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# INTRODUCTION & BASIC CONCEPTS

## The need for structural dynamic analysis

Static

 Load distribution determined by stiffness of individual structure load paths (statically
determinate or redundant)
 Loads unaffected by mass (except self-weight) or repeated applications of external
 Applicable for most maneuver cases.

Generally characterized by steady state or slowly varying loads. All these cases can be
balanced using a free body diagram.

Dynamic

 Typically buffet store release, boundary layer noise (transient or rapidly repeated)
 Load distribution may be affected by deformation of structure - flexible aircraft effects
 Loads affected by masses of individual items of structure (or non-structural parts)
 Rapidly repeated loads or transient (shock) loads may produce stresses > static
case. Amplitudes can build up with time (resonance)
 Loads may be generated out of plane of applied forces due to inertia or displacement
effects.
Generally characterized by rapidly varying loads, with frequency > natural frequency of
structure.

Balance cases can only be derived by accounting for accelerations within the structure
(D'Alambert's principle of reverse effective force).
Dynamic Analysis

Host dynamic analysis is done using a simplified mathematical model representing mass,
stiffness and damping. Fundamental equation - Newton's Second Law of Motion

𝑃 =𝑚×𝑎

P= Force
M= mass
A = acceleration

In dynamic analysis it is important to use consistent units. These can be checked using
dimensional analysis with Newtons Law

𝐹𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 = [𝑀][𝐿][𝑇]−2

## Force (Newtons) =Mass (kg) x acceleration (metres/sec2)

or Force (poundals) =Mass (lbs) x acceleration (feet/sec2)
or Force (lbf) = Mass (slugs)x acceleration (feet/sec2)
or Force (lbf) = Mass (mugs)x acceleration (inches/sec2)

NOTE 1. Many text book equations assume imperial units of force =lbf, weight = lbf,
time =sec, length = inches and have built in conversion factors.

## 2. The-common unit of Force, lbf, is in fact a derived

unit and is equal to 1 lb. mass x the acceleration due to
gravity, g t which can vary with latitude and altitude.
3. Units of mass may be derived for any force/length/time
combination if necessary.
e.g. for force in Tons, length in inches, time in seconds.
Value of g for consistent units

## Mass Length Time Force g

Kg m sec N 9.81
Lbs ft sec pdls 32.17
Slugs ft sec lbf 32.17
mugs in sec lbf 386

Vibrating Systems

## To which there are 2 possible solutions:

i. Free vibration i.e. F(t) = 0

ii. Forced vibration i.e. F(t) = externally applied force(steady state, step, random,
periodic)

For most structures damping (c) is small and except in the case of resonance or near (where
frequency of F(t) variation equals natural frequency of system) can be ignored.
Extra damping can be supplied to control the dynamic response.

## e.g. undercarriage shock absorber anti-vibration mounts

- controls recoil
- friction, air, or elastomeric, damping controls response at resonance.
Free Vibration (with small or zero damping)