body. Make smoke screen to protectl\lain Body from fire of enemy forts to leeward. Hegulate speed to maintain smoke screen be" tween'l\lain Body and forts.' (x) Hendezvous seven miles east of CERBERUS SHOAL at seven p.m., August eighth. Use wake' lights . <;arefuIl)' screened. 4. Train at NARRAGANSETT BAY. 5. Commander-:-in-Chipf with l\1ain Body. CHAS. J. BADGER, Hear Admiral, Commander-in-Chief. Copies to: Division Commanders Flotilla Commander All Commanding Officers By Guard Boat

IV
DIARY

13Y TIlE

OF EVENTS, AUGUST 4-8, 1913, AS REPORTED COAST DEFE!':SE CO:\I:\IANDER
AUGUST .1TH
".

l\lidnight August .Hh to midnight August 5th. Hazy during entire 2.1 hours. Not a good night for searchligh ts~ 1 :30 A.l\l.-Firing was heard to the northwest of 1\1',apparently in Long Island Sound about ofTthe Fort "'right Harbor. At 2:00 A.l\1. two destro):ers, class .1-2, were picked up in The J~ace steaming S.E. These destroyers, firing at the searchlIghts, proceeded along the shore at a range of about 3000 yards to a point south of Prospect lIill, then retraced their Course to a point opposite The Race where the searchlights
\VEATIIEH CONDITIOr-;S:

Were taken ofT. These destroyers had evidently passed through The Race ab.out midnight without being detected with the object of fin.ng on the defenses from the rear, their particular object !)emg the mine planters which were in the harbor. In steamIng along the shore after passing through The Race, ,they apparently attempted to damage the searchlights by gun fire, SInce they only fired when the lights were in operation. One of these destroyers was fired upon and put out by llatleries 1\larcy and lIoppock at 2:30 A.:\1. . 2:50 A.l\l.-A submarine, not submerged, was picked. 11~ about 3000 yards to the S.E. and in the beam of Prospect LIght, but was lost soon after when the light was taken ofT. Purpose not known, but probably reconnaissance. Not fired lIpon by l\iline Command. . 9:25 A.l\l.-A column of ships appeared from behind rrospect lIill in the following order: 5 destroyers, rl3SS 4-2, Jne ahead; 5 destroyers, class 4-2, double column; \\"yom;ng; 2 ships of the 3rd Division, line ahead; .Hh Division, line ~he3d. Beyond these ships, 3t over 12,000 y3rds r3nge, were our ships of the 1st Division in an irregular formation, almost stationary. " fi' The whole eolumn sle3med slowly S.W., the b3ltleships tmng continuously, until beyond 12,000 y3rds, when they lIrned to the cast and left the battle area.
(3=»)

fa

~

1

3G
This formation seemed to be a reconnaissance in force by the battleships with the second division of destroyers sweeping for mines to clear a channel. The column passed considerably outside of the mine field. No ships were fired upon by the :\1ine Command. • 2:00 P..1I.- The 1st Division, line ahead, appeared from behind Prospect Hill, cirCled around at a range of 8000

~

;~

1 ,

yards. lo a poinl nearly soulh. firing conlinuously. then re'
trnced their course and disappeared behind Prospect lIilI. A few minutes later they reappeared in the same formation nnd steamed south, then cast, firing until out orrange. This movement appeared to be another reconnaissance in force to develop the batteries and familiarize their gun pointers with the aiming points; prominent landmarks, etc. No ships fired upon by l\I.C .. 8:00 P.l1I.-A division of destroyers, 5 ships, were seen appronching from Gardiners nay, line ahead. They steamed along the shore at a range of 3000 yards until 9 :10, when the light was taken ofT. During this time two of the destroyers were put out of action by the rapid fire batteries. One object of the destroyers seemed to be to locate the searchlights and such of the stations and batteries as they could see before dark. l\Iine 7 of Group 4 (the planted group) tripped its automatic switch at 8:25, but the destroyers did not nppenr to be sweeping or grappling for cable. It is not believed that a vessel of this light draft could have hit a mine on account of the great submergence of the latter. The mine might have been tipped over by a submarine or by pieces of waterlogged wreckage, though the latter is hardly probable. 9:28 P.llI.-A battleship, thought to be the \Vyoming, appeared ofT the entrance to The Rnce, moving cast. Illuminated until about 9:38, when the light was taken off. Appeared to be reconnoitering. This battleship appeared to pass through the mine field and it probably struck l\1ine 7, Group 4, which tripped its automatic switch at 9:35. 10:05 P.Jl.-One destroyer wns picked up south of M' pIing for cable. I\:ot fired upon. One,battleship, stationary, seen just beyond the destroyer, at 4100 yards. ~Iay have been trying to locate mines with smnII bonts. r\ot fired on by l\1.C.
10:15

1

l

~ ,

'

.

al 3500 yards sleaming easl very slowly.

Seemed lo he grap-

:.1 .•

.

III

P.M.-Five

deslroyers were seen hehind the sla-

I

'.

.

37 tionary Very d' b atUeship. Illuminated only for a short time and 1 l~ly. Not fired upon by l\f.C. . . dist 0.15 10 10:30 P.M.-Five destroyers a considerable Ves a~ce apart were picked upcoming out of The Haee.. These mo~~ s closed up to. a more regular line ahead formation, abo td along shore at a range of ahout 3000 yards to a point tow~r south ?f Prospect Hill, then turned to port and headed Yard d Gardmers Bay, passing 1\1' at a range of about 1500 ~
.Not fired upon by l\I.,C. the hIS ~aneuver' seemed to be a further reconnaissance of searchlight positions. 1 stationary, was picked up due SOUlI~:50 P.M.-Battleship, mi at GOOO yards very dose to the outer edge of the actual fietle fieI~. The ship maneuvered in the vicinity of the mine mo' . until 2:00 A.M. Another battleship was seen at 11 :50 hy ~~g east just beyond the stationary ship. Not lired upon

.c.
';'a From the fact that Mine 8, Group 4. dropped at 11:10. it in S assumed that these ships were operating on the mine field theSome way, but tbe illumination was too poor to determine halllnat~re of the attack. It is thought that one of these . eslllps struck l\line 8, though no decision was made. Total Damage to Fleet by l\Iine Command on August 4th tr 3 destroyers put out by gun fire. k 2 battleships probably struck mines. ae ed, so this cannot be definitely decided.
AUGUST 5TH

Targets

not

'\Un:'EATIIER CONDITIONS: l\lidnight August 5th to midnight b st G.th. Same as previous 24 hours. t'h ,DurIng the day of August 5th two to live destroyers and p/ce battleships class 3-2, were stationcd at intcrvals betwccn Yao~peet Bill and Montauk Point at ranges of over 12,000 r s, apparently acting as blockading ships. . P 9:20 A.M.-The 1st Division steamed south from behind alr ospeet IJiIl at 10.000 yards toward Montauk Point until N'Ott 20,000 yards away. then headed east and stopped. o fircd on by l\1.C. . 1'1 II :10 A.M.- Two ships of the 1st Division headed for ha~i na~e, f1yi.ng the neutral flag and towing targets as though ng subcahbcr practice \Yhen at a range of 4000 '''ards . . oJ tl lCse Sl' lIpS turned about and rctraced thcir course.

38 Another ship of the 1st Division headed north, flying the the neutral flag, and disappeared behind Prospect Point. Not fired upon by 1\1.C. 10:25 A.Jl.-The periscope of a submerged submarine was picked up a little west of south at 5600 yards. This vessel came straight toward 1\1' until at a range of about 900 yards, When it was fired upon and put out of action by IIop-. pock. It then headed to\vard lVIontauk Point until out of sight. The submarine was evidently reconnoitcriIlg the stations, ha t teries, and searchligh ts. ~ 1 :-15 P.. l.- The 4 th Division appeared, line ahead, ofT Prospert Hill at a range of over 12,000 yards and circled around at this range to a point a little west of south, firing most of the distance. The division at 3 ::30 retraced course and brOke up, evidently to form the blockading force. Not fired Upon by l\1.C. The,3rd Division followed the <1 th but retraced course When about due south. In returning to the rendezvous, the 3rd Division passed within 8000 yards of 1\1'. Not fired upon by l\t.C. 2:30 P .•ll.- The 1st Division steamed south, line ahead, from behind Prospect Hill until about in line with Montauk Point, when they retraced course and disappeared behind Prospect Point, firing on both courses. Not flred upon by M.C. This maneuver seemed to he a long range bombardment, apparently to develop the positions of the batteries and perhaps to force the shore batteries to expend ammunition. 6:00 P ..1l.-At this time the blockading force consisted of three battleships and five destroyers scattered between Prospect I Jill and l\lontauk Point as before. 9:40 P.JI.-One battleship of the 3rd Division was picked up by a searchlight S.E. of l\1' at 6700 yards. This ship steamed west until about due south, then S.vV., firing continuously. 1':ot fired upon by 1\1.C. 10:05 P.~11.-0ne bat tIeship, poorly illuminated, was picked up ofT Prospect Point at 7800 yards going S.vV. This ship wos illuminated for a short time only but continued firing for about a half hour. Not fired upon by 1\1.C. 10:30 P.,;11.-Two destroyers, line abreast, were picked up to the S.E. at 4500 yards, moving slowly west. -Fired upon and put out by IIoppock and Dutton. These destroyers seemed to be sweeping for mines and

39 ev'd swlitehntly struck Mine 9, Group 4, which tripped its automatic • c at 11:46. . tio 10:17 P.M.-The battleship off Prospect Hill was sUi. an3a~~ at 7700 yards until 1:00 A.I\1.; when it moved north M.C. Isappeared behind Prospect Hill. Not fired upon by of d!he ~aneuvers of the battleships seemed for the purpose to 'stractmg attention from the destroyers. which continued sweep until betw.een midnight and 1 :00 A.l'1. Total Damage to Fleet b!J2\!ine Command ~ submarine put out by gun fire . ... destroyers put out by gun fire ..
AUGUST 6TH

on August 5th

ni 'h WEATHEn CONDITIONS: Midnight August 6th to mid.angd~. August 7th. Hazy until 1:00 A.l\I. August 6th. rain ')4 h og from 1 :00 A.1\'1. to 3 :00 A.1\I., cleaf the balance of the ... ours. . No naval activity in the morning. Blockade as usual. stc 1:15 P.1If.- The 4th Division appea red from the S. E ... poi~~ed .west at a range of much beyond 12.000 yards. to a and d? lIllie west of south. where they turned. retraced course. ? Isappeared behind Prospect IIill. Not fired upon. S.W -:00 P.M.-The 3rd Division. less two ships. sleamed lat · from behind Prospect Hill. followed by the Wyoming and 12 ~~ by the 1st Division. The 3rd Division circled around at. in't 0 yards until due south when they turned north and came th ~ a range of 6000 yards. then moved due cast until out of Wc a~lIe area. firing continuously unlil the last turn. The 11 g and the 1st Division also circled around at about tu' 0 yards until in line with M on ta uk poin t where they rned north and disappeared behind Prospect point. . di I All ships /ired during the movement. l\line Command ( not fire. bctt This phase appeared to be another bombardment to fo er locale the batteries. stations. and searchlights and to o;ee .the coast batteries to expend ammunition. No attack nllne field. he d8:30 P.M.-One destroyer passed through The Haee th a cd north. May have been mail boat for New London. M~~gh no neutralily signal could be seen. Not fired upon by

Y;;"n

,

'"

,
. 40
'.

1

I

~:15' P.M.-Firing heard south of Prospect . and. pIT 'I l\~I:hle. Two destroyers and one or two battleships barely: I. vIsible oIT Michie and one or two battleships were fainLlYl

illuminated ofTProspect. Not fired upon by lVI.C. . 10:00 P.11[.-1st Division were picked IIp 7300 yards to the S.E. going N.\\'. and firing. Not well illuminated. 10:06 P.llf.-':-One subm'arine~' not submerged, picked up to the cast at :~OOO yards. Fired upon and put out by l\1arey, after which light was taken ofT. 10:20 P ..'lf.-Two destroyers, line ahead, going west were illuminated to the south at 4000 yards. They were fired upon by Dutton and Marcy and put out. 10:35 P.1lf.-Two destroyers, line ahead, going east were picked up to the south at 3000 yards. Not fired upon by M.C. 10:10 P.l\l.-One submarine, not submerged, going east was discovered at 2000 yards nearly due south. Firedupon by 1.1arcy and put out. . .
10:15 P.l\1.-0ne submarine going west was illuminated to the S.E. at 2200 yards. Not fired upon by l\1.C. 10:55 P.l\f.-Two destroyers going west were seen to the southward at 2500 yards. One of these vessels was fired upon and put out by Dutton.

, 'One destroyer was seen passing these two, going cast, and another submarine was located at the same time toward the S.I~. at 2000 yards, going cast. 11:39 P.~ll.-A submarine sou11hof 1\1' in Race Rock beam was fired upon and put out by l\1arcy. 11:12 P.]l[.-Another destroyer to the south of M' in Race Rock beam was fired upon by Marcy and Dutton and put out. ; 12:06 ,,1.~lf.-Subinarine ofT \Vilderness Point was fired upon and put out byl\larcy .. .. 12:10 A.l\t"":-One destroyer was discovered due south at 3700 yards, going cast. Not fired upon by M.C. ' ',The operations on this night seemed to be confined to an attack on the mine fields, the submarines grappling for cable and the destroyers grappling rind. sweeping. After the phase was over the mines tested the same as before and no automatic switches '\'ere tripped by. the naval vessels. Total Damage to Fleet by Aline Command on August 6th .
.

-1 destroyersputoutbygunfire~' \ .,i SUbmarines put out by gunfire. (It is thought one of these submarines was put out twice.)

that ,

41. AUGUST7TH . } \VEATIIER CONDITIONS: l\1idnight August 7th to mid~ Clear at midnight on the 7th but graduallv rIot hazy by daylight, and continued so throughout the rest ~f 1e 2.1 hours. No naval activity in the morning. f' 12:18 P.Al.-Two destroyers, line ahead, approached tfOm the west to a point about south at 3200 yards, then fiurned and moved S.E. beyond range. Both dcstroycrswcrc Ilred on by IIoppock and put out of action. they appeared to Je reconnoitering. r 1:35 P.~l1.- The H'yoming followed by the 3rd Division, Ine ahead, approached from the east, circled around at 12,000 ards to a point due south, then at 3 :t5 turned around and reraced Course, firing while in range. 1\ot fired upon by l\LC. f 1:45 1>. J.1 1.-The 1st Division, line ahead, approached /om t~lC S.E. to 8000 yards where they took up an irregular ;rmahon and headed N.E. until they disappeared behind rospect Hill, firing while in range. Not fired upon by l\I.C. ' 1\1' 2:15 P.Al.-Three destroyers, line ahead, steamed toward 400 from the direction of l\lontauk Point. Two stopped at b 0 yards, the third continued on, picked up a distributiont Ox buoy, said to be that for the planted mines, and appeared : be Working on the cable attached. All three destroyers ere fired upon by IIoppock, Dutton and l\larcy and put out. 11 2:50 P.Al.-Five destroyers, line ahead, advanced from 1 1e ~. \~. and apparently endeavored to form a smoke screen ~~
c!rchn~ around in an oval just beyond the destroyer with e JunctIOn-box buoy, and giving out great quantities of hI 1 ack s mo If. These five destroyers were put out 0 actIOn {e. l\larcy, IIoppock and Dutton. All destroyers left at out 3:35 and steamed out of range. .' ~. 5:00 P.Al.-One destroyer came through The nace~ and o ~vled S.E. until out of the battle area. Fired upon and put .u )y I Ioppock. field This phase appeared to be another' attack on the mine ads by destroyers supported by a bombardment by the 1st . n 3rd Divisions. No damaae was done to the planted mines: {'he 8:.16 P.llI.-One destro)~r, going west, was picked up to . , south at a range of 5600 yards. Not fired upon by l\f.C. Ht 3011:20 P.Al.-One destroyer was illuminated to the south , 00 yards for a short time. Not fired upon by l\LC.,
nIg 1t August 8th.

i

~K

42
1 :55 A.1\f.-One destroyer seen to the south at 6900 yards. Not fired upon by l\1.C. 1:57 A.1\f.- Three or four destroyers, headed west, faintly illuminated to the south at about 6000 yards. Not fired upon by l\I.C. 2:17 A.1\!.-One destroyer, going cast, seen to the southward at about 4000 yards. Not fired upon. 3:52 A ..l[.-One destroyer, going east, located a little west of south at 4000 yards. Not fired upon. 5:00 A,"'!.-Group 4, IVIine 11, dropped, but no naval vessel was seen in the vicinity of the mine field. May have been caused by a tug \vith barges which was in the vicinity of the field a t this time. The object of the destroyers on this night was probably reconnaissance, since there was no firing and no attempts to disable the mine field could be identified. The purpose of the Black Commander may have beell to wear. Oll t the garrison by constant alarms, for which purpose the destroyers were well suited. . Total Damage to Fleet by ,,'line Command on A ugusl 7th 11 destroyers put out by gun fire. AUGUST8TH \\'EATIIEH CONDITIONS: l\Iidnight August 8th to midnight August 9th. lIazy, fairly good for searchlights. 10:00 A.J[.-A column of battleships appeared from the S.E. heading for The Haec consisting, in order, of 1st Division less one ship; U"yoming; 3rd Division less two ships; 4th Division Jess one ship; 12 ships in all. This column commenced firing when in range and continued their course straight through The Haec. All balleries fired upon the column until out of range in Long Island Sound. At 10:57 the range of the last ship was 5700 yards. In about 20 minutes the fleet returned in three columns flying the neutral flag. This phase was a typical run-by during which five battleships struck hypothetical mines, the others following through the holes made in the imaginary mine field. No actual niines were struck, the fleet passing inside the planted mine field; No battleships were put out by the l\line Command rapid fire batteries alone. (See last page of "Orders Sent and Heceived.") No activity in the afternoon. 8:50 I'.J[.- Two destroyers, headed for The Hace, ap-

43
heared to the southward emitting clouds of black smoke. p ot~ destroyers were fired upon and put out by l\farcy, Hope Oc . and Dutton. The area to the rear of these destroyers was soneealed by their smoke. Due to a sou lherly breeze, this s~Ok~ was soon carried across the water and enveloped the Thore III a thick pall which completely. hid all of the battle area. m e range of the searchlights at this time could not have been i ~~e. than 500-1000 yards. A battleship was reported on~ nn In~ ~ith l\1ichie but this was probably a destroyer. It was ot VISIble from M'. i When the smoke cleared away no ships could be seen, UU 1 a short time ten destroyers came back through The Race, 1 ~llowed. by the 1st, 3rd and 4th Divisions and some auxiliaries, a shOWIng the neutrality signal by lights. From the fact that the whole fleet appeared coming back ~ut of The Race, it was deduced that there had been a run-by; s ut, so completely were the capital ships hidden by the t~)ke, ~o far as tl:e ,defenses ~n Fis~ers Island were concerned d actIOn was lImIted to the rapId fire guns and the t\\'O Pestroyers. Of course, actually these two destroyers would robably have been put out early in the movement, so that the . screen could not have been so perfectly formed. That Terry and M'Ieh' saw and engaged the fleet was evident from the ' fi. Ie lfIng in that direction. The battleships could not be tracked ~~d n,o automatic switches dropped, so that it was impossible estnrate the damage done by the mines. I Assuming all mines intact, however (and none of the P anted mines showed any efTects of the week's work), the Pr.obabiIity of the fleet running over the fields withou t striking nUn. ~ es would be extremely remote. Total Damage to F'/eel by 2tline Command on ~ll1g11st 8th 5 battleships struck difTerent mines and were put out. ~ _ destroyers put out by gun fire.

t

,

RESUME OF DAMAGE TO FLEET BY l\hNE

Co~nrAND

Day Ug~st 4th August 5th August 6th

A

August 7th
August 8th

Battleships 2 (?) 0 0 0 5 7

Destroyers 3 2 4 11 2

Submarines 0 1 4 0 0

Total

22

V EXTRACT FROl\1 THE REPORT ING GENERAL, EASTERN OF TIlE COl\IMANDDEPARTl\1ENT

From: Department

September 25, 1913. Commander. To: The Adjutant General. U. S. A. Sl1~;ect: Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises. 1913.

1. In accordance ,vith the instructions of'the \Var Department dated .June 24, 1913, Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises were held in the Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound, August 3 to 9, inclusive, HH3. 2. By conference of the representatives of the Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet, and the Department Commander, a program of exercises was agreed upon. This was designed to bring out for the Army all possible situations that might be expected in an attack upon fortifications by a powerful fleet having complete control of the sea. 3. Regulations for the control of the Army forces were prepared at these headquarters, * and the necessary instructions issued for mobilizing the Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound as nearly as practicable on a war footing. The actual mobili- . zation covered only the defense against sea attack. No mobilization was made for defense on the land side, but the Coast Defense Commander was called upon to prepare the necessary orders for the construction of the defenses in the approved project for land defense and for the distribution of the troops Msigned in the project as Coast Artillery supports. 4. The Regulations for the control of the exercises were made as simple and brief as possbile, and every effort was made to present instructive situations and to prevent the exercises from degenerating into a mere game. II is, of course, impossible to eliminate entirely the question of rivalry or competition in exercises of this kind, bu t it is believed that in these exercises this feature was ['educed to a minimum. 5. I was present with part of my stafT during the entire period of the exercises, and was in constant communication with the Commander-in-Chief of the Fleet, with whom I found it practicable to exchange views and to more completely control and coordinate the work of the two services.
See 1 HeguJalions."
10

(H)

45
P 6. In order to prevent as far as practicable the newspav~rs f.rom publishing erroneous reports of sham battles and t lC~OrI.es one side over the other. I directed daily bulletins of 's 0 e ~ssued, giving such information to the accredited repre~ntahves of the Press as could properlY be given out, \vithout I d IS c~ . any work that should properly be considered of a Osmg COlllIdential nature. The reports publised in the New York Eapers were thus, to a considerable extent, controlled, and ut few sensational reports were made. d t. 8.. As one 'of the main purposes of the maneuvers was to ;: ermme whether or not one manning detail for all the elethents of the defense was sufficient, it was considered important at whenever the enemy's ships were within range all details ~ ust. be attheir sta Lions, as in time of war it is hardly conceivable at It would be otherwise when the enemy's ships were within such battle area. wa 9. The camp used at Fort II. G. Wright is the camp that s constructed there for the Coast Artillery Reserves, and ~ot the \var camps that should have been occupied by the hfOOPS. As a matter of fact, some of the organizations would aVe been nearer the guns had they remained in their barracks. i 11. At the conclusion of the exercises the Commanderbll~Chief. of the fleet kindly gave me a statement expressing {IeIly hIS views upon the conduct of the exercises, their value, :t~" in all. of .which I concur, as my remarks aUachcd to his tement IndIcate. Admiral Badger's statement follows:
W

1'1> Jomt maneuvers of the past week ordered by both the War and le .. vy Departments have been planned and executed. so far as possible, to be r mutual benefit to both services, There have been no umpires and no ecord . ., f ., cxiste of tl 1Coretlca I resu~ts made. though t~e spmt o. compet~tlOn h as intd .IS must ah';ays eXIst between two bodlCs or servIces each mtensely crested in their own work . pr 1'h e joint maneuvers were mainlv to give the Army the henefit of the See::nce of an altncking force at the-time of its annual mobilization in this ndc Ion. The kind and number of attacks were mutually agreed upon in U vance and in many cases the methods to be employed, the object heing f/at every facility for defense in the hands of the Army should be tested n ~quently during the period allo\wd. On the other hand, the Army laid. ~lne fields and had various exercises with searchlights for the benefit of the S'l~VY ~o that it could ascertain, as f(!r as practicable, the outer limits of , et: In a night allack. eatio~h~ Navy's endeavor has been to vigorously att;ck the Army fortiu" S In every possible manner. In many cases attacks have been made n~~ng methods that are greatly at variance with accepted theories of nuvul lh ~ek. In making these attacks in this manner the I'avy docs not advance C Idea that the)' are good tactics; to the contrary. it is well known that, unless

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under the greatest stress, battleships would not be sent against fortifications in the manner they have been during these exercises. These attacks have been necessary not only for the benefit of the Coast Defense, but to show the naval officers what would be the result should they attack in such a manner. Between the two services the question has not arisen as to who has won or how much damage has been done. The maneuvers have been of mutual benefit to both services. The opportunities for mine sweeping, the operations of separated bodies in joint action, the actual reconnaissance and ascertaining of position of searchlights, finding positions and batteries, have been such as the Navy may be forced some day to undertake, and such n chance could not have been obtained without the active cooperation of the Army. . The conditions laid down for the week's 'maneuvers were such that the Commander-in-Chief of the force afloat was assured that it would be several weeks before a naval force could be brought against his command, and with this command of the sea, he felt justified in making the attack on shore batteries which, under other conditions, would not have been attempted. His main object was to harrass the force on shore, to tire them out, cause them to expend their ammunition, so that when he attempted the final movement of carrying his convoy and train past the batteries, he would only have to compete with a force fagged by constant vigil, 'with a depleted amount of ammunition, and mutilated or destroyed facilities of range-finding and communication. It may be that the maneuvers have been of more benefit to the Army than to the :\avy, and we trust that they have, but the benefit accrued to the 1'avy has been great and has fully paid for all the expense and trouble. CIIAS. J. llADGEH IIEADQUARTEHS EASTERN DEPARTMENT,

August 8, 1913. Admiral Badger clearly states the situation and purpose of the maneuvers, and I have only to add that the fleet under his able management vigorously and most efficiently carried out its part of the program so as to give the defenses the experience and practice required and from which the local defenses and the service generally have derived much benefit, for which I thank the Admiral and all connected with his magnificent fleet. The maneuvers have more than paid for themselves and I hope the Navy has derived as much benefit, experience and satisfaction from them as the Army has. The hearty and cordial cooperation of the two services in these, and like exercises makes for the good of the country. which is the main purpose of all concerned. T. II. DARRY, Major General, U. S. Army, Commanding.

13. ::\Ialters that were brought out prominently in these exercises applicable to the service generally, and which should have immediate consideration, are the following: (a) Deficiency caliber guns. in reserve ammunition for the major

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c (b) Unsatisfactory installation of searchlights. (c) Total absence of cooperation between the artillery onllnander and the commandant of the naval district. (d) Efficiency of smoke screens.

s . The first of these may properly be considered the most ser~ous. In 3 place so vulnerable to. attack and defended by i0 ew guns as is The Race, one hour's supply of ammunition s manifestly far too small. It does not appear that what ~eser~.e a~munition is available for the coast defenses ge.nerally theakIng IS properly distributed. For example, bearIng on ch~nnel at The Narrows, in t~e Coast De~enses o~ Southern andw ~ ork, there are fourteen 12-111:hguns, eIght 10-.lllch ~uns, eIght mortars. This channel IS, moreover, easIly nuned, ~nd there is no question as to the efficiency of these mine fields. et each one of these guns, under the present system, has as ~tny rounds of ammunition assigned as the few guns defending t} 1C Race-about four times as wide, defended by one-fourth d )~ armament, and where the question of the efficiency of mine c cnse is still in doubt. \ As to the unsatisfactory instalIaHon of searchlights, it {as observed that those installed in the Coast Defenses of el O~g Island Sound are nearly all so prominently placed that UfIng the daytime the location of each oO-inch searchlight ~~n be determined by naval reconnaissance carried on beyond tile range of our guns, and the reports of the Navy indicate lat these lights ''''ere practically all located by their observers anel the positions accurately determined, so that at night they C~Uld, and did, use them as aids to navigation. These lights ~ lould, in my opinion, he so emplaced that they can be withuwn from view and placed under cover from the fire of ships: oreover, it is considered important that, at least for the lllost important lights, there should he reserve lights that cO,uld at very short notice be substituted for any light that lllIght be put out of action tl 1\S to cooperation between the artillery commander and le commandant of the naval district, an attempt was made ~nd a conference was held with Admiral Caperton, of the rCcond Naval District, with a view to obtaining some cooperaIOn for these exercises. It was not thought practicable, ho\\"c~cr, to bring this aboll 1. A further conference has been held ~ncc the exercises between a representative of the Department ommander and a representative of Admiral Caperton, Comlllandant of the Second Naval District, with a view of further

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considering this matter, and a separate communication will be forwarded to. the \Var Department in that matter. As to the matter of smoke screens, it is to be stated that they \vere effectively used under favorable. conditions. of weather. Twice during the exercises the defenses. at Fort H. G .. \Vright were completely blanketed-once during th~ daytime and once at night. During the presence of the smoke screen a~ night the searchlights ,,:ere entirely useless and '.the fleet passed almost unobserved. During the presence of the screen in the daytime,. four destroyers and two battleships only were observed. The remainder of the battleships, destroyers, and ships representing transports supposed to be carrying 50,000 uo.ops passed the fort withou t being observed and without being fired upon. These ships were, however, fired upon by the fortifications on the opposite side" at Fort l\'1ichie, but the weakness of those fortifications could have done little under the fire of the entire battleship Ileet, which protected the transport ships' left flank. Since the use by destroyers of oil fuel the practicability of making the smoke screen has been much simplified and its effectiveness improved, and under favorable conditions of weather it has become a It is to be noted, ho\vever, that this practical proposition. screen can only be made to lce\vard, and hence the screen will be efTective on fortifications located only upon one side of the channel, and this brings up the point as to the importance of fortifying channels on both sides. 14. Attention, I think. should be called to the submarine mine defense projected for these defenses. There are some 50 groups of 19 mines each called for. Experience thus far, and .the reports from the observers during these exercises, indicate that a mine planter with auxiliary craft cannot be depended upon to lay on the average more than one group of mines per day. From this it will be seen that to lay all the groups called for in the approved project would take a considerable period, even with good weather and several mine planters at workthis without taking into consideration the taking up and repairing of unserviceable mines, which, during these exercises appears to have been wholly neglected, the reason for which is not understood, because after the mines had been laid the planter was not used for other purposes, but lay at the dock most of the time. The practicability of placing mines in the waters of these coast defenses has been extensively discussed for a number of years, but these exercises have

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hrou 1 . . rnad; It out the fact that not even careful surveys have been tio :nd hydrographic charts prepared of the approved locato ns or the mines, and that it is not considered practicable sta P~operly place these mines and maintain them with the tenn ard material now furnished for mine planting and mainCon ance, and further, that no special material has been provided, rni ~equently the question of the practicability of properly Unlllng the waters in the vicinity of these defenses is still an dels:~Ued .one. This is a matter that should no~ be further th ~ ed, Inasmuch' as nothing was, more conclusIvely shown de~n that the defenses of Long Island Sound without a mine po ense are wholly inadequate to. close these channels to a werful fleet. . to U15. In connection with the reports on the mine defense mi Ie elTect that the Navy was unsuccessful in destroying the w ne fields, it should be noted tliat only a few groupS of mines 1I~:eJlante?, and while the locations thereof were given to 1I avy, It was difficult, nevertheless, for them to locale l':ern. In a report by the Commander-in-Chief of the Atlantic !)ne~lt,a copy of which has come into my possession, he reports , 1e attack of the mine fields in part as follows:
dedl~e mine sweeping exercises were of great value as they indieat«1 a. of m e defiCIency in the fleet's preparedness in that very important branch dest dern naval warfare. l\'1ine sweeping exercises have been held by the Na ~~ycrs from time to time during the past two years using the Mark I thr va, Defense l\line. Results have been fairly satisfactory, the sweeps theOwlng the mines to one side or cutting the mooring cable and bringing • 111 to tlle surface where they could be destroyed. . our ~un~g these exercises, however, although weather conditions were ideal, Thi sweep\l1g operations hardly made an impression on the Army mine fields. SWe Was probably due to two reasons. s The form of sweep used (a c, bottom" and<'P? was not suitable, as the sweeps repeatedly caught on the rocky bottom Als ~~re cleared with difficulty, often breaking before they could he cleared. crn~ r le sweeps were not strong enough to clear the heavy Army mines (sevfoul .lll11eSheavier than the Naval :\fark I mine) even when a mine was eu. sw I~ is clearly recognized that the destroyers are poorly adapted for mine fit~e%ln? for, several reasons. They are unwieldy and are not properly elU~lo':"th w~n~hes and bits for J~andling the sweeps. Their prope~ tactical tlef ~ment IS III o,fTenslVe operatIOns and they should not be used III purely uv ~~lslvC work such as mine sweeping or picket duty if other vessels are ," .' . Us al llblc . N ever tl lCIess. d estroyers must receive trallllllg III nunc sweeplllg 't Sw I ~ay become necessary for them to do it in time of war, particularly f1c~:Plng for floating mines. Also, lacking special vessels for this work, the of must depend upon the destroyers for the devclopme:1t of methods and lnaterial. Trawlers, such as are used in the British Navy lor mine swcrpcrs. are

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scarce in this country. and it is prooable that we shall have to employ tugs for mine sweeping in time of war. The Commander-in-Chief plans to exercise the fleet tugs in this work with a view to developing a proper equipment for a tug acting as a mine sweeper. A requisition for mine sweeping material to replace that destroyed during the recent maneuvers will be submitted to the Department for approval shortly.

The "creeping" operations of the submarines-dragging for mine cablcs with heavy grapnels-gave rather surprising results. The D-l severed one caole. which is understood to have been the fire-control cable between Fort ) Wright and Fort Michie. seriously crippling an important line of communi1 cation. The submarines report that in no less than eleven other instances I' edY!.ouleld ~ables with their grapnels hut were unabl,e to !)ulll them tUhPe'• Ithl a exp OSlve grapnels", been used. it might have oeen POSSIOe to put minp. ficlds out of commission by destroying the cablcs. The results were sufficiently promising to warrant further experiment along these lines. In this connection, the "dividing compartment" fillcd to some of the new SllOmarines may o~ of value.

It will be noted that this "report is considerably at variance with the report submitted by the Coast D~fense Commander and other artillery officers connected with the mining operations. I do' not consider that definite conclusions can be drawn as to the practicability of the Navy's attack on mine fields, from the experience here had. Further experimenting is necessary before definite conclusions can b3 drawn. 17. I am of the opinion that joint exercises conducted generally on the lines indicated in the regulations for these exercises are useful not only for developing to the best advantage the coast defenses, but open the way for better cooperation between the Army and Navy in time of war.

T. H. DABBY,
l\1ajor General, U. S. Army.

VI
• EX TRACT FROM THE REPORT OF THE COl\Il\IAND . ING OFFICER, NORTH ATLANTIC COAST ARTILLERY DISTRICT
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Prom' . D' , Commander. T lstnct So:, Commanding General, Eastern Department. U~l~ct: Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises,
3-9, 1913.

August

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.1. Digest of reports and copies of all reports received
Inclosed.

Th ~. Sufficiency 0/ battle reserve allowance of ammunition.bat~ lD.sufficiency of reserve allowance of ammunition for mortar not enes appears conclusive. That for major caliber guns is dist ~~ne!usive. If present lotal reserve is maintained. the loe ~ ulion to balleries should depend on importance and "u a Ion of batteries, For intermediate and minor caliber ~ ns , present allowance appears sufficient. I t 3.. Proportion of shot and shell.-The present ratio of bat~ 4. IS satisfactory. The distribution of shot and shell to erIes depends on the location and field of fire of the battery. pr 4. Arrangement of personnel and matlriel to insure shO~Pt opening of fire in case of emergenCll.-Arrangements thOU d be made for the personnel to live as near as possible to bee pl~ees they are called upon to man. All batteries should Ii eQl1lpped with latrines. Two reliefs should be provided for bo re-contr 0 I sec t'IOns, mcludmg range setters an d tIme-range ' ' ' no~rd me.n; also for searchlights and power plants. Data was st r obtmnable to indicate the actual arrangement at each d a Ion and battery of the present personnel and it is not S~be~ed advisable to prescribe a general regulation on the
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te . T~e installation of projectile serving tables at the batInnes IS desirable. The best arrangement of mal cricl is a att,;r to be determincd at each battery. eln B~st method of identification of targetS.- The method In P oyed. In the coast artillery war game pamphlet. suppleA eNed by the means given in Drill Regulations for Coast r I Iery, seems to give tl1C greatest satisfaction. 6. Ale/hod of controlling jire,-Nothing was brought out

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to indicate any improvement of the method now given in Drill Regulations for Coast Artillery. , 7. Proper size and composition of fire command.-From two to four batteries. Composition to be all mortars, major caliber guns, or intermediate and rapid-fire guns. 8. Desirability of mixing calibers in same fire command.Undesirable, but probably unavoidable with our present armament. \Vhenever practicable, fire commands should consist of mortars only; or major caliber guns; or intermediate and rapid-fire guns. The mixing of intermediate and rapidfire guns in the same fire -command is not considered objectionable. 9. Tactical use of fire ~ommands.-Fire commands should be strong enough to handle a target iIldcpendenlly~ The tactical assignment depends on the situation at the time. 10. Tactical staff required and their duties.-For coast defense commander, an information officer, who wiII be additional to his administrative stafT; battle, fire and mine commanders as now prescribed in Drill Regulations for Coast Artillery, with addition of an experienced assistant for battle commander. The assistant to the battle commander to assist him and act for him when the latter is necessarily absent. The duties of the communication and searchlight officers as now prescribed in the Drill Regulations for Coast Artillery, the communication officer for the fire command to be an experienced man, capable of giving assistance and relieving the fire commander if necessary. II. Estimating the situation.-All tactical commanders have to eslimate the situation before giving orders. Coast Artillery is no exception. Peace training in doing this in a logical manner, by having definite problems presented for solution, is deemed desirable. 12. Employment of general lhjensc plans.-Parngraph 567, Drill Hegulations for Coast Artillery, should be amended to indicate more clearly the limited use of general defense plans. The commands prescribed should include the commander's estimate of the hostile intent. For example, "Heconnaissance in Force, First General Defense Plan.", These commands should be used in cases where the battle commander cannot immediately assume control of the action, or where interruption of communication makes control impossible. \Vhenever possible, the battle commander should

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ret ' h' am control of the action to insure 'proper tactical use of IS command . und The defense tactics of each coast defense should be clearly e~tood by all officers of the command. ofT he war condition period. when properly employed. fn~~~. O??ortunity for perfecting the defensive tactics and I IanzlUg the officers with the same'.
SEARCHLIGHTS

3. Number.-Such that each fire and mine command nn~ '. h~ ahle to fire on separate targets without using fixed Jigl t 10Vlllg lights needed by batlle command. In installing 1 ~ for hattle, fire and mine commands, two should be l>r oVId ' !'aril e( 1 ,In each case. The duplicate lights need not neces~~e In the same locality. Ll ... .-:-At least GO-inch. e 'I ocatLOn.- To be determined for each coast defense . I..I I lould be protected from hostile fire during day and cng lts sI pa )Ie of being withdrawn at night. I' as now gIven III ' Drill'1.1]> ersonne I' reqUired for.-Personne he Regulations for Coast Artillery, but a second relief should provided. vi ,~5, Location, training and equipment of watchers,-In foCI~ty of light in best place detcrmined by local conditions li:ht1xed and roving lights. near controller for illuminating {II' t' s. Should be trained in searching beam for targets, in ' te S Ingu' h'lUg classes of war vessels, and use of proper artIllery ,IS rms In reports and commands. Should be equipped with ob ser va t'lO.n telescope. Good field glasses to be used until tele scope IS provided. T ~6. Tactical designation, assignment and control of.tnnetlcal dcsignation should be by number. In assigning rget, area covered by light is sometimes best. Searchlights Ol~oi~ld in~talle.d fo.r a specific use; as fixed an~ roving light. h.e 1'1 lumlllallng hght for a particular fire or mille command. rn~e control of all lights should remain with the battlc comander until turned over to the fire or mine commanders. D .117• Duties of searchlight ofJicer.-As now prescrihed in fl I Hegulations for Coast Artillery. 'mrl 1~. Should searchlights be permanentlY assigned to fire nunc commanders.-See 16 above. 19. ]~JJlciency of electrical and hand cOlltrol.-Electrical
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control is efficient and gives satisfaction. IIand control is )j neces s ary If,or emergencies. . 20 . ~'j!icientrange under varuing atmospheric conditLOlls.-j ,From 0 against fog or against a good smoke screen, up to 10,000 yards under unusual conditions; eITcctive range under : average conditions is about 6000 yards. ~ 21. Should searchlights be supplied with azimuth circles.~ Azimuth circles on searchlights seem desirable, but not a, . ] necessity.;~
SUBMARINE MINE DEFENSE .

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22. Best location of mine /ields.-A local problem, to bel determined by test and experience. 23. E.1ficiency of materiel.-~lateriel on hand is efficient. The mining problem at The Hace requircs special cquipment, which has not yet been provided. 2.1. JVecessity for casemate officer.-Nothing occurred to indicate necessity for a casemate officer. 25. Tactics of submarine mine d~fense.-That prescribed in the present Submarine l\line l\lanual, and as stated in report! ~11, appears satisfactory. 26. Cooperation between mine and jire commands.-The mine command is not an independent clement of the defense. Its cooperation with the fire command is determined by the ballle commander. 27. Possibility of repairing damaged mine fie/d.-Mine fields located well to the front cannot well be repaired during active stage of hostilities. I t appears feasible to stop gaps by planting additional mines in rear. 28. Effect on mine jif!dS of any operations by Black Forces.-None.' 29. Blending powder prior to an action.-Blending powder! is not a service condition, and tht weight of opinion, as expressed in the accompanying reports, is that it is undesirable to do it prior to an action. The powder furnished should not] require it. 30. Powder charges for ouler zones for mortars should predominate.-Il is thought the issue of the multiple charges will meet this requirement.
CO~nfENTS ENU)lERATED AND RECOMMENDATIONS UNDER SEPAIlATE HEADINGS NOT ABOVE

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Trouble with telephone cords and failure of telephone

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Under pl' onged use IS a problem . for the SIgnal Corps. . sati f ro The sati sfactory use of ordinary lamp cord at Fort Terry and the ho s aetor~ results obtained by changing telephones every u It is recommended that duplicate hea~ arc Illuminating. ~ets be furnished for telephones. . find 2. The installation of short horizontal base positionbas ers at all batteries to supplement the long horizontal ree e system is recommended. Time-range boards arc not t .Olr.n:ended for 5" and G" guns owing to the speed of the and I Cd t royers) against whieh they are generally used. es argets ' fre a so. the emergency conditions under which they arc most ealtently employed. nor is their use efJicient with major illt I ter guns under emergency conditions. This latter was fo~s raled when the battleships suddenly appeared from the ~t short range, for the run-by. fia 3. The dependence of naval gunners on radio stalTs. in;;toles and range towers or other prominent aiming points COnttes th~t none of these should remain or hereafter be s "ructed In the vicinity of any battery .. tra ... : Handling 4 of searchlights. particularly the rapid ree~erslUg of searching beams is a matter that can be eornigl~td by training. Th~s. shoul~ be specially observed at . . ~lnlIand war condItIOn perIods .. incluJ~. The proper distribution of reserve ammunition. be dIng amount of shot and shell for each battery, should be ~ade a special subject for defense study. Possibly it could Art ~I~ndled as a problem for the advanced class at. t he Coast 1 ery School. .. eon}~' The efJieieney of smoke screen under suitable weather Co ItlOns was demonstrated. The means suggested for' raunteracting this adjunct of the attack. and also preventing sib~~ag: of destroyers and submarines. which now seems pos110 t: IS to extend the submarine defense and to employ a eo a lUg defense. such as destroyers and submarines. under the ast defense commander. lin . (a) The increase of the submarine defense in the inner ag e~ Where protection can be alTorded and which could be used alns.t destroyers and submarines is desirable. The improve111 ent lUexperience of naval officers and the equipment used w ay make attacks at the outer mine fields practicable under eat her conditions of fog and smoke screen. Co (b) The question of a floating defense to he under the ast defense commander, or possibly manned by Coast Arlil-

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lery Corps troops, .is'cl~seiy related 'to the general naval patrol and use of coast defense divisions of the Navy. This question was removed from the scope of these exercises. It is a matter' that should be settled by a joint army and navy board and orders issued accordingly, similar to those issued for naval convoys given in General Orders, No. 18, War Department, 1911. In general, it would appear that a floating defense should remain with the Navy, the tactical command to rest with the coast defense commander when the naval force present is an adjunct of the defense of the harbor. This command and even the tactical command of the defenses to pass to supreme naval commander whenever, owing to presence of a fleet, the main mission of the defenses becomes the protection of our fleet or consummation of a naval alTair. 37. In future exercises, it is reconunended that conferences be held immediately after a phase in order that the hostile purpose be understood definitely, and the correct tactical use of the clements of defense be pointed out while everything is fresh in the minds of those taking part. 38. In considering reports submitted on these exercises, it should be borne in mind that, as stated by the fleet commander, some of the naval operations were abnormal. As these abnormal operations were not pointed out at the time, the ammunition expended against them was not deducted, nor is it possible to determine their cITect on the ideas of oITicers on other points. The suggestion that primary naval tactics be furnished coast artiJIery officers is approved, and is especially desirable now that officers are attempting the coast artillery war game, as the use of artificial naval situations might develop false ideas as to the proper tactics of coast defense. The emphasis placed on conservation of ammunition resulted at these exercises in hostile ships being allowed on occasions to expose themselves with impunity. This question should be well considered and the drill regulations should have a chapter on tactics of coast defense. :~9. 1\lost of the general recommendations of the coast defense commander have already been considered, but special attention is invited to that with reference to the crews of harbor boats being enlisted men. 40. The question of the needs of his Own defenses is a matter for separate action. JNO. V. 'VI lITE, Colonel, C. A. C.

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LETTER OF INSTRUCTIONS DEFENSE FOR THE l\fOBILIZATION ISLAND SOUND OF TIlE

COAST

OF LONG

July 1, 1913. Prom' ,'
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1 i,. So' C omdg. Officer, Coast Defenses of Long Island Sound.
'Jee!:

Ad' .Jutant [North Atlantic

Coast .artl 'IIcry D' , J lstnct.
A

Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises,

tI 1. Joint naval and coast defense exercises will be held in a~~ Coast Defenses of Long IsIan~ S?und and the waters ~~cent thereto, commencing at mIdnIght, August 3-1, and \ en lng midnight, August 8-9, 1913. . N 2. The Commander-in-Chief, Atlantic Fleet. for the thavy, and the Commanding General, Eastern Department, for e Army, have been designated as representatives of the Navy anl 1 War Departments respectively and directed to mutually arran,ge all preliminaries and have complete charge of the joint ~"~clses. A definite and detailed program has been arranged bn the location and extent of mine field to be planted has t~e~ determined. The number of mines to be planted and elr location will be communicated later. 3. The exercises are in no way to be considered as a ~~;lest., No decision as to the supremacy of one side over the b !er WIll be rendered and no umpires will be required. The ? Ject of the exercises is to present certain tactical phases Invol vmg, for the Army, the use of the various elements of ' tI Ie defense. . C 4. The Artillery District Commander and Coast Defense f ommander and his command will perform their proper ~netions as nearly as if war actually existed. The Coast . ~fense Commander will be given the general situation and In ormation from time to time as the special situation develops. d . 5. \Vilh the exception of the artillery supports, it is tIcsIred that one complete manning detail be provided for all pIe elements of the defense of Long Island Sound, omitting 1. Mansfield: and that such deficiencies in fire-control materiel as may exist be supplied by temporary transfer. I The ships of the fleet will indicate their fire by firing s~ utmg guns. The shore batteries greater than 3" caliber WIll indicate their fire by having mounted on the parapet of e~ch such battery a field piece and firing therefrom, at the Ploper rale of fire, blank eharges. The number of "lank c Iarges to be furnished each hattery will be limited to the number of rounds of battle reserve ammunition actually

?

58 available for the corresponding battery. The 3" batteries wiII fire blank ammunition. 7. Suitable camp and mess arrangements will he provided at Fort H. G. \Vright and Fort Terry for the necessary observers and assistants to the Department Commander. It is estimated that about fifteen officers wiII be required at each post. One orderly should be detailed for each three officers. 8. The district commander has heen directed to arrange to supply the materiel and personnel now lacking and necessary. No coast artillery supports will be required. 9. Attention is called to the orders of the department commander in letter of June 30, 1913, transrnilled herewith, with reference to reorganizing Batteries Stoneman and Clinton into fire commands of two batteries each. 10. The district commander desires report as follows: (a) A statement of the number of companies required to man all batteries. ~o more than a company wiII be assigned to any battery. \\'here a surpills exists, this will be utilized to rr.an batlle command, fire command, searchlight and other stations, or a smaller hattery; but men from different companies wiII not he assigned to the manning detail of anyone baltery, unless this is necessary to avoid sending a whole additional company from outside the coast defense to man a ~~-inch battery. Allowance will be made for the necessary guard, which wiII he kept at the minimum. (b) A statement of the number of officers required to man the defenses. A battle commander (field officer) for C1 and a battle c0mmander and two captains or lieutenants for duty as searchlight and communication officers wiII he allowed for C2• The coast defense stalT should supply the searchlight and communication officer, respectively, for C1• A fire commander (field officer) or senior captain on detached service, wiII be allowed for each fire command station, except 1;'7, which wiII he treated as part of Battery Steele for manning purposes. A mine commander (field officer or senior captain on detached service) wiII he allowed for 1\11 and 1\13• An assistant mine commander to be detailed from the officers now on duty in these mine commands wiII be allowed. ~f3 will be manned by one company (three ofIicers) from' Fort Terry, leaving two companies and surplus men from the 1\1, company to man the Fort Terry mine command. The communication officers for fire commanders should

I

59 be p det UI e d from compames.' assIgned to baltenes. . '1 as far as ract:cable. The surplus required will be supplied. in I E~ch battery having its O\'/n position-finding system, o~ udmg h.orizontal base and ploUing room,. sho.uId have three fi dcers assIgned. A rapid-fire battery havmg Its own rangeln er but no plotting board should have two officers assigned. A ra pI'd-fire battery having no range-finder should have one ofr lcer assigned. tl The commanding officer of the mine planter on duty in a 1e coast defenses should be utilized as mine field officer for mine field actually planted. No other mine field officer . 10tIld be estimated for. t I (c) A statemenL of all fire-conlrol equipment. including b~~Phones, observing instruments, plotting boards, range c rds, deflection hoards, etc., not on hand and required for

sty

omplete equipment. (~) Requisition for telephone wire, and material for nstalhng it for use in temporary installation. t (e) Heport on sheller and concrete piers, if needed for aemlPorary observing and F.C. stations for Batteries Stoneman n( Clinton. . I (f) Heport on sufficiency of cable communications beLween ~osts and recommendations as to minimum additional requireenls. . r (g) Heport on. sufficiency of boat transportation and Ncommendation as to minimum additional requirements. tl 0 sleamboats wiII be required for drill or tncticaI lise, except i 1e plan ler for repair of mine fidd. . . (h) Report or" number of field guns required and number aVaII~blc for purposes of simulnting fire during exercises. r .(1) Heport on additional sanitary and medical personal'! equlred. abl (j) Heport of lhe earliest dale at wl~j~l~ iL will be pracLi~e to complete arrangements for VisItmg troops. It IS rroposed to send fire-c~ntrol equipment and fidd pieces emporarily transferred along with the troops transferred. f 11. Ordnance requisiLions for blank ammunilion will be orWarded through these headquarters. f 12. The reports called for may be separale under each ~
above headings and should reach lhese headquarters I by U Y G. if possible. ' 13. Acknowledge receipt by telegraph. ED\YIN LANDON, l\lajor, C. A. C.

VII EXTRACT FROl\l THE HEPORT OF TIlE COl\1l\1ANDING OFFICER, COAST DEFENSES OF LONG SLAND SOUND HEADQUARTEHS COAST DEFENSES OF LONG ISLAND SOUND, Fort I I. G. \Vright, N.Y., . September 11, 19l:.~. From: C.O., C.D. of L.I.S. To: C.O., N. A. C. A. D. Subject: Hcport on Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises.
PREPARATION PERIOD

1.

Instructions \vere received as follows: July 1. 1913.-

The exercises are in no way to be considered as a contest. No decision as to the supremacy of one side over the other will be rendered and no umpires will be required. The object of the exercises is to present certain tactical phases involving, for the Army, the use of the various clements of the defense. The Artillery District Commander and Coast Defense Commander and' his command will perform their proper functions as nearly as possible as if war actually existed. The coast defense commander will be given the general situation and information from time to time as the special situation develops. With the exception of the artillery supports, it is desired that one complete manning detail be provided for all the clements of the defense of Long Island Sound, omitting Fort Mansfield: and that such deficiencies in fire control materiel as may exist be supplied by temporary transfer. Suitable camp and mess arrangements will be provided at Fort II. G. Wright and Fort Terry for the necessary observers and assistants to the Department Commander. It is estimated that about fifteen officers will be required at each post. One orderly should he detailed for each three officers. The district commander has been directed to arrange to supply the materiel and personnel now lacking and necessary. No coast artillery supports will be required. Attention is called to the orders of the Department Commander in letter of June 30, 1913, transmitted herewith, with reference to reorganizing batteries Stoneman and Clinton into fire commands of two batteries cacho

July 16, 1913.On the assump~ion that the 2nd Hegiment of Infantry, Connecticut National Guard (at war strength), is due to arrive in New London, Conn., at 9 a.m., July 20. 1913, the Department Commander directs that you
(60)

61
SUbmit ' t 0 these headquarters AU through the Commanding Officer, North rep~~thC Coast Artillery District, not later than July 26, 1913, confidential s as follows: the t(3) A complete plan, accompanied by copies of appropriate orders, for r~nsportation of the regiment to its war stations as coast artillery supPort s Inc 1u d"mg all necessary arrangements for camps. . in p ~) A complete scheme for constructing the defensive works called for ne t:oJect for Coast Artillery Supports for your coast defense. In this conda~ I~n, reference is made to letter of instructions from the War Department, the e( January 16, 1913, transmitting to you the project for land defense by Coast artillery supports. ord Your scheme for constructing the works should include appropriate ho e~s and instructions for obtaining the necessary tools, material, labor, priu~lng an,d subsistence of laborers, ;nd the division of the work into approfora e sectIOns for its proper execution under officers, superintendents and lnae~en. In fact, the orders should be prepared by the coast defense comstr n er precisely in the same way as if the works were actually to be COIlucted.

(1

2. These required the following: e I (a) Conversion of mortar batteries into two batteries r:;c 1, and establishing and constructing temporary fire comander's sta lions. " (b) Putting twelve batteries into commission. t (c) Improvising and establishing fire control service for welve batteries (in some cases lighting service). I (d) Establishing the outlying searchlight plant contemP ated for war conditions. e (e) Developing ballle drill, with ten companies added to s~mmand, and with every ballle, fire, mine commander. and afTofficer Dew to the particlular conditions. Note.-During this period orders came also to exchange , ,guns bci\veen a battery at Terry and one at \\right. The additional ten companies arrived July 22, 1913. . The period July 23-August 2, was devoted largely to nIght drill with two or more tugs in the battle area, with the result that on 'Vednesday, Jul)~ ,30th, I was satisfied with the Searchlight work, having taken charge of the simulating fleet t o o} )serve from the water area. .

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

for On the .morning of July 31st, the Army Hepresentath.e the exerCIses gave me the folloWlllg problem:
MINI!'G PHOBLEM

, 1.' ny authority of the War Department, the Drpartment Commandrr (IIre<'ls th a t you p 1ant groups of mines and mall1tam them as f'"1 service untl ," lI' or Ie Conclusion of the joint naval and coast defense exercises as follows:

62
2. From Fort 11. G. \Vright:

Two groups of seven mines each, in one line, direction generally north and south, north end of line about 3000 yards south of \Vilderness Point, . intervals between mines about 200 feet, submergence of each min'e not to be less than 18 feet, nor more than 25 feet. 3. From Fort Michie: One group of seven mines in aline generally east and west. west end of line about 500 yards due east of Constellation Hoek, intervals between mines about 200 feet, submergence of each mine not to be less than 18 feet, nor more than 25 feet. 4. From Fort Terry: Two groups of 1~}mines each, in one line generally north and south, north end of line 3000 yards south of east point of Plum Island, intervals between mines about 100 feet, submergence of each mine not to be less than 18 feet, nor more than 25 feet. 5. Each mine will be loaded with sand to bring its weight up to that prescribed for a loaded mine for the size of case employed. In all other respects the groups are to be prepared, planted and maintained as for service.

He was asked if he kne\v there was here, one mine planter, one distribution-box boat not suitable for a 19 group in these waters, and no automatic anchors. For war, the multiple cable for mines to be planted, should be laid well in advance of the critical period; this was the practice in all previous exercises, and was the practice comtemplated in the preparation of submarine mine plans and estimates for our harbors. The necessary orders were issued at once for pl::lIlLing the mines: using mushroom anchors. Four companies of troops had been ordered to Fort :\lichie, which depends on rain for water supply. There had been no rain, the mine plan tel' .had been u tiIized for pumping into the tanks, and was at New London replenishing when I got the orders for planting. Upon receiving the problem, the planter was ordered to report at once, but the commanding. officer notified me he would not be ready for work till the next day, as several of his engine force had qui t. lIe was ready to proceed with the work the following day at ten o'clock. The foregoing indicates the necessity for having enlisted crews for these boats. One of the harbor boats was put into service as a distribution-box boat and the five groups of mines were down by the afternoon of August 5th.. . It was not possible to make repairs under the conditions. The insufficiency of the mine material and boats for these

63
.. Was well known here prIor to the exerCIses an d the n I~~n~ could have been accomplished satisfactorily only by a I Ylng me in ample time of what was required. SUchOne of the localities selected for a group of mines showed Uneven bottom that it was not possible to plant a group th ere . . 2000 WIth out automatic anchors, and the mmes were planted yards further out. . ". 11 Under the conditions, I consider it quite fortunate to tlave down all the groups for the Navy to operate against leIl1. . tl tThe position of all the groups were charted in such a way S\la t.he Navy had the necessary opportunities to test their ~eepIng methods. b f lVly experience in mining operations caused me to state a e are the exercises that the sweeping methods now in vogue dre of no value against our mining system, and these exercises cIl1onstraled, thoroughly, the soundness of that position. \' The admiral of the fleet confirmed my opinions in a conersalion after the exercises were over.
SCHEME OF THE EXERCISES \V The program of the attacking fleet, in being progressive, faas excellent. The combination of battle tactics and driJI r the ?efense was very unsatisfactory. \v It IS thought that the maximum benefit to all concerned 11 ould have resulled by advising the defense between what pfurs there would be a phase, the general characler of the af~~~~' and then a conference on the action immediately there-

defense s rn..

\Vith one relief for range sections, all undue strain must ,: eliminated. Almost without exception, unit commanders \,vere c . v .onvlllced that range and telephone men could become ,,,cry Inefficient in a short time if conditions of the exercises 'vcre con t.mued for any length of time. .
"HIT BAGS"

L'

b b The" hit bags" scheme I consider excellent, but it must a~ b orne in mind that it can be only a rough approximation b cst, and conclusions to be drawn from its operation must e carefully. weighed. fa The "hit bag" did not provide for hits beyond 8000 yards fa nge. On occasion, ships were illuminated beyond this nge but were not fired at as the bags provided no hits. The

6.4 ships should have been fired at and hils drawn on a basis of 8000 yards. . This incident illustrates the undersirabilily of hard and fast rules which will warp a com~ander's judgment.
COAST DEFENSE COMMANDER

This commander is not included tactical chain, but should be added as commander. lIe should have a station where he of fire. The equipment of his station should

in the 'coast artillery a supervisory tactical '. may observe the field . he as follows:

An observation telescope A depression position-finder A telephone bridged on to a line connecting all his battle commands Telephonic connection to post telephone system. His tactical stafT should consist of two officers: An information officer and his relief. lIis administrative staff should consist of: An Adjutant A Quartermaster An Ordnance Officer An Artillery Engineer. The duties of the coast defense commander are largely prior to the action, and administrative; however, they arc very important during an action in supervising and coordinating battIe commanders. For these particular exercises, I established two experimental stations (one from which the battle areas could be observed; the other from which they could not be observed). As soon a~ I had made up my mmd as to the proper location, equipment, and manning parties for the coast defense commander's station, I utilized my time principally in inspecting the work of the various subordinate commanders. An officer was on duty at my station at all times and I was in easy reach by telephone.
SERVICE OF TIlE BATTEHIES

There are semi-permanent camps at Forts vVright and Terry which were utilized for troops and visiting officers.

65
~~~ camp,s are not in the immediate vicinity of the guns, but is n r~e mInute run will reach the most distant battery. This thi 0 nea~ enough for actual war conditions, but answered for to s combInation simulated war and drill. It was apparent
nc ,me that it was desired to emphasize the absence of the cessar ~ arrangements . not at the battenes for t IIe troops, when

batt se,rVIng the guns. This the camp did, as some of the s)\ ~nes were not manned as quickly as it was thought they as ~~ d have been., It may be noted that at one time as many
officers were present at the camp mess.

ea

In addition to the distance of the camp site, a contributory

te~se to such delays as there were, was delay in ordering bat-

nes ' m anne. d . . oll In some cases this was preme<I' t e d , 10 Ita III lers nol. In more than one instance remark was made to Ite "they are shooting and the batteries arc not manned." co Was not intended to man the batteries unless the baUle at ~,?ander desired to have an action. lie had an observer I I us stalion at all times and was always in easy reach of a e cphone when absent for meals or conference.

d' At times the Navy was going through the form of a disaIs~ant bombardment which required no action on our parI, s~l~ o~ one occasion, apparent bombardment developed as '}
I ca!Iber target pracllce. I~mphasis from all sources as to necessity game. for conserving

lInrn ullitlOn, really .,

forced a waiting

On one occasion the f1ecl went into the region of a supi~osed ~ead-a~gle and objection was made .to Ihe tim,e of openg. 1here IS not an actual dead-angle III the regIOn of the
mortars,

fluns should
(unng

and the adjacent

area is not one into which

12-inch

be fired if ammunition is limited. Foreword to l~ baltic commander that the f1ecl was going to the area for (lnil purposes would have obv13ted the contre-temps. .' I ,I inspected the elemenls of the first baUle command
the various actions

l... sel, descriptive ong,
very objectionable..

and the service was satisfactory. commands for unit commanders are .

de . ~'or,simple
signallOn

formation,

number of target and geograph~eal
all requirements and expediles

of fleet

answers

~fening

and changing

targets-designating
bad. assignment
,

Ihe formation

in

,
IS

lC

c~mmand
'

I. or complex formations

is essentially

by range and azimuth

en lIre]y satisfactory.

66
AMMUNITION

Heceiving tables for ammunition were improvised on the loading platforms from ordnance timbers and projectile boxes. In actual service they would be filled. In this case, the rules did not permit this. One table should be for shot; the other for shell. Triangles with 35 angles were made and shot ordered whenever the track made less than 35 with the angle of shot., and the range was less than 6000 yards. . The ranges to the battleships were so generally beyond 6000 yards that no valuable data was obtained as to the pro~ portion of shot and shell. Any conclusion to be drawn from these exercises would call for a greater percentage of shell than. 80. This refers to primary guns. Nothing but shell (possibly some shrapnel) should be supplied for intermediate and rapid fire guns.
0 0

SEARCHLIGHTS

Searchlights should be in pairs to cover the same area. (This does not mean that they should be located within 10, 20 or other definite number of feet.) It seems quite remarkable that it should be necessary to emphasize this point; but my experience in discussion shows the necessity for emphasizing the point that two searchlights should be provided for covering each sector in the coast defense. For each fire. command, there should be provided two lights to be controlled by the battle commander until a target is assigned, When the illuminating light automatically is to be controlled by the fire commander. In this, as in many other cases, each unit commander thinks he should have an independent organization. Nothing is more fatal to ultimate efficiency than recognition of such consideration. Every light must be under command (it matters not where the controller is) of the battle commander, until targets 'are assigned; and there should be in each fire ' (mine) commander's station controllers for two lights to be used When targets are assigned. Ilfine lights are entirely misnomers. Each mine commander should be on the same basis as each fire commander; he should have controllers in his station for two lights covering his mine area. Lights should be designated by number in giving orders to them, by locality in giving orders to others with reference

67

to the m. F or example: "" ' 1Jl'V In these defenses orders would be ~ b' . the en' N urn ber 3, search left; whereas if a target were In
Wild earn of No.3, an order would be given: F2, ~arget in clu . erness beam. I consider this fundamental. It IS a conexpSlO.n, not so lnuch from these exercises as from continued enence' In th ese defenses. I' ., com t IS to ~e noted that if cond!ti0D:s are. suc.h that the. fire star m ander IS not near his battenes, 11Iumlnatmg searchlight be ~ons must be established near the batteries, the station to It .In telephonic communication with the fire commander. c.IoIS absolutely fundamental that the controller men must be 1'ose ~o the batteries for which the target is to be illuminated. } l'h r nlg ht' work, each battery must have a self-contained system. I seae O?g horizontal base should be opcrated if possiblc. but an~~hhght ~ork docs not admit of two widely dispersed stations WI attery Instruments observing the same target to advantage. bct~cn the widely dispersed stations can do so, so much the haver. But I consider it absolutely necessary that we should for e the long horizontal base and a self-contained instrument each battery.
RANGE-FINDING INSTRUMENTS

des' The' self-contained instrument is problematical but very shi l~able. With Iiaze or mist it is very uncertain; with a it s~arehlights turned on you and for rapid identification s IndIspensable. flan .For sites above 40 feet. I recommend a D.P.F. on one bat; ~nd a short H.B. on the other. For cases where our · (a enes are constructed elose together on a straight line (tomo~t faulty arrangement), I recommend a local eom!>ination th SUit conditions) of a D.P.F. and S.H.B. As compared to co~t cost of installinlt guns, carriagcs and emplacemcnts, the ca of the range-finding equipment is so insignificant that I lat~ not. understand any reason for delay in making the instalIon: If the fundamental principle is established, viz: ha Each !>attery or group of batteries above 40 feet must b ;e Fa long horizon tal !>ase and self-eon tained ins t rumen ts, . . ~., and S.H.B.; below 40 feet, duplicate S.II.B. ien At .times the S.H.B. seerr.s to fill all needs, but my expcrin c~ WII1~ it shows it a doubtful instrument: but its advantages ren~ se':'lng on searchlights and under favof3ble conditions, ers Jt an absolute necessity for coast artillery service.

t~

GS
SIGHTS

The Scott sights are very inefficient for night work. ~ They must be replaced at once.t The graduations for deflection in our sights for fast moving targets must be changed as soon as possible-swift moving destroyers are not provided for. Immediate relief for this should be provided.
COMMUNICATIONS

The communicatio"ns were satisfactory except that between \Vright and l\lichie and Terry the cable line went out on August 5th and was out the remainder of the exercjses. Oc,,: casional messages were sent to Terry, after failure of the cable, by searchlight and radio; the extemporized radio at Terry could receive indilTerently but could not send. The necessity for a good radio set at Terry was strongly emphasized. The electrical personnel was kept very busy keeping the time-interval and telephone systems in order. It was found that two head-sets were necessary for continuous use of telephones-a double-pole, double-throw switch for switching hourIy between head-sets made continuous service possible.
nEco~nfENDATIONS (GENERAL)

1. Conductors for communication be in two cables. 2. Badio defense. stations

between island posts to post of a coast

at each important

3. Latrines, kitchens and cantonments at the batteries. 4. Establishment of coast defense commander's stations equipped as given in the body of this report. 5. Scientific allotments of ammunition-important harbors having larger allowance than unimportant ones.
G. Appointment of loenl bonrds for revision of fortifien-

tion plans for the importan t harbors. . 7. Installation of double-pole, double-throw switchesJ where telephones must give continuous service. S. Construction of searchlight day positions which wiII be protected (protected is used advisedly as opposed to concealed). Damage by strau shots is the thing to he feared, if th.c navy has unlimited ammunition and indulges in indiscrirrunate bombardment. 9. Enlisted crews for mine planfers and harbor hoals.

I I

~

"'

~

I

69
of /Ot' ~elf-contained )a tenes. instruments for all batteries or groups

RECOMMENDATIONS

(AS TO THESE DEFENSES)

of b;t .~3uilding of a general latrine for the nuUcrfield group ') telles and one for the Clinton group. and -'b Construction of a coast defense commander's station ~ at~lc com?,ander's station on Rescrvoi.r IIil!. comm' ConversIOn of present battle statIOn mto mortar ander's station. t\\'o 4}. 0 rganiza tion of Clinton in to a mortar command of )atteries • r: ;;. Constitution of Michie as.a baUlc command (C 3). Com . Connection of the battle commands and coast defense An ~a~~cr by telephone as outlined in the body of the report. dltlOnal cable to l\lichie and Terry. . "n 1 7. Separation of Hamilton and HotTman from F2, and ~\ (co nstItution of them as a fire command. ' and~' S.cpa~ation of Greblc, Campbell and Dalliba from 1'6, ~onstItutlOn of them as a fire command. tlV 9. Stoneman to be converted into a mortar command of o batteries. 11' 10. Provision for protection of searchlights in day posions. 1hre1e1'f Supply of three additional lights for "-right and or Terry. 0r 112. Establishment of a mortar base line from Terry to Yer. c 13. Destruction of the towers and buildings at Michie; I:nstruction of concrete cantonments, supply of S.I1.B. instruents, and establishment of L.II.D. between l\lichie and Tyler. 14. Abandonment of l\lansficId and establishment' of 1Jult erIes on the Dumplings. . ~ RICIIl\10ND P. DAVIS, Lt. Col., Coast Artillery Corps.

70
ApPENDIX "A"

REPORT THOSE By

BY

COAST

DEFENSE MINE JOINT FOR

COMMANDER COMMANDERS NAVAL AND

SIMILAR UNDER COAST

TO. DE-

BATTLE,

FIRE 'AND

PARA-

GRAPH 19, REGULATIONS FENSE EXERCISES

SUFFICIENCY

OF BATTLE

RESERVE

AMMUNITION

InsUfficient for primary; secondary guns.
PROPORTION

ample

for intermediate

and

OF SHOT AND SHELL

No valuable data on this point was obtained or obtainable. as the exercises developed.
ARRANGEMENT PROMPT OF PERSONNEL OF FIRE AND MATERIEL TO INSUHE

OPENING

IN CASE OF EMERGENCY

The following should obtain for service: Latrines, shelters, and kitchens at the batteries. Projectiles on loading platform. Powder conveniently arranged below.
BEST METHOD OF IDENTIFICATION OF TAHGET

. In simple formation-hy words. In complex formation-by At night-by searchlight

position;

information

in fewest

range and azimuth. beam.
FInE

l\~ETHOD OF CONTROLLING

Action.-Command to each unit, record of units on targets, and commands to units from Observation of the effect on targets. Exercise.-As above, except some hypothetical estimating damage.
SIZE AND CO~fPOSITION OF FIHE COMMAND

method of

Two to four batteries of same class (not necessarily same caliber) situated properly with respect to each other.
MIXING CALIBEHS

Intermediate not permissible.

and R.F'. may be. mixed-other

mixtures

71
TACTICAL USE OF FIRE COMMANDS

and fCant ro lb. y battle commander is the general rule-hard ast dictum on this matter is essentially bad.
TACTICAL STAFF REQUIRED AND THEIR DUTIES

Coast Defense Commander Two tactical-'. (a) Information: .. (b) R.elief for (a). I, our administrativc(a) Adjutant, (b) Ordnance, (c) Artillery Engineer, (d) Quartermaster. 2. Battle Commander Two officers(a) Assistant to Battle Commander. of station. (b) Communication

1.

In charge

officer and substitute for (a).

3. Fire Commander'
One ofIicerAssistant to Fire Commander. In charge of station.

4. 1\J ine Commander
Two officers-. (a) Assistant to l\fine Commander. (b) Casemate Officer.
ESTIMATING TIlE SITUATION

rna ~n i~Jlortant duty of Coast Defense 'and Baltle Comas f~r ers •.lnvolving incidents leading up to the action as ,well ing flmatIon, classes of vessels, and maneuvering of an attackeet.
I:<:MPLOYMENT OF GENERAL DEFENSE. PLANS.

l' . (:nhrely a local question. . Jcncral BaltIc BuIes, only, applicable hcre.'
SEARCIILIGIITS

f\!,umbcr.-A local problem. Slzc.-GO-inch 1 . j'0catiol1.-A local problcm. )crsonnel.-Per group-1 electrician sergeant.

72 Per, light- 2 operators, 2 telephone men, 2 watchers. Lights must have two reliefs. n"alchers.-(a) Near, hut in immediate vicinity of light. (b) Intimate knowledge of all classes of vessels. (c) An excellent glass.
DUTIES OF SEAHCIlLIGIIT OFFICERS

Searchlight officers are not necessary. Under no circumstances should searchlights be assigned' permanently to fire and mine commanders. They should be assigned permanently to ba'Ule commander. Electrical control more efficient. Eight thousand yards may be taken as average of efficient range for large vessels. Azimuth circles not necessary.
LOCATION OF MINE FIELDS

Entirely a local problem. Aline malericl.-It is efficient, hut limited Casemate officer is necessary.
TACTICS OF SUBMARINE MINE DEFENSE

in quantity.

Employment of mines as given in Submarine ual and comtemplated by present equipment.
COOPERATION BETWEEN MINE AND FIHE

l\11ne Man~

COMMANDERS

There is no diITerence between fire and mine commanders in their relation to Battle Tactics, Coast Artillery. Each bears the same relation to the Battle Commander.
POSSIBILITY OF REPAIHING A DAMAGED MINE-FIELD

A local problem-here it would be difficult bu t could be done most expeditiously by planting behind a gap. The efTect of the Black Fleet on the mines was nil and the time spent by it in manruvering for cables and mines must have been a great object lesson to many officers at these exercises, unfamiliar with the difficulties of tampering with mines. The answers to the questions propounded arc made as , concisely as possible. Additional report, giving more ex~ tended views on some of these and related subjects, is enclosed marked "13."* HICIIl\10ND P. DAVIS, • Not published. 1..1. Co!., Coast Artillery Corps.

VIII
DIGEST OF REPORTS OF BATTLE, FIRE, l'IINE BATTERY COIVIl\IANDERS, AND AR~IY OBSERVERS AFLOAT AND ASHORE AND

The plan of this digest is to collect under the headings, ~n. which report is required (see pages 6-7 Regulations for . ;Int Naval and Coast Defense Exercises), the opinions and ;o~tements of battle, fire, mine, and battery comm.anders, owed by a symbol sho\ying the report from whIch the ~
extract is taken.
SYMBOLS USED* BATTLE, FIRE, AND MINE CO:\ll\IANDEHS

1\lajor II. D. Todd, jr., C. A. C., Battle Commander, 1st Battle Command, Fort II. G. \Vright, N. Y. F2 l\lajor Andrew 1\10ses, C. A. C., Fire Commander, 2nd Fa F'it:e Command, Fort II. G. "'right, N. Y. Major n. E. Callan, C. A. C., Fire Commander, 3d Fire Command, Fort H. G. \Vright, N. Y. 12" 1'1. 1\11 1\1ajor Joseph P. Tracy, C. A. C., l\Iine Commander, 1st 1\line Command, Fort II. G. "'right, N. Y. F'4 1\1' aJor Joseph \Vheeler, jr., C. A. C., Fire Commander, 4th Fire Command, Fort l'1ichie, New York. . 1\12 Captain E. R. Tilton. C. A. C., l'1ine Commander, 2d l\1ine Command. Fort 1\lichie, New York. C2 Lt. Co!. Sidney S. Jordan, C. A. C., Battle Commander, F 2d Battle Command, Fort Terry, N. Y. 6 Captain \ViIliam Forse, C.' A. C., Fire Commander, 5th Fire Command, Fort Terrv, N. Y. Po 1\1ajor B. 1\1. Koehler, C. A.oJ C., Fire Commander, 6th Fire Command, Fort Terry, N. Y. P7 Captain R. H. C. Kelton, C. A. C., Fire Commander, 7th Fire Command, Fort Terry, N. Y. 1\13 Captain R. T. Ellis, C. A. C., 1\line Commander, 3d l\1ine Command, Fort Terry, N. Y.
j

C

BATTERY

COl\ll\IANDERS

Sr __

12" ~l[. Captain J. O. Steger, C. A. C., Battery Commander, Pit, Battery Clinton, Ft. II. G. "'right.
• 1,\ Fort Mansfield was not engaged in the exercises.
(73)

A

7-1 Capt. Jos. l\latson, C. A. C., Battery Commander, B Pit, Battery Clinton, Ft. II. G. \Vright. . P Captain J. R. Proctor, C. A. C., Battery Commander, B . Pit, Battery Stoneman, Fort Terry, N. Y. Sh 1st Lt. J. P. Smith, C. A. C., Battery Commander, A Pit, Battery Stoneman, Fort Terry, N. Y. ~I

10" (.~12" B.L.R.
Capt. C. 1\1. Seaman, C. A. C., Batterv Butterfield (12"), Fort II. G. \Vright, N. Y. ~
G Capt. II. B. Grant, C. A. C., Battery Palmer (12"), Fort l\1ichie, N. Y. \V Capt. E. J. \Vallace, C. A. C., Batlery lViarIow (10"), Ft. II. G. \Vright, N. Y. 1\110 Capt II. S. l\liIIer, C. A. C., Battery North (l0"), Fort 1\lichie, N. Y. 'Vh 2d 1.1. R. 'Valsh, C. A. C., Battery Steele (10"), Fort Terry, N. Y. Sn 5" & 6" B.L.R. Co Capt. G. 'V. Cochell, C. A. C., Battery Dutton Fort II. G. 'Vright, N. Y. J Capt. R. H. Jordan, C. A. C., Battery l\larcy (6"), II. G. 'YJight, N. Y. 1\le Capt. T. E. l\lurphy, C. A. C., Battery l\1aitIand Fort l\lichie, N. Y. e 1st 1.1. E. 'V. Niles, C. A. C., Battery Benjamin N Fort l\1ichie, N. Y. He 1st Lt. L. P. IIorsfall, C. A. C., Battery IIamilton Fort II. G. 'Yright, N. Y. ClI 1st Lt. l\L A. Cross, C. A. C., Batlery Kelly (5"), Terry, N. Y. Ge Capt. F. Q. C. Gardner, C. A. C., Battery Dimick Fort Terry, N. Y. 'Yo Capt. P. II. 'Yorcester, C. A. C., Battery Bradford Fort Terry, N. Y. D Capt. L. R. Dice, C. A. C., Battery Floyd (6"), Terry, N. Y. . 3" B.L.R. l\lcE Capt. II. J. B. l\IcEIgin, C. A. C., Battery IIoppock, Fort II. G. 'Vright, N. Y. n Capt. 'V. H. Bettison, C. A. C., Batlery Hoffman, Fort II. G. 'Vright, N. Y. (6"), Fort (6"), (6"), (6"), Fort (6"), (6"), Fort

.j

I ,

l

75
2d Lt. L. A. Nickerson, C. A. C., Battery Pasco, l\1ichie, N. Y. Captain C. R. Alley, C. A. C., Battery Dalliba, Terry, N. Y. 1st Lt. J. P. Keeler, C. A. C., Battery Eldridge, ') Terry, N. Y . ...d Lt. G. B. Gorham, C. A. C., Battery Campbell, Fort Fort Fort Fort

A
l(

L

Terry, N. Y. 2d Lt. E. II. l\1etzger, C. A. C., Battery Haynes, Fort ') Terry ,. N. " J.. -d Lt. S .. B. Lane, C. A. C., Battery Greble, Fort Terry,

N. Y.
I.

.
BATTERY COM:\IANDERS

COpy OF MESSAGES SENT AND RECEIVED (Omitted.)

II. A.s ST ATEMENT OF THE RANGE, TIME AND DATE AT WIIICH

SIGNED TARGETS WERE IDENTIFIED IN REPORTS (Omitted.)
III.

SUFFICIENCY OF BATILE RESERVE ALLOWANCE OF AMMUNITION

12"]ll. 1.
2. Not sufficient. Sr-l\I-P-Sh. Hecommends 200 rounds per mortar. Present allowance doubled. P-Sh. Sr-l\l.

10" (.~12" B.L.R. 3. 4
field · Not sufIicient. Sn-G-\Y. Sufficient. l\l-\Vh. Amount depends on local depends depends

needs.

200

for

13uUer-

1\

1.

. Sn. 5. A mount G. Amount

on local needs. on local needs.

100 for Barlow. \V. 75% Taft Board.

5" (.~6" B.L.R.

7. 8. 9.
10. 11.

Not sufficient. C-l\16-\Yo-D. SUfficient. J-II-N6-Cli-G. Amount should be 400 rounds per gun. Same as r.f. batteries. C. All reserve should be on hand. N. Heserve quadrupled. D.

1\1.

3" B.L.R.
12. Sufficient.

A-K-N3-G.

iG
IV. IS PHESENT PROPOllTION OF SIIOT TO SHELL SATISFACTOR\'

12"

]1;[.

1. . Not stated. Sr-Sh. 2. No; should be 1 shot to 4 shell. M. 3. One-fourth should be shot. P. 10" (.~12" B.L.R. 1. 2. 3. Shell 80%; shot 20%. Sn. Yes. G-l\1. Determined by location of battery. 5" (,.~ G"B.L.R . .1. No; shell only. C. 5. Understands shell only will be issued G". J. G. 20% shot; 80% shell. 1\16• 7. 5% shot; 95% shell. II. 8. ~ shot; % shell. N 6. 9. Yes; no target presented for shol, but 1/10 shot recommended. Cx. 10. Yes. G6-D. 11. Local for each battery, but 10 to 1 shell to shot preferred to present. \VO. .1" B.L.R. 12. Yes. 1\13-N3-(not stated by others).
OF SIIOT AND SHELL TO BE KEPT AND FUSED FILLED

\V-Wh.

v.

PROPORTION

12" At. 1. All. Sr. 2. All shot. 50% shell. 1\13. All shot. 50% shell filled but not fused. 10" (,.~ 12" B.L.R. 4. Sn. 5. .All filled; 10% fused. G-l\1. 6. All. \V. 7. All filled by Ord. Dept. before issue; ~ fused on out .. break of war; other half left unfused so as to be shipped if needed. \Vh. One-half fused; other half filled and fuse seat formed.

P-Sh.

77
5"
&;

6" B.L.R.

8. All filled; not fused. C-J-H. 9. All filled and fused. N6•
10. 11. 12. Present orders satisfactory. G. All filled; 50% fused. \Vo .. ,: One-half each. D.
VI. EFFICIENCY OF Al\l~IUNITION SERVICE

12" 1~f. Sr-1'J: ~.
0.

Recommends

installing serving tables for projectiles.

is

Gives minimunl detail for ammunition service. S2. Ammunition service is efficient if sufficient personnel provided. P. en 4. No trouble, except shot tongs and pulleys not strong ough. She

10" &; 12" B.L.R. 5. Efficient, but to provide reserve handy and save issuShg shell when shot is required, two movable delivery tables ould be provided. Sn. m J6. Projectile service is deemed efficient, but should be ec lanical delivery of powder at rate of projectiles. G. f 7. Efficient, with remark that, to obtain prompt change };o.m shell to shot, delivery tables should be istaJIed. Powder rn~Ists thought to be needless expense, but where installed Ight be used. \V. 8. Efficient. \Vh. in s .9. erVIng. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1.1. Satisfactory Co. EfIicient at l\/Iarcy. J. Satisfactory. 1\16• Efficient by filling tables and hoists beforehand. Satisfactory. II-Cx-G-\Yo-D. Efficient. A-K-G3-L-1\Is• 3" D.L.R.
OF BLENDING POWDER PRIOR

5" (.~6" B.L.R. at Dutton by using best method

of

N6•

VII.

DESIRABILITY

TO AN ACTION ,

12" J'I. 1. I3lending should be done prior to hostilities at fixed Int ervaIs or when needed. 5r-:\1. . .

78 2. Not desirable. Experiment should determine frequency of blending. P. 3. Before an action po\vder for 6th, 7th, and 8th zoneS should be blended. She 10" & 12" B. L.R. 4. Not desirable; difTerence in dispersion not of much consequence in firing against battleship; desirable for target practice. Sn. 5. Blending not recommended at all. G. 6. Cannot be done before action; powder should not require blending and it should only be done under unusual conditions. 'V. 7. Not to be done just prior to war. To be done at intervals of probably 3 to 5 years. 1\110• 8. Undesirable. 'Vh . .5" '-~ 6" B.L.R. 9. 1\ot done unless time known to be sufficient. Co. 10. Desirable, but left till engagement is probable. J. 11. Not advisable. N6-II.' 12. Advisable to blend and reseal when hostilities appear imminent. G6• ' 13. Desirable but not practicable if, action is imminent. 'Vo. 14. Nothing gained. D. 15.
VIII.

3" B.L.R. Fixed ammunition.
ARRANGEMENT PROMPT OF PERSONNEL OPENING OF FIHE AND MATEHIEL TO INSURE

, 1

II

'il

IN AN EMERGENCY

,J

12" ]If. 1. Personnel to be sheltered and fed in immediate vicinity of assigned stations. Sr-1\I-P-Sh. 2. Projectiles on shelves length of truck. P.

10" & 12" B.L.R.
3. Arrangements made for living at battery. A self .. contained horizontal base range finde'r necessary. Sn. 4. 1\Ien near their stations. . G. 5. 1\Ianning parties to be fed and housed near batteries and stations; a small reserve for gun sections, and fire-control

79 sections 2 rehefs. Projectiles on trucks near breech equip. me t n 6at gun, sight in place, doors closed but unlocked. 'V .. in . Quarters for troops at guns, capable of bomb-proofmg hat~ar. A reliable emergency range-finder for each primary ery. 1\110• secr 7. Two reliefs for gun sections;'3 reliefs for fire control Ions. Who 5" & 6" B.L.n. ~. Personnel at battery; six p~ojectiles ~n trucks. ~o. now . Personnel at battery; latrInes provIded; matenal as J. arranged. As per D.R.C.A. Six projectiles on trucks. 1\18• cov 1. Personnel near battery; instruments kept adjusted; l\T ers ofT, also truck and muzzle covers ofT;equipment at guns.

;0.

!'16.

sPe 2. lVIen near places with living arrangements; two dillCIIUlJy selected watchers kept on duty; fire-control sections \l ess anoth e ill . l~lCnt work as they became fatigued and should have as r ~r relIef; six-inch battery should open fire in emergency II apld-fire battery, fire-control data being used when obtained.
6.

.1

Men quartered near posHio"ns. G. P'"e ~. Sheller stations at battery; kitchen as at present . ....... rCIS • . ll1an es IndIcated no need of watchers at battery; a telephone orderly to turn out men sufficient. 'Vo. u. Construction of living quarters under parados. D.

;3.

]0:

3" B.L.n. }atri~6 .. Unless t\vo reliefs can be provided, place kitchens and ~s In emplacements and camp men on battery parade. inst ach battery to have a self-contained horizontal base rument. A. 0ll" 7. Personnel in vicinity; truck, muzzle and sight covers , s~ghts in place; batteries' open lights on. Na. l8. Booms for sleeping at battery. L. 9. l\len at batteries. G3-l\13•

!

IX.

BEST METHOD

OF IDENTIFICTION

OF TARGETS

12" .. ,[. \vhe 1. Coast .Artillery 'Var-Game method, supplemented ~
necessary. Sr-l\l. ... Class, relative location of divisions, and number of

I
80
ships in division. Exercises showed that this was much simpler matter than had generally been supposed. P. 3. l\lethod of General Defense Plan C.D. of L.I. Sound for day-beam by night. \V. 10" (.~12" B.L.R. Area, then azimuth to leading ship; night, general defense plan C.D. of Long Island SoumI. Sn. 2. Areas and additional specifications. G. 3. Best method should be worked out locally. \V. 4. As used during exercises (general defense plan C.D. of L.I. Sound). l\110• 5. l\lethod of Coast Arty. \Var-Game. Check needed on. gun-pointers. \Vh. 5" (.~6" B.L.R.
1.

6. Description by day; beam by night. Fire-control system at Dutton clumsy for kind of targets assigned. Co. 7. l\lethod used during exercises. J. 8. Class, position in line, and direction of movement. 1\;16' 9. \Var Game method. N6• 10. Position in line or column:. use of port and starboard not recommended. Approximate range and azimuth. II6• 11. System used. Cx. 12. Position in line or column by day; beam by night .. Battle orders when practicable; best method of fire-control.
G6•

13. A chapter should be added to D.H.C.A., describing elementary n~val tactics. Area, beam, or position in line or column satisfactory. \Vo. 1;1. General defense plan C.D. of L.I. SOllnd. D. 3" B.L.R. 15. \Var Game l\lethod. A-N3-K-G3-1VI3-L. 12" ~\[.
X. PREPARATION OF POWDER l\IORTAR CHAHGES Fon VAHIOUS ZONES

1. Charges for outer zones should predominate. Understands system of multiple charges is to be adopted. Sr. 2. Sixth, seventh, and eighth zones each 20%; others 8% each. l\1. 1/ 3. One fourth divided equally among first five zones: 74 between 6th and 7th zones: 72 beyond 7th zone. P.

81

7th a~ Majority of charges in 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th zones: for t d 8th twice as many as 5th and 6th. A few charges kept She 0 ~er zones; more if needed to be made from other zones:
BATTLE, I. FIRE. AND l\fINE SENT CO:MMANDERS

.

MESSAGES

AND 'RECEIVED

. . Dia C0ples of messages sent and received are with each report. are ry of events fr.om observers also containing these messages attached to reports to which they pertain.
II.
SUFFICIENCY OF BATTLE RESEHVE ALLOWANCE OF Al\D1UNITION

Not sufficient: Ch C2, F2, F3, F4' Fli' l\f., 1\12• Sufficient as required by these exercises: F., 1'" Ma. of .' Estimated amount required: Limited only by "life ca Pl~ce": Ch F.. 150 per gun I major, caliber: 1',. Full paclty of magazines: 1"'3. Yaries with battery: Fe.

3'

~.

III.

PHOPORTION

OF SHOT AND SHELL

8007 shell: 10

Ch F2, F4, 1\12• Shell only for guns of mine defense: Shot to shell 1 to 3: Fli• Shot only 1001• I~7. IC'
ARHANGEMENT PROMPT OF PERSONNEL OF FIRE Ar:m OPENING

1\,11,

.

IV.

MATERIEL

TO INSURE

IN CASE OF EMERGENCY

..ti. Personnel gU 1. Personnel should 'live at or in immediate vicinity of 1" nls~,stations, lights or power plants: C2' F2, Fa, 1\fh F., 1\1,. II, • 6, F7, 1\13• llo 2. Two reliefs for fire-control stations, searchlights and Wer plants~ 1"2. pr ~. Two reliefs at isolated stations where messes are not OVl(led: 1\11• ot 4 .. O~e cO~1plete detachment for one gun to be at gun; h . ~ler withm call: 1\12• P 5. For rapid-fire batteries one relief on duty all the time:
6.

ful 6.. One relief in range sections insufficient even for peacetactICS: 1"7. tel 7. General call to arms not desirable; as a rule, notice cphoncd to stations is sufficient: C2, 1"'2, 1\12,

82
.' . 8. An olIicer,' telephone man, and lookout to be at each battle, fire command, and mine command station and lookout at each station at,all times: C2, F2, 1"4, Fr;. 9. In clear weather in daytime, observer at battle com~ mand station only is needed; inthick weather and in darkness, observers at all stations: 1"7. B. illathie!

1. Units of defenses (\Vright, lVlichie, Terry) must be self-contained in all particulars: Ct . . 2. A.P. shell on all trucks; 10 shell and 5 shot on truckS and receiving tables; rowder charges for these in cans openedl' and resealed with pamffin in magazine or gaJIery convenient to. loading platform .. Po\ver on at all times: 1"2 . . 3~ l\10rtar projectiles kept on long gravity tables, and powder kept in cans easily opened in magazines. Straight electric primers to be used; supply of straight friction primers and lanyards to be kept in case Qf failure of electric primers: Fa. 4. Few rounds of ammunition in near vicinity of plat~ form: 1\11• 5. Powder in rr.agazines and as many projectiles as possible on loading platform: 1"4, 1\12. A.P. shell on trucks and hoist tables; powder in cans wilh loose covers: 1"7 •

• •

• f ,

. v.

BEST METHOD

OF IDENTIFICATION

OF TARGETS

1. 'l\1ethods prescribed in D.H.C.A., and "C.A. Game" proved satisfactory: CI, 1\11• .Identification by instrument should be practised stantly: . C1•

\Var~ con"

2. By battle areas; by fleet and subdivisions of fleet (not penr.anent designations); at night by beam: C2• 3. Area, class of vessel and order in formation or azimuth and class of vessel. Night name of searchlight illuminating target: 1"2. . ,4. (a) General location; (b) its description, and if mis .. take is rr.ade (c) its range and azimuth. 1"3. .. 5. By name when practicable; otherwise area and tac .. tical number; night by beam: 1"4. . G. . By day-Target, second battleship, third division; Target, fourth destroyer in group, etc. Night by beam: M2• . 7. l\lethod in C.A. \Var-Game; night, area, class, and light: Fli•

83 Battle Method in C.A. \Var-Game: night by beam. instrulllent:an~7.cannot properly attempt identification by
COll1~.

salisia. t 1\lethod prescribed Cory: M3.
VI. METHOD

by

C.O.,

C.D.

of L.I.
FIRE

Sound

OF CONTROLLING

~. Methods of D.R.C.A.: Ch 1\11• 8000. In general,. battle commander to retain control beyond COll1n-. Yards; fire commander to 6000; under 6000 battery <uander's ac t.IOn f or major caliber guns: F '2. 3 target In general, battle commanders to assign separate 4 s to.,.fire commanders: F 3. r: • I.lre commander to retain control: F4• in ,,\l. Battle commander to retain control except possibly rGun.by" or where more than one target is assigned: F •• appr' I3y assigning each fire command a sector or area of ucsi oac~, unless otherwise directed at time of action. By aeti~natlDg range zones, for example: battle commander's unde n beyond 8000; fire commander's action 8000 to 4000; r 4000 battery commander's action: F7•
VII. PROPEH SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF FIRE C01\I:\IAND

;. I~?ur batteries of same caliber: CI• Pro.... I'lre commands should be large enough to insure C ll1ptly putting target out of action when fire is concentrated:
2.

sam 3. Two to four batteries grouped geographically covering e or c~ntigu?us area. Two mortar pits: F2.. p 4. r'our pIts of four mortars each; each pIt a battery:
a.

and 5. .T.wo or three batteries of two guns, all same caliber ~ovenng same area: 1\11• eov : Two to six batteries of same caliber and same type enng same area. . 1<7 4. hall '. Two to four mortar pits; two to three major caliber Pro ?rI?S; three to four intermediate or rapid-fire batteries, Ximity of location to govern: l\h. ~.Two to four batteries of same caliber. hatt ~'. No~ to exceed three batteries, ~ajor c~liber. four au. enes, mmor caliber, or four mortar pIts covenng same or Jacent areas; batteries to be able to support each other. and

8,1

as now existing would place major and minor calibers or gunS and mortars in same fire command: 1"7.
VIII. DESIRABILITY OF MIXING FIRE COMMAND
>

CALIBERS

IN

SAME

Undesirable: Undesirable, :\11, Fr., 1"7.
IX.

C1, C2, F2 1"4, 1\12• but necessary with existing armament:
TACTICAL USE OF FIRE COMMANDS

Fa,

1. Depends on the situation. Explanation of use during exercises under various situations given: Ct. 2. Attack fleet or a general subdivisi,on of fleet on both flanks in order to break up maneuvering power. Concentrate sufficient fire on one vessel to put it out of action. In" run" by," concentrate on leading ship; if double cotumn, on both leading ships; when" run-by". is well under way destroy any transports present. If enemy employs smoke screen, attack leading vessel making screen; at night, give rapid-fire batterY fire commander control of lights, with instructions to concen" trate on head of screen: C2• 3. Concentrate batteries of fire command on leading ship: :\11• 4. Attack one vessel at a time, usually nearest one: F4' 5. "Use" may mean either" purpose" or "employment." Employment (tactical). 1. Publish local areas, sections or channels. 2. Fire commands have a defini te purpose in schcme of dcfcnsc, and when hostile intent devclops, assign fire commands to targets so as to give each its proper function: 1"7.
X. TACTICAL STAFF REQUIHED AND THEIH DUTIES

1. As provided in C.A.D.R.: Ch 1\11, 1"4, Fa. 2. Scarchlight officcr, communication ofIicer, dulics. A local ordnance and engineer ofIiccr necded; also ofl1ccr for othcr supplies: C2• 3. Communication officer; 1 e1cctrician scrgeant; man" ning tablc given: 1"2, 1"3, 1"7. 4. For mine commands: 1 assistant and communication officcr: l\I2, I\I3• 5. A communication ofIicer, battle command to have in addition a scarchlight officer: Fr..

85
XI. ESTIl\IATING THE SITUATION

open~' Commanders should "estimate the situation" before to rn~ng fire: Ch Mh 1'" F •. (Note: Understood by several an conclusions drawn from exercises.) .
. XII • EMPLOYMENT
r

OF GENERAL

DEFE'NSE

PLANS

(SEE

PAR.

567

D.R.C.A.)

destrl. .Yes: used after breakdown of communications or l. ~ctIon of .battle command station: C Unre Prac!Jcable in narrow channcls, ctc. Where arca is corn~ ncted only gcneral instructions as to use of lire and mine 3 ands c~n be uscd. Cl, Fa' F6. . 0PP\, • b Desirable in narrow channels or rcstricted arcas; not Or pIca Ie L. I. Local battle tactics give all that is desirable racticable' . F 2. F 7. 4 r:' Not neccssary in an cfficient battle command: 1,"3' . Soun~ Practically impossiblc for eastern cntrance of L. I. plan . Are of some value in harbors where simple defense corn~ meet all requirements, but in general better for battle . Ganders to mcet th~ situations as they arise: 1\11• Orde '. Does not favor general defense plans; belicvcs tactical tirners fShould be based on all information obtainable up to 7o their issue' . F.4. or L Approves form of general defense plan used in C.D . . . Sound: 1\12, 8. Not desirable: 1\13.

i.

i

XI II.

SEARCHLIGHTS:

NUMBER,

SIZE,

AND LOCATION

olon 1. !wo on each flank of any group of fire comm'lDds Os P~ a.smgle front. protected in daytime and screencd as much 2sSlblc. the larger the bellcr: C.. ' light '. One for each fire and mine command and two roving \\'at S In addition, GO", near shore and not over 50 feet above Add~r: should be below batteries and fire-control stations. I~lonal light needed for Fishers Island Sound: F •. bCll '. Install self-contained position-finders so as to allow rno ~
usc of lights and interior lights, cach fire and mine comn 4 to have a serarate light; all lights 60": . Fa. ro · Nnmber. size and location is a local problcm; in gencral v bot~[S one for cach fire and mine command to be used under ; commander till assign cd to illuminate target: :\11, OJ. Fort 1\1ichie should have four GO" lights, 1\VO at

86

weste~n end and other two probably near F'4; substitute self" contamed base instruments for vertical position finders: F4. 6. Two 60" lights for each fire and mine command 011, flanks of batteries and from 40 to 100 feet high: Fo• it 7. Number so that a 60" light can be assigned to each fire and mine command when target is designated and have one left for battle command: F7• . 8. Provide reserve lights: Fo, 1\13• 9. A light at Pine Point: 1\13•
XIV. PERSONNEL REQUIRED FOil

1. As prescribed D.R.C.A.: Cl. 2. Light and second relief required: C2• 3. As given in, D.R.C.A., for fixed and roving lights; also 1 electrician sergeant for every two lights: F2• 4. Two reliefs needed: F2, F'3. 5. Three reliefs of three men each (not counting watches and power details): F4, 1\12• G. One operator, one assistant, one telephone operator, two watchers, watchers to relieve each other, also 1 controller opera tor: Ii\. 7. man:). As given for fixed light D.n.C.A.
1 electrician

Two reliefs needed:l fire com-

sergeant

(assigned to nearest

I.'.

1 fireman, C. A. C., if separate plant. 3 privates, C. A. C., light tenders. 2 N.C.O's, controller operators. F7• 9. 1 operator. 1 a5s't, 1 controller, 1 ass't, 2 watchers, 2 telephone operators, 2 reliefs: 1\13•

.

xv.

LOCATION,

TRAINING

AND

EQUIPMENT

OF WATCHERS

1. \Vithin megaphone distance to right or left each light, equipped with good field glasses and megaphone. watchersl " . to have good vision. fair intelligence and have constant driI1: , Ct. .

2. Some distance from ligh t with powerful telescope: C;.l 3. Adjacent to stations where electric can troller IS '~ installed; observation telescope or good field glasses, trained ~ to identify various types of vessels and know features of warJ Ships~.

r~~ experiment

where they can best observe the field.

I

87 an oriented glass and trained in identifying r:ocatmg targets: F4• . . pro~' From 200 to 300 yards .from light. megaphone and Yesp~r glasses. trained to distinguish dilTerent classes of war F•. se s and to direct movement of light to cover targets: G Work', At controller. comfortahle seilt and glasses trained to hea m steady and deliberate manner searching all parts of
11l:
XVI.

Cqui jPed . ,with . and

F7•

.'

TACTICAL' DESIGNATION,

ASSIGNMENT

AND CONTROL OF

but 1. Ily number and location; no permanent assig~ment. l1la ~ble to turn control of certain lights to fire and mine comnuers. . C 1. 2 Il . Ily both nnmbers and locations. for example:. East e eo~m. Center Ileam. Plum Gut Beam. controlled from ballle ~and station: C2• to fi . Ily geographical locations and number, to be assigned and mine commands as illuminating lights only: F" wI " By numbers. assigned to fire and mine commands; milen Illuminating target. to be entirely controlled by fire or nc commander: F .... wI 5. By locality. ;ssigned to fire and mine commands and fir~en used as illuminating light to be under control of mine or c?mmander: 1\1t• . . div'?' No rigid rule: for general system. location; each subeo~slOn. numbers; lights at any fort to be assigned to ~aclieal to a manders of that fort; when illuminating target assigned " ' fire command. control to be turned over to that command:

Ir;

4.

to I 7. Groups to be by geographic location. lights in groups to I,e numbered-lights to be assigned to designated areas amI JC controlled by batt!r, fire or mine command nearest thal a rea: 1\12• a l' 8, Name and number. as "center light." when one is in ne, Ion. or "center light 4." when both; assigned to fire and eline commands; controlled from fire commander's station. but rOntrol to remain with ballle commander until turned over to . . Ire commander: Fo• ~ a d n. By numbers and name of I~cation. assigne,l to sectors en service of fire eommaods. control to remain with ballle eommander until target is assigned. when it passes to fire Oll1mander: F7• 10. By locality, not permanently assigned.. Control by

88
battle commander; action": 1\1a•
XVII.

turn ovrr control at "Inine commander's
OF SEARCHLIGHT OFFICEHS

DUTIES

1. As prescribed D.R.C.A.: CI, C2, F2, F4, F6, F7• 2. Searchlight officer not considered necessary: 1\12,
XVIII. SHOULD SEARCHLIGHTS FIRE AND MINE BE PEHMANENTLY COMMANDERS?
,

ASSIGNED

TO

i

1. No permanent assignment: C1• 2. 1\line commands, in general, yes, but lights should be so arranged tha t they can be given to fire and mine commanders or control assumed by bat tie commander: C2• 3.' Yes, but control should be retained by battle com.l mand er ~~etsi~ SI~da ; illuminating light: 1\1,. 1'" F •• 1'" 1'1. u 4 I6. • ~ • • 3. 5. 1\line commands, yes: 1\12• 6. No: 1\1,.
XIX. EFFICIENCY OF ELECTRICAL AND HAND CONTROL

~ ~

i.~@ •."

;i.

1

' • ~

'i'

;
:

I

I

1. Electrical control more efficient but hand control necessary for emergencies: Cl, F2, F4, F6, F7, 1\12• 2. Both were efficient; electric preferable: C2• 3. Improvements needed 'in electric control: F2, F7• 4. Criticism of lights at 1\lichie in this connection: Mz.

xx.

EFFICIENT

RANGE

UNDER

VARYING

ATMOSPHERIC

CONDITIONS

1. 2000 to 8000 yards with GO" light: C1• 2. Clear night, no haze, 9000 to 10,000 yards; slight haze and moonlight or haze and dawn, 5000 yards; lights are inefficient against smoke screen or in fog: C2• 3. Very dry, 10,000 yards; usual conditions, GOOO yards; slight haze, 3000 yards; in fog and smoke, worthless: F2• 4. GOOO yards ordinarily; reduced in proportion to fog, rain or smoke: 1\11,1\12, 5. 0 to 9000 yards: F". G. Up to 9GOOproved eflicient: F6• 7. 3000 to 10,000 yards: F6•
XXI. SHOULD SEARCHLIGHTS BE SUPPLIED WITH AZIMUTH CIRCLES?

1.

Yes:

Cl, C2, F2, Fa, 1\11,F., 1\12, F~, F6, 1\13•

I

,~

89 aZirn~t ~t ~ould be a questionable expense; controller . h IndIcator; for hand control it would be valuable:
ADDITIONAL XXII. BEST FOR 1\lINE LOCATION COMMANDERS OF MINE FIELDS

has

FT.

,Loca~: In general, manual of submarine mining satisfactory. not f Ion of mines is a local problem: by actual soundings and. frOmr0',Il charts: local authorities should locate mine field and and ttJ~e to tiine plant mines in dilTerent scctions of it, irnat~ d~lTerent locations. to dctermine right one. The approxCl<.p . tnne needed would also become apparent. From . appenenee of exercises the idea that harbors can be closed with r~ved project in 48 hours is very incorrect: 1\1,. app . To be determined by local authorities subject to not ro~al of higher authority. Field prcscribed for excrciscs ~Ultable for 1\lichie: 1\12• . Recommends best field for Terry: 1'13•
XXIII. EFFICIENCY OF MATERIEL

layeJ' Most exccllent and red contact firing should '- alTeU~~dby darkness. fog. c lllg gun defense: 1\11• 2. Good. . 1\11. 3 . 0Perat' Efficient, but lack Ions failed to give test
XXIV. NECESSITY

reliable. Contact firing and debe the rule. ElTectiveness not rain. smoke or other conditions

of success of navy of such operations.
FOR CASEMATE

in dragging

OFFICER

1.. Not necessary: 1\Ih 1\122. It is thought there should be one:
XXV. TACTICS OF SUBMARINE MINE

1\13•
DEFENSE

batllWh~n the field can be seen. mines should be used against Or Ii eshlps and armored cruisers. and not against d~st~o~ers Po ?ht craft: but when owing to fog. smoke. etc .• It IS 1msh sSllble to know what class of vessel strikes, then mines ltJioUd be used when struck. For destroyers, ctc .• guns of bane .defense should be 6" and have self-contained horizontal ow~eInstruments. Compares efficiency of 1\larcy and Dullon lng to range-finder and long horizontal base: I'll.
XXVI. COOPERATION BET\"EEN MINE AND FIRE co~nIANDS

1.

There should be cooperation

between

all the units.

90
l\Iine commands will seldom need assistance of fire commands in protecting mine field, but mine commands can often assist. in destruction of targets assigned to fire commands by attack. ing superstructure: 1\11• 2. Nothing in common outside mutual assistance undcr specific conditions. Fire commands may sometimes assist in driving oIT raiding vessels: 1\12•
XXVII. POSSIBILITY OF REPAIHING DAMAGED MINE FIELD
I

1. Exceedingly doubtful; may be possible to plant neW group in rear of gap closer to defenses: 1\11• 2. Perfectly possible and practicable during times of inactivity of enemy: I{12• . 3. Not damaged by Black fleet and possibility of rc. pairing not tested: 1V13•
XXVIII. EFFECT ON MINE FIELDS OF ANY OPEHATIONS BY BLACK FORCES

1. Black fleet tried every operation, except counLer. mining, against mine field without success. Nothing is to he feared from grappling, dragging or s\veeping, and believe countermining may be included. On one occasion a destroyer picked up a buoy attached to junction box on mulLiple cable about 1800 yards out and after 40 minutes no damage was done. The buoy would not have been there in war con. ditions and the destroyer would have been sunk. It indicates destroyers and vessels of that class can do little with cableS even if they succeed in finding them. During day run-by, each ship passed these outer and inner lines of mines; five were put out, hut in war more could have been, as rear ships would have had to turn out to avoid disabled ships. On account of smoke no track could be made at night run-by: 1\11• 2. No eITect. \Vhen junction boxes were located, enemy appeared unable to raise box or cable. Submarines ineffecl. ive: 1\12• 2. No eITect: 1\13•
COl\nfENTS I. SUl\nfAHY FHOM OnSEHVEHS FROM HEPOHT DEFENSE OF MAJOH OF

OF CONCLUSIONS SUBMARINE

w.
1.

P. PENCE,

C. A. C•. SP~':CIAL OBSERVER

Submarine

defense of Coast Defenses of Long Island

91

~~U~d is .most important, most extensive, and most difficult but stlan.llc Coast. Standard service apparatus impracticable, peclal apparatus not yet furnished . .Ca 2, Stalcs facts and conditions of work for these exercises, ncuses of delays and progress made--concIudes that no unlet~~~sary. time was rcquircd to plant the mines dirccted in . of Instructions from the Department Commander. quO .l. Estimal~s roughly U hours per group will be refie!~Cd. undcr avcrage conditions for laying an entire mine wIth the best equipment. m' 4. Efficiency of'smoke scrcen in covering operation on LIne fields and run-by at night eiTccts location of mine field. g~~~.nece~sary to be .under point bl~nk fire of major ~aliber f tI' adVIsable to w,thdraw outer hne from beyond 3,,00 to s ur ler within entrance,. for protection against destroyers and ub marines. b t 5. Mushroom anchors salisfactory at l\lichie and Tcrry d~ . not at Wright; other parts of field probably dcmand ~
c.rent malerial. Cascmale satisfactory-whelher autog allc swilchcs would drop on discharge of major caliber nuns wilh actual tcsl. Duplicatc balleries and 5 kw. scts leeded for all casemales having marc than 10 operating !anels. n G. A casemate olJicc~ should be providcd, though not ccessarily to be continually in casemate. mi 7. Points out that no explanation was given for planting It jes not Icss than 18 nor more. than 25 fc~t submergcnce. I s necessary to use contact firm" when nllnc field cannot )e seen, oll~e;wise delayed automatic firing is preferahle. . olh 8.. "Mine Commander's Action" to be underslood, unlcss l' erwlse ordcred, secms practicable arrangcment. Coopcra IOn of mine and fire commands was regulated by battle commander. . 'n. In face of active enemy, not practicable to repair more advanced line of mines or underrun muILiple cable and replace individual mines that become unserviceable. lO. The operations of the Black flect had no eITect what~ver on the mine fields. The submarine defense has little to er~r.from naval swccping or dragging opcrations. 1'<ot surP ISIng that Navy had difficuILy in finding mines. as numher actually planted was small compared to area of field.

H2
II. CO~nIENTS OF OBSERVEHS AT BATTEHIES UNDER NOT BROUGHT

OUT BY STATEMENTS

1 AND 2

1. Telephone transmitters pack if hook is up over an hour. Other reasons stated for mine commander having means other than telephone to call men to batteries. Recom. mends restoring interrupter in TI system, with keys for bat. teries in l\line Commander's station. . 2. Coast Artillery \Var Game means of identifying target best advanced, but difficulties in following it indicate training of observers to recognize individual ships. Ob. servers should use type commands. 3. All 6" and 3" guns of mine command should have self-contained .horizontal base range-finders. 4. l\line commander needs an ~xperienced assistant but no other tactical stafT. 5. Efficient range of searchlights less than generally accepted. 6. EfIect of current on submergence anel material will he deciding factor in locating mine field in The Race .. l\1entions possibilities of new explosive. 7. Notes defective cords and transmitter trouble. 8. Casemate officer not necessary. O. Believe if a destroyer strikes a mine it should be hlown up.
III. OBSEHVER AT BUTTERFIELD,

12"

B.L.H.

10. In conserving ammunition excellent targets were not fired on. (Aug. 4) Ammunition insufficient. . 11.. Battery out of action at critical time owing to change of orders or awaiting orders of fire commander. 12. Time-range hoard of no value when targets are fre. quently changed and few shots fired. Too complicated for use in "run-by."
IV. OTIIEH OBSEHVEHS

13. Use of several portable searchlights at each post t? prevent Navy depending on searchlights for navigating, lighthouses being out of action. 14. 15. Destroyers can slip through The Race and submarines m~y maneuver with' comparative safety even in day, if sub. merged. . . 10. l\lines will ofIset advantage to Navy in foggy weather and wide, deep entrance.

93

v.

OBSERVERS

AFLOAT

Battleships nbl 1. Report of the observer on U. S. S. Arkansas is valuinge f~r notes apparently made at time of exercise on folIo\\'POInts: Ho (a) .Indefinite character of target presented b~ forLifieans tow and dependence. of ship on flag poles, radIO masts, aim ~rs an? buildings and similar permanent features for ta mg. pomts; even then, doubts if gun pointers were on rget Intended. and (b) Indefinite and inaccurate character of naval fire Co am.ount of ammunition expended; estirr.ates that on InPletlOn of lCth exercise ship had expended 450 rounds pe r gUn. ev (c? The difficulty of accurately locating batteries and to en lIghts and the interference with ship's fire of attempts Confuse shore plotters. be (d) A mine planter observed in mine field could have en destroYed Cc t (e) S~archlights do not interfere with navigation at all, exP "hen IT ovir.g head-en to the light, and then not seriously. 7000 (f) Sear~hlight passed over ship several times at about yards WIthout picking it up. op (g) Noted that under certain conditions vessels could crate in mine field; did not get report of resultS. Jigl (h) Destroyers, by. smoke screen and active attack of lts, can draw them from observation of battleships. 2. Other comments from observers on battleships are:.(a) Batteries, stations, and lights should be better concealed. Sub (b). Hun-by is feasible, unless it can be prevented by It'anne defense. to .(c) Shore lights, on whole, efficient; but beam appeared Sc several as spread too much and traversed too rapidly in arching. tl (d) Shore lights when inefTective should be occulted, as a~J ~ur~ish useful aids to navigation, in such circurrstances, of d aImmg points. They should not be near other elements dense. .

1.

Destroyers The report of the observer on U. S. S. Dixie, explains

91
method of sweeping and quotes naval OpInIOn on certain features. The attached comments of Lt. Comdr. Pratt on the Coast Defense problem of I.,ong Island Sound are valuable as being from a naval viewpoint. 2. The following statement seems to have had concurrence of flotilla commander and other naval officers: "\\'ithout mines in ~fTective operation, The Hace could be forced in rain or fog, or using a smoke screen. lIenee the first attempt of an enemy would be to remove the mines by sweeping or creeping. A preliminary to this is the destruction of the searchlights on both sides of 'rhe Haec, and, in my opinion, two destroyers are well sacrificed if they can put out The Hace Point lights before they are destroyed." 3. Additional lights and defensive works are suggested. 4. Srr.all torpedoboats and submarines under the control of the coast defense commander arc indicated by use of smoke screen, and possible check for destroyers would be large number of light surface mines. 5. Quotes and enlarges suggestion of Commander Sims as to securing cooperation of navy. G. Technique of searchlight control faulty; believes searching lights traversed too fast. . 7. Destroyers can engage in sweeping operations. l\:leans now used show inconclusive results. 8. Rapid fire batteries for protection of ligh ts; more lights, more in reserve, and protection for all are indicated. u. Suggest "dark" searching and pyrotechnic bombs to supplement searchlights. Submarines 1. 1\0 difficulty in coming in close, day or night,. and making observations. 2. Operation against mine fields unsllccessful. 3. 1\oted too great spread of beam of searchlights and rapid traversing. 4. Some means must be provided against submarines; suggests shrapnel and smoke projectiles. ~~
5. Inefficiency of submarines against cables of mine fields due to inexperience of navy and lack of proper equip" ment for purpose. Both can be overcome. 6. Submarines should be provided as an adjunct to coast defense.

95 J.1liscellaneous froml.th Observations by naval observcr, made of the attack Great Ge rear on the searchlight positions, Fishers Island, these u.n. and Plum Island, lead to the conclusions that pres;nf.0sItIOns are somewhat vulnerable from the rear at \ViII2 On a misty night or under cover of much smoke, it type atmost always ,be possible for light vessels of the destroyer o run The Race. posit~~ Once on thc eastern side, such light craft hold a . light Ion of great vantage. Their ability to attack searchthe ~ ~un, and range-finding positions from the rear, afTords bO Uln attack from the front a most useful ally, either in ml It also tends to crcal)ardn:ent or sweeping operations. of tl C decIded diversion of interest and confusion on the part lOse thus attacked. . to Ii 4: The answer to the above attack would logically seem cr; n a bettcr rear protection to the above forts. I homt. The counter to sweeping operations, under cover of nUmJardment or smoke, may, for the army, lie in the use of ~rous small craft of the submarine type. block. Th~ answer to the successful establishment of rear small ~de wIll~ for the army, lie in the presence of numerous 7 ~ubmarmes under their control. uuri . The ans\ver to the successful running of The Hace arll1nf .fog or under smoke cover, will, I think, lie (for the eap ~ I In nu~erous small surface craft of very high speed OUS J e of laymg floating mines and in thr presence of numera Small submarines under their control. . l'he 8. The searchlight question is not entirelY satisfactory. l'h Y can he attacked and put out of action. If this be donr, oPcc 1 ~ace, the mine fields, and all forms of gun attack arc thisn to the enemy. The army can make but futile reply to

i

bomt. It is advocated that a system of firing pyrotrchnic b )8 from mortars to illuminate the target space desired c sea CXP?rimented with. This, in conjunction with an dIicient ati rchhght installation, would much increase the illuminnlgO system at present installed. conlr. The pr?sen~ loc?tion of forts at The Hace .do D?l slr 01 the mam SItuatIOn. Even were they SufficIent In cngth to control The Race, a hostile fleet and army would

96
hardly choose such an operation, when the entire end of Long Island, Fort Pond, and Napeague Bay are unprotected. 11. l\foreover, Plum Island is vulnerable from attack bY siege guns from the Long Island side. Were the end ~f Long Island amply protected by suitable fortifications, It would force an enemy to choose an island base furth~r to the eastward. Of such eastern island bases the Nantucket .. l\fartha's Bay region is the only available one left.

IX REPORT OF THE BOARD 'OF ENGINEERS

AUGUST

15, 1913

Prom. To:.

Tlle ~enior l\lember, The Board of Engineers. '. Sui' The ChICf of Engineers, U. S. Army. Jjcet: Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises, 1913.

D 1. By permission of the Commanding General, Eastern d erartment. and under orders of the Chief of Engineers Ila cd August 1. H113 (E.D.530721/48). two members of the Coard of Engineers. with its Becorder. Captain F. A. Pope. s For~s of Engineers. and 1st Lieut. E. D. Ardery. Corr of r~ngm~ers. proceeded on August 3rd to Fort II. G. Wright, ot~rtmg on arrival to General Thomas II. Barry. in command PI' 1e maneuvers. Under date of August 4th the laller supin'~d ~ach member of the Board with a copy of a leller informco~ lum ',' that he will give instruetions to the coast defense E ~anders to authorize the members of your Board and such otgmeer officers as may be temporarily all ached thereto to e~serve the work of the various varieties of engineer equipment. va~~tru~tion. etc. He also desircs a brief rcport of your obser1'1 Ion III conncction with his report on the exercises." P lroughout the' week the Board was alTorded by all officers \::~~t at the maneuvers every courtesy and facilty to do its l'
2. Captain Pope was permanently stationed at Fort ferry and Lieu!. Ardery at Fort II. G. Wright. with orders :,om .t he Board to learn all that was possible concern ing the Slcrkl~g of the various features of engineer equipment. con\Vrl~c~lUn.etc .• during the exercises. Their reports arc heret II mdosed. It was impossible for all members of the Board l~ 'e present during the entire exercises; two members of the a o~rd were present on Monday. Tuesday. and Wednesday, (11( one member of the Board covered Thursday and Friday.
SEARCHLIGHTS

n. ~. As viewed by the Board. the most prominent feature ~.edmg immediate attention is the protection and conccal. ~ent of the searchlights. At all the forts the searchlights ere unduly prominent objects during the day time; in some
(97)

98
cases because they were not moved back into concealed posi.. tion~, although such had been provided. " .4. At l\Iount Prospect, Fort II. G. \Vright, it is entirelY PossIble, at small "expense, to provide tracks from the sites of the present searchlight shelters, where the lights should operate during the night, to points hidden by the hill where they wiII be invisible and reasonably safe during daylight hours. At these points suitable searchlight shellers should be built. The present shelters should be removed. 5. At the western end of Fishers Island the present lights are extraordinarily prominent. At this end of the island are ridges running approximately east and west, affording sheller to a height of perhaps 10 to 15 feet. It is recommended that both these lights be mounted on cars, and that a track be constructed so that they may be shifted for night operation to any point within 500 feet from their present location, and that the track be continued by a switchback, or otherwise, as may prove most convenient for construction and operation, so that they will occupy during the daytime the hidden site above described. Shelters should be built there, and low places in the ridges raised, if necessary. G. At Fort l\lichie it will be necessary, probably; to Ir.ount one of the searchlights upon q depressing tower, rr.ovable on a tramway to some point of invisibility and secur" ity, and the other one on a car as at Fort \Vright, so that it also can be withdrawn in the daytime. The mine light will require similar treatment. .The details of these arrangements should be worked up by the District Officer. . 7. At Fort Terry similar arrangements have alreadY been made in some cases. 8. ,The advantage of having searchlights operated in pairs so that either one can without delay replace the other, waS I strongly brought out at the maneuvers where this arrangement was in force. Conversation with the Coast Defense Com" mander brocght out the important fact that while such use of lights in pairs is most advisable, actual experience proved that it is impossible in thick weather to use one of the lights to reinforce the other in illuminating and finding the target. If one searchlight picks up a target it is very easy to put the other searchlight on it for an instant, bu t after that is is im.. possible to tell which light is getting ofT the target and the confusion resulting from trying to keep both lights on the same target frequently results in losing the target aILogether.

B9

p oje9't The q~estion of having the base of the searchlight r \Vas or graduated so that it can be put on a specified. azimuth lery. I~ussed. the idea being generally favored by the ArtilCOntr lit the present time the bases arc graduated and the the a0, ers of the latest pattern are marked in such a way that vidin zlInuth of the light can be read frdm the controller, proSo fa g the base is properly set so that they operate in unison. men/ a~s \vas observ.ed, no advantage was taken of this arrangeull Artill the maneuvers. l,ut such use was deemed desirable by View f cry officers with whom the matter was discussed. In expo 0 the fragile character of the searchlight and its necessary ' each sure W 1 'Ie In operation, it appears to the Board that for 11 and suc,h pair of lights a reserve projector should be issued Whichn:amtained in a thoroughly protected position, from netiv ;~ can be moved quickly to replace either of the pair of proofe Ights. The power plants should be installed in bombthe s. ,The 25 kw. gasoline actuated sets as now issued to that erVIce run with so little interruption from breakdowns lloar~ r~ser:,e power plant is not regarded as necessary by the ut IS,regarded as a desirable precaution. inVit d. While on this general question. attention is especially Port e IV ~o ~he greatly exposed position of all power plants at hoslil IIchle. Proper protection against projectiles from a 1~fleet should be provided as soon as funds permit. little . In, general, the searchlights as located operated with man ConfUSIOn and interference of beams during the entire in a euvers, but on Tuesday evening a shower brought out 1l10itron.ounced way the great loss of lighting power due to On that occasion it was exceed-. inglsure III the atmosphere. dest hard to pick up and keep the lights on torpedoboat lion r?crs at distances well inside of 4000 yards. An addia lIght to cover Fishers Island Sound is needed. .

J'

s

10

FIRE

CONTROL

the 112. In order to learn what advance had been made since

On I~?st maneuvers in th.e concealment of range-finder stations
~v 'Isl leI'S Island, members of the Board went well out to ~ea. lacC~ at Mount Prospect. where special effort was made to so Sk; I~and build the stations as to avoid exposure against tl~e \Va Ine and to place them against suitable backgrounds, It rnp~ easy to detect their locati~ns at long range. As recently '"' b !In ort c,1 by a member of the Board.~
regarding Portland r or, the existence of the straight line of the \slot attracts

100 the. ey'e even from a great distance. Straight lines d?

no~

OCcur In nature. The slot shows as a straight narrow lme 0 light, when the sky is the background, but, with a dark back~, ground, as a still darker black line; the upper edge of the roof, if corr.ing against the sky, even as a slight break in the natural horizon line, at once catches the eye. These troubles could perhars be remedied by hanging a curtain of burlap or of somc . such rr.aterial of a suitable color from the eaves of the roofs, ~ temporarily raising such portion as obscures the view through the instrurr.ents. The straight top line of the roof could bC broken up by placing bushes, brush, or similar material to harrr.onize with the background and break up the straight outline. 13. At Fort l\1ichie the fire control stations are about the rrest visible objects on the island; something should be done at once to replace them, as they would be untenable in war. 14. At I.'ort Terry some of the range-finder stations arc unduly visible, although they have been located with care. They can be rr.ade much less prominent objects by the methodS suggested in connection with l\lount Prospect and other Fort II. G. "'right stations. Invisibility protects not only against prejectiles, but also renders it more difficull for hostile ~earch" lights to be used efTectively to dazzle the observers. 15. l\lount Prospect must be occupied for observation purrcses. That it would be so occupied is evident to any apprcaching fleet. The navy frequenlly bombarded the£C staticns, soJaI' as could be determined by looking through the obsen.ing telescopes at the pointing of the guns in the naVY turrets. This is evidently what would have been done by a real enemy. I G. The guns in a rr.ortar battery cannot be pu t out of actien by direct fire on the baltery, but the battery is silenced if its pcsition-finding stations arc disabled. Such batterieS should, in all cascs, have a nurrber of alLernative position" finding stations which could be used if the main stations of tI~e battery were destroyed. Such alternative stations should, It is believed, eer.sist simply of a concrete riel' for the instrument, with necessary teler-hene connections, so as to be absolutelY invisible from the ocean. The ccst would be slight and with the new universal plotting boards [ecently issued by the Ord" nance Derartrrent, the chance' of silencing the fire of the !rortars would be greatly decreased. A multiplicity of mort~r observing stations would not now involve impossible comph"

f

101

cations' as to th In the plotting

room, if the Board is correctly informed
character of the new plottiog boards, with the operation of the fire-control

17. e ;eally universal
sYstel1l tl n connection

obs { le Board of Engineers was very much interested in erv at the Gn~ the Barr and Stroud instruments which were installed seeing )-Incl~ ~aUeries, \Vith a good light. and under favorable \Vas ob :ondItIons these instruments were admirable, but it
POorly ~~rve~l that at night there were many occasions when e)'e, an~ UUl,mated targets could be detected with the naked ~I~es 'Wllh the regular azimuth instruments, and someIt \Vas 'I I the direct eye-piece of the Barr and Stroud, when pose it a b solutely impossible to get the range, for which pur-

",'u

not \Vas necessary to see throuC1h the prisms. \\'hiIe this . bearin an engineering question pr~per, it has a very direct sheltcr~ on t,he engineering problem of providing suit~b!e ~hat a' Il IS understood that it is now thought pOSSIble
lS
J

InslrU/llself-contained

short

horizontal

base

Barr

and Stroud

being ent may be adopted for use at long ranges, the base SOIneth' . sUch s'. mg between 2-1 and 30 feet. An lllstrl1ment 0 f giVe Uize would necessarily have a tube of great diameter to ?hject necessary stiffness; this would make it possible to use 1Iltl in c~ses of greater diameter with correspondingly better thel11 allon of the image after the rays have passed through ne nnd ofe~ssar~ pr,isms. \Vith an instrument of this character,

If

eOlnes d' he SIZe mdicated as possible, the form of shelter bevertic llm~ult. If there be any roof, it must have considerable 3:e ne~d tluckncss !n order to sland up ~vith great spans which VIsible t~d for a wIde field of fire. A thIck roof would be more

thin alan, the present fire-control roofs, which arc made as '"Iuite~t,ossIble, and even with the present thickness they arc 18 sIble at a distance. such a TI~e Board is inclined to be of the opiniou that if

i

froln tl ~rge mstrument is to be installed, it should be protected !JOXlike neves and from the weather by some form of hinged

Instrl structure which would lie flat on the ground when the Uncut' IS III use, the sides and ends forming a platform , on \VI' OC('uJ ,lIch the observers would stand. In view of the area 1 . ,'t Sites Hed Ly sue I1 an oLservin statIOn certam can rac t.eu . b' Insumno ,w occupied as range-finder stations would become they 1~lent, and it is importa~t for the Board to know whether cO sl10uld inaugurate a general study of such type of firent ro sheller. I n. The Board would very greatly, appreciate all the
C1

102
information that can be given it by the Artillery as to the efTective seeing through the present 9-foot base Barr and Stroud instrument.
NEW ARMAMENT

20. The accidental breaking down during the maneuvers of the communication between Forts Terry and vVright impresS" ed the Board with the desirability of supplying suitable hattle con:n:anding stations for each fort bearing on The Race, and likewise with the need of emplacing sufficient armament on both sides of The Race to make it possible to hold the latter from one side, if the batteries on the other side were silenced. This case came up one night when the destroyers were sa employed as to throw a Screen of smoke to conceal the battIC" ships from the battle commander at Fort II. G. vVright. It would be impossible to make such a screen effective hoth between the fleet and Fort II. G. \Vright and the fleet and Fort Terry. On the occasion in question, however, the fleet covered l\lichie and Terry with all its searchlights, with very serious efTect on the gunpointers and range observers, who were SO dazzled that they could hardly point the guns or get even apprcximate ranges. The cost of new batLIe commandcr stations would be nominal as compared with the advantage obtained so far as fire control is concerned, but the cost of ' additional armament would run into considerable sums. Recent improvements in mortars, by which their efTective range has now become 17,GOO yards, makes it desirable to provide su~h mortar batteries for the defense of our most important cities, New York and Brooklyn. 21. Existing armament should not he displaced, except perhaps in the case of Fort l\Iichie. New mortar batteries for new mortars should be buill, leaving existing batteries to serve as well as they can. At Fort l\1ichie a considerable change in existing armament is desirable. The area is exceed" ingly small, its position close to The Hace makes it, in th.C opinion of many Artillery officers and of the Board of Engl" neers, one of the key-points of the defense. There is little doubt that the emplacement here of the heaviest seacoast guns in turrets is desirable, were it not for the very great cost, but with a limited supply of money it is thought that The Race can be refused more efTectively to an attacking fleet by the installalion elsewhere of new mortars as suggested above. . . 22. An additional reason for an increase of armament IS

I

103 of forbJ.dd.109 loan enemy lalte use of Gardiners Bay and of Fort Pond Bay. This frornr ~lay ,afIords a d~e~ and. sheltered har?or 118 miles city ru e,,: york. From It IS a highway and raIlroad to that sceond n~mg along the south shore of Long Island, with a tran highway and railway along the north shore. and with leng~~erse connecting roads and railroads. In the entire adva of Long Island there is no physical obstacle to retard an Capt nee along these lines. which, if utilized. would permit thc ficat~Ire of New York without any interference from the fortiJons. on G~l; . Four of the new type mortars at eastern Plain Poi~t, nay dmers Island, would reach all the waters of Gardiners \Vat' all the eastern part of Long Island, and would cover the rnor~rs nearly ou t to Fort H. G. Wright. By pUlling eight the ~rs of the new type at Fort Terry, these mortars, with dest eIght already there of the older type, could instantly Unt;oy th; advanced post in case the laller wcre captured. \Vou:dthe hastern Plain Point mortars were captured the enemy mort be refused the use of Fort pond Bay. Eight additional easte~rs at Fort II. G. Wright. with observing stations at thc Pisl n end of the island, would cover that entrance and all of pre ~ers Island Sound. Such a ballery should be added to thc the s~nt defenses. Some light guns to protect mine fields in Art'llntrance to Fishers Island Sound are also needed. The beill cry gr~atly object to the retention of Fort Mansfield, as pr ;g peculIarly likely to be' taken by land allack. They D~~r ~uns on Fishers Island at its eastern end, or at t1w easte~hngs. There must be guns somewhere to cover the end or" ,~ntrance. Arart from the cost of a site. the eastern I, Jshers Island is to be preferred. .
EXISTING BATTERIES

in the advi'"a b.l.t y, If not necessity, the . II .

. is II ')1 -'. A POInt which was well illustrated at the maneuvers er le d.fT'Iculty of having both shot and shell in reach of gun I ar~\Vs at any moment. Under ordinary battle tactics there 'pi t~1number of projectiles ready for the guns on the loading ta~l orm, some coming up on the hoists. some on the receh'ing ra es, and some on the delivery tablcs. At certain definite re ~ges it is necessary to change from shot to shell. and the arverse. When such a change occurs it is evidcnt that there Ate a number of wrong kind of projectiles already on the way. all batteries there should be reserve tables, sheltered if

,I

104

possible, so that a limited number of both kinds of projectiles would be available to load promptly on. the shot trucks. . 25. 'VhiIe on the subject of batteries~ the Board wishes to place itself on record as firmly of the opinion that latrines should be supplied for each battery and suitable dormitories and latrines should be built at each point where fire-control details must operate. The keeping of the main force of ar~iI" lery at a central camp at Fort II. G. "'right, with the necessIty of moving therefrom to the guns every tim~ an attack was undertaken by the fleet, proved severe on the troops. There \vas only one relief for the guns, a condition which well may . be anticipated at the time of actual hostilities. At the firecontrol stations the men should be able to get to their instruments with as little physical effort and as little delay as tl~c crews of a fire department in a modern city can get to theIr engines. The fire-control detail must be within immediatc reach of their positions at all times. 26. At Fort Terry the batteries are so dispersed that it is almost necessary to install some form of tramway, power operated, to provide for transportation of men and material if the defense is to be conducted with a single relief. For the Board: 'V. 1\1. BLACK, Colonel, Corps of Engineers

x
. EXTRACT FROl\1 THE COl\ll\lANDER-IN-CHIEF, UNITED STATES REPORT OF TIlE ATLANTIC FLEET FLEET,

ATLANTIC

u. s. s.
Ga~diners
1'0'
J

n"yoming. Flagship,

Bay, August

18, 1913

S SUb' ecretary of the Navy (Operations). Lo .Jcet: Heport on Joint Exercises with Coast Defenscs of
ng Island Sound. to I. The Army emcers designated by the \Yar Department rc Confer with the Commander-in-Chief and his stafT with ingard to the schedule of exercises, reported on board the ""yomtllY at Newport on June 27th and again on July 15th, During , lincse p re I' , d Immary conferences the schedule of exercIses outatte l~n pp. 5 and 6 of reference (a) was drawn up. :\Ielhods of th ac \. and defense were discussed with a view to afTordin~ us~ coast defenses the maximum opportunity for the tactical ra of all the clements of the defense. The schedule was arda~lge~ to permit the battleships to hold subcaliber practice ~ In preparation for target practice . .. a ..{ A" Si t u a tion" was assumed (pp. 1 and :!, reference and the fleet assigned the task of: th (a) Conducting a series of reconnaissances to develop ba~t:t.rength of t.he defens~s,. includ.ing loca~ing position. 01 ficlds~1Cs, sea.rehhghls, posltlOn-findmg statIOns, and mme
f

'"

*

*

*

* \ *

*

*

*

,
(b) Conducting a series of attacks on the various eleents of the defense, including a night raid on mine fields and , arcl lIght positions and bombardment, day and night; sc r ~ ~ tl (c)" Hunning by" the fortifications by day and by night, n~e form~~ t? include the escort of a "convoy" consisting of .et auxIlIarIes. and 3.. A" ~ll.o~kade" 'was established and maiIltain~d day 1)1 nIght, dIVISIOns of battleships and destroyers taklllg the ad~ekade duty in turn (Campaign" Order 1\0. ,I). The 1lI0ekd Detail had authority to conduct operations against the . c cnses at any time independently of the schedule, as one of

rn

:~g

.(105)

106 the principal objects of the maneuvers from the Army point of view was to test the endurance of their personnel and the sufficiency of their ammunition supply.
TilE RECONNAISSANCES

4. The series of reconnaissances which began early l\londay morning and lasted until \Vednesday morning suc~essfully developed the position of the principal batteries and of the searchlights, and of nearly all of the rapid fire batteries, mine fields and position-finding stations. Several important position-finding stations at Fort Terry and behind Prospect Hill at Fort \Vright escaped notice. 5. The "reconnaissance in force" made on Monday. morning (Campaign Order No.3) gave the defenses an oppor, tunity for tracking and directing fire on a single column of . battleships steaming at slow speed on a steady course. ThIs , method of developing the fire of coast defense batteries is much too hazardous for a naval commander to adopt in actual operations. ' G. The reconnaissances made by division columns on Tuesday afternoon and on \Vednesday afternoon (Campaign Orders Nos. 5 and 7) gave the defenses an opportunity for tracking and directing fire on separate targets which we:c continually changing course, speed, and forrraLion. It IS understood that these maneuvers were of special value to thc Army as a fire-con trol exercise. 7. Probably the best disposition of capital ships for the reconnaissance or attack of coast fortificau'ons during daylight, is one similar to that adopted for the day bombardment (Campaign Order No.9); i.e., a wholly irregular formation of ships, each ship continually changing course and speed. S. The night reconnaissances of searchlight positions and of rapid fire batteries by the destroyers were well exeCl!ted. The positions of all the searchlights and of nearly all the rapid fire batteries were actually located during the first three night exercises. The searchlights of the defenses were relativelY few in number and were much exposed, and it is believed that they could have been destroyed by the uestroyers without much loss. In several instances, destroyers reported getting in very close to searchlight positions without discovery. ' 9. The submarines were able to make short range daylight reconnaissances of the fortifications submerged, wit!) practically no danger to themselves. Als,o during theIr

107 reconn . Ann aI~sanees the submarines Y mIlle planters. constructively torpedoed till'

:MINE SWEEPING

fo 10. The exercises' afforded an exceptional opportunily c r fleet to conduct mine sweeping operations under service fooInI dJlIOns. In all, four mine sweeping exercises were held as

tl:~

o\\,s:

(a) l\Ionday forenoon' Fourth Torpedo Division swepl f . ' t or 1l1mes ahead of the battIeshirs as they proceeded parallel dO the line of fortifications. Speed was only six knots, as the w:stroyers reported that they were not prepared to make more otth sweeps down. Maneuvering with mine sweepers ahead o the .fleet was repeadtedIy done by the Russians during the i peratlOns ofT Port Arthur in 190.1, and it is understood that n t~le British Navy this exercise is part of the rou tine of Ieavmg port, each squadron havIng several mme sweepers .. Per rnanently attached Lo it. ' s. (b) Tuesday night; Second and Fourth Torpedo DiviplO~S.swept for mines in the errort to locate mine fields. the NOslllon of which was approximately known (Campaign Order w o. 6). It seems probable that at least one mine in each field tl as located, but the sweeps were broken in the operation and , ",;e destroyers were generally unable to report definitely S 1ether they had encountered a mine or an obstruction of 01l1esort. . . (c) \Vednesday night. Seco~d and Fourth Torpedo DiviSIOns swept for mines ~in 'the efTort to clear mine fields, the ~oSition of which was definitely indicated (Campaign Order L o. 8). The attempt was unsuccessful. Several sweeps were a~~ken and the mine fields as a whole were damaged little. if at Fourth Torpedo Division again . In t I Ie NlTort to clear two of the three mine fields (Campaign Order . o. 9). The attempt was unsuccessful, trouble being experIenced WI.tI'1 sweeps breakIng as before. . (d) Thursday afternoon.

Swept f. mmes under cover" of a day bombardment or

tI 1.1. . The mine sweeping exercises were of great value. as . ley mdlcated a decided deficiency in the fleet's preparedness ~ . that very important branch of modern nayal warfare. f Ime sweeping exercises have been held by, (he destroyers rom time to time during the past two years using the l\lark I

108 Naval Defense l\line. Resulls have been fairly satisfactory, the sweef.s throwing the mines to one side or cutting the mooring caLle and bringing them to the surface, where they could be destroyed. 12. During these exercises, however, although weather conditions were ideal, our s\vecping operations hardly made an impression on the Army mine fields. This was probably due to two reasons. The form of sweep used (a "bottom" sweep) was not suitable, as the sweeps repeatedly caught on the rocky bottom and were cleared with difficulty, often breaking before they could. be clean'd. Also, the sweepS wer~ not strong enough to clear the heavy Army mines (several times heavier than the Naval l\1ark I mine), 'even when a mine was fouled. 13. It is clearly recognized that the destroyers are poorly adapted for mine sweeping for several reasons. They are unwieldy and are not prorerIy filled with winches and bitts for hauling the sweers. Their prorer tactical employment is in c.(Jcnsil'e oreraticns and they should not be used in purely defensive work, such as mine swceping or picket duty, if other ,"cssels are a,'ailable. Nevcrtheless, destroyers mt:st receive training in mine sweeping, as it rray hecome necessary for them to do it in time of war, rarticularIy sweeping, for floating mines. Also, lacking srecial vesse!s for this work, the fleet mcst derend ufcn the destroycr for the development of met/Dds and of material. 14. Trawlers, such as arc used in the British Navy for mine swcerers, are scarce in this country, and it is probable that we shall have to employ tugs for mine sweeping in time of war. The Commander-in-Chicf plans to exercise the fleet tugs in this work with a view to developing a proper equipment for a tug acting as a mine sweeper. A requisition for mine sweeping rratcrial to replace that dcstroyed during the rccent rraneuvers will be submittcd to the. Derartment for approval shortly. 15. The "creeping" of.erations of the submarinesdragging for mine cables \vith hcavy grapnels-gave rather surprising results. The D-1 severed one cable, which is understood to have been the fire control cable between Fort vVright and Fort ':\lichie, seriocsly crippling an important line of communication. The subrrarines report that in no less than cleven other Instances they fOlllcd cables with thcir grnplCIs hu t were unable to pull them up. Had" explosive grapncls"

loa
~e~n used, it might have been possible to put the mine fields s urno! commission by destroying the cables. The resulLs were t~ ~cle~tly promising to warrant further experiment along fit~~e hnes. In this connection, the "diving compartment" d to some of the new submarine~ may be of value.
SMOKE SCREEN

fIG. Several opportunities were ofTered during the week oor the employment of "smoke screen" tactics, on certain eeasions with rr:arked success. III d 17. On Wednesday night, the Fifth Torpedo Division a e an efTective smoke screen ofT Fishers Island between p.aee Point and "'ilderness Pcint for the protection of the fIrst Sweeping Detail (Campaign Order No. S). \rind was \~o~ the southeast, force 2-3, and the screen settled on Fort fIght, which was directly to leeward, cQmpletcly shutting ~Iut t}.lCsearchlights and batteries. Later, during the night, le 1 1fth Torpedo Division made a smoke screen to the east",'ard of Great Gull Island for the protectIOn of the Second . S \Veeping Detail. 'l . 18. On Thursday afternoon, the Third Torpedo Division ~ gaIn rr. d e a smoke screen ofT I'ort \Vng IIt In tIC e IT ~. . I p .a ort to rotect the mine sweeJ"'ers (Camy;aign Order No.9), but wind Con rr 1'1 (I IOns were not favorable and1- the srr.oke would not settle. 1 le destroyers rr:aking the screen on this occasion would lave SUffered heavily. f 1a. During the "run-by" in three columns on Friday f~~enoon (Campaign Order No. 11, Plan No.1), the destroyers rued the southward (leeward) column and made a smoke ~reen to protect the convoy from the fire of Forts Michie and \~.rry. A light fog favored the fleet in making this run-by. of Ind conditions were not cxaclly favorable for the formation the smoke screen; and, as long as the destroyers proreeded Parallcl with the convoy at slow speed, the smoke would not ~~llle; and, although adding somewhat to the efTecl of the fOil, . f lel not fully screen the convoy. \rhen nearly opposite the orts, howcver, the destro'-.crs went ahead at twenty knots, WI'lIeI1 resulted in making the screen settle and added much to . Its cffcctiveness. 20. The following is quoted from the Flotilla Com111a n d cr ' s report on this '-maneuver.

n

'I

1

l'

J

L In execution of Cnmpnign Order r\o. 11, the smoke screen wns bid ct\\"ccn the convoy and forts as directed, but on approaching Little Gull

110
Island the efficiency of the screen as viewed from the head of the column was doubtful. This was due to the speed of the flotilla and the wind, the smoke rising too high and showing no tendency to sellle. Speed was thel'crore Increased to twenty knots, and after passing Lillie Gull Island the course was changed to west until the Plum Island batteries were scre'ened. The flotilla then countermarched bnd retraced course, adding smoke to screen until the convoy was again covered, when exercise was disconLi!1ued. The. exercise indicates that in making elTective smoke screen. considerable wind is necessary in order to keep the smoke in contact with the water. In absence of favorable winds, this can be accomplished by increasing speed of smoking force. .'

21. During the run-by in two columns on Friday night (Campaign Order No. 12), the destroyers formed the northward (leeward) column and formed a smoke screen to protect the battleships from the fire of Fort \Vright. Wind conditions were favorable, and as viewed from the lVyoming, the screen was nearly perfect, efTectually shu tting out the batteries and searchlights at Foh \Vright.
SEARCHLIGHTS

22. During the run-by on Friday night, the battleships passed close to Little Gull Island Light. The ships proceeded completely darkened, except for wake lights, and the lV!Joming got within three thousand yards of Fort l\1ichie before being fired upon. .As soon as the fort opened fire, signal was made for all ships to turn on searchlights and direct them on Fort l\lichie, \vith a view to testing the effect of a "searchlight screen" on the Army range-finding and searchlight control It is p0ssible that the searchlights of the nearest parties. shirs had some blinding efTect; but those from the ships at the end of the column merely served to definit~ly indicate their position, and expo~ed them to a heavy fire from the mortar batteries at Fort Terry. 23. It is firmly believed that, as a general rule, in operations of this ~ort the ships should not use searchlights, as the searchlights disclose the position of the shillS and do much more harm than good. It proved to be difficult for the defenses to accurately direct fire on darkened ships at night. eVen if the ships were firing themselves. During the bombardment Thursday night, the Fourth Division fired on the forts for over an hour without reply. It is understood that, although the flashes of the guns could be seen hy the defenses, they were unable to locate the ships accurately enough for directing fire. During the various night exercises of the week. destroyers repeatedly passed through The Hace without being fired upon.

111
CUTTING-OUT EXPEDITION

~fon~4. :: In a~dition to the regularly scheduled exercise for sio ay mornIng before daybreak (First Exercise), permistio n ~as granted the flotilla to organize a cutting-out expedin ~ th~ ~apture of the Army Mine Planters. Torr The Fourth

0rer ~. 0 DIvIsIon was detailed for this expedition,

one seetion

1'he a Ing against I~"'ishers Island the other against Plum Island. bero cxr~di~ion \\'as prohibited from commencing operations ~5 mldmght or efTecting a landing. of I' . A detachment of five pulling boats under command in C'f;eut.enant Commander Hellweg of the Burrows succeeded side c~tI~? an entrance into the artificial harbor on the western dest 0 11Ishers Island without discovery, and theoreLica]]y two rOyed or captured all the vessels in the harbor, including

\\'ithJr~ne.plan ters. One of these vessels was t he General Frank the E 1aJor General Barry, Commanding the Department of /lie\\' ~t, on board. The General Frank had comc down from
neut ork to observe the IT.aneuvers and was, of course, till' ral; but as she was not displaying the neutral signal at the ltin~ there was no way for the expedition to know this. No

detac~lanters

or vcssels of any importance

were found by the

2,rr.cnt at Plum Island. . . of tl G. It was afterwards learned that the war organIZatIOn the Ie defenses depends upon the Coast Artillery Supports for not protection of \vharves and vessels. These supports were cOn present during the maneuvers, and the defenses. were

doe:e;UC?tly

not prerared

for an attack of this kind.

This

for I ot l.n any'way detract from the credit due the destroyers like ~ annIng. and ?rg~nizing the expedition, and the seaman.anner m whIch It was conducted.
SIGNALLING

1Jsin 27.

no

Va ~ , t fJCS, without a blind. Owing to the separation of the f1ot's d e t ac IlIr.ents ~ \Va I' of the fleet, the volume 0 f ra d'10 wor k lin Sarge, and the practice given the radio operators in handg Code IT essages was of great value. • ~ go d'S. In general. the radio work of the week was very o. A few exceptions may be noted: --in (a) A .few shirs ,,'ere careless about coding their n:essage.s, certam cases important messages were sent m pI am

f the

All radio

signalling

during

the

week

was in code,

Battle

Signal Book, 1912. and the General Signal

112 English, contrary to the instructions; in others, messages were partly coded, but not sufficiently to blind the meaning; . (b) A number of the long code messages reporting results of reconnaissances were unintelligible when received, and repetitions had to be called for, and, in two or three caseS, even the repetitions did not completely clear up the doubtful points; (c) Certain destroyers were weak in handling the "tactical calls." As these calls are not used except during maneuvers, proficiency can only be obtained during active exercises with the fleet. 29. There has been a marked improvement in handling radio code messages by the fleet during the past four monthS and it is believed that with continued practice and a standardization of methods a high efficiency can be' attained. The instructions contained in Commander-in-Chief's confidential circular letter No. 367-13 of July 31, 1913 ("Code in Hadio"), prescribe daily practice in handling code messages by the \ ships of the fleet, and require that all signals during maneuvers shall he based on the Signal Books. This is with a view to ensuring thorough familiarity with the Signal Books by all officers of the fleet, and to developing defects in the Signal Books, additional signals necessary, etc. It is hoped that the new General Signal Book (1913) may soon be issued, in order that the fleet may become expert in its use as soon as possible. A change in the signal book is unavoidably attended by a temporary loss in efficiency of signalling. 30. No good opportunity has yet been offered during maneuvers for exercise in radio" interference" and" avoiding interference"; but these important subjects will receive attention as soon as possible. 31. "'hen a large number of ships are engaged in maneuvers, communication between vessels of the same division should, so far as possible, be by other means than radio, and the" air" should In left clear for the Commander" in-Chief to communicate with division commanders. During the raid on the mine fields on \Vednesday night, thirty-three vessels in seven separate detachments were actively engaged (see Camraign Order No.8; the Third Torpedo Division waS employed to attack the fortifications from the rear, the Fifth Torpedo Division as a smoke screen). F'requent communication between the Commander-in-Chief and the commanderS

113 of d thne~t~ehme?ts was necessary. This communication was at tachm xce~slvely difficult, because of. the tendency for de\Vith t~~t. c~m.manders to use the radio for communication cases d In,!tvldual vessels of their commands, where, in many oth('; oUbtI~s~, this communication~ould have been had by Ineans Just as well.. ' lIeet3~~ The i.ncreasing efliciency of the radio work .of the Ih m. ~s not In .the slightest degree aller the necessity for e sOUndax~mum. possible efliciency in all methods of visual and illIpr slgnalhng. The Commander.in.Chief is particularly tang:sse.d wilh the necessity for improvement in long IUhe h~.lsual s~gnall~ng by day (shutler sear~hlight), and fleet ' mker sIgnaIImg bv night. The profiCIency of the greatl~ these forms of signalling, hoth of which will be of The Importance in war time, is not at present satisfactory. 'ViII use of the Ardois and the semaphore machine at night probably be absolutely prohibited in war time,
CAMPAIGN ORDERS

Order" form was generally adhered This order form for ' for s ary 0 peratlOns has been advocated bv the \Var College durineVe ra I years, and has been used in the . fleet for maneuvers first the past two years. Perhaps the last week was the conti lme tha~ opportunity has been offered for issuing a hy thnuous senes of orders to extend over a week's operations h e lIeel. The Flotilla is now, by authority of the Navy epartment, using this form for movement and operation Ordn

10 in33j

The"

Campaign

miII'l a I of the orders for the exercises.

f.

\,[8.

3.1 n eSI es the pamphlets issucd by the War College, a 'd hookl' lIeet ~t on the" Formulation of Orders" was circulated in the tee If st. year, and an artiele on the same subjerl appeared e n r: y III the N Gilal Institute Proceedings. ' .' and 3,). Tll e Cd' ' omman er-m-ChIcf be I'leves t ha t', III pnnclp Ie sounJn general arrangement, the Campaign Order form is at II ; and il is expeeled Ihat the Elementary Courses held of Ih~ War C:0lJe.gethis summer for the benefit of the officers Of II lIee~ Will give a large number of oflicers some knowledge \Vhi ;e pnneiples of order writing. The questions of detail are e; have arisen with regard to the Campaign Order form as ~ or the most part, unimportant, and will be sellled at loon as the form finds use among the ofliccrs of the service arge. One important problem requiring solution is that

114 of putting long military orders into shape for radio trans" mission, and yet preserving the' general arrangement of the order form. 36. In general, excellent cooperation and understanding of the plans was manifested throughout the maneuvers. The destroyers and submarines desprve special credit f?f able handling during operations, without lights and close. In shore. The principal weakness developed was in the mIne sweeping operations, and the Commander-in-Chief considers it imperative that steps be taken to correct this situation as soon as possible. ' CHAS. J. BADGER.

XI REPORT OF THE COlVIl\IANDEIl. TORPEDO FLOTILLA FLOTILLA, ATL'ANTIC OF THE

TORPEDO

FLEET

't1

U. S. S. Dixie Newport, R. I., 16 August, 1913
C

Sub'

1.0:

'jeet:

omrr.ander-in-Chief. Re por t on M aneuvers

'F agamst

'f! · or11 lca t'IOns.

of thI. T~e following report is submitted on the operations to L e flotIlla against the fortifications at the eastern entrance 3rd: ong Island Sound during the week commencing August the 2. Observations made of the attacks from the rear on i'lurnserehlight positions. Fishers Island. Great Gull. and sOrn hSlands. lead to the conclusions that these positions arc e; at vuJne~able ~rom the rear at present. , \ViII On a mIsty mght. or under cover of much smoke. It type\most always be possible for light vessels of the destroyer tthro 0 run The Race. Divisions of destroyers also passed disc Ugh The Race several times on clear nights without being overed. . /losit~' Once on the western side. such light craft hold a ]ightlOn of great vantage, Their ability to attack searchalTo ~ and gun and range-finding positions from the rear • .cithr s, the main attack from the front a most useful ally, to cr III bombardment or sweeping operations. It also tends /lar~reate decided diversion of interest and confusion on the 50f these thus attacked. to lie', The answer to the above attack would logically seem het In a better .rear protection to the above forts. and in a t Sou cdrmeans of preventing the entrance of light craft into the n • born~' The counier to sweeping operations. under cover of nu ardmcnt or smoke, may. for the Army, lie in the use of I11crous small craft of the submarine type. bl The answer to the successful. establishment of near o srn:n ade ma~. for the Army. lie in the'presence of numerous submarmes under their control.

i

t

(115)

11.6 8. The answer to the successful running of The Haec during fog or under smoke cover, probably lies (for the ArmY) in numerous small surface craft of very high speed capable of laying floating mines. and in the presence of numerous small submarines under their control. 9. The searchlight' question is not entirely satisfactory. Unless better protected, they can be attacked and put out of action. If this be done. The Race, the mine fields, and all forms of gun attack are open to the enemy.' The Army can make but futile reply to this. 10. It is advocated that a system of firing pyrotechnic bombs from mortars to illuminate the target space desired, be expedmf'nted with. This in conjunction with an efficient searchlight installation, would much increase the illuminating system at present installed. 11. The present locations of forts at The Race do not control the main situation. \Vhether or not they are sufficient in strength to control The Race, a hostile fleet and army would hardly choose such an operation, when the entire end of Lon~ Island, Fort Pond, and N apeague nay arc unprotected. 12. l\loreover, Plum Island is vulnerable from attack by siege guns from the Long Island side. \Vere the eastern end of Long Island amply protected by suitable fortifications, it would force an enemy to choose an island or peninsula base further to the eastward. Of such eastern bases the Cape Cod, Nantucket, l\lartha's nay region is the only available one left. and submarines alone might deny this entire region to the enemy for hasing purposes, due to the absence of any harbors whose entrances could he properly guarded against such attack.
f

SWEEPING

OPERATIONS

13. It is douhtful \vhether sweeping operations with destroyers can be called successful. This is not due to lack of efTort on the part of destroyers, but is due to the fact that these craft are not adapted for this sort of work Great length, thin sides, large turning circle, general unwieldiness, lack of proper winches and other appliances for handling sweeps, preclude the use of this type of craft for any but light sweeping purposes, such as for floating mines, in war. • . l\loreover, the real role of the destroyer in war is essentiallY of an ofTensive character and always directed at the enemy.

117

Asdef a ~
possIble, the destroyers should be reheved of work of . . a far 1Jttte~nsJ:,e character. It is thought that able sea-going tugs,
tnand wIh the proper appliances, organized now, and comwOrk ed as a group by some line officer interested in mining neg!' would do much to advance t,his much needed, much tnen~ct~d work of sweeping 'mine fields. Definite recom':' early ~lJons as to the details of such work will be made at an ate.
RECONNOITERING WORK

fiear14. In reconnoitering. or close scouting near the fortiThe Jons, the destroyers showed up to much advantage. are Y Possess the speed, the power to move quickly, and they clos st~althy in these movements. As information gatherers . e In., they are most useful. . farthTIlJS leads to the thought that this scouting usefulness whe er removed from the fleet, but still within that area not r~ they may coordinate their efTorts with the lied. has would een sufficiently developed. In this development, they ships seel? to require the assistance of larger. more powerful 1'h .' actIng as leaders in attack, and supports or rclays. per~Jr usefulness in this field can only' be determined by excnce and practice.
SMOKE SCREENS

USed15. The tactical value of the smoke screen. when properly On t11 ea? not be deni~d. Espe~ially was t~is demonstrated Scc' e Dlght run-by FrIday evenmg. The mght was clear for pr~~gb and the fort searchlights could distinguish objects int a ly at ()OOO yards. \Vhen the heavy smoke screen ligle~ened it absolutely cut ofT all the rays of the searchSCl~ s. \Vhen the screen settled on the fort, the lights themes Were obli tera ted. tOr To cover mining operations, movements of ships, close all ~cdo. work, to throw possible confusion on the enemy. are be ;ct1cal assets of the smoke screen. Especially will this ando ta.cUe?J value to the forces that have the powcr to gain maIntaIn the positions that speed alone can give.
SHORE SEARCHLIGHTS

/lick 16. A few instances were recorded of destroyers being the cd up by se~rchlights as far as 7000 yards; but as a rule Y were not pJcked up outside of 4000 yards. and often a

118 range of 2000 yards and less was reached on clear, dark nights without discovery. On the night of August 7th, two sailing launches, mounting one-pounders. attained a position very close to the south shore of Great Gull Island without dis. covery. The exact distance is not known, bu t was so near that the boats actually grounded. It is probable that the shore searchlights could have been handled so as to discover approaching vessels at a greater distance. From observation afloat, it seemed that their angular movement was too rapid for the best work. 17. There were but few cases noted in which the actions of destroyers were not apparently covered by due consider •. ation for the general plan. There is always present a human tendency to combat, for each person to be diverted by local incidents and local situations from proper consideration of the general plan; but the only instance of this sort noted fol. lows: (a) During the second night bombardment from the rear, after running The Race, one destroyer lay for a long time near the lightship making signals and showing speed lights, thus directing searchlights in that direction. At about 9:40, two destroyers were discovered by Race Point searchlight and fired upon. At this time, nearly an hour before the time set for the simultaneous bombardment by all forces, these two vessels were only 1000 yards from the searchlight. Considering the general plan of simultaneous bombardment, it was inexcusable for these vessels to get in so close, so far in advance of the time set for the general born" bardrpent. 18. As a rule, divisions were handled well. A general tendency, however, was noted to make unnecessary signals and what should have been unnecessary directions within the division. In no active service does it seem more desirable that the working should be automatic and almost wholly by doctrine and mutual llllderstanding, than in the war service It is believed that unless the habit of opel''' of destroyers. ating \vithou t frequent detailed instructions be acquired now, it wiII be difficult to use the method efficiently in war. Division commanders will be encouraged to develop in their commanding officers the habit of. acting without unduly detailed and repeated orders and instructions. 19. On many ships it was nqted that things went along smoothly, efficiently, and with the minimum of internal

119 f ' • rtction . exist t . 0 n board other destroyers this condition did not reas 0 ~he. same satisfactory degree. Probably one of the iZat,ons lIes In the existence of lack of proper bridge organIt" IS undesIrable that the commandmg officer 0 a 'f dest'Ion nect~oyer ,should have to attend to almost all details in conhis 10,n WIth running of the ship. It seems imperative that pro:llld be free from hindering details, so that he can keep corn lllently before him the main issues; for instance, the Shou~anding officer should not have to keep a lookout; he d not I not have to closely follow up the navigating; he should to s' lave to personally ring the engine annunciator; attend tha;gnals, speed cones, radio messages, etc. It is appreciated h many commanding officers prefer to do these things ec ('nc~use, they themselves can do them better: but this preferfO eXIsts only because commanding officers have already Inrrn :d the habit of personally attending to such matters. shi \\a~, the efficiency of the commanding officer and of his see~ wIll be clearly impaired, if such habits hecome fixed. It tirn s to be an important duty of commanding officers at this \villebto properly organize their bridge, so that all detailed tasks left e, done by subordinates and the mind of the commander \ViIIqUIte free. No doubt, at first, the mind of the commander" to I?ot he free, because his hanit is to trust absolutely only the llmself; but, if subordinates are exercised habitually in per:e duties, and held rigidly responsible for their proper eonr.0Jmanee. a condition would soon arise of mutual all-round Pre 1 e~ce, and a far more efficient war machine than at int sent. An effort wiII be made to have these methods put o practice in the flotilla. ' Un u20.. It is believed that tbe elTorts of tbe flotilla would to ih estlOnably have been of very great valu"e, in actual war, ohs e fleet as a whole. In the opinion of one of the army spr,ervers, the destroyers proved themselves to be a very 10US cond' , menace to the coast defenses. Under the present de I IlIons at the eastern entrance to Long Island Sound. ra s royers could first place searchlights and the elevated at;ge-finding stations out of commission, either by direct ablack or by attack from rear; and then could, under favorcl e weather conditions or by the assistance of a smoke screen, CUr the way for battleships by sweeping operations. 511\15.

120 1st Endorsement UNITED STATES ATLANTIC FLEET,

U. S. S. lVyoming, Flagship, Gardiners Bay, August 18, 1913. To: Secretary of the Navy (Operations). Su~iect: Report on "l\1aneuvers against Fortifications. • Reference: (a) Commander-in-Chiefs letter" No. 946-13 of even date. 1. Forwarded. 2. The Commander-in-Chief IS In general accord with the remarks of the Flotilla Commander. With regard to paragraph 8. however, the Commander-in-Chief considers it most important that all submarines should be under the Navy with Naval Organization and training. In time of war, in the absence of the fleet or other naval supporting force, Naval Submarines could be ordered as necessary to cooperate with the Coast Defenses and in that case be under the general direction of the Armv officers commanding the Defenses. . 3. This cooperation between submarines and the Coast Defenses might occasionally be introduced into joint maneUvers with profit to both. CHAS. J. BADGER.

Present Status of the Series of Artillery Notes No .

Tille InT"trurtions for negulatim1 Powder Charge~ or Coast Artil/rry in .t 2 A nrgct Prartiee. ~ t 3 D~mOl' At t:1ek Sheet.. Deeti~n.~ for S<'.ll,ingU:P. Adjusting and Using, the Lrwis Type A" .t 4 p epre~sIOn PosItIOn Finder. r?ceedlngs of a Board of omecrs, Convf'ned at Go\"efl"ors Island, ~ew Yor.k, for the Purp0se of Preparing and Formulatln~ a System 5 CO Electr!cal Communi<;ation for Artiliery Fire Control. 6 15onst!U~tIOn of n DifTerence Chart. 7 ..es~nrtlon and Diagram of the Telautagraph. 8 f"rves a~d Tables of Hohinson's Anemometrr .. he I.(,\\'I~ Depression Po<;ition Finder. FunctIOn and l\fpthod or Op~ruti<?n of thr Elev.lting Serr"'. Drvice for lIIumillating the .. 9 SCross-.\\ Ires. Supplement to ArtiJlrry Note No.3. .. ]0' r3rchhghts. 11 ~lortnr Zones anrl Mortar nange Tables. 0" 12 N'acoast Enginef'ring. •fa I~ otes on Oil En!linps. System of Nomenclature of Parts of Modern n3lterips. t I'orm f~r "Beport of 3n Inspcction HelaUv(' to C"ast Artillerr TnLj~uctl?n. the Condition of tt.e Batteries, and tht> Fire Contr0 and .t ]r: IrertlOn Svstem." .tb ~l'<;t of Exprfimental Fire Control Installation at Pensacola, Florida. Totes on Explosi\'PS. . "'t ]R ~otes on thr Telephonr. 19 1 ~l('ory of the Storage Battery. . • D'~e~t of Orders ned Circular" Issued bv the \\ ar Dep:utmpnt Per~8lnIng to the Care and Use of Seacoast Armament from January 1, .t 20 96. Lo January 1. ]~O,1. . . Corrcs!'ondenee HcJative Lo Preparation of Data for ElevatIOn Scale5 2] of ~l'3eoasl ~uns. 22 ;op,c.al Index of Artillery Subj('cts. t 23 I ~a~tlC~1Metho.d of Adju~ting a Modern Gun. 2.• n'S(.us~lOn Be:mn[Z on the Tactica! Us(' of Mortars. . ~ Top'ca! Index of Artillery Subjects. Supplement to Artillery Note 2r': No. 21. . Note 0., RalJistic Tnhles. Con~lru('lion of a Difference Chnrt. . TOPIcal Index of Artillery Subjects. Second Supplement to Artillery 28 Note No. 21. '}I) A Study of Attacks Upon Fortified JlarhoN .c l~orrec~ion of Banoe Scales for Height of Sight and Cur\,alur('. ,. al,lt,s of Logaritllm.~ of Trigonometric l:unction!l Computed for .. 31 SDcgrecs and IIundrcdLhs of Degrees. 3'> • carch;i/1hts. Senrc~lights. 3't kocntlOll and H('pnir of Faults in Submarine l\1in~ Cable. eh loming Film-Srnle. 3~ '\ Method of J:'illinf! Projectiles. . 37 11~e Weekly 1\1111(' Command InspectIon. ~nval and Coast Defense Exerdses. August 3-9,1913. t'"(Jul of print
II

•t

1

11

16 ]7

:t

27
<)~

~O

33 3'" •

C

O(,lIolele. • Q Jnl'lud b Su' _ I.-d' In CA' ORllt rl.llery Drill ne~ulation~. Ndll.rsr.dcd by. Weaver's "Noles on tl.1ililary El(plolliv('s." . t to be ~cpnntcd. as such tables caD be purchased commerclIllly.

Erratum Page 50, line 16: For "dividing" read diving.

ARTILLERY No. 38

NOTES

Analysis of Target Practice

PUBLJSJIED

U~Dr:R

SUPER\"ISIO:'ll

OF TilE

SCIIOOL noAnD
COAST ARTILLERY SCHOOl.

FORT MONROE. VIRGINIA
COAST ARTIU£RY SCHOOL PRESS 1915

I'REPARED,

Ur<;DER TilE

DIRECTION

OF TIlE

CHIEF OF COAST ARTILLERY,'
BY TIlE COAST ARTILLERY BO~RD

ANALYSIS

OF TARGET PRACTICE

Illina~i Analysis o~ t~rget practice h~s for i~s objeelt?e detertio on?f .errors mCldent thereto, wIth a VIew to their reducn .or elImmation. . ing t~' The method hereinafter described provides for separatde errors of personnel from the errors of armament. err . The analysis determines which of the personnel made ke;;s 'and of what each error consisted. Tbe records to be make this definite. . by 4. The analysis determines the error of the armament a rrocess of elimination. fie \.). Errors may be compensating, therefore hitting at or be ar the target does not necessarily mean that no mistake has as en made by the personnel or that the armament functioned ana;va~ to have been expected. 'In submitting data for err YSIS, the company commander should lay bare all such an ~rs .for his own .information. for the information of the pr:crS1S board. and for the information of the service, so that . i~ may be had from the experience of all. . .. on. b A comp Iete and thorough. analySIS 0 f t h e practIce IS an~ o.C the most important parts of Coast Artillery training; sho'iln order that full benefit may be derived. the methods COl11u d be employed during the daily drill period by the battery Pc t ~a?der; every item of the data to be kept. except those an" lal~mg to splashes, can be secured during drill. and the SPla YSIS of drills can be made complete by assuming data for ashes . re 'The analyses appended to this note indidate the data arQUlred for analysis; and, in addition, the following measures e necessary in obtaining data as indicated under each heading. fo b(a) The position of the target at the instant of splash. tar oth gun and mortar batteries. and the position of the rtget at the instant of fire for mortar batteries, should be d .. pie e rmmed by placing the 'number of the shot at the last b;\te~ position of th~ target at the. t.ime of sp!ash or fire. and h aymg ofT from thIS plotted pOSItIOnthe distance traveled rcY the target during the time indicated by the timekeeper's.

y.

Cord.
(J) •

2

(b) The position of the range drum or elevation device, after the same has been set and just hefore the instant of firing, should he marked, this marking to be such that after the practice is completed ,the gun or mortar may be relaid for range by the marks independently for cach shot, wit hout refe~ence to other means of laying it. If the model of the carnage is such that it is impossible so to mark the elevation, the setting should be verified and recorded independently of the record made for the battery oflicer's report." (c) Similarly, the position of the piece in azimuth at the instant of fire should be marked. This marking should be such that, after the practice is completed, the gun or mortar may be relaid for azimu ths by the marks independently for each shot, without reference to other means of laying it. ' (d) For gun batteries, the range recorder should mark on the time-range board th~ range to be taken 011' for each shot. ':fhis he should do by making a cross mark on the plotted . track on the board as he sets the pointer. 8. Immediately upon completion of the practice or drilI, a copy should be made, to convenien t scalc, of the Lime-range plots on cross-section paper; each gun or mortar should be relaid in accordance with markings made under Paragraph 7, and the range (or elevation) and azimuth of each shot thuS determined should be recorded ... : . 9. The data acc\lmulated under Paragraph 8, duly authenticated, should be turned over to the hattery corn" mander to accompany his report of the practice. . 10. The thr.e of day in hours, minutes, and secon9s of the firing' of each record shot should be recorded on Form 833, "Time-Keeper's Record for natLery Practice." , 11. ' The watches' of the range oflicer and of all time~ keepers should be compared before and after practice, so that there 'may he no' doubt as to the synchronism of batterY records ~nd of time-keepers' reports. ' . , 12., For' all sho ts' all da ta ~hould be kep t for each bell, SO . that exactly ,vhat happened. may be reproduced. The bells. should be numbc'red co'nsecutively, and the' time of day of several bells' (e.g., of every tenth bell) noted, so that synchron" ism of battery records and umpire's records shall be assured. All data should be numbered according to the bell to which they apply. Attached .'hereto are headings for forms' which should be kept' as indicated and filled 'in at least once during each month of the outdoor period, as well as at target practice.

3 J>rOlllth ese data and those obtained from a compliance with I' ag ar his dr;~Ph 8. the battery commander can make an analysis of I~, the same as for his target practice. reports' In the blank space on the back of the target practice also b all range errors of more than 10 yards should be noted. lion whom made; similarly for an error of azimuth or delleetion 0 more than °.02 by any member of the fire control secwith ~~d ~ore than °.05 in laying any gun or mortar equipped aZImuth circle; e,g.:
0

0

i

. 2 sh a t • 1st
"~~ shot. ~ d shot. 5~1 shot, shot, 1 shot,

7U1

15 yards. 20 yards. 35 yards. °.10, °.10, °.10,

operator of range correction boar d · operator of set forward device. operator of time-range board. primary-arm setter. deflection computer. deflection recorder.

14 . f.. sho Id' S' 'I ar I y. where there IS error due to makfle' I I't Iml , the U be reported. Where it is not feasible to fix definitely fact clxact part. of the materiel which caused the error, that s 10uld be so noted. and Tables to accompany the report (to be attached to sho a form a part of Form 819) should be made and filled in as wn on pages 4, 5, and 6. . IG. The analysis' includes:

f5.

o

assu (a) A're-d,etermination of the mean muzzle vclocity to be of t1~Cd for the record shots which follow. and comparison tcr IS true mean muzzle velocity with that used by the batY commander. n .}b) A careful review of a)1 data above refc;red to and such V ",rIll' thi Icat.lOns as are. considered necessary. (A statement that in ~{eVleW and verification have been made wiII be included . e report.) . ;.;~_ (c.):.A.earefuUnquiry.into the methods of adjusting the lllad~al fire control apparatus. by whom adjustments were , and the probable error of each. stat (d) A careful check of the records of the trial shots. a ll1. ~ment of the use made of the same by the battery comwander. and whether or not the data obtained from trial shots ere properly used. . to (e) A full and complete statement with spccial reference any unusual occurrence.

4

GUNS
1 Shot No ............ 1 2

(Azimnth)
'3
4

2 Azimuth of gun, instant of fire ....... ... . ... . ... 3 Deflection used by deflection recorder ... f', • • I', ... . 4 Deflection correction due to wind and drift ............. ... . • I', 5 Deflection correction due to actual travel ... . . ... ... 6 Arbitrary deflection correction ........ ... . ... .... 7 Correct deflection: 3.00 (Line 4 Line 5 + Line 6) .. ... . . I', 8 Error P. F. S.: Line 3 Line 7 .. ... . ... . 9 Azimuth of expected , splash ....•...... ... . ... . ... . .... 10 Azimuth of splash .•... '...... .... . I', "1 • 11 Armament error: Line 9 Line 10. • If" . ... 12 Azimuth of target, instant of splash .... ... . . ... .... • I" 13 Gun pointer's error: (3.00 -Line3)-. Line 12-Line 5Line 2) .......... .... . I', ... . ... .

-- -- -- -- -- -- ---... .
.

5

6

7

8

9

... .

... .

... . ... .
• II'

..1
• II'

.

--..
,

10

... . ...

. ....

. ""
.

.. -

f

•••

... .
II •

... . .... ... . ... . . ... .. - ", . ... . ... . . , .. ... . .... .. • II'

.

. I',

. ...

... . ... . . ... .-• I"

+

+

... .

••

1

... . ... . ... . ....
• It •

-

... .

... . ... . ... . .... .
• II'

....
• I"

... . ... . ....

f

II.

"1

... . ... . ... . ....
• II'

.. , . .., ..,
'

.-'

'

-

f

•••

... . ....
....

"1

• I',

...

.... .... .. . ... . .... ., .'

...

. ... .

• I"

.... .... ~ .----

" I

- .' J

\

5

ot.No ....•..•...

GUNS (Rllnge
<:

1

--- -- -- -- -- -- -- -2 3

4

5.

6

7

8

9

10

No ........ ; ... ... . . ... 3 'liTrue range to target .............. . ... ... . 1 tTrue corrected range ........••.. . ... 5 Corrccted range used by time-range board ... . ... . 6 0 ilTcrence between lines 4 and 5: error
.
I •••

2 G un

.... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... . ... .... .... .... .... . ... .... ... . . ... .... . ... .... .... .... .... .... ... . .... .... .... ....
. ...

7 Setting
8

I>. I.'. S...........

, 10 11

12

~

range drum, instant of firing ... G un difTerence .....•... ... . ... . ... . . ... roper setting of range drum at. instant of firing, obtained by applying gun difTerence to Line 5., ~ ..••••••• .... .... ...... . ... E •rror in laying: dill'erence between lines 7 and.9 ...... ... . .... .... .... [ ~xpected true range to splash from directing point . obtained from actual laying ............ .... . ... . ... . ... .rrue range to splash from directing point . ... .... .... .... DilTcrence between lines 11 and 12: armament range I error .. ; .......... .... . ... .... ....
• II' • II'

.... .... .... .... ... . .... .... . ... . ... .... .... .... :." .... .... . ... .... .... .... .... .... .... .... ....

.
.... .... .... .... .... .... . ...

....

..... . ...

.... ....

.... .... ....

.... ....

....

.... .... .... .... .... ....

I .... .... .... .... .... ...,:.:

•Oblained from re-plotted track. tJ ncludes danger space correction.

.... ~ .... I .... /
00 CO

I

an

....
~ ....
M

I

I .... I .... /
0
C')

I .... I .... I ....
C'l

E 'N <:
"C
C
Q CI)

:2 'E

/
00

~
co

I I
/

tJ) C Q

E
c::: ~ cc ~
0 -,.. en

L~

t
/.
/

~
M

'.

", r:
':
'~:.,

C'I

-

I
/

..:..

7 ete
NOTE' . I

Th e t" erms

uneorreete d" range,
significance:

"eorree t e d range, "

" l;'lve the following

appl" _neorreeled range is the range, without any corrections tie led, ~s determined in the process of plotting during praee erro ~r dnIl. This, of course, will be in error to the extent of Wit~S made. in plotting: Correeled range is uneor~ecled range \'erin correctIOns applied. True range is the uneorrecled range ha\' led after drill or practice, eliminating any error that may teet occurred. True eorreeled range is the same with corIOns applied, eliminating errors. '.' .

inst Actual ~zimuth is an azimuth determined with an azimuth _ t~ment md.ependent of the position finding service •. de\,iatftual aZll'.'uth of splash is determined by applymg the act on.. obtamed by the observers of lateral errors, to the u~ aZImuth of the target 'at the instant of splash. . ap l" ncorrected azimuth is the azimuth, without any correctIOn ti/ led. a.s determined in the process of plotting during praeerte Or elflIl. This. of course, will be in error to the extent of eOtors ~ade in plotting. Corrected azimuth, the same with \'e ~~ehons applied. True azimuth is the uneorrecled azimuth hat~ led after drill or practice. eliminating any errors that may tee~~
oceu rred. True corrected az imut h is the same wi th corIons applied, eliminating errors. . .

of t~rrors of.personncl are errors in the work of the personnel • ert e manmng details. Errors of armament arc all other Pc Ots-those which would exis"t were there no' errors of 'potsonneI. They may be due to variations in velocity of the tet\V(~er, to the gun, to the carriage. to matetial, and to unde>
nuned causes.' .' ,.'.
SUGGESTIONS.

:

,

,.

.

h . 1:
a\e
III
In

Analyze

during

drill only as m-any shots as you will
."

target practice.,

<.

.. /

2. 'Do not necessarily begin record taking at the com'fI~~cement of tracking, but begin at some convenient time. all battery commander, when he is ready. should announeet~ concerned: "Next bell will be Time I." te' 3. To provide against confusion of records; 'start fresh inCords for each course, designating each set of records accorde g to the course 10 which it -pertains; e.g•• 1st course, 2nd
,ourse etc' . . '

w'Il 4.'
1

that 'the -greatest probability of hitting be obtamed by adjusting the center of impact on the center

It'~s probable

8 of the hypothetical rection accordingly. target, therefore make danger space cor-

Fort 1\lonroe, Va., JDate.J From: Analysis Board. To: Commanding OfIicer, C. D. of C. B." Subject: Analysis of target practice, Co., C. A. C. 1. The Analysis lloard convened by Par.-S.O.-, JIq. C.D.C.ll., Ft. l\lonroe, Va., [DateJ, having carefully examined and reviewed all records of target practice of the ...... Co., C.A.C., at llattery G. A. DeBussy, [Date1, reports as follows:
TnIAL SHOTS

The three trial shots were all considerably beyond the larget, the longitudinal deviation of the center of impact being 826 yards over. The assvrr.cd muzzle velocity for trial shots was 2] 26 f.s., which was taken from the records of the emplacement book for the lot of powder lIsed. The muzzle velocity which should have been used for record shots was determined from the velocity graphic chart and checked by the range • correction board; this gave a muzzle velocity of 2256 f.s., which was the correct muzzle velocity based upon that data, and agreed with that used in the record shots.. .' The lateral deviation of the center of impact was 43 yards left, which was equivalent to 30 hundredths of one degree. The assumed deflection was 2.74, which, with the correction applied, gives the correct deflection 3.0.1. . The azimu th at which the gun was set was 292.19. The azimuths of the splashes were 292.14; 292.14 and 292.04. The mean of these is 292.] 1, which, compared with 292.H), indicates a deflection of .08. .The deflections obtained by the gun 'pointer from the splashes were 2.84, 2.7n and 2.79. The mean is 2.81. This, compared with the deflection used, 2.74, indicates a deflection correction of .07. These two results obtained by independent methods check very nearly and arc corroborated by the fact that ou t of four record shots three were hit~ for defl~ction, while the error in the other one has been accounted for in another \vay. Therefore it is believed thallhe splashes of the trial shots must have been plotled incorrectly, since they gave a deflection correction of 00.30.

"9
RECORD SHOTS

star 2. A comparison of the azimuths kept at the base-cnd roo~ns with those kept by the arm-setters in the plotting COVe shows an error by the B" reader. This crror was dis\Vas red and c.orrccted by the plotter'and the corrcct azimuth 20 \V~esc~rdcdIll. the plotting room. The azimuth sent on bell aZI'}h ...83.49; It should have been 283,33. In other respects , "Iuth s appear correct as indicated by first order of dIfTerences. " . 'fh errors .e record kept by the plotting room recorder shOWS erro III angular travel on the 17th and 181h bclls. These caus~s are very large and it would appear that they wcre dial a~ by the failure of the tally dial operator to set the tally lion normal at the proper time. On the 17th bell no uef1ec\Va . errOr' s sent to the guns, probably on account . of noticeable . Sent tin the angular travel. On the 18th bcll a deflection \~'as \Vas a the guns which was 17 points in error. This deficctlOn '"'0" use, d in the first record shot On the 35th bell an error of ~ Ya d was made in the corrected range sent to the guns. . \Vhi Irs On I was due to the. range correction slide-rule operator. tra cll 36, in the corrected range sent to the guns, an error in nsm'ISSlOn of 10 yards was made. , ' all ~I~ An examination of the time-range board chart and err 0 . er available data from the four record shots shows an err~r III P.F.S. of 10 yards on the first rccord shot, due to an err r of the plotter in predicting. This was an unavoidable hefor, as the gun was fired 10 seconds after bell 18, which was 0p Ore the range for bell 19 had reached the time-range board ' ,1'h'crato r. Sh at No.3. shows an error of 30 yards m . P. F. S. . ranis IS the result of two errors. The range sent to the timeslidge board was 20 yards in error, due to the range correction e-rule operator. In addition to this the data was computed So ' \Vaas t a fiIre the gun at the instant of the 36th bell. The gun ,S not fired until 3 seconds later due to delay by the gun Int' ' , , . po er, whICh ~au.sed an error of 10 yards i? range.. These . t\Vo char~rro~s arc mdlcated graphically on the lime-range board

b

10 4. Large and repeated errors in range shown fn column sett~f t1~e gun data for record shots, indicate that the range 1'h r did not understand the application of gun differences. anJ armament range errors shown in column 13 arc verY,large Vela~early constant, which seems to indicate an actual muzzle CIty much greater than that assumed.

10 '

5. Comparison of the record of lateral observers and the record kept by the plotting room recorder shows that thc battery commander, when he observed the large e,rfor in deflec" tion in the first record shot, did not make any correction bU~ wailed for the second shot to see if this error was constant. ':1. The second shot was a hit for deflection, therefore he made nO • corrections. The third and four'th shots were 0.05 to thC1 right, but as they were observed as hils for deflection no cor" rection was made. .. G. We have carefully analyzed the above-mention~d target practice in accordance wilh instructions set forth 10 Artillery Note No. 38, and believe its records to be correct.. except as stated above.
0 ., 0

I

I
i

.1 .

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oj
,

.i

Capt., C. A. C., l\Iemher.

I

Capt., C. A. C., Member. 2nd Lt., C. A. C ... Recorder.

\~

~

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1

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....

'

.

. ~,,.
.t •.

11
BATTEHY G. A. DEl1USSY.

Day Practice. June 25, 1914. of l\Ierit:

'Calculations'forFigu~e
A[=

p. g. .

t. m.

CII2.
SIll

B

+~

D+E
2500

15 (1)2

(.22) (2) (3.25) (4) sin 36°+ 170+55
15 2500 (.44) (13) sin 3()0 + 225 1.17G09 9.64345 -10 1.11394 9.76922 -10

Log 15 Log .44

Log 2500 = 3.3f179j Leg 225 = 2.35218

Log 13 Log sin 36°
Log den am.

Log"D" term = 1.0.157G "D" term = 11.11

= 20.52661 - 20
='

.52G61 .6.19.18 4..16

Log "II" term "II" term "D" term

= 11.11

Jl P
Finall\!

= 15.57

=

0.0

= 15.57

Fort l\lonroe. [Dale.}

Va.,

Pro' .To.m:

.. UmpIre 0r Service Arlillery Practice. S '. Commandll1g Officer, Coast Defenses of Chesapeake
ubJecl: Viola lions of target praclice regulations.

.r

'

Bay.

I . 1. In compliance with paragraph 75, Regulations for the . )~struction . and Target Practice of Coast Artillery Troo~s. I 9)3, the following memorandum of violations of the Practice
{cgulations · observed ' during the day practice of . is submitted.

None.

12
Form No. 819A (Guns)

BATTERY.

DAY PRACTICE G. A. DeRussY'

The Coast Defenses of Chesapeake Bay. Fort l\fonroe, Va.. Battery Caliber and ~fodel of Gun 12". model 1895. Kind and Model of Carriage Dis. L. F., model 1897 • ......................... .' Company. C. A. C. Date 191 .

t Projectile
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4

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::: 12 13 "14 ••••••••••••••.••••.•.•••..••••.••••.•.•.••
15 .•......••.•••....•••...•..................

1n ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: K 1~:'Cfi;~rn'h~ Ar:;!:n:,' 7.1
.. .. 16 7 1 18 t9 20 ............................. . . .. . . .

... 1 1 81808205 +2Gl 17 L' 2 1 80108025 +102 0 3 3 87408740 + 178 6.2;) H 4 3 8500 85.~0 +257 6 n [) ............•............................ 6 7 8 9

-0 278

4 1016.0:> .. 0 278 .1 lOW .0S .. 0 278 1 1016.10 .. 0 278 4 1016.10 ..

:31--TmAL SHOTS :31 Date ,.19t.i :~OMean center of Jf 11 :31 of trial shots, 827 .I .. beyond. '(
HECORD
SHOTS

Date 1\:1. V. dcternlinc( r .. .. trial shots. 2256 {.s.

~rd~' ~~t, , ) f 0111

I.

.. ..
'"

+.05°. 6 Speed of tnrget, 111ilesper hour. 11 Angular height of /ZlI d for mean corr6~.~5, range of target, .s Total time of the scrIC , 10 111.,57 S. J {or , .. Total time aJlowcc 89, intcrruplion~. 7 01., Temperature of pow 72.8°. . 77" Temperature of air, 73°. 005. Barometer, 30.08-3 . of Merln corrected rnnfcd~' record sh 0 ts. 83tH ~ Figure of merit ..• l :J. 0 PenalLies '.;' 'r,';,1 Final (jgllreofm('rl~
(See form s:J:H

dcr,

51.

.Slrike oUl inalllllirable words. tTo show the lonRiludinal dt'vintion target (to be obtained by plotting).

short

or beyond

and the IlIlernl

'" deVlotlOn

right

C of the or Ie 1

'13

For~

No. 819A (continued)
POWDEH

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III

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3!)\T.A.

(initials), ~ c: 0 .!::'" DuPont,Lol2t,Ycar, '0'';: ~o 1910. ~,]],S E -; ~ Date of rcccipt at post, c.~.o Fcb~l1,1913 .. Tempcrature o of air, Beth. 177182 \\'ctbulb,70 o Beth. 18;') 185 Dry' bulb, 72.5 . \V.A. 155 157 attlmeofblend.lng. ..... Barometer, 30.U Inches . . . at time of blending. Numbcr of days in scrvice mng3zine, 1. Time occupid in blending, if h .• 3C>m .

_2 ~ .Mnnufactur'cr

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.

rorllllE.-Trial h on ' l)rllctl~A (or each opt d3l~a will be entered 0 r<l 8 ICe held a rac. Ice .. 1' er . 8 prescnbed 10 "'ar Department e' h Qrlllll dl!ltri~t d the oPed ::le~. OfTice~~r"I~ncd Cmce,: has notified IS practice. e c eels 10 material devel-

3 Company officcrs present: 88 percent cnlisted men prcsC'nt. Average per cent of ~nliste~ men' .attending daily artillery ~nll an :llOstrucllon . since last target pracllce, 7.1.3. A correct report,: '.'

(l'he rev'd erse

51

' e of form 819A is endorsed as follows:)
ARMAMENT ERRORS EHRORS

1ll'1I
C

Er~or Ji cll 3;') " S~IJ36 " Sh at NO.3" Sh at No.1" Shat NO.2" Shat No 3" Sh at No'4" at NO:1"

ft ll18

17

.

PERSONNEL

Shot No.1. Shot No.2 Shot No.3 Shot No.4

Tally Dial Opcrator .33 Tally Dial Operator 38 H. c.~. 1.1.Operator" 20 yards transml~slOn range 10 yards POInter delayed firing 3 seconds lange seller 60 yards Range Seller 60 yards Range Settcr 30 yards ' 9q yards Range ~etter DeIlcclJon .14,' Tally DIal Operator

Range Dcflection Bange Deflection Range Deflection Bange Deflection

+190 +.05
+ 40 + .05 +HO -.05
+170 - ~05

pun

14

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palloJd UOl1ll1l\ap IRu!pnl!~uO'J

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15

Form No. 822.

n

RECORD

OF LATERAL

ERRORS Coast Artillery Corps 191 ...

alter y G . A. DeRussy

. Company.

---1

I

Date ......................•
Observer
to

:---

---2 3 4 5
() --.L.
•• ""

-

II

Deviation undredths of 1 degree

Tllrgd Range

Deviation Yards

Ill'markll

Left

Higl!t

Left

12 0
()

0
0 5 5
"

0

8180 8010 8740 8300

17.6 0
0

0

HiAht

.. I lit I lit Ilit
..,

0 8.0

0
" "

7.6

.. " ............ for c!rflcdion. for deflection. for deflection.
"

.. ..... .
" "

.fI ••••

...
"."

"."."

.. ..
"

.
"

"

....... ... " ...

..

".,,"
e""

.

. ......

................
I ••••••••••••••

.

••••

.....

-.

. .' ., ing The d eVlatlOns observed are those to the right and left of the I'me JomI o.;.server and larget at instant of splash. . obs 0 compute the deviation in "ards multiply the range in yards from . J" • . Ih . crvcr t0 Iorgrf (ohlamed from Ihe' plolling board of Ihe ha\lery finng) hy I to e tangent of the angular deviation observed. Thc range from observcr str arget can be determined conveniently by using a paper spanner conpriUcted for the displacement of the observer's position from that of the rnary station. . ,This computation will be made by the range officcr:

... '2dLi~~i.: 'C~;~tAr'tili~;;
Approved: -"

C~;;s'. ',' Observer.

.M.:

.

aJor. C?ast A~tillery Corps. Umpire.

(

16

Form No. 823.

RECORD Battcry G. A. DeRussy Date,
"0
1l.>1Il :,..&... .. Il.>

OF RANGE

OI3SERVEHS Company, , 191 .. .0 ~-B .. b 0"0 ~
LonRitudinnl deviation beyond or s.hort of target HnnRc Hake

Coast Artillcry

Corps

Time

.oil.>

~;:

Deviation in yards with reference to !tne joining tug and target

oil ~o

...

'E~
... ('3 0"

...
00

.c:
0

0

Bange

rake

Camera
"0
0
(l,

- --I 3 2 3

0 % II. :\f.

.. =
('3C
Il.>"

~~

3 3 4 3
5

... ... .. . " .... 6 ... ... .. . .. """
"

03 0,1 43 12 32 13 56

--- -- --- -38 36a
160 250 300
" " "

~.

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"""""" """,,"" " "
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"

'..:...:..:.

Length of towline (wet). 311 yards. . NOTE.-To compute the deviation in: yards with reference to line join" ing tug and target, multiply the average of the mils observcd by the ob" servers by 1/1000 of the length of the towline in yards. EXAMPLE.-Suppose the observers to have reportcd the splash JOO. 105, and 110 mils, respcctively. beyonj the targ~t, and suppose the towline to be 290 yards long. The avcrage of the observations is 105 mils. 105)< 290/1000 -30.45 (yards). . Photographs of splashcs, bearing the nu'~bcr of each shot, wiII be attach cd hereto. Whenever deviations are obtaincd from camera records. they will be uscd in the determination of hits, and range-rake obscrvations will be disregardcd. Photographs will accompany Form 819 intended for. The Adjutant Gcneral of the Army •
• II ••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••

2nd Lieut.,C. A. C.,
Officer in Charge of Hange Observers. Approvcd:
••• II •••• II II •••••••••••••••••••••

Major, Coast Artillery

Corps, Umpire.

17

....

Form No. 833.

: TIMEEEEPEH'S RECORD FOR BATTERY PRACTICE lJutter Y G. A. DeRussy, Fort Monroe, Va. . :,' . ...... Company, C. A. C.

----COI

Dale,

, 191 ..

II.

M.

s.

Cause interruption

or

Deduction time allowed

or

Pl'naIL il'!\

-02 13 ... . 10 ... . 7 3 3 3
J1. 1\1.

~

h01enced firing .... "riln C of last shot Elu psed lime ..... "rot al time o~t ....... Cor reetcd timc' ......
_

Sh-No. 01
1
2 3 4

-

.......

45 . .... . ...... ........ .. , ..... 42 . ............. 57 . ...... ....... . ....... 7:08 42 Target lost :31 15 Primer failed
\

.

--..........
.........

.......... ..........
..........

.

Time

each shot was fired

------

Gun No.

S.

...........

1 1 3 3

3 3 3 31

03 0-. 12 13

25 ..... .... ..... ........ 30 ....... ....... ........ 18 ....... ....... ........ 42 7:,t2 Total. ....

...

I

•••••••

.......... .......... ..........

.......

,

..

Approved:

..................................
!\1ajor, Coast Artillery Corps, Umpire.

..
18
Form No. 83,1.

BATTEHV OFFICEH'S HEPOHT Ball<'ry G. A. Dcnussy Date l\Ianned by Co., C. ~. C.

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..... .. . ... . .... . . ..... . ..... ..... .. , . . ... .... . ..... . . ..... . ..... ..... .. .. . ... . .... . ..... . . ..... . ..... ..... .. .. . , .... . ..... . ...... . ..... .... . ... . ... . ..... . . ..... . ..... ..... .. ,05 31 1010 12.G2G 12.005 .... . ... .05 31 .... . 10,16 12.52G 12.005 ..... .. .10 31 ..... JO.16 12.52G 12.0()5 Yes .. .10 31 .... . 101G 12.52G 12.00S .... . ... . ...... ...... . ..... / ..... . .. . ........
••• t ••

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..... .....

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,

-, ' ' ,

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.....

••••

I

.

...'I' .... ...... ,......
, ncmark~

••••••••••

I

• Give tThe per tooth carriages tTrial

azimuth to nl~arest degree. rt'('oll of disappearinq carriaqcs will he indil~ated of the cro'lshead pawl:!. countinR from the tOI). will he indicated an inche!l. shot!l only.

:..:.;. .'

by the notch enltll!o{ed by the The recoil of nonrlisappcllrll .

--~l~"
).

Tempcralure of powder, 72.8. Did guns, carriagcs, and other malcrial function properly? no; if no, give details.) No. l\lisfire on third shot due to failure of primer.
• II •••••• II •• II II II •••••••• II •••• II ••••••••• II ••••••••••• II ••••

(Yes or .

. ...
; •

......... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . . .... . . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. II II ••••••••• II. II II ••• II II •••••••••••• II ••••••••••••••••••••• •••• 11.,1 •••••••• II II •••••••••

1st Licut., Coast Arlillery

Corps, Ballery

Olliccr.

19
RECOHDS IN PLOTTI~G ROO:\f: GUN BATTERIES , ..••••.••••••••••.
Deflection Computer .

bale ~...........
No.

By ,,"horn kept
Tally Dial Operator Range wind component reference No.

'" '" '"

--- 1

Azimuth aet-forward. . point

Deflection wind component reference No.
",

Atmosphere reference No.

Velocity

I

Tide

2

.,

3 4 5 6

7
8 9 10 11

12
13 11 15 16

"

....... ... ....... ..... ..... . ......... ....... ......... . ....... ... . ......... . " ....... ......... . ... .... ... '" ....... ......... . . .... ..... .......... ........ . ..... ..... ...... .... . ......... ....... ......... . ......... . . ......... '" ....... ......... . ....... ... . ......... .. ...... . ......... . ....... ... . ......... ........ ......... . ......... . . ......... ........ . ......... . ......... . . ......... .... . ..... ...... ..... ......... . . ......... ....... '. ....... ... ... ....... . .........
I •••••••••
I, ••

208.27 297.01

..... ... ..... ..... ..... . ......... .......... . ......... +.1 2256
44 4.1 47 47 18.50 18.50

'

"

.......... . ......... .......... .......... .......... . ......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5 +.5

.......... . ......... . ... ... . . . ......... .......... . ......... .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... ..........
)

2256

+.1

17
18

19

20
21

22 23 21
25 26

27 28 29
30 .31

292.77 292.36 201. 93 291.51 291.07 200.65 200.23 280.83 289.42 283.00 288.60 i 288.23 287.78 287.45
I

I
I

45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45 45
'" I ••••••

44 44 4.1
.H

Target lost

32
33
31

......... ....... ...
205.4,1 205.06 29.1.67 294.29 203.00 293.52 202.14 2~)2.80 292.44
I

I

.......... ... ....... . ......... .......... . ......... .......... . .........
•••••••••

4.1 4.1 4.1 41 44 4.1 4t 4t 4.1 4.1

18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25 18.25

I

35
36

37
38 39

10 ~

42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42

44 4.1
H

4,1
H

H 44 4.1 4.1

17.50 17.50 17.50 11.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 17.50 H.5D

2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2256 2251)

-.3 -.3 -.3 -.3 -.3 -.3 -.3 -.3 -.3

NOle.-Tide

+12 feet used to extend center oC impact.

20
RECORD Date
No. Uncorrcctcd rangc to scl-forW:lrc\ poanl

KEPT .

BY PLOTTI:'-JG ROOM GUN 13ATTEHIES

RECORDEH:

Angular travel rcfcrcn('c No.

Corrccted rangc to ~uns

--Dcflcction

,

to

1 2 3 1 5 6 7 8 9 10
11 I:!

---'-----------------------------• Error in range of "20 yards due to It C. S. H. opera lor: . t Error, should have heen 11.6 l. t Error, should have been 11.6 l. ~; ~o deflection sent to guns; should have been 2.(3. II Error in range of 10 yards, in transmission.

13 11 15 16 8310 17 8220 18 8130 19 80;)0 20 7970 21 7890 22 7810 23 7730 21 7650 2;) 7570 26 7.1g0 27 7420 28 73;)0 29 7290 30 Target lost 31 ............. 32 9060 33 8970 31 8870 35. 8770 8670 3611 37 8580 38 RtgO 39 8100 40 R310.

.............. .............. .............. ............. .............. .............. ............. .............. ............. ............. .............. ............. .............. ............. .............

............... . ............... . ............... .
............... . .

••••••••

II

---..
'
1

.

•••••••••

............... . ............... . ............... . ............... . ............... ............... ............... ............... ...............
...............

...............

. ...............

.

.........

I'

. . . .

............... . ...............
.

. ............... . ............

.
'

.......... ..........
••••••••••

1

....

............... . ............... . ...............

11.6:3 14.97t
14.26t

............... . ............... . ............... . ............... . ............... . ...............
R280 8190 8100 8020 7~),10 7860 7780 7700 7G20 7510 7160 73)0 7320 7260

. ...............

.

. . ........... .. .. . ..........
•••••••••• I

. .......... .. ' . ........... ,.'
'
' ,

.

..........
..........

.. .. - .. ,.' ..

,.'
,
'

'

,

.. '

'

•••

I

•••••••

,.'
,.'

. ...........
2.60

~r
2.46 2.62 2.61 2.61 2.62 2.63 2.M 2.62 2.63 2.61 2.66 2.66 . .......... . ..........
,

................
. ................

11.61 11.59 11.59 11.5f) 1-1.58 11.56 11.55 1-1.51 1-1.51 14.57 11.57

...............
9010 8%0 R8S0 8730 8660 8S70 8180
83C>O

...............

, ,

",
.",'

11.60 1.1.59 11.60 11.60 11.59 11.58 11.58 11.;)9 11.58

')

.... <> ...

r,.)

R300

2.52 2.51 2.5,1 2.55 2.55 2.56 2.[)6 2.!",G,

21

Htcon'D
~
No.

-"

,
:

TO BE KEPT AT EMPLACE1\IENTS BY DEFLECTION R~COHDEnS: GUN BATTERIES.

2.63 26 2 2.61 . 27 ';'" . ....... 3 .. " ... ....... . 28 2.66 4 ',,' i ....... . 29 2.66 5 '" .. . . . . . 30 Target " 6 " . .. 31 7 2.52 '" 32 " 8 ",1. 52 . . . . 33 2 .. 9 .. 31 2.5-1 " . ]0 . " -" tit 2.54 35 " 11 . " ... .' . 2.55' .. . 36 12 .. 2.55~ I. .. . . . .... 37 13 . " .. . . .... .', .• 38 2.56 11 2.56 .. . 39 15 ... . . .. 2.56 40 16 2.60 8280 41 ... 17 '" -, 8190 42 . "" ..... 18 2,46* 8100 43 ..... ... 19 2.62 8020 44 ..... ... 20 2.61 7940 45 . ..... . 21 2.61 7860 46 . ,., ..... 22 2:62 7780 47 ....... . 23 7700 48 ....... I~t . 2.63 2.6.1 7620 49 . ....... 25 ~.62 7510 50 ..... "" : . ~ .. l~rror.. should have been 2.63 . ~ ~ t r .. . .
J • I,.
• II II II'

--- '.
1
I I

Ocr: rcc.

Range

,0<

I

No.

De!. rec.

Range

fCC.

No.

Dc!. rec.

Range ree.

~ ••

.

l

4: •

7460 7390 7320 7260
lost ........

51
52 53 51 55
f,6

••

•.••

II'

II

••

II'

••••

II'

•••

1.1

•••

II

,

II

II.

••

II'

'it

.. ..

"

II.

II

II'

II

•••

9010 8950 8850 . 8730 8650t 8570 8480 8390 8300

57
58

"

II'

I

"

...... ..... ... ....... .
., .........

..

....... ... , ... ... .....
"

.

•••••

• t-

"

.......

.

......

59 60 61 6~ 63 61 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 ........ 7t ........ 75 . .... ...

........ . ....... ... ..... ........ ........ . ....... ........ . ....... . ........ ........ . ....... ........ . ....... ........ ..... .. ..... . ,, ........ ........ ........ ....... " ........ ........

. .......
........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ........ ... , .... ........
•••

........
• ••••

1 •••• I

II'

. ........
........ ........ ........

......... . .......

......... ........ ....... "
........ ........ ........ ........

~rror

In

transmissi.on

of range. '

22
GU~S Date ..•............ (Hange) Ballery :..:..:.::-

Shot 1\0
2

~ .
. . tirne.

/
1

2 1 8010

3 3
8710 '8720

3 ,1 5 G 7 8
~I

Gun 1\0 True range to target True correeled range Corrected range used by range board DifT. bel. Lines -1 and 5:

8180 8150

-----3 8000 81!JO 8190

4

7080 7980

SIGO
10
820;') -17)

8no
10 S710 -30

10
11

12

13

Error P.F.S. . . Selling of range <.Jrufl1 at instant of firing . Gun difTerence . Proper selling of range drum at instant of firing, obtained by applying gun <.JifT.to Line 5 .. Error in laying. DilT. 7 and 0 .. Expected true range to splash frolll directing point obtained from acluallaying . True range to splash from di" . recting point. Oil)'. bel. Lines 11 and 12: Armament range error ..... , GU~S

o
802:j -15

o

SIt.l

7\)(j:)

8710

8,1GO

GO

GO
8010

:W
8780
8\120 110

90

8110 1\10

8110

87Gt 1~

10

(Azimuth) Battery . 2~11.7G ~

Date.

. . . . . Shot ~o. "

.'

-,2 3 Az. of gun, instant of fire . Def. used by def. recorder . Oef. cor. due to wind and drift. . Oef. cor. due to aelual tra\'(~l . '. Arbitrary clef. cor . (J jlle ,1 + Correct dcf. 3.00 Line ;) + Line G) •.••••• '" . Error P.F.S.: Line 3 - Line 7. Azimuth of expected splash . :\z. splash . .\rmamcnt error: Line!) - Line

2

,1
~)

r,
7

+

2. 'I() -.28 -.17 +.0;', 2, ()() -.11
2\12. () I :WI.\I\)

:WO.n7 2.61
-.2()

2H1. :31 2.5:>
.2()

---4 _.25
_.1!)

29:3.25 2.56 00

-.18 +.0:; 2.GI 00 2\11.18 +.0;'
2\1l.IS

-.20 00 2.51 +.01 2\).1.57
2\II.G2

8
\)

2.56 00 20:J.50

10
11

2a:J.55 _.05
20:J.[iO

10 12
13

,

"
. _ . gun

+.0;',
2\12.11

-.05
2HI.!")7

Az. target. instant of splash Gun pointer's error: (:LOO Line 3) - Line 12 - Line:; Line 2
1'OTE:

00

+.02
dilTerence where

-.01
ncccss~lry:

Azimuths

for !':o. 1 gun.

+ .32 for

correctc<.J for :\0. 3 gun.

-.1 J

--

00

23

METEOHOLOGICAL
.' GUN AND MORTAR

qATA
BATTERIES

.

l{ept bY F'T elephone Operator _' Date ~atch in B. C. Stalion
..

, ...•..•••.•••

to be synchronized
Wind Tide

with the Hange Offiee'r",)
,. Th~rBarornctc r momt>tcr

--]~ --h 2 2

Time received

I
Vel.

I

rdl'fl'nl'e No ..

Alnm ... "h("ros

m

I

s

- Az.
SHOTS

TRIAL

10

0 0 0 0

0

0

+.1
SHOTS

30.10 30.10 30.08 30.05

79 79 77 73

18.~0
;

RECORD

.. ... .. - .......
'" II

...

.3 3

45 0 10

•••

~

'I

••••••

. ....... ...... . ..... ........ ........ ........ . ....... ~....... . ....... , ....... . . ,- , . ...... ...... ...... ...... . ....... . .......
. , ....
"
I ••••• 1llI ••••••• • II I"

7.0 225.0 7.4 240.0 10.4 280.0

.+.1 +.5 -.3

18.~0 18.2:; 17.~0

I

,

24

HEADEHS' AND AHl\I-SETTEHS' HEPOHT Date
:'\0. Azirnuth

.

Position Arm-setter
}{t1ngc

H'
Azimuth

Signature

.

DiITcrcnCt'S

No.

Differences

1

2 3
4 5
6

.. .. ..
" "

7 8

.. ..
"

26 27 28 29 30 31
3')
'.

2D7.85 2\>7.47 2H7.11 2~)6. 7 8
Target
';'

37 38 36
2'1 lost

--.. ., ... ., ..
.,

Hall,l/c

..

.' .,

,

,

..
28 2\J 30 31 32 32 33 31

n
lD 11

..

.. ..
" "

..

.. ..
.. ..
30 30 30 30 30 31 31 32 33 36

"

12 13
11 15

..

.,

'"

16 17 18
I!) 20

21 22 23
21

25

301.4:~ 301.13 300.82 300.52 300.22 2g~), 1 ~ 29!l.60 2\19.28 298.D5 2\>8.59 298.22

...
..

..

.

;.

33 3! 35 36 37 38 3D 40 41 42 .13 41 45 46 17 48 'lD
50

303.13 302.85 302.56 302.26 301.D5 301.63 301.31 300.~)8 300.61

,

.. ,

..
.,
.'

.. ,

.'

..

.,
,

..

.. ..
.,
.,

.'
,

.'

.. , .. ,

:H

., ., ., ., .,

25

. HEADERS' Date. AND ARM-SETTERS' Reader 13'
No .

. REPORT Signature .•....•....
flange

.

--1 2 3 • -1 5 6

---N:-'
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
17 18
19

....
Azimuth

.
Di1Terenccs

P03ition.
Range

Azimuth

Di1Tcrcnccll

.. :.
•••••••• • ••••••••••••••

.
. .

26
27

28
29

297.85 297.47 297.11 2f.l6.87
Target lost

37 38 36
21

. ....... . ....... . ........
.........

..... : ..

30
31
I

. . '" ...........•.....•..... . . .

32
33 31 35

........................... 303.13 .
302.85 302.56 302.26 301.95 301.63 301.31 300.98 300.6-1 28
29 30 31

. . . . . . .. .. .••.•••.•......••....••... ..............•..........

~~ "30i:43'
301.13 300.82 300.52
300.22

"30'" ::::::::
30 31 30
30

36 37 38 39 40
41

........

. . . .

.
.

. . .

32 32 33
31
/

.

,
,

42 43
4.1

........................... .................... ~ ..... .. ~. ...... . .
. . . . .. . ...

........

......

..

.

20 21 22 ') .. 3 21 2; ____

299.91 2n9.60 299.28 298.95 298.59 2~8.22

31 31 32 33 36 37

45 46

. .. .. ... ..
•• j, ••• ' • -. ••

.~. ..~
"

','

'.

47
48

.................... :....:.
..........................

'........

••

~

•••••

49
50

............................

..•....•..•.•.......•

f .••. :

2G
\

HEADEHS' AND AHM-SETTEHS' HEPOHT Date..................
No
Azimuth DilTerences

Position. Arm-setter
Range

B"

Signature

-

,.,.

No.

Azimuth

1

DilTcrcnccs

.
"

,

2 3
-1

" " "

.,

5 6
7 8

.. .. .. .. ..
"

,.

..

"

.. ..

..

"

"

9 10
11

..

12 13
1-1

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 25

.. .. .... .. ., .. .. . , .. ..
'" " "

.. ..

"

285.86 212.78 281.30 283.82 •283.49 282.R! 282.35 281.85 281.31 280.82

"

48 48 48 48 33 65 49 50 51 52

..
.. .. .. .. , . .... ..

..

26 27 28 29 30 31 32 3:3 3! 35 36 37 38 39 40 11 42 43 41 45 46 47 48 49 50

280.29 279.75 279.28 278.8.1
Target
"

53 51 47
. ,11 lost

.,

Range

., .,

...
,

.. .'
.'
.,

288.51 288.08 287.63 287.17 286.71 286.23 285.75 285.25 281.75

43 45 46 46 ,t8 48 50 50

..

..

.. ..
.,

.,

..

..
..

.... ..

.. .,
., .,

...

.,

.. ..

.. ..

..

.. ."

.. .. ..

.,

, ,

• Error by reader corrected by plotter

27

HEADEHS'

AND AHM-SI~TfEnS'
",

nEPOHT Signature
Bange

-I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Date .. No.

......

,

Position.

Reader B".

.

--11
12 13

Azimuth OilTcrences . Range

No.

I

J

AZimulhloilTerenCeli

.

..... .........
.

,

...

,

......

26 : 27 28 29 '30 31

280.29 279.75 279.28 278.8.1
Target lost

53 51

47
41

. ...... ........ ....... ........ ........
.
",

32
. 33 3t 35

..............

36 37
38
39.

11
15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

....
285.26 281.78 281.30 283.82 283.33 282.81 282.35 . 281.85 281.31 280.82

..

..

I'

I

••••

48 48 48 48
,19

......

t"

........
........ ....... ........ ........

.11 .12 43 4.1 45
46

40

............ 288.51 43 288.08 45 287.6:J 46 287.11 46 286.71 48 286.23 . .18 285.75 50 285.25 50 '281.75 .••••.•••..•••••••.••••••. ••....•..•...•.••.•.•..•. .••••..••...•.••••.•••.••. .•.••..••....•.••••••••••. .•••••••••••••••••.•••••.
.•••..•.••..•••••••••••.•.

..... ........ ........ . . ........
,.,

........
,

.

.... , ..

23
21

~

I

49 49 50 51 52

........ ......... .. ......
,

47

.......................•..

:~ I::::~::::::::::::: ::::::::
I

• • • • • • • 01

'

50

................•......•..

T~mc bell:20 - 3:01:15 Tunc bell:30 - 3:09:15;'

:i

"

28

29

--_.--::.

30

;

TIMEKEEPER'S ,

BECORD

Fan

llATTEHY. . , 191 ..
Cause 01 interruption

PRACTICE Company, C. A. C.

Batl~ry I

Fort. . . . . . . . . .

Date .... ' .........•..
II.

M.

S.

Commenced firing. Tim~ of'last shot. " Elapsed time .•..... .. Total time out. ... Corrected time. .. .. .
Time Shot No.

3 59 30 .. . .. . .. . . . . . . 4 02 30 .... . 03 .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . .... . . .. 03 . . ..
II •• II ,'.

-"

Deduction of timo allowed

Penalties,

f

•••••••

. . . . .. . . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. ., .., .. . . . .. . . . ......
"f
II •• II f II' ,--

-~ I"

"

I"

"

I

•••

each shot was fired

1

2
i3

ot
.5

,6 7
8

9
10 II

12 13
11 15

16
17 I~

. . .... . . . . .. . . . . .... A pit 1 <1 00 00 .. . . . . .... . . . . . ..... A pit 2 4 00 00 . . . ... . . . ,ll pit 1 <1 00 30 .. .. ... . . ..... B pit 2 <1 00 30 ... . . . . . . . . .. ........ A pit 1 4 01 00 . . . . .. I. . ... . . . . .. .... A pit 2 <1 01 00 ... ... . .. . B pit 1 4 01 30 ....... . .. B pit 2 4 01 30 ... . . .. : A pit 1 .1 02 00 .. . .. . . . ... . . ..... . .. .... A pit 2 4 02 00 .. .. . . ... .... B pit 1 <1 02 30 . . .. . n pit 2 <1 02 30 .. .. .. .. . .. . . .... ........... ...... . ..... ...... .. ... . ... .. .. . . . ..... . .. . .... .. . .. ., .. ....... .. .. . ... . .... .... . ... . .... . ........ . ..... ...... .. ... . ... . ... ............ . . .... .. ........ . ... ..... ... . ... . .... .... ..... .. .. ... . ... . Total . ... 3 min.
Gun No.

II.

.. ---_. ... . . . . .
M.
S.
• II I. I
• II •• "

•••

"

••

II

-

••

II

,',

•••••

If

I.

'"

If

•••••

f

•••••

II

"

•••

II

I"

'"

II

••••••

"

•••

If'

••••

If

••

I.

I

••••••

If

II

II-

••

If

•••

II

•••

II

II

II

••

II

,,-

"

"

II

••••

If

I-

II

If

If

••

II

•••

••

II

II

,1-

•••

II

••

••

II

II

••

I

••••••••

If

I

II

,.,

, ,

'

,.,

I
.

.,

j

i

I
Approved:

.................................
Coast Artillery

'

J

'~

Corps, Time.keeper.

..................................
Coast Artillery Corps, Umpire.

I

j

~

:-

j

1

.t!U jO ~un1UJadwa.L
aBJuq:> JapA\od pawnssu JO 'dwa~

I MM~'H"'~~ r--r--r--r--r--r-I
~~Cp~~~ 'J:)~~~~~

I I

.10 _ .... C"l

.6-

.h1pO(a ....91zznW

q:r.laJq JO 9:>IlJ 01 91!l -:>;)!oJd JO 9S11q WOJj ;):>ull1S!0 (saSnBS q10q pJO:>9J) ;)JnssaJd l;.lq:>U! 'I!o:>au SdaJ;; -ap 'hUll J! '9J!J JO uonn .... Ja9 -qo WOJj uon:>aJJo:> qlnw!zy SpJllh 'qsll\ds JO lUB1SU! 18 labJBl JO IlDUBH

I I
\

_00-_C'1 C"lC"l""C"lC"lC"l

...... C"lC'lC'lC"lc-1C"l
""""""",,"""1' 000000 000000 OC~~-OC"I Lf')Lf')lr:OCO _ ........ c-1 C'l

I

I

I I "1 I
I

rn
Eo<

0

rn

~ ~ ~

::: 6~<Il ci.~] ..l

~-+vi .° °
• 1-< ....

~ ~ 0
rn
Eo<

~ ~ .5
\
"t:l
Q)

I-<

~.t::
Oro

"t:l~

,Q

41

.... (l)

........
;8
~c::
1-<rJ:l

g

.. ell
ttl Cll 0

• (l) :' .... .c:

0

..0

.c: .-

-E
:cn ....:

Q)

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()

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~---=-

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=

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1_C"l~"1'LIj~r--oo~s;:::;j

Artillery Notes No 38.
HECORD

To face page 30 (3-2).

Fon

PLOTTING
MORTARS

nOOM

Battery Trial

.

Company,

C. A. C

.

Date .....•............ Record

191 •• •

"""'--------------------------------Sh ots .......................
. to pred. point ........... . of set-forward point. ...... ting of deflection scale ...... r. az. sent to pits .......... nge to S.-F. P ............. nge correction ............. sent to pits ............... ne ....................... nge to target .............. nge to splash ............. orailLate~al dev. plotted: deg. Longl t. dev. plot ted :yds. e of day of shots, p.m ....• 1

280.29 275.90 274.30 274.30 279.35 278.40 278.40 278.05 278.05 276.95 276.95 275.90 2.75 2.75 2.75 275.80 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.65 2.65 269.50 269.50 0 271.85 271.85 270.90270.90 274.45 274.45 275.45275.45274.65274.65 6060 6060 273.20 ~73.20 273.20 271.10 271.10 271.10 5920 5920 5855 5855 5750 5750 5580 5580 5665 5665 5810 5810 -120 5810 -120 5810 5810 -120 -120 5810 -120 -120 -210 -210 -210 -210 -210 -210 0 0 0 0 62.50 62.50 0 0 61.05 63.40\63.40 55.30 55.30 6t.05 6 6 51.20 51.20 51.2C 63.40 63.40 63.40 57.25 57.25 56.3°156.30 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 5 5 5 5810 5810 5810 5810 5810 5810 Record 5935 5960 Trial 5930 5985 6020 6080 shots. shots. 0.36R 0.42R 0.35 R 0.25 R 0.30n 0.27 n +140 +115 +110 +165 +265 +200 Time of day of first record shot, 4 :00 p.m. 4:00 p.m. Time of day ... 1:30 p.m. 1:30:001:30:301 :30:001 :31:301:32:001:32:30 Time of day of last record shot, 4:02:30 p.m. 10 m.p.h. 10 m.p.h. Vel. of wind ... 275 Az. of wind .... 275 2.2 'fide ......•... 1.5 ...................................... 81 Thermometer .. 82 .........................• C.A. C. 30.00 30.15 Barometer '" . Range Officer.

.....

.

-- -- -- -- -- 281.12 ...... . ........... ..... . ..... . '275.80 275.80 279.35 275.80 275.80275.80 2.65 0 0 o 0 0

2

3

4

5

6

---- 1

-- 279.48 -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 279.48 -- 278.5.1 278.51 277.67 277.67 278.28 278.28 281.12 280. 2~)
3 4 5
I

2

e

7

8

9

10

11

12

-

.--..

I

Artillery Notes No. 38. To face page 30 (3-3).
TARGET PRACTICE ANALYSIS, . 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 HAPID-FIRE GUNS . 5 4 5 -1 2 3 -4 5 1 Date .....•...................... 6 2 3 4 5 1 2 7 3
4

~

Ballery ..

:'\0. of string.
f shot.

-----

-

.

Caliber ..........•...............
I

IV! del o 2

Carriage
4

Company firing

.

1 1 2 3 4 5 1
2

3 4 5

8
5 1 2 3 4 5

I

-

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

3

-- --

-- -- --

I Hange to target.

I'aclic al ~o. of picce.

-- -- -- -- -:

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

I

Corr, clion: Up

Down

+

-

~ Hange laid. c,; ~ Ilangi ng shots: O\,er ... ,.;: Short ....

+ ynrds

- ynrds.
Firing". ,_Up + Down :

I )u!Jse quent

r~angC laid at~"Commenee

.

corrections:

I
r

Hang; ng from one gun ranging. \\"ind component • ~LP.I I., cross; est. b y C. '"

l Sheaf

I Drift (tabular)

n.

.

~

o
~

~ l)eOeclion for first shot.
III

IT""
~

I (from

n.

C. inst.)

~ '0 '0 l: or:: ~ n. C. inst.
tI)

...

...: ":":.£; ~o. 1 gun pointer. ~.'. ,~tI) .... ~ c:: ~ r:

.
Fir-

No. 2 gun pointer. DcOec lion used at "Commence ing' ,
qUenl corrections announced

-

-

;

'lion used on sights.

'1'
HEMARKS

:

I:

~

I
~

\iU e ote._ The Battery Commander will cause such records to be kept as :tft nable him to fill in the data called for by this form immediately er lh rheCk the pra~lice. After the form is completed the Analysis Board will ~hllse r e vanous columns and will note therein the correct values when '! the e~rded are in error. The "Remarks" column will be ulilized ~\J"tor th oard for appropriate remarks concerning errors and the cone Practice in general

31
RECORD TO BE KEPT BY HAl':GE RECORDER PLOTTING HOOM OF MORTAH BATTERIES Date July 28, 1914. 35th Co., C. A. C.-Battery Huggles. Taken by Pvt. Dull.
, No. Timc of flight RanRc to Travel to set-forward set-forward point point RanRc correction Elevation

IN

Travel

,1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
11

",

----

12 13

38 38 37 46 46 41 43 12 42 41 52 51 51.

,

190 ' 180 190 170 180 180 170 190 190 170 180 180 H)O

: 310 290 310 300 320 ,310 290 320 320 ' 285 3,10 330 350

4500 4580 4675 4870 4900 5190 5430 5580 5665, 5750 5855 5920 flOGO

-210

'-120

58.0:> 57.05 55.40 63.30 63.20 61.05 58.55 57.25 56.30 55.30 6.1.05 63.40 62.50

HECOHD KEPT BY AZIMUTH RECORDER IN PLOTTING nOOM OF l\10HTAH BATTEHIES' D:lte July 28, 1911.

"

-----------------------------No. -'---1
2'
Azimuth to predicled point
"

B:ltlery

BuggIes.

Azimuth to' , sl'l-forwurd point .....
".

Corrected azimuth to S .• F. P. sent to pits

Deflection cor.othl'r than drift
.'

Zone

Pit

3 '1 5 6

7
8 9 10

11'
12' i

~

290.08 289.flO 288.35 286.60 286.55 281.41 282.60 281.12 280.29 279.48 278.51 277.67 278.28

288.0f> 288.25 286.90 284.91 28-1.61 282.7-1 280.85 279.35 278.40 278.05 276.95 275.90 '274.30

281.00 281.35 283.20 279.8[) . 279.60 278.20 276.70 275.45 271.f>5 274.45 271.85 270.90 269.50

2.65

2.75

4 .4 .4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6' .

13 A 13 A 13 .A .B A

B
A B A B

32

HECOHD TO BE KEPT BY RAl"GE RECOHDEH PLOTTIl"G BOO:'.1 OF l\10HTAH BATTEHIES July 29, H1l1-Battery Replotted r-.:o.
Time of Hight Travel

IN

Ruggles.

by Captain IIa'nly.
Travel to set-forward point Range to set-forward point RanR~ correction

Elevation

1

~

3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

38 38 37 46 .16 41 ,13 .12 .12 .11 52 52 51

185 183 183 185 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180 180

300 300 29;") 325 320 310 310 305 305 305 33;") 333

:n:>

4ElO 4580 46~l5 "18G5 4910 5193 5110 5580 5635 571;") 5835 5~)50 G06")

-210

-120

58.15 57.05 55.30 G:3.35 63.15 61.00 59.05 57.25 56.50 55.30 G1.03 6:3.30 62.50

-

HECOHn TO BE KEPT BY AZI:\IUTII HECOHDEH IN PLOTTING noo:'.! OF ~!OnTAn BATTEHIES Date July 2~, 1911-I3attery BuggIes. Hcplotted by Capl. Hanly. r-.:o.
Azimuth to predicted point Azimuth to set-forward point Corrected azimuth sent to pils J)ef!pclion ('orn'clion ollH'r than drift

Zone

Pit

1

2 3 -1 5 G 7
X

9 10 11 I 12 i 1'~ I

290.13 28~).90 288.50 28G.GO 286.:10 281.31 282.70 28 [,07 280.39 27n.33 278.51 . 277.57 . 278.3:3

i

288.10 288.25 28G.80 285.0~) 281.71 282.71 280.70 27!1.30 278.10 278.10 27G.!JO 27G.00 271.20

281.05 281.37 283.17 280.01 279.71 278.22 276.50 27j.3~) 271.56 271.17 271.80 271.01 26J.31

2.65

1 ,1 .1 5 5 5 5 5

B A B A B A B A. B A B A B

;,
2.75 5 G G
(j

-

j

33

DISPLAY BOAHD RECORD TO BE KEPT IN PIT' OF MORTAR BATTERIES
Date July ~8. 1914. Pit. A. Battery
Zone recorded

Ruggles.
I

Pvt. Hayden.
Elevation ree. Azimuth ree. Zone recorded

-No.

I

Elevation ree.

Azimuth ree.

No.

1 2 3 4 5 6

7
8 9 10

11
12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

.. .. . ... .. . .. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... ... ... . . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ~.. .. .. .. ... . .. .... .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. ... .. .. ...

57.05 63.30 61.05 57.25 55.30 63.40

.. .. ..

284.35 279.85 278.20 275.45 274.05. 270.90

4 5 5 5 5 6

.... ..

.. ..

'

21 22 23 2,1 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 3! 35 36 37 38 39 40

... ....... .......... ..... ..... . ........ .......... ....... ... ....... ..........
\

. ...

. ..... . ... . ....

.... ... .. . .. . ...... . .. ... .... .... . ......... . ...
. ..... ...... . .... . ..... . .... . .... . .... . ...

.... ..... . ......... .. ... . ......... .. .. . .... . ......... .. .. . .... . ......... .... ..... . ......... .... ..... . ......... ... .... ... . ........ ........ . .........

. ...

. .. ..

. . ...

..

.... .....

. .........

.......... .........

. .........

......... . ......... .... .. ... .........

. .........

..........

. .........

. ...

. .... . .....

• Error in transmitting

to pit.

34

DISPLAY

BOARD RECORD TO DE KEPT MORT BATrERIES

An

IN PIT

OF

Pit

n.

Dattery

BuggIes.

Pvt. SIaden.

Date July 28, 1914.

-

No.

Elevation rec.

Azimuth rcc.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15 16 17 18 19 20

58.05 55.40 63.20 58.55 56.30 61.4562.50

... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. ...
- Error in transmitting

.......... ... .... ... ... .. ....... .. . ...... .. . .... ..... ..... ... ... .. . .. .......... ... .... ... .. ....... .. . ....... . .. .......... .. .. .... . .. .. .......... ..... .... ... .. ......... ... .. ..... ... .......... .... .... ..... .......... ...... .... ...... ....... ... .. .... ... .. .......... ... .... ... ... ..
to pit.

284.00 283.20 279.60 276.70 274.65 271.85 26:>.50

-

Zone recorded

No.

Elevation ree.

Azimuth ree.

4 4 5 5 5 6 6

1

21 22 23 21 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 31 35 36 37 38 39 40

... .. .... .... ..... ...... .. .. .. .. ...... .. .. ... .. .... .. .... ... ..... .... .. .... .... .. .. ..... .. .... ... .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .... .. .. ... . ..... .. .... . . .. ... ... . .. .... . . . .. ...... ... .. . ..... .. .. .. .... .... .. . .. . .. .. . ... .. ..... . ... ... .. .. .. .. ... .. .... .. .... ... ... .. ..... .. .. .. .. .. ... ... .... .. ... ... .. .... .. . . .. .. .... .. ... ... . .... .. .. ... .... .. ...... .. ... .... .. ..... ... .... .. .. .. .. ... .. ... .. ...... .. ... .. .. ':.:

Zone re" corded

-

35
RECORD KEPT BY ELEVATION CHECKER No.2.
. No.

Pit A.
Elevation set

Battery Ruggles.
Azimuth set

Sergt~ Hartley.
Remarks

1 2 3

57.25 55.30 63.30.

July 28, 1914 ............ ............ ...................... .... ........ . .....................
'

• Error in setting.

RECORD KEPT BY ELEVATION ClIECKEH
No.4.
No.

PitA.

Battery R'uggles.

Sergt. Zack.
Remarks

I

Elevation set

I

Azimuth set

I

1 2 3

57.25 55.30 63.40

July 28, 1914 ............ . ...... ..... ...................... ... ......... ......................

HECORD KEPT BY ELEVATION CHECKER No.2.
No.

Pit B.
Elevation set

Battery Ruggles.
Azimuth set

Pvt. Carver.
Remarks

1 2 3

I

56.30 64.45 62.50
,

........... . July 28, 1914 • . ..................... ............ ..... .... ...
I •••••••••••••••••••••

RECORD KEPT BY ELEVATION CHECKER
No.4.
No.

Pit B.
Elevation set

Battery Ruggles.
Azimuth set

Pvt. Frank.
Remarks

1 2 3

56.30 64.45 62.50

. ........ ... July 28, 1914 . ....... ..... ...................... ....... ..... ......................

36
RECORD KEPT BY AZIl\IUTII No.2. Pit A. Battery BuggIes. CHECKER Pvt. Porter.
Remarks

1 2 3

No.

Elevation

sel

Azimuth

sel

.................... .................. ....................

.. ..

275.45 274.05 270.10.

July 28, 1914.
..........................................
..

........................................

• Error in setting.

RECOHD KEPT BY AZIMUTH No.4. Pit A. Battery BuggIes.

CIIECKEH Corp!. l\IcBridl',
Hemarks

1 2 3

No.

Elevation

scl

Azimuth

set

........ .............. .............

....
..

"

.
..

..

275.15 271.05 270.g0

July 28, 1911.

.. ....

........

..

"

"

. . . .. . ... . . . . .. .
"

~I "''''.lion
1 2 3
................

HECOHn KEPT BY AZIl\IUTII No.2. Pit B. Ballery Ruggles.
"'1

CIIECKEH Corp!. Carter.
nom,ok,

A,;molh

'0'

I
,

.......... ,,'j
..

, ..

274.65 271.85 2G~.50

July 28, 191-1 . , . .

HECOHD No.4.

KEPT

BY AZI:\IUTH Ballery BuggIes.

CIlECKEB Pvt. Bang.

Pit B.

_N_O_' _, __ I_':ll_!\'_a_ti_on_S_(~_t_, __ A_z_im_I_1 t_h_s_ct_1

n•• "k, m

1 2 3

::::::::::::

I

271.6'> 271.85 2W.50

July 28, Inl1.
............................................ ............................................

37 j
/

READER'S Corp!. French. Battery
No.

RECORD B' Station Reader. July 28, 1914.
DilTerence

Ruggles.
Azimuth.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

11
12 13 14 . 15 16 17 18 19 20

301.35 299.74 298.16 296.60 295.05 293.73292.03 290.54 289.07 287.63 286.20 284.79 283.39 282.02 . 280.78279.36 278.06
276.79
I

275.51 27"'.10

1.61 1.58 1.56 1.55 1.32 1.70 1.49 1.47 1.4.1 1.43 1.41 1.40 1.37 1.2.1 1.42 1.30 1.27 1.25 1.2.1

• Poor observation.

ARM-SETTEH'S Pvt. Smilh. Battery
No.

RECOHD

B' Arm-Setter.
July 28. 1914.
DilTcrence

Ruggles.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9

10
11

12 13

14
15 16 17 18 19 20

301.35 299.74 298.16 296.60 295.05 293.73 292.03 290.54 289.07 287.63 286.20 2S.t. 79 283.39 282.02 280.78 279.36 278.06 276.79 275A~. 271.30

-

Azimuth

1.61 1.58 1.56 1.55 1.32 1.70 1.49 1..17 1.44 1.43 1.41 1.40 1.37 1.21 1.'12 1.30 1.27 1.31 1.15

• Error in transmission.

39

READER'S Corpl. Berg. Battery
No.

RECORD Reader.

ri" Station
Azimuth

Ruggles, July 28, 1914.
DiJTcrence

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

267.67 267.01 266.33 265.61 261.97 264.29 263.61 262.98 262.42. 261.65 260.98 260.30 259.65 258.98 258.29 257.61 256.97 256.48. 255.63 254.97

66 68
69 67

68
65 ..

66 56

77
67

68 65
67

69
65 . 67 49 85

66

• Poor observation.

40

ARM-SEITER'S Pvl. Brown. nattery
No.

RECORD

n" Arm-Seller.
Azim'Jlh

BuggIes, July 28, 1914.

I 2 3
4

-267.67 267.01 266.33 26;).61 261.5726 1.2~ 263.61 262.98 262..12 261.65 260.98 260.33 25~.65 258.98 258.29 257.61 256.97 256.18 25;""1.63 251.~)7

DilTcrcncc

5 6
7

8 9 10
11

12 13 11 15 16 17 18 19 20

66 68 69 107 28 65 66 56 77 67 68 65 67 69 65 67 49 ~5 66

• Error in lransmission.

41

1-"

,METEOnOLOGICAL

DATA KEPT BY F'TELEPIIONE
GUN AND MORTAR BATTERIES

OPERATOR

\

Mus. Jones. Battery
"

Date, July 28, 1914. . \Vatch in B.C. Station to he synchronized with Range Officer's H uggles.
Time received II. Wind Velocity

,
Tide Bar. Thcr.

--- --15

M.

. S.

I

Atmos. ref. No.

'Azimuth

I 3
4

45
15

00 00 00

.10 10
,10

I

275

2iO
270

1.5 2.2 2.5

30.15 30.00 30.00

I I

82 81 80

19.00 10.40 19.25

,i

.. .' 1

42

Off'

,"" :.-~:

!H
::1'
!o.

: I~

j
"

I

I

TARGET ----------Trial Shots -------------.., 2

PRACTICE

ANALYSIS,

l\IORTARS Shots _.__
;

Artillery Notes No. 38. To face pagt' 42.
'
,

,r---------.----------Record

~1
2

Shot No..

. .................

,
15 2A 5950 5830 5810 -20 5840 +30 5960 5980 +20-50 276.00 16 17 2B 6065 5945 5950 +5 5950 0 18 4A 4B

1 2A 5810 5810 .

3

",

4

5 2n .5810 5810 5810 0 5810 0
Unknown

6 2B 5810 5810 5810 0 5810 0
Unknown

7 2A 5580 5370 5375 +5 5375 0 5585 5375 +10

8

9 23 5635 5-125 5460 +35

10

11

12

13

14

6

Gun No " ................. 3 1" 1"file range t 0 t arge t ........ '1 fue Corrected range to target 5 C ~frected range correspond~ng to the elevation posted IY In pit ...................

2A 5810 5810 5810 0

2A 5810 .5810 5810 0 5810 0'
Unknown

2B 5810 5810 5810 0 5810 0
Unknown

........
........
. .......

4A

. .......
• •••• I ••

. .......

4B

2A 5745 5535 5515 +10 5545 0 5755 5765 +10 278.10

. ....... . ....... . ....... . ....... . ....... . .......

4A

2B 4B 5855 ; ..1 ..... 5735 . .......
[

. .......
........

. .......

........
........ . .......

5810 0

I.IT. bet. Lines 4 and 5: error

5610 -25 5610 0
f

I

. ....... ....... .

7 C In P.P.S .................

(~freeted range correspondIng to elevation at which piece was fiIre d ........... 5810 8 .IIT. bet. Lines 5 and 7: error 0 9 RIn laying ................ '.."Peeted range to splash Unknown 10 T from the actual laying .... ,0 as 1. 6080 11 fyrue range t sp I I ..•.... lIT. bet. Lines 9 and 10: crror Unknown 12 A of armament. ............ clual az. of target at instant 275.80 13 1" of splash ................ file Cor. az. of target, at in273.20 11 C Slant of splash ........... orrected az. of S.-F.P. postcd i n pl'l ................. 273.20 15 lIT. bet. Lines 13 and 14: F S 0 16 A Cl"rorin P.............. 273.20 17 Z at w h'ICh' picce fiIre d ...... lIT. bet. Lines 14 and 16: .18 ~l"ror in laying ........... 0 AZImuth of splash expected from laying .............. 275.80 19 276.16 20 ~~lual azimuth of splash .... lIT. bet. Lines 18 and 19: error of armament. ...... : +0.36

........

. .......

. .......
5810 0 5930 5910 -20

. .......
........
........

n'

5810 0
Unknown

........ ........

5-160 . ....... 0 5670 5700 +30 278.40 27,1.56 27:1.65
. ..+.09 . .......

I

. .......
. .......

6020
Unknown

5985
Unknown

5930
Unknown

5960
UnknOwn

........
5615 +60

5935
Unknown

. .......
5630 -40

. .......
5765 +10

(

5730 J 5770 , +40 276.90 271.80
:

........
5670 -60+50

6070 ' . ....... 6060 6070 -10 0

!
I
I

275.80 273.20 273.20 0 273.20 0 275.80 276.22

275.80 273.20 273.20 0 273.20
(}

275.80 271.10 271.10 0 271.10 0 275.80 276.05

275.80 271.10 271.10 0 271.10 0 275.80 276.10 +0.30

275.80 271.10 271.10 0 271.10 0 275.80 276.07 +02.7

279.30 ........ 275.39 275..45

. .......
.

. ....... . .......

. ....... . ....... . ........

. ....... 27.1.20 .. .......
269.39 . ....... 269.50 . ....... +.11 ........ 269.50 269.50 0 0

........ ........
.....
275.45 .......

. ....... . ....... ........
........

27-1.47
"-

n'

271.0,1 . ....... 270.90

,27,1.05 . .......

271.85
I

. .......

n'"

.

+.06 275.45 0

271.65

-.42 27.1.65 274.05 0 278.05 278.35 +0.30

. .......
274.05
. .......

+.05 ....... . - .14 271.85 271.8;") 270.40
0
i
\

. .......
270.90 0 275.90 276.05 +0.15

.

0

I . .......
-0.05

-50 275.40 275.40 { -0.50 +0.65

275.80 276.15 +0.3.5

279.35 ....... . 278.40 ........ 279.45 279.45 278.40 278.55 +0.10 -0.10 0 +0.15

. .......
277.95 +0.10

276.95: . ....... 276.75' 276.90
I

I

+0.42

I

27-1.30 274.60 274.10 274.30 -0.20 -0.30

+0.25

-0.20
F

Present Status

of the Series of Artillery Notes
Tille

No.

1 Inctrurtions for TIegulating Powder Charges of Coast Artillery in Tnrgct Pf3ctice. . .t 2 Armor Allncl: Sheet. . t 3 Direclion~ for Srlling Up, Adjusting, and Using the LewIs T)'pe" A ,. Depression Position Findl.'r . •t -1 Proceedings of a Board of Officers, C!Jnven('d at Go\"('rnors Isbnd, N('w York, for thc Purpose of Prcpa~l~g an<}.Formulating a System \ of Elt'ctrical Communication for Artillery I'lre Control. .t 5 Construction of fI DilTerence Chart . •t 6 Descril)lion ~nd Diagram of the TehlUtograph . •t 7 Curves and Tables of Hohinson's Anemometer • •t 8 The J.('wi~ Depr('ssion Po~ition Finder. I~unrtion and .M,.~hod of Opcrution of the Elcvatlllg Screw. DeVice for IIlumlllatlng the Cross- Wire~. Supplement to Artillery Note No.3. 9 S('archlights. . 10 Mortar Zones and Mortar Hange Tables. 11 Scaconst Engincf'ring. • 12 Notf's on oil Enllines . • fa 1~ System of Nomenclature of Parts of Modern B3tteries. t 14 }'orm for "H('port of an Inspection Helative to C«'ast Artillery Instruction. the Condition of L1.eBatteries, and the Fire Control and Direction Sv~tem." .t 15 Tco;;tof Exp('fimcntal FIre Control Installation at Pensacola. Florida . • fb 16 Notes on Explosives. 17 Noles on the T('lephon€' . •t 18 Tlwory of the Storage Battery. IH pigesL of Orders ar.d Circularc; Jssu('d by the \Var Departmpnt Pertaining to the Care and Use of Seacoast Armament from January I, 1896, to January I, 1904. . .t 20 Correspondencc Helntive Lo Preparation of Data for Elevation Scal{'~ • of Seacoast Guns. 21 Topical I ndex of Artillery Subj('ct~. 22 Prnctical Method of Adju'3ling a Modern Gun. t 23 ni!'cus!'ion Bcarin~ en the Tactical Use of Mortars. 2,1 Top!cal Index of Artillery Subjects. Supplement to Artillery Note No. 21. . 2!'l Note o~ Ballistic Tnhles. 26 Construelion of a DifTerenre Chart. 27 Torical Index of Artillery Subj('cts. Second Supplement to ArtilJery Note No. 21. 28 A St udy of Attacks Upon Fortified Harhor<;. 29 Correction of Bange Scales for Height of Site and Curvature . •(' 30 Tables of Logarithms of Trigonometric Function!l Computed for De~f('es and Hundredths of Degree. • 31 Searchlil1hts. 32 Searchlights. 3:3 Locfltion and Repflir of Faults in Submarine Mine Cable. 31 Schloming Film-Scale. 35 A Ml'thod of J~ilJin~ Projectiles. . 36 The W('('kly Mml' Commflnd Inspection. 37 .Joint Naval find CO'lst D('fcnse Exercises, August 3-9. 1913. 38 Annlysis of Target Practice.

.t

:t

• Out print. o 1l!lolcle . • Included in COOllt ArtiJIcry nrill RCFlulofionfl. 6 ~lIpcr8cdcd hy Weaver's "Notell on Military ElI:plofliv~." t: Not to be reprinted, as such tables can be purchased commercially.

t

or

ARTILLERY NOTES No. 39
Gasoline Engines in Distribution-Box
Boats and Mine- Yawls

PUBLISHED

UNDJ<;R SUPERVISION

OF THE

SCHOOL

BOARD
SCHOOL

COAST ARTILLERY

FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA
COAST ARTILLERY SCHOOL PRESS

1915

THIS NOTE WAS PREPARED BY CAPTAIN JAl\IES

B. TAYLOR,
CORPS

COAST ARTILLERY

GASOLINE ENGINES IN DISTRIBUTION-BOX BOATS AND MINE YA\VLS
GENERAL k
FEATURES OF INTERNAL ENGINES COl\1BUSTION

There are two general types of internal combustion engines, nOWnas the four-cycle engine and the two-cycle engine. . In the four-cycle engine there are two vah-es, one of which ~sthe inlet valve, for admitting the mixture of air and gasoline .0 the cylinder, and the other is the exhaust valve, for allowIng the escape of the burned gases from the cylinder to the eXhaust pipe. The inlet valve may be operated by a cam :ha~t, or it may be operated by suction, as in the Standard nglne. The exhaust valve is always operated by a earn shaft. The earn shaft, whether it operates one or both of the ~a~ves, lnust rotate at one-half crank-shaft speed. This re~hon is obtained by driving the earn shaft with pinions. The PI.n~on keyed to the earn shaft has twice as many teeth as the . • finion which is keyed to the crank shaft. It is also necessary bO make the pinions mesh so that the position of the cams ears a definite relation to the position of the cranks. There are four events, requiring four strokes of the piston Ortwo revolutions of the crank shaft, which make one complete ~Ycleof operations. These are: (1) the suction stroke, which raws in a charge, of air and gasoline; (2) the compression ~troke, during which the volume of the charge is greatly ret~ced and the pressure increased by the piston moving toward e head end of the cylinder; (3) the expansion stroke, or the i.ower stroke, caused by the firing of the mixture at about the lll~eof highest compression; and (4) the exhaust stroke, during WhIch the burned gases leave the cvlinder. The inlet valve opens soon after the piston starts o~ its travel from the head c~d of the cylinder toward the crank end and closes when the PIston starts toward the head end on compression stroke. ~uring compression and power strokes both valves are closed. he exhaust valve opens just before the piston reaches the end of its travel on the power stroke, and closes just after the
(1)

2 piston has completed its travel toward its head end. 1m" mediately after the exhaust valve closes, the inlet valve opens. In the two-cycle engine there are no valves. The engine may be two-port or three-port. The crank case must be air" tight. A two-port engine requires a check valve between the crank case and the carburetor, as in the Lathrop engine. A three-port engine, such as the Bridgeport, needs no check valve. The four events described above for a four-cycle engine are, in the two-cycle engine, completed in two strokes, or one revolution of the crank shaft. Assume that the piston is at the head end of the cylinder with a charge of air and gasoline compressed above it. A spark Occurs at the igniter points and the piston is forced downward on a power, or expansion, stroke. At the same time a charge of air and gasoline, whic? had entered the crank case on the preceding upward stroke, IS compressed. \Yhen the piston is a short distance fronl the end of its power stroke, the exhaust port, which is an opening in the wall of the cylinder, is uncovered by the piston and the burned gases allowed to escape. Just after the exhaust port is uncovered, the inlet port is uncovered by the piston. The inlet port is connected by a passage in the cylinder wall with the crank case. The charge which had been compressed in the crank case can now rush into the cylinder through the inlet port. A projection on the piston, called a deflector plate, prevents the charge from blowing across the top of the piston and out through the exhaust port. The piston starts on its upward compression stroke, closing the inlet and then the eX" haust port. As the piston moves toward the head end of the cylinder a vacuum is formed in the crank case, which draWs air and gasoline from the carburetor through the check valve into the crank case. \Vhen the piston starts toward the crank end, the check valve closes and holds the mixture in the crank case where it is compressed, so that there is sufficient pressure to force the charge into the cylinder \vhen the inlet port is uncovered. In the three-port two-cycle engine the carburetor is connected with a port which is uncovered when the piston nearly reaches the head end of its stroke. \Vhen this port is un" covered, a charge is drawn into the crank case. As the piston starts on a power stroke the port connecting with the carburetor is covered and the charge is compressed in the crank case.

THE STANDARD ENGINE
This engine is built by the Stand~rd l\lotor ~onstr~ctio.n Jersey City, N. J. It is the kmd of engme whIch IS ~nstalled in the distribution-box boats. It is two-cylinder, lOur-CYcle, 6-inch bore by 8-inch stroke, and is rated at 6 to 18 horsepower at a speed of 360 revolutions perp1inute.
. 0., CYLINDERS

C

c The cylinders, E1el (Fig. 7) and 43 (Figs. 3' and 4), are ast en bloc and are bolted to the base by 6 bolts. The CYlinder heads, E1e3 (Fig. 7) and 44 (Figs. 3 and 4) are also ~ast in one piece .and are secured to the cylinder by twelve t olis. Both cylinder and head' are double walled to provide he necessary water space around the combustion chamber.
BASE

h The base or crank case consists of two halves; the lower t aIr, or sub-base, 13 (Fig. 1), forms a basin serving to enclose he cranks and retain the surplus oil and is flanged to provide means for bolting the engine down to the boat frame. .... The upper half or intermediate base, EJe4 (Fig. 7) and 20 (l11gs. 2 and 3), forms a support for the cylinders and encloses cranks, earn shaft, etc.
PISTONS

. Each piston is provided with four piston rings, Ee8 (~lg. 7) and 7 (Fig. 1), three above and one below the wristIHn bearing. On the side of the piston above the wrist-pin ~re oil grooves for the proper distribution of the oil supplied y the pipe from the mechanical oiler. . The piston is bored transversely to receive the hollo\\ Wnst-pin, Ee7 (Fig. 7) and 8 (Fig. 1), which communicates th~ motion of the piston through the connecting rod, Eel3 ~Flg. 7) and 4 (Figs. 1 and 3) and crank 2 (Fig. 1) to the nlain Journal 10 (Fig. 1).
VALVES

The exhaust valves, Ee29 (Fig. 7) and 49 (Fig. 4), are of

th~ mec~lanically operated poppet type and are normally held
(3)

against the valve seats by the springs, Ee33 (Fig. 7) and 50 (Fig. 4). The lower end of the exhaust valve stem, Ee30 (Fig. 7), bears against the exhaust valve lifter, Ee25 (Fig. 7) and 23 (Fi¥. 2), which is rotated around its axis, Ee37 (Fig . and 26 (FIg. 2), by the exhaust earn, Ee24 (Fig. 7) and 2.... (Fig. 2), on the earn shaft. The inlet valves, Ee43 (Fig. 7) and 53 (Figs. 4 and 5), are of the automatic type and are provided with a dash-pot for reducing vibration and noise. The valve is held against its seat by means of a spring, Ee47 (Fig. 7) and 61 (Fig. 5). At the upper end of the valve stem, Ee42 (Fig. 7), is a piston, Ee4.4 (Fig. 7) and 59 (Fig. 5), which works in a brass cylinder, £e45 (Fig. 7) and 60 (Fig. 5). Air caught in the upper end of the cylinder preven ts the violent closing of the valve.

.?J

INTAKE

Air is taken into the heater pipe around the exhaust, through the space between the double walls of the crank case into the vaporizer. IIere it receives a charge of gasoline, which is drawn up with it. The mixture of the gasoline vapor and air is completed in the intake pipe, and the mixture passes into the intake space in each cylinder head. On the suction stroke, the suction causes the inlet valve to open and a charge of the explosive gases is drawn into the cylinder. Taking the air from around the heater pipe, insures good evaporation of the gasoline after the engine has started, even in very cold weather.
VAPORIZEH

The vaporizer, or carburetor, is of the float feed type. It consists of a howl, surrounding the intake pipe which can" tains a float and two valves, the float or cut-ofT valve, and the gasoline needle valve. As shown in Fig. 8, the float lever is pivoted at the bolt under the cut-ofT valve (EV51) and i~ attached to the float (EV49). The cut-ofT valve is secured to the 110at lever so that it is raised when the 110at rises. The cut-oO' valve seat consists of a threaded plug with a square head, the bottom being bored out axially to form a chamber, and a groove being cut around the plug at the height of the supply pipe. A hole is drilled radially, connecting this groove, or channel, with the axial hole. It is evident that, without the channel, if the radial hole did not register with the supply hole, the gasoline would be cut ofT. The construction of the

5 ~eedle valve is clearlv shown, EV53 (Fig. 8). The passage .rorn the valve seat i; connected with five spray tubes in the l~take. The top edges of the latter are just above the level ? the gasoline in the bowl, so that, even if the needle valve ;s wide open, no gasoline will flow down the intake pipe and eak out on the base and floor. . I When the vaporizer bowl is empty, the float is at its OWestposition and the cut-ofT valve is open. Gasoline enters }hrough the supply pipe, flows around the channel to the plug loIe, to the center chamber through the valve to th.e lower ch arnber, through the slot in' the bowl wall to the bowl. As . . ~.hebowl fills, the float and its valve rise and, when the gasoIne has reached its proper height, the cut-ofI valve is seated, ~~us interrupting the flow of gasoline. When the needle valve Ial registers zero, the valve is closed and no gasoline enters the intake. Turning the dial in a counter-elockwise direction oPens the valve. . . The partial vacuum created in the intake, when the piston moves down on its suction stroke, draws the gasoline l~to the intake just at the constricted portion of the tube. i t this point, the air has a high velocity due to decreased Cf?SS sectional area of the pipe, and consequently the evapor;llon of the gasoline and the mixing of the air and vapor arc acilitated.
EXHAUST

\

The two exhaust valves being only a few inches apart, b?th cylinders can discharge into one outlet, the inner exhaust PIpe, 51 (Fig. 4). The pipe is surrounded by the outer exhaust pipe, the space between forming a water jacket through Which the outlet jacket water flows, thus cooling the hot ~ases. The jacket water leaves the lower exhaust connections y a ~-inch pipe and is discharged into the exhaust pipe at a point farther a~t.
WATER SUPPLY

. The cooling water for the engine is forced through the Jacket by the plunger pump, which is driven from the carn shaft, 21 (Fig. 2) by the gear 31, (Fig. 2) to which gear is attached the connecting rod. As the piston moves out, ~aler is drawn through the check valve, 38 (Fig. 3), which is !Ifled. from its seat. On the return stroke. the lower valve IS closed; and the water in the pump cylinder is forced through

6 the upper valve, the cylinder head, the water channel, 62 (Fig. 5), the cylinder jacket, and the water space between the inner and outer exhaust pipe.
GOVERNOH.

The governor is of the centrifugal type ::Ind regulates the speed by throttling the mixture. It consists essentiallY of a dash-pot and a plunger, which is thrown outward by centrifugal force ::Igainst the spring. The motion of the plunger is transmitted, through a system of bell cranks and the loose governor collar, to the butterfly valve in the intake pipe. \Vhen the speed of the engine increases above that for which the governor is set, the plunger moves out, rotating the loose collar. This rotation of the loose collar over the inclined projections on the governor collar, moves the loose collar toward the engine. This moves the vertical connecting link up and causes the hutterfly valve to close. The governor is of advantage in automatically preventing racing, when the clutch is disengaged or when the propeller is thrown out of the water in a seaway.
REVEHSE GEAR AND CLUTCH

T'he reverse gear consists of the bevel gears, 15 (Fig. 1), the small one being fastened to the cr::Ink shaft and the large one to the clutch shaH, which is coupled to the propeller shaft hy part 36 (Fig. 3). The intermediate bevel gears 16 (Fig. 1), which have hearings in the spider, 35 (Fig. 3), mesh with gears, 15 (Fig. 1). The clutch drum, 18, covers the gears. This drum is divided into t\vo parts by a weh. The web is bushed to fit the clutch shaft in rear of the larger gear, 15. The front part of the drum, 18 (Fig. 1), is keyed to the spider, 35 (Fig. 3). The rear part of the drum surrounds the expanding ring, 19 (Fig. 1), which ring is keyed to the clutch shaft. \Vhen the engine is running without clutch engaged. gears 16 (Fig. 1) and spider 35 (Fig. 3), run between gears 15 (Fig. 1), without. transmitting power to the propeller shaft. \Vhen the operating lever is pushed forward, the thimble, sho\vn on the clutch shaft, Fig. 1, is moved forward, forcing outward the dog which operates the eccentric of the expanding ring. This causes the motion which was transmitted only to the clutch drum, 18 (Fig. 1), to be transmitted to the propeller shaft, and the gears do not move with reference to each other, the propeller shaft running at crank-shaft speed.

7
. When the operating lever is pushed to the rear, a band WhIch is attached to the clutch casing, 14 (Fig. 1), grips the clutch druIll, 18 (Fig. 1), and prevents the drum from turning. This, in turn, keeps the spider, 35 (Fig. 3), from rotating, a?d the larger gear, 15 (Fig. 1), must rotate in the opposite dIrection from the small gear and at reduced speed. This causes the propeller to turn in the opposite direction and llloves the boat astern.
IGNITION SYS~El\f

Ignition is by means of the ordinary make-and-break sYstenl. The earn shaft, 21 (Fig. 2), to which is fitted gear 29 (Fig. 2), is driven from the main shaft through the valvegear pinion, 12 (Fig. 1), and intermediate gear, 30 (Fig. 2), . Which reduces the speed to one-half that of the main shaft. The sparker earn, 27 (Fig. 2), on the cam shaft engages the spark trip, 28 (Fig. 2), which is pivoted at one end of the hanger,. on the timer shaft, 42 (Fig. 3). The spring causes the sparker rod to bear against the spark trip, thus holding the latter against the sparker cam. The sparker rod is attached at its upper end to the mov~ble contact lever, which carries the movable platinum~ridium spark tip, 54 (Fig. 4). The stationary spark tip is InSUlated froill the spark plug, and is provided with a thumb nut for the attachment of a wire. Electrical power is supplied either by a six cell battery, o~ by a magneto Oil the engine. The magneto is of the 01'd~nary 3-bar, low tension type, geared to the pump crank dIsk on the cam shaft. One end of the magneto winding is ?rounded to the frame; the other end is brought out to a InSUlated ternlinal. The wiring is indicated in the diagram shown in Fig. 10. \Vhen the switch is thrown to the left, the circuit for the battery is as shown by the small arrows, while the large arrows Show the circuit when the switch is thrown to the right. . The magneto generates sufiicient current for sparking tWice each revolution, but only through a small part of the reVOlution. It is therefore necessary that the sparker rods drop during the periods of high electro motive force. This Period of high E. 1\1. F. is indicated by two diametrically opposite marks on the armature shaft and two marks on the bearings. The sparkers should snap while either of the

8

marks on the shaft is at or near the last of the bearing marks which any given point on the shaft passes with the proper direction of rotation. Thus, if the top of the magneto shaft turns toward the engine, the sparker rod should drop when the shaft mark passes the mark on the bearing nearest the engine. When the piston of the forward cylinder has nearly completed the compression stroke, the forward sparker earn is just under the sparker trip. The earn raises the trip, and the sparker rod and the contact is Illade at the tips. As soon as the earn revolves far enough to release the trip, the spring causes the rod and trip to drop, breaking the circuit suddenlY at the tips. The inductance of the circuit is sufficient to. produce a hot spark, which ignites the charge in the combustion chamber . . It will be seen that if the time lever is thrown in, the spark will occur earlier than if the lever is in the vertical position.
LUBRICATION

The Standard engine is equipped with a positive mechanical lubricating system in which oil is distributed from a reservoir over the fly-wheel by means of small pipes or tubes to the cylinders and principal bearings. The oil pipe leading to each bearing is provided with a valve drip, so that the oil flow can be observed and regulated. The oiler consists of a small tank containing an ann carrying three small cups, which dips periodically under the oil in the tank, rises, and empties the contents of the cups into five oil tubes. The arm is driven from the cam shaft by means of a worm gear. The amount of the oil fed to the bearings and the cylinders is thus directly proportional to the speed. Each crank-pin bearing is lubricated by nlCans of a grooved ring fastened to the crank and concentric with the main shaft, from which a channel leads to the bearing. Oil flows by gravity from the oiler through one of the five tubes to drips over the center crank shaft bearing. Here it is distributed to three tubes, the tube on one side leading to the grooved ring on the after crank; that on the other side, to the ring of the forward crank; and the center tube, to the center crank shaft bearing. The four other tubes carry oil to the forward and rear crank shaH bearings, the intermediate

9

pinion bearing,' the thrust bearing, and the two cylinders. The wrist-pin bearings are lubricated by the oil from the cYlinders, the pins being hollow. All other bearing parts contained in the crank case are lubricated by oil thrown from the moving connecting rods and cranks. . . . The reverse gear drum is kept one-third full of heavy O~l,which is poured in through a screw plug in the drum. This oIl lubricates the reverse gears and bearings inside .,the drum.

To

START

THE

ENGINE

I

1. Set the compression release lever aft, so as to relieve the compression. This lnakes it easier to turn the fly-wheel. 2. Set the ignition timer lever late, i.e., in a vertical position against the stop. This is of great importance, for, if It is attempted to start the engine with the ~park advanced, ~rernature ignition may start the engine in the wrong directIon and damage to trips, cams, and shaft, will be almost certain to occur. (See Artillery Bulletin No. 76.) 3. Open the gasoline valve, 68 (Fig. 5), on vaporizer about one turn. 4. If engine is cold, prime by placing a small amount of gasoline in the priming cups. 5. Rapidly raise and lower the vaporizer cover. This produces a slight pressure in the vaporizer and forces some gasoline into the intake pipe. . 6. Set the throttle lever about one-third froln the left, In the fifth or sixth notch. 7. Throw the spark switch to battery, closing the cirCUit from the battery to the sparkers and ground through the spark coil. Insert plug in receptacle. The magneto cannot furnish enough current until the engine is in operation. 8. Turn the fly-wheel with starting bar.
AFTER ENGINE IS IN MOTION

9. Pull out the release lever so full compression is ob~ained. While the engine will run with low compression,' It will deliver very little power. 10. Throw the spark switch from battery to magneto, to save the hattery. 11. Throw the clutch in slowly. 12. Open throttle to the right to full speed. The governor will now prevent racing.

10 13. Adjust obtained. the gasoline supply until perfect running is

To

STOP

ENGINE

1. Throw in the release lever. This reduces the jerking when the engine has nearly stopped. 2. Set the ignition lever late. This is important for the reasons already set forth. 3. Close the needle valve of the vaporizer. If gasoline hi left on, the engine may continue to run with the electric circuit broken, ignition being accomplished by hot carbon in the cylinder. 4. Open the ignition switch.
ADJUSTMENTS GASOLINE

1. Be sure the valves from the tank are open. 2. Open the needle valve one turn, if starting first time.

for the

3. Rapidly raise and lower the vaporizer lid, thus priming the in take. 4. .After the engine is in motion and carrying the load, gradually close the needle valve, until the engine starts to hack-fire, knock, or run irregularly; then open the valve until regular operation is just obtained again. The gasoline comsumption will then be at minimum and the efI1ciency of the engine greatest. The valve should be habitually in this position when under way.
ENGINE COOLING 'VATER

1. See that all valves in the circulating system are open. 2. If starting a new engine for the first time, fill the water jacket around exhaust pipe with water. This will prevent the exhaust pipe from becoming overheated, in case the pump does not fill the system immediately. 3. After the engine is in motion, feel the cylinder and the jacketed exhaust pip~. These parts should he only warm to the hand. 4. If the cylinders and the exhaust pipe are too hot, stop the engine and examine the circulating system, especially the pump valves.

11

,

SPARKER

1. Be sure the battery is in good condition and that the sparkers, switch, magneto, battery, and spark coil are connected as explained before. 2. Close the switch to battery and touch one end of a small piece of wire to the insulated sparker thumb-nut. Strike the flipper or other bright part of the engine with the other end of the wire. The spark should be at least 3/16-inch long. 3. See that the tips of the sparker are about.l/16-inch apart, when the cam is not lifting the sparker rod. This can be deternlined by raising the flipper on the end of the movable terminals. To adjust, loosen the thumb-nut and the wrench nut on the stationary terminal. If the tips are too far apart, tUrn the terminal rod to the left; if too close, turn it to the r.ight. This adjustment is correct when the flipper can be hrted about 1/16-inch. 4. See that, when running, the sparker rod rises through the hole in the flipper about 1/8 to 3/16-inch after contact is made between the spark tips, before dropping. To adjust, turn the engine over until the rod is about to drop, then see that the washer on top of the rod is about 1/8 to 3/16-inch above the flipper. 5. See that the sparkers are clean and free from carbon Or dirt. 6. No definite rule as to timing the spark can be given. In general, the timer should be adyanced until, with the minimum consumption of gasoline, the engine runs smoothly and at maximum speed. If the spark occurs too early, knocking \Vill result; and, if too late, the speed will be low.
MAGNETO

1. See that, with the timer advanced to the farthest Point ever used in running, the sparker rods drop when one of the marks on the armature shaft coincides with the proper mark on the bearing, as explained before. To adjust, advance the timer to maximunl and turn the engine over slowly, until either sparker rod drops. Then, with engine exactly in this Position, loosen the magneto drive pinion and turn the shaft until one of the shaft marks coincides with the proper bearing mark. If the top of the shaft turns toward engine, the proper mark will be that nearest the engine. Tighten the nut, and check the adjustment by turning the engine over again until the sparker rod drops.

12 2. See that the magneto sparks properly. This can be tested by removing the wire from the terminal and attaching a temporary wire to it. \Vith the engine running on the battery, a series of hot, fat sparks should occur, when the end of the temporary wire is brought in contact with the teeth of If the gear wheels, whieh will make and break the circuit. the proper sparking is not obtained, remove the magneto and test it. (a) Turn the armature by hand. It should rotate frecIy if the bearings are all right. (b) Conneet the terminal and the body of the machine by wire. If the armature now turns freely, it indicates dirty bearings or a broken wire in the armature, since no current flows. It should ofTer considerable resistance every half revolution, and a spark should be obtained if the circuit is broken \vhile the armature turns hard. (c) If the shaft turns freely for a part of a revolution and then ofTers considerable resistance every half revolution without any wires attached, a short circuit in the armature or wiring is indicated. The shaft should he removed and the armature and bearings cleaned. The armature is waterproof but will not work under water. It should be kept free from excessive dampness. 3. See that there is a slight amount of lost motion on the driving gear. This lost motion should he perceptible, if the gear is rocked forward and back, and it is absolutc1y necessary to secure proper operation of the magneto. The shaft should be correctly aligned and should rotate freely. 4. See that all bearings are properly oiled. Two drops of good machine oil should be put on each bearing once a day. 5. See that contacts are clean and tight. 6. \Vhenever the armature is removed, always place strips of iron across the poles of the magnets, otherwise the magnets will soon get weak. Never remove magnets unless they are broken or need recharging. In replacing them on the machine, be sure that all north poles are on one side and all south poles on the other. As manufactured at the factory, all poles of one kind have countersunk screws, while the opposite poles have round head screws. If one of the magnets be assembled the wrong way, the mangetic field will be so weak that the machine will not operate properly. careful never to hit the magnets with a hammer or cause undue shock, as this greatly diminishes the magnetism. 'Vhcn

Be

13 properly cared for, they should not need recharging for several
Years~:"i.: ~
REVERSE GEAR

1. See that the clutch engages the gear drum promptly, when the hand lever is thrown forward. If too loose, adjust by means of adjusting holt on dog. 2. See that the gear drum is one-third full of heavy oil. 3. Adjust the external band brake so that it clutches the gear drum firmly, when the hand . lever is thrown aft, and that it is loose, when the lever is vertical. 4. See that the dog and rock shaft are well oiled at all times.
INLET VALVES

1. Once in 50 or 60 hours running, remove the inlet dash-pot cover and put some oil on the plunger and on the rods. 2. See that the plungers work freely in the dash-pots.
EXHAUST VALVES

1.' These valves should show a bright ring of wearing SUrface. If pitted or beveled surface is rough, regrind by turning valve on its seat with a small amount of powdered emery. This should be only necessary once each year. Care must be taken to prevent emery from getting into the cylinders.
OILING

1. Be sure that all bearings and the cylinders are receiving oil properly. The rate of flow should be observed and regulated. 2. All oil .pipes should be flushed with kerosene once each month, so as to be sure that oil flows freely. 3. Do not allow old oil to accumulate in the base or under the reverse gear. 4. It is much better to feed too much oil to a bearing. than not enough.

To

PUT

ENGINE

OUT

OF

CO~{MISSION

1. Drain all piping. 2. Hun the engine for about a minute without water, Until the cylinders and exhaust pipe become very warm to the touch; then stop the engine.

14 3. Cover all bright surfaces with slushing oil. 4. Flood a quantity of oil into the cylinders. 5. Take ofT the cylinder heads; oil valve seats; and pour some oil down the valve stems. 6. In general, see that all parts are protected against corrosion, especially, rusting due to moisture.
NAMES OF PARTS OF STANDARD E:KGINE

(Figs. 1-7.)
No. of Part on
Fig. 7

Fi~. No.

No. of Part

Part

_.

I, 3 1 E1e 10 1 Ee 13 I, 3 Ei 14 1 Ee 6 I, 3 Ee 8 1 Ee 7 1 1 1 1 1 1, 3 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

E'e

4

1 1 1 1 I, 3 2, 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

E'e 2~3 2
E'e 21 Ee 2;"", Ee 26

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

Ee 37 Ei Ei 1 3

Fly wheel. Crank. Crank pin. Connecting rod. Crank pin brasses. Piston. Piston rings. \Vrist pin. Oil ring, to carry oil to crank pin bearing. l\lain journal. Main bearings, upper half. Timing gear pinion. Crank case, lower half. Clutch casing, clutch is to connect crank shaft with propeller shaft and to reverse direction of rotation of propell('r. Bevel gears, 30 and 39 teeth. Intermediate bevel gears. Front supporting ring for clutch drum. Clutch drum. Expanding ring. Crank case, upper half. Cam shaft. Exhaust earn. Exhaust valve lifl('r. Cam roller. Auxiliary exhaust earn. To release compression when starting. Valve lifter shifting rod. To shift valve lifter so that cam roller runs over auxilinry earn. Igniter earn. Tripper. Cam shaft pinion. (Timing gear.) Intermediate gear. (Idler.) Pump crank disk and spiral gear for driving mngn('to. I "'arm, for driving lubricator. _

15 NQ:--;,o7r...----,..-----------------------Part On Fig. 7. F'1 N :: Part

--- -- -2,3

~°a"rrr
33

1------_._------------------Opening to channel in wall of crank case; to attach pipe for carrying warm air from exhaust manifold to vaporizer (carburetor). Pivot for compression release lever. Intermediate bevel gear spider. Coupling, for attaching propeller shaft to clutch shaft. Pump, for circulating cooling water. Pump valve bonnets. Suction. Discharge. Magneto. Ignition timing shaft. Cylinders. Cylinder head. Priming cup. 'Vater inlet to cylinder jacket. Exhaust port. 'Vater connection to exhaust manifold. Exhaust vnlve. Valve spring. Exhaust manifold. Sleeve from which warm nir is carried to carburetor. Intake vnlve. Ignitor. Water connection with pump. Water connection, head to cylinders. Vaporizer connection. \Vhistle valve. Inlet valve plunger. Inlet valve dash pot. Inlet valve spring. Flanged brass water pipe, head to cylinder jacket. Water pipe. pump to cylinder head. Inlet pipe, vaporizer to inlet valves. Vaporizer or carburetor. Throttle lever. Lubricator. Nerdle vnlve. Trgulates gasoline ~mpply.

2
3 3

34 35 36 37 38
39

3 3 3
3 3

1m 8
~te Ete

3

1 3,4 3 3,4,5 3 3

40 41 42 43 41 45
46

4 J~e 29
Ee 33 4 4

Ee 48

4 4
4 4 -1 4

47 48 49 50 51
52

Ee 43 4,5

5:3 54 55
S()

4 Ee .1-1
Ee 45 !~e .17 4 5 5

57
58

5 5
5 5 5 5

5~ 60 61 62 6:~
6.1

5
5

65 66 67
68

TIlE

LATHROP

ENGINE

. This engine is built by the J. \V. Lathrop Co., l\1ystic, Conn., and is the kind which is installed in l\'line Yawls. It is single cylinder, two-cycle, two-port, 6.5-inch bore by 6.5inch stroke, and develops 8 horsepower at a speed of 350 revol utions per min ute. ,r
CYLINDER

The cylinder and crank case are cast in one piece. The crank shaft bearings are held in plates which are bolted to the ends of the crank case. There is a plate bolted on each side of the crank case. To the plate, 32 (Fig. 13), on the port side is attached the inlet pipe from the carburetor, 10 (Figs. 11 and 13). To the plate, 34 (Fig. 13), on the starboard side is attached a hand oil pump, 35 (Fig. 13), for lubricating the cran~ pin, 24 (Fig. 12). There is also a small opening in the bottom of the crank case which is closed by a plate. All these plates are fitted with gaskets so that the joints are air tight. The cylinder head, 2 (Figs. 11 and 12), is held in place by seven nuts. There is a tapped hole in the head of the firing plug, 3 (Figs. ] 1, 12, and 13), which carries the insulated part of the make-and-break ignition system. The cylinder is water jacketed. \Vater is forced by a plunger pump, operated by the eccentric rod, 13 (F'igs. 12 and 13), through the check valve, 39 (Fig. 11), into the cylinder jacket, and then by the pipe, 3G (Fig. 11), to the jacket of the exhaust outlet. From the exhaust outlet, if the valve, 411 (Fig. 11), be open, part of the ,vater flows through the jacketed checJ~ valve, 19 (Fig. 11), then overboard; and part flows through 411 (Fig. 11) into the exhaust silencer. The cylinder head contains a water space which connects with the cylinder jacket hy small holes. A gasket of wire mesh and asbestos is placed between the head and the cylinder. On the lower part of the base are cast heavy flanges for holting the engine to the timbers by which it is secured to the boat.
PISTON

The piston, 15 (Fig. 12), is fitted with three piston rings, 17 (F'ig. 12), for preventing leakage of gas. The deflector
(16) ,

. 17 P!ate, 16 (Fig. 12), is a part or'the piston casting. The'wrist Pin, to which is clamped the connecting rod, 18 (Fig. 12), ~orks in holes in the piston. Oil holes are drilled diagonally oWnward to the wrist pin.
LUBRICATION

Some of the oil fed to the cylinder by the double lubriCator, 6 (Figs. 11 and 13), oils the wrist-pin bearings. The ~rank pin, 24 (Fig. 12), to which the connecting rod is attached y the crank-pin brasses, 19 (Fig. 12), is lubricated partly by ~he do~ble lubricator and disk, and partly. by ~ea~s of the b and OIl pump, which throws a ~tream of OIl whIch IS caught t y the perforated plate, 20 (Fig. 12), and from this runs to, he crank pin. The rate of flow, for double lubricator, should, as a rule, be about thirty drops per minute to the cylinder and crank pin. Experience may show that less oil can be used. The hand pump should' be operated three strokes ~very fifteen minutes. The main or crank-shaft bearings, the rake band of the reverse gear, and the rear bearing of the reVerse gear, are lubricated by grease cups. A good quality of grease with which flake graphite has been mixed should be Us.ed. Screw the cups down one-half turn, every fifteen ll1~llutes. The reverse gear case should iJe kept filled with a ~lx~ure of grease, cylinder oil, and graphite. Use enough oil ,,0 soften the grease so that it will flow over the gears. If a t grease gun" is not available, one of the grease cups and its ube may be' removed from one of the main bearings and used . ~o force grease into the reverse gear case. One filling should dast for three or four months. Too much oil and grease can o no damage.,
PORTS

Burned gas is discharged from the cylinder through the eXhaust ports, 37 (Fig. 14), which lead to the exhaust outlet, 11 .(Figs. 11 and 13). A fresh charge of gas is taken into the cYhnder ,through the inlet ports, 38 (Fig. 14). The inlet ports cO~nect with the crank case by means of a channel in the cYllllder wall. The piston uncovers the exhaust port enough to release the pressure of the burned gas from the cylinder ~efore the inlet port opens. When the inlet port is uncovered Y the piston, the mixture of air and gasoline, which is comPressed in the crank case, flows into the cylinder, striking the

18 deflector plate on top of the piston. This plate prevents fresh' charge froni going out through the exhaust port.
CARBURETOR

the

The Schebler carburetor, l\10del D, 10 (Figs. 11 and 13)~ is furnished with the Lathrop engine. Gasoline flows to the carburetor by gravity. The bowl contains a cork float to which is attached the float valve. The float lever is so ad. justed thal the level of gasoline in the bo\vl is kept slightlY below the opening in the spray nozzle. The float valve closes the opening through which gasoline flows into the carburetor when the gasoline has risen to the proper level. The spray nozzle carries gasoline fro III the floa 1 chamber. into the L shaped opening in the cenler of the bowl. The suction caused by the upward movement of the piston dravis air through the air valve, downward past the spray nozzle, past the throttle and through the check valve into the crank case. The rate of flow of gasoline, upon which depends the richness of the mixture, is regulated by the needle valve. This valve is located under the bowl. It is closed by turning it clockwise. As this engine does not have a wide range of speed, adjust the carburetor for normal operation by putting only a moderate tension on the spring of the air valve. Then when the engine is \\~orking, gradually close the needle valve until the engine's speed drops slightly. This indicates that the mixture is too lean. Then open the needle valve slowly till the engine gets up to speed.
CHECK

Y AL\'E

A check valve, ~) (Fig. 11), is located bel\veen the car. buretor and the crank case. This is necessary in a two-port, two-cycle engine to hold the charge under compression in the crank case. The opening of the check valve can he varied by the adj usting screw on top. This opening should be ahout 3/16 of an inch. In warm weather the opening may be a Iit tle more. If the opening is too grea t, the gasoline wiII not he perfectly vaporized. The check valve is water jacketed so that warm water flows around it. This aids the vapor. ization of the gasoline and prevents the formation of frost in the valve, which may occur in cool, damp weather.
GOVEHNOH

The engine

IS

kept from racing, when the reverse gear

19 I,ever is placed on neutral, by a governor which controls the speed by throttling the mixture. The governor consists of a Slnall weight carried on the fly-wheel. The weight is attached one end of a bell-crank lever. The other end of the lever )cars bet ween 1\vo lugs on a collar, which is free to turn for ? short distance on the crank shaft. An inclined slot is cut In the collar. A pin projects from the shaft through this slot. A spiral spring is attached to the governor weight. \V~en the speed of the fly-wheel is sufficient to throw the WeIght toward the rim of the wheel, the collar is turped for a short distance around the shaft. On account of the inclined ~Iot, the collar will travel along the shaft. A groove is cut In the collar, and in this groove runs a lever which is connected by suitable links with the throttle. By adjusting the spring, the speed at which the engine will partly close the throttle can be regulated. If the spring is tightened, the engine will run at a higher speed.

:0

PUMP

A 'plunger pump is used to force the cooling water through the jackets. 'The plunger, 14 (Figs. 12 and 13), is operated by the eccentric, 13 (Figs. 12 and 13), which eccentric also operates the make-and-break ignition. The plunger works jn a stuHing box which should contain hemp packing and not be too tight. The pump is fitted with two check valves, one on the suction and one on the discharge side. The suction leads to a strainer on the bottom of the boat and the discharge is through the valve, 39 (Fig. 11), to the cylinder jacket.
IGNITION SYSTEM

. The make-and-break ignition system is used on this engine. Current is furnished by two sets of eight dry cells connected with a spark coil by a two-way switch. Either battery may be used. The spark coil consists of a number ?f turns of insulated copper wire wound on a bundle of soft Iron wires. One terminal of each battery is connected with each side of the switch. The other battery terminals are con?ected with the frame of the engine. The pivot of the switch IS connected with one terminal of the spark coil. The other terminal of the spark coil is connected with the firing plug, 3 (Figs. 11, 12, and 13). The central pin of the firing plug, which carries the binding screws, is insulated with mica hushing from the body, which is screwed into the cylinder

20 head. When the firing shaft, 29 (Fig. 13), turns so as to make contact with the insulated pin of the firing plug, the circuit is completed through the engine. The firing shaft arm is normally held up by the spring, 40 (Fig. 11), so that the shaft is turned to such a position that the lug on the end of the shaft, 29 (Fig. 13), makes contact with the insulated pin of the plug, 3 (Figs. 11, 12, and 13). As the firing slide, 7 (Figs. 11, 12, and 13), is raised bv the eccentric rod, 13 (Figs. 12 and 13), which runs on an' eccentric on the crank shaft, the spring, 41 (Fig. 11), is compressed by the action of the latch, 42 (Fig. 11). This latch is released by striking a pin, the position of which is varied by the timing lever, 5 (Figs. 11 and 12).' \Vhen the latch releases the spring, the. spring strikes the firing shaft arm and suddenly separates the lug on the end of the firing shaft from the insulated pin of the firing plug. The breaking of the electric circuit produces a spark which ignites the charge in the cylinder.' By moving the timing lever, 5 (Figs. 11 and 12), the time at which a spark OCcurs during a stroke of the piston can be varied. For starting, the spark should occur late. This means that the spark OCcurs after the crank has passed the inner dead center and the piston has started on its downward stroke. \Vhen the engine is running under load, advance the spark as far as possible without causing the engine to knock. The engine runs in a counter-c1ock\vise direction, as viewed facing the fly-wheel. To determine whether or not the electrical connections are in order, turn the firing shaft so that it docs not make contact \vith the insulated pin. With the battery switch closed, make a connection by means of a short piece of wire or a screw-driver from the spark plug to the cylinder. If everything is right, a bright spark should be made.
REVERSE GEAR

The pnrpose of a reverse gear is to run the boat astern without changing the direction of rotation of the engine, nnd to bring the boat to a stop without stopping the engine. The Paragon reverse gear is used with th~ Lathrop engine. \Vhen the boat is running ahead, the lever is pushed ahead. This pushes a sleeve forward on the shaft that is connected with the propeller and causes three toggles to spread three fingers. The fingers force the finger disk, which is fastened by fou r pins to the gear case, 30 (Fig. 12), against five friction disks, three steel and two hronze, which cause the Whole reverse

j

21 gear (and disk clutch) to rotate at crank shaft speed. Since the propeller is eonnected with the gear, 27 (Fig. 12), the propeller rotates at crank shaft speed and none of the gears ~otate on each othe~. The gear, 27 (Fig. 12), is free to rotale I~skide case, 30 (Fig. 12), except when held by the friction the d IS s. , To reverse the propeller, the lever is pulled astern. This clamps a brake hand on the gear case, 30 (Fig. 12), and, as ~he band is fitted with lugs which rest on the frame, the case IS prevented from turning. The engine gear, 25 (Figs. 12 and 13), is fastened to the crank shaft. The pinion gears, 26 (F~gs. 12 and 13), arc attached to the reverse gear cover, 31 (FIg. 13). As the cover is bolted to the gear case, 30 (Fig. 12), the pinion gears can rotale on their shafts only. Since t~e crank shaft and engine gear rotate in a counter-clockwise dIrection, facing the stern of the boat, the top of the pinion gear, 26 (Figs. 12 and 13), moves to the right, i.e., rotates clot'kwise, and the four pinion gears nlOve in the same direction and at the same rate. The propeller gear, 27 (Fig. 1~), meshes wit'h the four pinion gears. Since the top of the PInion, 26 (Figs. 12 and 13), moves to the right, the propeller g~ar will nlOve around the pinion gears to the right, and thus \VIII rotate in the opposite direction from that in which the crank shaft rotates. This reverses the direction of rotation of the propeller and causes the hoat to run astern.
PROPELLER SHAFT

This shaft carries the propeller. It is attached by a f]?nged coupling to the reverse gear. It runs in two combIned hearings and stuffing boxes, one at the outer and one ~t. the inner end of the shaft log. These stuffing boxes are' JOIned hy a brass pipe which screws into each stufling box. In operating a boat, great care should be taken to avoid striking the propeller or rudder against any obstruction.

To

START THE

ENGINE

See that the reverse gear lever is in the neutral position .. Open the valve between the gasoline tank and the carburetor. Set the timing lever so that the spark will occur late. \Vith the battery switch open and the priming cock and throttle open, turn the fly-wheel over two or three times. Then, if the weather is cool, prime the cylinder with gasoline. Close the priming cock and the ignition switch. Then, by using the

22
starting handle in the fly-wheel, rock the wheel with the handle near its lowest point and lift up quickly, so as to turn the wheel in a clockwise direction. This is the opposite direction from that in which the engine should run and raises the piston against compression. Let go the handle before it gets to the highest point. The timing lever being set late, a spark oC~ curs before the piston reaches its highest point. This fires the charge in the cylinder and forces tite piston down, turnin~ the fly-wheel in a coun ter-clockwise direc lion. Start the 011 feed and SCTew up the grease cups. Advance the spark slightly. As the engine takes the load, advance the spar].;: as far as possible without causing knocking. To stop the engine, open the battery switch and close the oil feed and the valve in gasoline line. (Note:-Ordnance Pamphlet No. 1887, price list of the articles of submarille mine equipment, gives a price list of parts and drawings of the Lathrop engine, Schcbler carbLlr~ etor, and Paragon reverse gear.)
NAMES OF PARTS OF TH LATHROP ENGINE

(Figu res 11-11.)
Fig. No. No. of Part

-___ 1-='.

No.

No. of Part
-----

11, 12 11, 12 11,12, 1:3 11 11, 12 11, 13 11, 12, 1:3 11, 12 11, 13 11, 13 11, 13
11

12, 13 12, 13 12 12 12 12 12

Cylinder. 12 Cylinder head. Firing plug. 4 Priming cup. 5 Timing lever. 12 6 Double lubricator for 12 cylinder and crank 12 pin oiling disk. 12, 13 7 Sparking slide. 12, 1:~ 8 Fly-wheel. 12, 13 !) Check valve. 12 10 Carburetor. 12 11 Exhaust outlet. 12 Exhaust silencer. 13 13 Eccentric strap. 12 J.1 Pump plunger. 13 15 Piston. 13 16 Deflector plate. 17 Piston ring. 18 Connecting rod. 11, 13 HI Crnnk pin hrass("-.

1 2 3

Plate for catching oi I from hand oil pum r for lubricatin g crank pin. 21 Flanged coupling. 22 Propeller shaft. 23 Propeller. 21 Crank pin. 25 Engine gear. 26 Pinion gear. 27 Propeller gear. 28 Hear Learing, uppc half. 2a {.... iring shaft. 30 Heverse gear ?asl'. 31 l~everse gear cove r. 32 Crank case cove r plate, carhuretor connection. 33 Link, governor to throLtle.

20

j

23
.No.

--

No. of Part

Fig. No.

No. of Part

13

--34
35
36

3 1

14

~

4

37 38

case cover Crank oil hand plate. pump connection. Hand oil pump. connection. Water top of cylinder to exhaust outlet. Exhaust port. Inlet port.

11
11

39 40
41 41' 42

11
11

11

check Discharge water of valve pump. ~ for spring Spring post. Large spring. Cooling water valve. Latch.


/

SUGGESTIONS

I-;"'OR THE l\1AN IN CHARGE THE BOAT ENGINE

OF

Be sure that there is no leak in the gasoline lank or t~C If a leak IS pipe leading froom the tank to the carburetor. suspected, on account of the smell of gasoline, close the valvc at the carburetor and feel all joints in the pipe line and the bottom of the tank. There might be a small leak from which gasoline would not drip on account of rapid evaporalion, especially in warm weather. If the fingers are moistened with a small amount of gasoline, there will be a feeling of col~. caused by evaporation. Do not bring a light other than eleetflC, such as a pocket flash lamp, near the gasoline tank and pipe line. \Vater in the gasoline will cause the engine to run irregularly, as it will get into the spray nozzle of the carburetor and cause uneven mixture of air and gasoline. There should bc a slrainer in the pipe line. Open this occasionally beforc starting the engine, being careful to catch the small amount of gasoline drained ofT in a can or bottle, so that no gasoli~e If water is present, it wIll will get in the bottom of the boat. settle to the bottom of the can and can be readily distinguished from gasoline by difference in color. If the presence of water is suspected, close the valve leading to thc carburetor and remove -the drain plug below the needle valve. Catch the gasoline, so that you can be sure whether or not watcr waS present to cause any trouble. It is a good plan when filling the tank, to strain lhe gasoline through a chamois skin, placed in a large funnel. This prevents the entrance of \vater to the tank, as well as catching dirt. l\lany boats have the gasoline tank located so that it is very difficult to remove the tank for cleaning or repair. Every time the engine is overhauled, drain the gasoline tank and remove all sediment which it is possible to remove. In SOlIlC cases, it will be necessary to wipe the bottom of the tank with a piece of muslin which has been dipped in kerosene. Do not feed too much oil to the cylinders, as this will canse excessive carbon deposits and fouling of ~the igniters. Too much oil in the cylinders is indicated by blue smokc from the exhaust. Some of the carbon formed in the cylindcrs
(24)

25

W~ll work into the piston ring grooves, causing the rings to
Slick, thereby losing compression and power. If the igniters become fouled with oil and carbon, the engine will miss exIJlosions. Ilot particles of carbon also cause pre-ignition and POunding. A great deal of trouble fronl the effects of carbon e~n be avoided by injecting, weekly, about a gill of kerosene, (wIth which is mixed sonle flake graphite, into each cylinder, through the priming cocks, when the engine is warm; turn the engine over by hand a few times, and do n~t start for several hours. Be sure that the valves (or the ports in case of a two-cycle engine) of the cylinder into which you are Putting the kerosene are closed so that the kerosene will run ?own on top of the pistons and not out the ports. Graphite IS an excellent lubricant and will also form a thin film over the piston and cylinder head and will prevent carbon from sticking tightly. . . Du not take apart any por~ion of the engine, unless you :lre sure that by doing so you can remedy some defect or IJnprove the operation. Avoid the use of a hammer, a cold thisel, and a monkey-wrench. There should be provided, for efficient operation of an engine, a set of wrenches, such that a. wrench can be had which will fit every nut which it is ever necessary to remove. Every time the crank case cover is removed for the purpose of taking surplus oil fronl the botto~n of the crank case, examine the crank pin bearing bolts. . See that all nuts are kept tight. Don't forget the propeller shaft stuffing box that is attached to the inner end of the shaft log. . See that the grease cup is screwed up frequently, that packing is good, and that the follower is not too tighL It takes very little pressure on the shaft to keep water out. of the boat. See that the packing between the flange of the stuffing box and the shaft log is in good order .. Remember that the man in charge of the engine is resPonsible for any damage to a Standard. engine, resulting from failure to retard the spark when starting or stopping. Be sure to drain the water circulating system in cold weather.

CARE

OF A BOAT'

A boat should be removed from the water at least twice a year and have its bottom scraped and painted with brown "copper paint." If teredoes have attacked the planking or keel, dig them out with a small screw-driver or steel wire. Cut ofT any part of the keel which has been badly eaten and plug the holes with a mixture of white lead and tallow. If any seam has been leaking, scrape out the old caulking material and pack the seam with oakum. See that the pro- . peller stern bearing and the rudder are in good condition. . If any iron work shows rust, scrape and paint with red lead before applying other paint. In Fig. 16 is' sho\vn' a convenient type of railway for pulling small boats out of the water. " Keep a serviceable bilge pump on hand, and keep the bilge free from water. ' If a boat is engaged in such work that the paint is scraped off the outside' or inside, touch up the bare spots as soon ~s possible. .Lack of paint will, in time, allow the timber. to rot, as well as appearing unsightly. All brass which is not painted must be kept polished. See that the lights are in good order. Every power boat is required by law to carry two copies of pilot rules, issued by the Department of Commerce. All men who are on duty on any boat used in mine planting work must be familiar with these rules. . . '(Note:- The publication referred to is Pilot Rules, Form 804, Department of Commerce, Steam-Boat Inspection Service. These can usnally be obtained from the local steamboat inspector. )
I '

(26)

F((,. I.

12, El! 3t:tr.ufQ!'d I1li1riil~ £nsine. 41 2. (Cyl- 6x 0 Scalp- {:U= lLI.
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FIG. 7.

FIG.

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~ $ ::> ~
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.5TANDARD EN6/NE

Flc.

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J

Present Status
No.

of the Series of Artillery Notes
Title

Instructions for Regulating Powder Charges of Coast Artillery in Target Practice. *t 2 Armor Attack Sheet. . " t 3 Directions for Setting Up, Adjusting, and Using the Lewis Type" A Depression Position Finder. *t 4 Proceedings of a Board of Officers, Convened at Governors Island, New York, for the Purpose of Preparing and Formulating a System of Electrical Communication for Artillery Fire Control. *t 5 Construction of a DifTerence Chart. *t 6 Description and Diagram of the Telautograph. *t 7 Curves and Tables of Anemometer. *+ 8 The Lewis Depression Hobinson's Finder .. Function and Method of Position Op('ration of the Elevating Screw. Device for Illuminating the Cross-Wires. Supplement to Artillery Note No.3. 9 Searchlights. . to Mortar Zones and Mortar Range Tables. 11 Seacoast Enginc('ring. 12 Notes on Oil Engines. *ta 13 System of Nomenclature of Parts of Modern Batteries. * 14 Form for" Hrport of 3n Inspection Helative to Coast Artillery In. struction, the Condition of the Batteries, and the Fire Control and Dircrtion System." *t 15 Test of Experimental Fire Control Installation at Pensacola. Florida. *tb tG Notes on Explosivrs. 17 Notes on the Telephone. *t lR T~lrory of the Storage Battery. 19 D,g.e~t of Orders and Circulars Issued by the \Var Department Per. t:umng to the Care and Use of Seacoast Armament from January 1, 18013,to January 1, 1£101. *t 20 Correspondence Helative to Preparation of Data for Elevation Scales of Seacoast Guns. :!1 Topical Index of Artillery Subjects. *t :!2 Practical Method of Adjusting a Modern Gun. *t 2:~ Discussion Bearing on the Tactical Use of Mortars. 21 Topical Index of Artillery Subjects. Supplement to Artillery Note ;\0, 21. 2;') Note on Ballistic Tables. 26 Construction of a Di/Terence Chart. 27 Topical Index of Artillery Subjects, Second Supplement to Artillery Note ;\0. 21. 28 A Study of Attacks Upon Fortified Harbors. *c :!9 Correction of Hange Scales for Height of Site and Curvature. 30 Tablrs of Logarithms of Trigonometric Functions Computed for Degrees and Hundredths of Degree. . 31 Searchliahts. 32 Searchlights, 33 Location and Hepair of Faults in Submarine Mine Cable. 3.t Schloming Film-Scale. 35 A Mf'thod of Filling Projectiles. 36 The Weekly l\linl' Command Inspection. 37 Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises, August 3-9, 1913. 3~ Analysis of Target Practice. . 3~1 Gasoline Engines in Distribution Box Boats and l\lme Yawls.
. a Included in Coast Artillery Drill n~~ulallom:.. . .. b Superseded by \Vcaver's "Notes on ~Iilltary l..ploslves. x . c Not to be reprinted, as such tahles can be purchased commercially.

*t

*

t Obsolete.

Out of print.

ARTILLERY NOTES
No. 39+
'Report of the Coast Artillery Board

of August 1'2, 1915
on

Experiment~l Mortar Practice
PUBLISHED UNDER SUPERVISION OF THE

SCHOOL BOARD
COAST ARTILLERY SCHOOL

BY DIHECTJON OF THE

CIlIEF OF COAST AHTILLEHY

FORT MONROE, VIRGINIA
COAST ARTILLERY SCHOOL PRESS

1916

\ \

EXPERIMENTAL

MORTAR PRACTICE

1. Under date of Dec. 19, 1914, the Coast Artillery Board submitted to the Chief of Coast Artillery an original paper on the subject of mortar ammunition, discussing the POInts which are summarized as follows: a. The number of different weights of projectiles now supplied to mortar batteries in our service. b. The relative unimportance of the 10.t6-lb. projectile, due to its maximum range being limited to 9300 yard~.. . . c. The increased importance of the 700-lb. proJectlle WIth its maximum range limit of 15 600 yards for mortars, Model of 1890. . d. The tactical advantage of having but one weight of projectile, and that one the 70'-0-lb. e. The unrelated weights of the present mortar charges for the different zones which would prevent the inner-zone charges from being untilized, without remaking, when the outer-zone charges would be exhausted in an action. f. The tactical advantage that would be obtained by having a series of related charges with the following qualities: that not only should the zone charges increase by equal increlnents but that they should also have unity for their base, and therefore the property that the combination of two zone Charges would give a charge for the zone whose number would be the sum of the two zone numbers; in other words, i.e., that a 6th zone charge plus a 5th zone charge would give an 11th zone charge. g. That a series of charges as described in (f) for ranges fro.m 5000 to 15,600 yards would give larger zone overlaps than the present system, thus permitting firing with the lower angles of elevation with consequent lower maximum ordinates of trajectories and shorter times of flight, and thereby decreasing the complex atmospheric effects of high altitudes. h., The value of a test of the system of powder charges recommended by the Board, particularly with a view to eliminating the almost hopeless complexity of the present mortar ammunition service and, thereby, of increasing the tactical advantage of the mortar.
t

2. The Chief of Coast Artillery gave this proposi tion of a test his approval and, as a result, it was ordered that the target practice of the Third Fire Command at Fort l\lonroe,
(1)

2 Va., consisting of 1G mortars manned by the Gth, 35th, 41st, and 1G8th Companies, should be conducted in a manner to be determined by the Coast Artillery Board and approved by the Commanding Officer, Coast Defenses of Chesapeake Bay, and with the regular annual allowance of target practice ammUnition, which was 144 rounds in all. 3. A request of the Board that an Anriy or Navy hydroaeroplane he furnished for the test in order to experiment with aerial observation of fire, resulted in a Navy hydroaeroplane with Lieutenant P.' N. L. Bellinger, U. S. N., in charge, being sent here for the test. 4. In accordance with the request of the Board, 5q 700-lb. target practice projectiles were furnished, which,. with the 22 824-lb. and 72 104G-Ib. projectiles on hand, made 11.1 in all. The following charges of powder were prepared b'y the Ordnance Department in accordance with the Board S request:
12-hclI
MORTAR, l\fODEL LOT ZO~E CHARGES, DUPO~T Projectiles

18DO 11, 1007

Zones 4-10, in clusil'e, 1016-lb. " 4-12, 82.1 "
" (Charge r\o. of eharges consists Zone of weight Charge 11>s. 6-J.1, of smokeless Weight 700 " plus one-half the weight Weight of igniter.)

of smokeless los.

of igniter oz.

2:3 17
22

1 2
3 1

11 6
11

5 6 12 23 2:3 17 17 12 17 5 222

5 6 7
7

8 B
10 11

12 13
J.1

4.6 9.2 13.8 18.1 23.0 27.6 38.0 32.2 36,8 .11.4 1G.0 50.6 55.2 5f1.8 6.1.4 38.0

.1.6 B.2 13.8 17.B 22.5 27.1 37.5 31.7 36.3 10,9 45.5 50.1 51.7 5B.3 63.0
I~TER~ATlO~AL, LOT

!\'onc. !\'one. !\'onc. Zones 11 to 14,6 ounces in eneh end of chnrgc and 4 ounces in central core.

8, 1906 16
ounces: 4 ounces central core und ounces in each end. in

7

37.5

G

J

3

4

"\,

/

2'

\

r

I
I

I

"_"_"t.
I 2' /"" "'/'/'

FIO, 2.

I

J

5 5. It should be staled here that, from a study by the Board of the ballistic data of various powders furnished by the Ord~ nallee Department, the Board was convinced that powders whose web-thickness was between the limits of .055 and .OG2 inches w-ould be suitable for 1016-,821-, and 700-lb. projectiles; and, therefore a single series of related charges was determined lIpon for trial with all three projectiles. For the powder which was furnished and which had an average web-thickness of .058, the range limits of this single series of charges for the three projectiles are shown in Fig. 1.. '. 6. The scaie of the battery plotting boards was changed f~Ol.n1 inch equals ~'JOO yards to 1 inch equals 400 yards, thus gIvmg a maximum range of 18,000 yards. The range-elevntion relations were computed for the three types of projectile and were kept on a long strip in a small box on two reels, so that the proper zone-range-elevation relation for any projectile would be displayed at the top by winding the strip from one reel to another. A system of adjustment of fire by instrumental observation of splp.shes was also devised by Captain A. L. Rhoades, C. 'A. C., which, briefly, consisted of using the angular dilTerence between splash and target taken at a base-end station and also at the battery; with these angular differences and the approximate azimuth and range of the target as arguments, the over or short and right or left were instantly re;d in the plotting room from the computations previously made, and used for the correction of fire. The method of applying this correction was one devised by l\lajor E. Landon, C. A. C., and consisted of marking on a movable scale the deviations of splashes with pins, thus enabling the deviation of center of impact to be determined by a glance at the pins. * Subcaliber practice was conducted in this manner with good resulls. No additional telephone lines were necessary for this observation system, as the intelligence telephone to the base-end station was worn by deflection observer and such commands as the battery commander intended for the base-end observer were transmitted to him by the ~Ieflection observer. 7. The test began on August :~ ,with firing at fixed targets by the Gth Company, C. A. C., in "B" pit, Bnttery Anderson, as follows: At a planted pyramidal target nt A (Fig. 2); for each shot t he splash, target, and tug were plotted.
• See Journal U. S. Artillery for September-October, llJ15-Edilor ..

6
A. Round
FIFTEEN ROUNDS.OF 10.16-LB. CAST-IRON PROJECTILES

-

Zone

Charge

Range

Elevation
0

Deviation Over Short

,
55 55 55 5 5 55
10

--

in Yards Left Right

-

---

1 2 3 1 5 6 7 8
9

10 10
10 10

10 10
10

10 5+5 3+7x 10 6+4 3+7x
10

10 11 12 13 11
IS

10 10 10 10
10 10

7+3 3+7x 10 8+2 3+7x
10

10 10

9+1 3+7x

8150 8150 8150 8140 8110 8130 8125 8140 8155 8110 8110 8115 8135 8120 8105

65 65 57 16 16 0 33 33 8 8

57 57 57 58 58 58 58 58 57 58 58 58 58 58 58

221 13 322 165 100 371 57 18 3H 31 130 342 95 38 292 8

10
10

8

5
10 10

If)
8
0

The rounds were fired in the 3obove sequence in order to obtain as far as possible the same general conditions of atmosphere for the three sets of five rounds each: (1), for single charges; (2), for combinations of the difTerent pairs of the same web-thickness as the single charge; and, (3), for the combination of a third-zone charge of the same web-thickness as the above with the seventh-zone charge, marked 7F.in above table, of .07 web-thickness. . The following results of this firing are noted: a. The range-difTerence of the centers of impact of the series of five using the single lO-zone charges and of the series of five using charges which were combinations of other zonecharges of the same powder, was about 110 yards; that is, the average range of the first series was 62 yards beyond the It was to target and that of the second was 47 yards short. be expected that the single charges, with core igniters, would range farther than the combined charges, but the difTerence is rela tively so small as to warrant the use of the combined charges when the single charges become exhausted. b. The series of five which used charges one part of which had a difTerent web-thickness from the other gave considerably greater range but they gave a remarkably close group, the! maximum range deviation from the mean range being. but 41 yards. This would indicate that, though undesirable,

.

I

J

7 combinations of powders with 'different web-thickness used with proper adjustment of fire. can be

-

B. FOUR ROUNDSOF 824-LB. CAST-IRONPROJECTILESAT SAMETARGET
Deviation Zone Charge Range Elevation
0

in Yards Hight Left

Hound

Over

--1 2 3 4 9 9 9 9
9

,
50 10 10 5 137 19 156 24

-- --- -11 8 8 2,1

Short

5+4 9 7+2

8130 8100 8100 8110

52 53 53 53

This series again shows that the single charge ranged farther but that the difference is comparatively small enough to warrant the use of the combined charges when the single charges are used up.
C. FOUR ROUNDSOF 700-LB. CAST-IRON PROJECTILES SAMETARGET AT

Hound Zone Charge Range Elevation
0

Deviation Ovcr Short

in Yards Right Left

1 2 3 4
9

,
5 10 5 5

-- --- --42 200 13 24 16 40 8 8

9 9 9

9 5+1 9 7+2

8105 8100 8110 8105

59 59 59 59

This series indicates that the remark about the preceding group is applicable. At a planted pyramidal target marked B.
A. SIX ROUNDSOF 82,1-LB. CAST-IRON PROJECTILES
I

I
Zone Charge Range Elevation Over

DcYiation in Yards

Hound

--1 2 3 4 5 6

-12 12 12 12 12 12 12 G+G 12 7+5 12 8+4 11240 112GO 112GO 112GO 11225 11250

0

,
5 267 339 220 272 18

-- --- -45 92 45 11 22 11 22

Short

Hight

Left

52 52 52 52 52 52

10

The remarks about the two preceding groups are applicable. At a planted pyramidal target marked C.

8
A. SIX Hound
ROU!Io:DS OF 700-LB. CAST-IRO~ PROJECTILES

I Zone
11 H 11 14 H H

Charge

Range

Deviation Elevation Over
0

in Yards Hight

Left

--1 2 3 1 5 G H 7+7 H 9+5 - 14 11+3 11890 11875 11890 H880 14925 H890 50 17 17 47 46 47

Short

,
10 20 15 20 50 15

--

-31R 15 20

--223 30 0

~--

58 GO 35 15 I

:30 30

-

This series indicated that, considering the !JOO-yard correction applied after the first shot, a remarkably uniform grouping \Vas obtained with the ,OO-lb. projectile at nearly 1ri,OOO yards range and one independen t of whether a single or a eombined charge was fired. If general eonclusions may be drawn from the whole sprips fired at the three planted targets, it can be said:
(l) Tha t wi th IOJ(j-Ib. and 82.t-Ib. projectiles the single chargps ranged farther than the combined charges, but that Uw ditTercnee is compara tively small enough to warran t the use of the eombined charges when the single charges arc used up. The range dilTercnce can be compensated for by adjustment of lire.

(2) That the ,OO-lb. projectile throughout its range, and particularly at long range, showed excellent ballistic qualities with single or combined charges; therefore, where they arc most likely to be needed, the combined charges give their greatest efIiciency. The results of "Problem Four" where combined charges were freely used, and even as many as four sections were IIsed for one charge, bear out these conclusions. Lieutenant Bellinger, C. S. N., was to have taken nd\"an tage of these shots in practicing spotting from his hyd 1'0aeroplane; but, due to engine troubles, was unable to get much brncfit from the practice. S. The srrond problem consisted in firing seventeen founds lO.JG-Ib. cast-iron projectiles in their three outpr zones by the .11st Company in "A" pit, Battery Anderson, on August .1, at a moving target which followed the curved course marked f)-E. The details of this firing arc shown in the records and nnn lysis of procl ice. The following s II III Illn ry is given.

I
I

J

Deviation in Yards Round Zone Range EI~vati~ n

-

Over

Shor t I_Right Left

Remarks

1

8 8 8 8 9 9 9
9 9

G090 G250

58 10 57 40

96 83 52 9 15 67 21G 80 27 11 132 53 88 14
11

43 First ranging shot. 0 B' armsetter
errors. made

2 3 salvo
1 5

6780' 52 20 6780 52 20 7150 7650 7650 7GGO 7GGO 7930 7930 8120 8120 8320 8320 8700 8700 58 40 !i425 51 2S 54 15 5.1 15 52 00 !'i20 0 18 30 18 30 57 40 57 10
"

12

".

6 salvo 7 8 snlvo
~)

error 61 Plotter's +130 yards. 39 Plotter's error +90 5;') yards. 10

0 snlvo
1

9
9 9
~)

12 snlvo 13 14 snlvo 1;: )

q
21 36 46 IG

18 31 Plottrr's 29
error and arm3l11rnt error compensating.

10

10 10
10

Hj snlvo 17
)

51 50 [>1 50

129 212

2~) Plottrr's 5

error and rrror armament in same dirrc(ion.

This series was for the purpose of testing the system of observation of fire and its adj ustment, in the use of the 10.W-lh. projectile in its three outer zones, and therefore with three different weights of charge. The B' arm-setter, who had done excellent work in drill and subcaliber practice, apparently went to pieces and his errors afTected at times not only the track of the target hu t also the plotter's work in prediction. , The records of this practice show, in general, excellent resulls in the use of instrumental observation of fire for single shots but only fair results in the case of salvos. On this day the aviator was unable to rise from the water in his hydroaeroplane during the practice. 9. The third problem consisted of firing 36 rounds, 12 700-lb., 12 82-1-1b. and 12 10,16-1b.cast iron projectiles, by the I6Sth Company in "A" pit of Battery Ruggles on August 5, at a moving target which followed the curved course marked

10 F-G, both going out and coming in. The details of this firing are shown in the records and analysis of practice. The following summary is given.
Hound Zone Deviation Range E1~vat~on Over Short Left in Yards Remarks

10 2 3 4 5
(;

Right --- --- -- -- -7HI5 60 15

21

-,37 34

10 10 10 10 10 11

8190 8320 8-155 87GO 8nO 10190

57 40 56 50 57 15 5.1 05 52 25 53 50

59 46 103 170 60 358 6 3 2:3 2 39

Plotter's error -40 yards. Correction 125 yards applied.

+

7

8

11 11 11 11 11 11

10180 1OG95 10890 11030 11280 11710

5,1 20 51 55 50 35 '19 '15 '15 30 52 '10 42 5

88

n
10 11 12

Projectile changed from 10,16 to 82/1 lbs. 27 Correction - 425 yards applied. 2 8

99 21 7G

48 35

Plotter's error ynrds.

-70

n
J.1 15 16 17 18 19

11 12 13 13 13 J.1

11930 12080 13.110 13710 14070 15.170

48 10 45 35 53 50 53 10 50 10 .19 30

G2 37 72 Gl 29 328 28 60 8

8 Projectile changed from 82,1 to 700 los. 31 Correction 250 yards applied. 3.1

+

20

J.1

15J.10

'19 25

71

486 First shot in 2d series and fired at predicted point by mistake. 45

I
I

J

11

2I 22 2 :l 24 25

I Round Zone Range Elevation ,
0

Deviation in Yards Over Shor t Righ t Left

Remarks

--

-- --- --- -- -14 13 13 13 12 12 14710 14515 14380 14100 11630 11380 53 10 46 25 47 30 47 35 47 35 53 55 51 213 85' 29

-15 38

137 150

12 30 Correction 2 12 + 30
yards applied. Change of projectile from 700 to 82.1Ibs. - 380 Correction yards applied. error Plotter's +50 yards. board Deflection error operator's 135 yards left. in using ~tistake of observation fire -200 yards. Same error as No.

26

27

11 11 11 11 10 10 10 to 10 10

11125 11000 108GO 10735 8865 88G5

47 50 51 45 53 00 54 30 56 25 56 25

35 137 81 2.16 563 563 140 117 33 48 G 0

t26 0 13

28

}

30 31 snlvo

32
33 snlvo

28. 13 Same error as No. 28. 50 Chnnge of projectile from 821 to 10.1G 32
lbs.

34 35 salvo 36

8.190 53 25 8190 53'25 8220 8220 57 35 57 35

+650 33 Correction yards applied. 33 3 Correction +150
yards applied.

This series was for the purpose of introducing the various questions that might arise in connection with firing at a moving target under tactical orders from the fire commander, and involving prompt changes of charges and projectiles. This series is probably unique in our mortar firing, for it involved the use of 1046-, 824-, and 700-lb. projectiles with their proper Zone charges for two series of firings at a moving target on curved courses and at ranges ~hich varied from 79.t5 yards to a maximum of 15,470 yards. There was no difficulty in the service of charges or projectiles, the latter being arranged on skids in the pit. The fire-control section was overworked and on account of shock and stress the individuals did not

12 perform their separate functions as well as in their drills nnd subcaliber practice. Such firings as these form the only reliable basis for estimating the accomplishment that may be expected in actual service. Attention is particularly called to the adjustment necessary when projectiles arc changed and to the serious effect this might have at a critical slage of an aclion. This series also included for the first course aerial observation of fire from the hydroaeroplane. On this day Lieutenant Bellinger made an excellent flight in his hydroaeroplane. lIe was unable to rise wilh his assislan t, Lieu tenan t Spencer, so alone he flew at considerable height over the target; and, as the splashes of the shols were made in the water he reported their fall by means of firing black smoke shells from a Yery pislol-one over and two short: these were observed ins tan lly a t the ba ltery and at the fire commandrr's station, and rrportrd to the baltery commander. About three of his series of eigh teen signals eould not be made ou t, but the others were in accordance wi lh the result of the instrumental observation. Lieutenant Bellinger was, in addition, estimating the amount of overs and shorts and recording them, but after severnl reeords his pencil was blown from his mouth by the wind, and his reeord could not he completed. \Vhen it is remembered that this series of firings included ranges up to 15/170 yards fronl the baltery, it will be seen how valuable even this information would have been if the instrumental observation could not have been made; this could easily have happened if the air had not been so clear. Lieutenant Bellinger's act in performing through professional zeal this function in addition to his hazardous duty under the best of conditions, certainly deserves eommcnda tion.
I

]0. The fourth problem consisted of firing 17 rounds: 2~ jOO-lb. and 1 lOW-lb. cast-iron projectiles, by the :~!)1I1 Company, C. A. C., in "A" pit, Ballrry BuggIes, August {i, a t moving targets towed by the steamers \\'flhcrill and Rl'110 on the curved courses marked F'-{; and 11-1. It was planned in this series to undertake the full problem of mortar fire by requiring the Ballery Commapder not only to fire in eli/Terent zones with at least two elilTerent projectiles hut also lo ehangc targets at sueh times as would require him to use different charges and projectiles from those with which he would be conducting his fire when the order to change should be received. The plan was carried out to include firing at elilTercnt towed

n

I
I

J

13 t3rgets but a prompt change from one t3rget to another could not be made, owing to the failure of the radio set on the ~Vetherill to receive the Fire Commander's message sent from the radio station at Fort l\10nroe at a distance of about 14,000 yards. The details of this firing arc shown in the records 3nd analysis of practice. The folJowing summ3ry is given.

Hound
I

Deviation Zone No. of hug~ H:m ge EI~va1i,on

in Yard!i Remark!!

-'-- --- -- --- --- ._- -- -- -7t
I
10 1 9530 57 50 102

Ov er Sho r1 Righ 11 Left

2
:3

10 10

1 1 1 1 1

9G15 100S0 10720 11010 11380

5G 15 ,17 30 m 20

,18 :32:3 121') 5-1 27 2:30 r)o 7G 25 57 39 :t9 (19 81 53

110

'iOO-Ih. shot, First projectile. Error on defh.etion bO:1flJ.

1
5 G snlvo

11
11 11

3

f);) 10 53 00 ;)3 00

Correction of -220 3pplit'tl. of +'iO Correction npplit>tJ. Ko error Error on board. found. deflection

7
8 snlvo

11
11 11 12 12 12 12 9 10

2 11380 2 11 Gto
2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

n

51 00 I1G.1O 51 00 55 00 Sf) 00 5.1 25 51 2S 51 IS r)G ,15 5t 51
')1':

o
1

s:llvo

.

12070 12070 12180 12180 7S80 8:370 8;)50 8950 90GO 97.10 9710 9750
97[)O

;)
132 2 53 10.1 18 55 5 89 1O~l 83
Jj()

98 7:3 ;)3 21

Error on defll'ction board.

1'2 salvo 13 11
)

10

....

)

First shot, 10W-Ih. projectile. Error on dl'flrction bo:ud. Error on dl'fll'ction board.

17
18

10
10 10 10 10

')'" ... ;)

50 00 55 10 f);) 10 5;) 10 5;) 10

71 13;') 110 222 33

I

19 salvo 20
21 snlvo

,10
22

Error on deflect ion board. chan{.:wd Projectilr to 'iOO-Ih. Error by ploltrr. Error on drflrct ion board.

111

22

10

77

14
Hound No. of Range Lags Deviation Elevation
o ,

Zone

in Yards Right Left Remarks

23 2.1 2S 26 27 28 2!} 30 31

-- -- -- --- -- -- -- -10 2 9870 51 40 48
Over Short

78 Error on deflection

10 13 13 13 13

2 10050 53 SO 1 12.100 57 40 1 12S20 57 40 1 12770 5610 1 12930 fiG10 1 13100 55 25 1 13200 48 IS 1100

270 170 570 518 150

70

board. Error on deflection board. 32 Error by plotter. Error on deflection and elevation board. Error on deflection and elevation board. Error hy plotter and on deflection hoard. No cause found.

131 .56

113
I

.

13

-13.1 45 S7

13

\

13

1 13330 53 20

72

32

13

2

13115 51 55

128

3:'J 31 35 3G 37 salvo 38 39 salvo 40 41 salvo 42 43 salvo 41

13 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 9 9

2 13510 52 55 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 8680 51 10 8570 51 30 8110 55 30 82GO 5G 40 82GO 5G 40 81GO 57 10 81GO 57 10 8100 57 30 8100 57 30 7800 52 00 7800 52 00 1-15 87

42 41 50

Error on elevation hoard, - wrong zone. 139 Error on deflection board. Correction of +2S0 npplied. lOS Error on deflection hoard. Corn~ction of +150 applied. 152 Bange correction of -80 applied. GO Projectile chnnged to 1O.tG-lh.

30 58

29 78

7 20.1 7 7

Error of lOin ing mortar.

lay-

18 25 7-1 76 0

1(j

0 G 2

15
No.
of bags

Deviation in Yards Range E)~vat~on overl~hort Right

Round

Zone

I Left
2.1 0
8

Remarks

-1-

45 salvo 46
47

9 9 9

4 5 3

7650 7650 7400

54 20 54 20 56 40

73 10 133

0

I t is apparent at a glance that a great many errors were made in the range section, and the cause of these errors deserves consideration. Such errors are rarely seen at drill, s'ubcaliber, or ordinary target practice, and the work of this Company during the entire drill season .was excellent. This practice was out of the ordinary. A strain was placed on the whole battery such as it had never borne before and one which only an unusually difficult practice or an action could bring out. The range section was overworked and could not shake ofT the feeling of the great responsibility \vhich rested upon it. These .are human failings and they are bound to be met in action, which is the true object of our training. On the other hand, the pit and ammunition sections worked well in spite of the added burdens, which were due to changes 'in projectiles, the combinations which had to be made to supply powder charges, and changes in these charges due to relays. No error was made in this service, although this problem purposely involved using what was left from the three previous firings. The efTect of such firing acts in entirely difTerent ways on men engaged in mental work and men engaged in physical work. The former are strained and depressed, while the latter are decidedly stimulated. The ammunition service depended entirely upon the tactical orders received from the Fire Commander: as a result, nine 10.16-lb. projectiles out of the total 11.1 could not be fired, as only 14th zone charges remained. Artificial conditions were not imposed by the Fire Commander and the problems were permitted to take their natural course. On this day Lieutenant Dellinger was unable to rise from the water with his hydroaeroplane although he was continually It would have been attempting to do so during the practice. very interesting if he could have got into the air for he had planned to signal one shot over, two short, and, after a slight interval, a number of shots which would have indicated one, within 100 yards; two, within 200 yards; and so on.

GENEHAL

CONCLUSIONS

AND BECOl\Il\IENDATIONS

1. The single series of H'lated charges and reduces a hopelessly complex ammunition which is practical and efIicienl.

is satisfactory service to one

2. The iOO-lb. projectile with its range limits from /1:WO yards to 15,GOO yards for the mortar, 1\lodel of 18DO, is the most important one for our service, and, in the reassignment of mortar projectiles, should be treated accordingly. 3. The single series of related charges enables the change from one projectile to another to be made without confusion a t the ba ttery. A new problem of fire adj ustment, however, is introduced every time a change of projectile is made. 4. The powder was actually served from the magazines in the emplacements and there was considerable shock in the powder magazine; it would have been almost impossible, on account of shock, for men to have served projectiles from It would have been aelually impossible the projectile galleries. to have served them from there, due to the restricted space, wi thou t delaying the firing. 5. The mortars and carriages stood the test of longrange firing satisfactorily. The equalizing pipe in No. :~, "B" pit, Ballery BuggIes, pulled apart at the center coupler; and the one in No. ,1 of the same pit, leaked. The new electric firing circuits JHoved satisfactory with the exceptions: a. The contact jaws in the box attached to the left-hand side frame needed continual adjustment to establish continuity of circui l. b. The milled head screw binding the conductor lug on the breech block would unscrew, due to shock. These malleI'S should be given consideration Ordnance Departmen l. to the by the

n. The shock zone signal lights.

of discharge

alTected

the opera tion of the

7. Longer horizontal base lines are needed for firing at targets at such ranges as 15,000 yards, and for the n~orlar halleries at Fort l\lonroe supplementary stations on the reservation at \Yilloughby Spit should be provided. The
(16)

17 adoption of the ploUing hoard which has heen devised and tested by the Coast Artillery Board will enable instant changes of base lines to be made. 8. The plotting room is the brain of the mortar battery anll should be in a thoroughly protected place. In addilion lei their lack of protection, those at Batteries BuggIes and Anderson are affected by the shock of salvo discharge. 9.. On August 3 a correction of about +500 yards was neeessary in firing at the 14,600 yard fixed target with 700-lb. projectile, and two days later an opposite correction' of -200 yards was necessary in firing at the moving ta~get. at a~Ol~ t the same range with the same .powder and prOJectIle; tillS IS evidence that the atmospheric changes produce range and deflection deviations that can seriously aITect the accuracy of fire. The best means now available to correct for such deviations is by the use of instrumental observation of fire, and this question is not as simple as it seems at first thought. For instance, the records of these firings show that even with the short base lines used, quite accurate results were ohtained for single shots; while, for salvos, in many cases poor results were obtained. Far different results might have been obtained if even one observing station could have been advant3geously located, for instance, at \Villoughby Spit. Future experiments may show improvement in this direction or that more accurate results will be obtained by observing single shots, whether fired singly or in 83lvos with one shell having a tracrr or loaded with a di1Terent explosive which bursting in action on imrlact will give a characteristic color to its smoke. Experimental firing with tracers or loaded shell at fixed targets would probably give some very interesting information on this subject. 10. The fact that in the whole Army and Navy combined but one hydroaeroplane was available for this experiment, and that not only could it not rise at all with. two officers but even with the greatest difficulty with one, in spite of the wellknown efI1ciency of the aviator, Lieutenant Bellinger, U. S. N., It is indeed is a sad commentary on our aerial prepardeness. fortunate that Lieutenant Bellinger could get in the air on August 5 and demonstrate so skillfully what even one man could do in the matter of aerial observation of fire. It was really too much for one man to handle the aeroplane, keep out of the line of mortar fire, walch the water constantly for splashes, estimate the l1istance from the target, fire signals,

18 and keep a record of his observations. Lieutenant Bellinger was very gallant in making the attempt and his success was indeed gratifying. It is recommended that a start be made to have even a few Army hydroaeroplanes available in coast artillery districts for experimental work in observing coast artillery fire, particularly long-range .mortar fire. 11. The greatest interest was taken by officers and enlisted men throughout the fire command; they were imbued with the feeling that this test was actually preparation for action. It is believed the time has come for the Coast Artillery to undertake the most difficult fire problems that local condi- . tions permit and therefore demand: in order that the most thorough preparation be made for war by this branch of our service, both in training the personnel and in testing the materiel to the utmost limit short of actual attack.

Present Status of the Series of Artillery Notes

No.

Title

------

Instructions for Regulating Powder Charges of Coast Artillery in "'t Target Practice. "'t 2 Armor Attack Sheet., • t 3 Directions for Setting Up, Adjusting, and Using the Lewis Type" A ," Depression Position Finder. ' "'t 4 Proceedings of a. Board of Officers, Convened at Governors Island. New York, for the Purpose of Preparing and Formulatmg a System of Electrical Communication for Artillery Fire Control. "'t 5 Construction of a Difference Chart. "'t 6 Description and Diagram of the Telautograph. 7 Curves and Tables of Robinson"s Anemometer. *t 8 The Le'Yis Depression Position Finder. F:unction and .Me~hod of *t OperatIon of the Elevating Screw. DevIce for Illummatmg the Cross-Wires. Supplement to Artillery Note No.3. 9 Searchlights. . '" 10 Mortar Zones and Mortar Range Tables. '" 11 Seacoast Engineering .. 12 Notes on Oil Engines. '" "'fa 13 System of Nomenclature of Parts of Modern Batteries. . 14 Form for" H.eport of an Inspection Relative to Coa.st Arullerr In'" struction, the Condition of the Batteries, and the FIre Contro and Direction System." . "'t 15 Test of Experimental Fire Control Installation at Pensacola, FlorJda. "'tb 16 Notes on Explosives. ' 17 Notes on the Telephone. "'t 18 T~eory of the Storage Battery. • 19 DIgest of Orders and Circulars Issued by the \\ ar Department Per. taining to the Care and Use of Seacoast Armament from January I, 1896, to January I, 1904. "'t 20 Correspondence Relative to Preparation of Data for Elevation Scales • of Seacoast Guns. 21 Topical Index of Artillery Subjects . •t 2~ P~actic~l Metho.d of Adjusting a Modern Gun . •t 23 DIScussIon Bearmg on the Tactical Use of Mortars. 24 Topical Index of Artillery Subjects. Supplement to Artillery Note No. 21. • 25 Note on Ballistic Tables. 26 Construction of a Difference Chart. 27 Topical Index of Artillery Subjects. Second Supplement to Artillery Note No. 21. 28 A Study of Attacks Upon Fortified Harbors. 29 Correction of Range Scales for Height of Site and Curvature. "'c 30 Tables of Logarithms of Trigonometric Functions Computed for Degrees and Hundredths of Degree. '" 31 Searchlights. 32 Searchlights. 33 Location and Repair of Faults in Submarine Mine Cable. 34 Schloming Film-Scale. 35 A Method of Filling Projectiles. 36 The Weekly Mine Command lnseection. 37 Joint Naval and Coast Defense Exercises, August 3-9, 1913. 38 Analysis of Target Practice. 3!) Gasoline Engines in Distribution Box Boats and Mine Yawls. • 391 Hep?rt of the Coast Artillery Board of. August 12, 1915 on Expenmental Mortar Practice. (ConfidentIal-Issued only to officers of the Coast Artillery Corps.)
'" Out of print. t Obsolete. a J,ncluded in Coast Artillery Drill R~gulation8. b Superseded by Weaver's "Notes on Military Explosives." c Not to be reprinted, as such tables can be purchased commercially.

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