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But first of all, let's look back as an introduction

how it was ... in the beginning...

The European Homo Sapiens would return to Africa a
million years later, but had to repopulate America, as it
was urgently needed. This trek was realized by the
Conquistadores and explorers on behalf of their Kings. We
have already seen how both, Islam and the Christian
churches, had extended their sphere of influence in Africa
and how slavery was interpreted. In the history of Sumer
and in the Torah, we could see these signs much earlier
and in the actual social order the higher value of the "own
people" in relation to the stranger, the conquered or "the
different" appears to be a permanent motive. The concept
of belonging to the "chosen people" is an example of this.
A theme that found a fertile soil in Europe. The idea of
superiority of the white race with the sublimation of the
Aryan en Britsh branches is still ongoing. By their faith, the
multiple Christian and Islamic splinter groups regarded
themselves also as a chosen people. The ancient
Israelites, Greeks and Romans had created the
fundamentals for this kind of deep convictions. But even
in Egypt, Babylon and among the Incas, this apocalyptic
lifestyle, including slavery, was deep rooted ** It was only
recently that this changed. It was only recently that this
changed. A civil war in the United States would announce
the universal abolition of slavery. Some countries had
already adopted such laws. The whole system of labor
(slaves) exploitation has to be re-adapted. This innovation
was already used long ago by the Dutch and their East
and West Indies companies with the famous "Javanese
model" including segregation or apartheid.
This "Javanese model" knew a subtle form of tax liability,
which degenerated in practice into forced labor and
created conditions that were worse than slavery.

* Often also called superior races or Übermenchen genoemd.

** See Mel Gibson: movie “Apocalypto

And again, it was the turn of Africa, already horribly
ravaged, to suffer this fate. This approach was greeted
with cheers in Europe. Indeed, it was too easy. The East
coast of Africa had already been navigated and exploited
for centuries by the great Persian (Oman) civilizations and
those of India and China and finally by Portugal too.
Since the 16th century, more and more European
countries became involved in these raids. But soon
discontent arose. There was almost no space for
newcomers and the competition was great. But the size of
the African continent was so huge that there were still
some possibilities. All eyes were focused now on the
mysterious deep interior of Africa. The end of the slave
trade did not only eliminate the coastal competition, but
opened in the mean time the roads to the interior. The first
expeditions occurred already, as well as Portuguese
migrations to the East Coast and Dutch Boers to the Cape.
The east coast with Zanzibar as their headquarters was
partly populated with Shirazi Persians from Muscat or
Oman and some Bedouins from Ras el Khaïmah.* There
were also Indian and Malayo-Javanese settlements and
even Chinese long before the arrival of Vasco da Gama.
The Turkish fleet was also very active overthere.
The slave trade is wrongly attributed exclusively to the
Arabs, mainly in the Belgian history books.
Even on an official statue, the words "the Arab slave
trader" are engraved, which is surealistic in the context of
the establishment of a forced labor system, worse than
slavery, in the Congo Free State.
Since the spread of Islam on the east coast of Africa, the
Arabic writing ( Alif Ba Ta ‫ ) ا ب ت‬was used by several
countries for their own languages, including Turkish,
Persian, Swahili and others.
* There are various spellings: “Musqat-Masqat-Mascate-Maskat-Muscat.”

All Muslims were simply regarded as Arabs. The Egyptian
Mamluks, the Askari from Sudan and all the Swahili,
including Msiri, were usually called Arabs in Western
writings. However, the existence of long-term human
trafficking remains a fact.*
Along the east coast and in Zanzibar, Mbagamoyo, Ujiji,
Baraka and Kilwa, there were a large number of "counters"
where the rich traders of Somalia, India and Arabs,
Portuguese, French and Yemeni Turks, bought ivory, gold,
spices and hides, as well as slaves for the many plantations.
Madagascar was a unique phenomenon with its
predominant Austronesian population and their trans-
pacific trade. Since the times of Vasco da Gamma (16th
century), the entire African East Coast stood under
Portuguese control.
Dozens of fortresses were built between Mozambique and
Muscat, along with complete garrisons equipped with heavy
artillery. Later this chain was extended to Macao.
The "Back to Africa" of all these non-African populations
obviously had nothing to do with the search for the cradle
of the first man. They rather were looking for elephant tusks,
golden eggs and other wealth. Obviously, there were also
the slave markets for the triangular trade, just like on the
Many countries, such as America, soon needed cheap
labor for their plantations. Typical for America is that there
was a terrible "slave breeding" system on these plantations
to increase their number. Of course, there was a large
number of "half-bloods" among the resulting offspring.
Meanwhile, more explorers appeared on the African
horizon on behalf of geographical and scientific societies.


There came a time of furious wars, from the Cape to
Khartoum. Almost the whole of Africa was on
fire.Everything and anything was seized.
In order to give this situation a philanthropic character
many of these conflicts were officially referred to as anti-
slavery campaigns or suppressing of insurrections.
The Swahili groups of the Congo Free State who had a
monopoly in the cotton, clove and ivory trade were
subjected and their slaves or locals with the obligation to
work for them, were freed or redeemed. As compensation
they had to do seven years of forced labor in other remote
areas. * In fact, this was nothing more than the armed
confiscation of an existing trade. The attractive word
"libérés" was given to these "released" slaves.*
The German August Boshart gives in his work "Zehn
Jahre Afrikanischen Lebens" a clear vision how whole
tribes were subjugated and how some were promoted to
Kapita, a kind of quasi-official trustee. As Kapita they
received instructions to deliver a certain number of people
or goods at a specified date.These trustees negotiated on
their turn with the village chiefs through middlemen, the
infamous sentries.*
The Kapitas, led by white officers, formed the backbone of
a heavily armed force, the Force Publique, at least in the
Congo Free State.
In a short time it became clear to the chefs what was
awaited from them and the more and more they agreed
with the demands and in that case the negotiations ran
smoothly. …There was no other choice!
Each village chief had to promise to deliver a number of
"slaves" for which he received gifts in return. Forced labor,
as a tax burden, occurred everywhere in Africa.

* Zehn-Jahre-Afrika-August-Boshart-1898
* Sentries or a kind of sentinelles
* Libérés or Liberated.
In most of the other cases, when the kind invitation to
cooperate faced resistance, a declaration of war was the
immediate result and the villages, one after the other were
set on fire and most of the inhabitants perished.
Provisions, livestock and vegetable crops were looted.
The dramatic effects of this, such as plagues and
depopulation, would soon appear.
This method made the chiefs very quickly “obedient”.
To regain peace they were forced, as a punitive measure,
to deliver twice the number of slaves or goods.
Often these chiefs were executed and replaced by others,
more willingly to cooperate.
Of course in official matters the use the word "slaves" was
strictly avoided.
Since there was paid for these slaves, they also were
freed immediately and registered in the books of the "Free
State Enterprise" as "Libérés or Liberated", but with heavy
As a precaution to prevent that they would run away or
escape, they were enchained and taken to remote areas.
There they were incorporated into one or another military
camp of the Force Publique or were employed for other
purposes such as portage.
This didn't affect the other obligations imposed to the
chiefs concerning the payment of taxes in kind, such as
food for the troops.
To speed up the influx of the labor force, the district
commissioner received for each "recruit" who was hired
two pounds (the payment in francs was introduced much
later). Law enforcement was an absolute priority.
The use of the "chicotte" a whip made of the very rough
hippopotamus skin, was general and remaind in use,
although it was only sporadic, until 1960.

It was the task of Kapitas and "sentries", whom received
free rein with absolute powers and weapons, to complete
successfully their assigned tasks.
The abuses were cruel but almost none of them were
ever penalized, forbidden or made public.
Silence was the golden rule!
There excisted almost no more slaves on the market, but
freed men called "Libérés or Liberated".
This gave the impression that after centuries of abuse by
Europeans, Zanzibaris and Swahili, the Congo was now
finally populated with freed people only subjected to
some kind of (labor) tax obligation.
The philanthropic work which was behind this
achievement was greatly applauded in a small select
circle. The expectation was that the people and their
governments would appreciate this.
The missionaries joined in this competition and their
main task, besides evangelizing and recruiting converts,
consisted in the care of labor training.
As a result of the conquest there were thousands of
abandoned orphans and a large part of them ended up
on the missions.
Others were bought or more often simply stolen.
A part of them would stay permanently in these missions
to help make those units self-sustainable with own
revenue sources, the rest went to the Force Publique or
to the concession areas.
The "Kapitas" were thus destined to execute certain
That was simply the price they had to pay for a promotion
in rank, from a slave to a forced laborer and finally to a
Kapita who could afford almost anything as long as he
cooperated with the system.

The sentries were sometimes even better off because
they lived with the chiefs in the villages.
It was David Livingstone as an individual, who
succeeded to forbid the African slave trade, after years
of publishing and urge the UK Government and
international movements. But his efforts were misused in
the attempt to give the (so called temporary) forced labor
a "more human" character. In fact the new development
was one of jumping out of the frying pan into the fire.
From Cape Town to North Africa more than one hundred
and fifty million people became victims of forced labor
under terrible conditions.
The celebrations of the abolition were completely
misplaced and the war against the slave trade was only
a gambit to a system which was worse.
Worse, because the forced labor system with the
coercive measures, including the most terrible sanctions,
was approved (in secret) by the legislatures of several
European countries and was described in "special
colonial law books" which were not public.
All this was in the sign of the vague intention that the
"civilization of Africa" would be realized somewhere in an
obscure and distant future in which the presence of the
superior Europeans would play a dominant and
permanent role. Rome also saw all its wishes granted.
Christianity had now become the largest religion in the
world. How could the combination or intermingling of
racism and slavery on the one hand, coexist with science,
liberty and religion, on the other hand? The birth of the
United States and South America and the subjection of
the slaves and natives are the main factors of it.

* An_Essay_on_the_Inequality_of_the_Human_Races Wikipedia

An inhuman ideology of the past that of the inferior
lineage, raised its head again, and was spread
It was a certain Speke, an explorer, who, after his quest
for the sources of the Nile poured oil on the fire with his
book "The Hamitic Myth" and the Biblical theory of
descent in which he stated that the Tutsi belonged to a
superior race while the Hutu were inferior.
That absurd lineage theory of "the three sons" is badly
drafted and also complicated... a real showpiece of
Aryan superiority to be proud of.
With this work he laid the foundation for a dangerous
race theory, based on dogmas that soon would have
His ideas showed a strong resemblance to those of
Joseph Arthur de Gobineau.*
This narrative dates back to the time when Speke arrived
in what was then the Kingdom of Rwanda.
Then he came to the rather senseless conclusion that
the WaTutsi had to be a superior race with a non-African
origin. As evidence was stated that the Tutsi were the
descendants of the Biblical figure Shem or Cham, with a
lighter skin and more "European" physiognomy than the
Bantu characteristics present on the Hutu under their
rule. Speke, however, confuses them also with the term
"Hamites" which in his deeper analysis would mean that
the Bantu didn't descend from one of the three sons of
Noah, but rather were degenerated and related to the
"apelike" (sic)! This hypothesis of Speke (in which he
proves that he is absolutely not an anthropologist nor a
scientist) was widespread.

* theory of races.

It was a fact that by the time that at first the Germans and
after them the Belgians took over the domination of
Rwanda there was a smoldering hearth waiting for a
favorable wind to set everything on fire.*
We must consider the fact that in the 19th century, the
whole Western world attributed indeed to the African
Bantu population rather half-ape-like properties instead
of human faculties.
This was demonstrated during sermons in churches as
reflected in the various literature.
For centuries, even the popes had given permission to
enslave Africans on condition that they had to be
converted to Christianity.
It would take a long time to change the past and that
finally some charity would come out of the papal chalice,
but the damage was already done.That Speke was
dealing with contradictions was simply ignored.
These contradictions can be find back in some pseudo-
scientific literature were on one place the Tutsi, Somali
or some other peoples are described as Hamites and on
other places as Semites and descendants of King
Solomon with his legendary gold mines. Some even
pretend that these mines still exist now (somewhere on
a hidden place). On one hand, the Tutsi were the
descendants of Shem or Ham and considered as
superior beings compared to the Bantu peoples, while on
the other hand the Bantu were associated with the
Biblical curse of Noah's son Ham and his descendants.
According to others, they were a degenerate species
which never would evolve or develop any kind of
civilization. In fact, they were no-humans, just good
enough to serve as slaves.

Many years later, the most seasoned newspaper
reader would occasionally get confused to determine
the cause of the continuing unrest in these areas that
would finally lead to repeated genocide.
Why the contrasts in Rwanda were so great that in the
end more than ten percent of the population died a
horrible death in a crazed outburst of violence?
These antagonisms can be traced back to a large
extent, to the blunders made by western settlers.
This was already evident when Belgium took over the
former German colony after WWI. A region where two
peoples were present sharing the same language and
However, traditionally the Tutsi minority had a majority
representation in the state institutions, despite the fact
that the Hutu were much more numerous.
The Belgian ruler disrupted the balance by making a
clear distinction between Hutu and Tutsi on the basis of
arbitrary physical characteristics.
To start, there was the issue of special identity cards
that downgraded the Hutu for a long time to a lower
caste in contrast to the noble Tutsi.
Those who got in their ID-card a stamp qualifying them
as Hutu could forget about a career within the colonial
governmental services. *
In accordance with the prevailing Western popular
racial theories, these slender and tall Tutsi were
obviously seen as related to the peoples of the Nile
Delta and the Middle East.
The Hutu with their rough appearance would belong to
the inferior Bantu tribes, although there existed other
(humiliating and derogatory) opinions about them.
* What-impact-did-belgian-presence-rwanda-have-to-spark-further-conflict
* how_is_the_relationship_between_hutus_and_tutsis today!

Similar methods would be adopted by the Nazis in the
twentieth century as a support for their racial doctrine.
For this purpose, the tall blond, blue-eyed German was
presented as the Aryan in its purest form.
The Nazi ideologist, Gerhard Heberer, would further
intensify this typical German glorification of his time, by
pretending that the Caucasian civilization that, until
then, was seen as the cradle of Aryanism, could
eventually be redirected to a much older European
civilization overlapping Germany, Austria and
The British too used their own stories of the mythical
British and Celtic noble ancient races, in order to justify
their rule over India and the rest of the world.
After all, they were white and therefore of Caucasian
The division of humanity into races had become
obsolete and outdated in Europe after World War II.
In addition, the term Aryan became so infected that the
alleged founders of the first European civilizations were
now called Indo-Europeans.
With this new name we rather speak of a culture instead
of a human race.
The term Hamitic, no longer has a significant use either.
The racial thinking of the nineteenth century is still
echoing in the term "Semitic", related to the Jewish
people and in American politics the correct expression
for the "white man" has been changed into "Caucasian".
Some spiritual and political leaders had shared for a
long time extreme points of view. This was due to the
impure dogmatic legacy of the old Roman Empire,
which until now continues to proliferate as a "disease".
Avé Cesar!

It suffices to look at the course of European history and
to note that for two millennia "disregard, exploitation
and slavery" towards its own people and that which is
foreign has been the work of its "narcissistic
The "feudal serfdom and slavery" especially in the
newly won territories are not invented by the Moors or
Muslims, but following the unquenchable thirst for
wealth and power of our kings and popes.
The geographer, Baron von Schwerin, made a big
mistake by saying that although the Protestants
compared with the Catholic missionaries were men of
faith, but without any education or scientific training.
He did not hide his admiration for the Catholic and had
a particular preference for those of the Holy Ghost
Fathers who had done things of infinite goodness.
The others, Protestants, were a disgrace to civilization.
They created a breeding ground for renegades or
apostates. Von Schwerin, a good friend of Coquilhat,
was himself a Lutheran.
This branch of Christianity was, as he reveals here, not
in a good relationship with the Protestants.
But they were, regarding Africa, more human than
Catholics and distanced themselves from both, the
slavery approved by the pope and the so-called
"orphanages" that the Catholic missions erected
anywhere and where children were trained to join the
Public Force (Force Publique), to work in the
plantations or even for labor in the missions. It may be
that Catholic missionaries have received a better
education, were skillful with Latin, Greek and even

Without exception they all were theologians chosen by
the hierarchy of the church.
But they were also dogmatized by the papal authority
that had benevolently approved slavery.
Traditionally, they supported the imperialist aspirations
of kings and the aristocracy and that authority found it
too dangerous to make "science and literature"
accessible to everyone.
Von Schwerin didn't notice that with his sympathies he
had chosen for the side of a terrible machination.
He agreed with the statements made in his entourage
and often nodded when he heard arguments around him
which did match to those that Speke and his kind
suggested to their audience.

See below a few (non-literal) statements of some of his

famous and high-ranking contemporaries.
Moreover, in our current society of the twenty-first
century their way of thinking will still find an increasing
number of adepts: *

- Jules Ferry says in his "Débats parlementaires" from

July 28, 1885 approximately what follows:
"I challenge you to defend to the limit your thesis that is
based on equality, freedom and independence of inferior
Gentlemen, you should talk louder and use truer words!
It should be said openly, that the superior races have
some rights in front of the inferior.
We create among the races that populate the earth a true
aristocracy that of the whites, not mixed with despicable
ethnic elements imported from Africa and Asia»...
- And he continues:

* Non-literal: this are translations made by the author

After the elimination of the inferior races, a first step
towards selection, the abnormal has to be eliminated.
They will call me a monster because I prefer the healthy
child, instead of the infected child...
What makes a human, is his intelligence. A mass of
human flesh without its intelligence is nothing.

- Charles Richet was a physician, Nobel Prize winner

psychology in 1913:
His opinion was that: civilization, had confounded on a
perverse way the natural selection by providing
advantages for the degenerated:
(They... wouldn't have the right to life?)

- Georges Vacher the Lapouge, an anthropologist and

entomologist, was the founder of the Aryan ideology and
wrote in 1899 his book "The Aryan and his social role"
which became one of the fundaments of Nazi anti-
Semitism. By analyzing biological eugenics, he deduced
a socio-cultural eugenic pattern. He actually developed
the ideas of Gobineau, Broca, Paul Topinar, Charles
White and uncountable others.
"From the perspective of actually proceed to a selection,
I would consider the huge increase in number of Yellow
and Black creatures as a bad thing because it makes its
elimination more complicated. However, if future society
is organized in a two-tier way, with a dominant "dolicho-
blonde" class and an inferior working class necessary for
heavy labor, it could be that the latter may be attributed
to these Yellow and Black creatures.(...)*
It must not be forgotten that slavery is as normal as
domesticating a horse or an ox. "
*The Blonde Race and Aryan Culture
*dolicho-blond-John P. Jackson, Nadine M. Weidman
see also * Racism

- Pierre Teilhard de Chardin (1881-1955, was an Jesuit
Theologian. His controversial doctrine is still taught in
African seminaries). He published: « Les causes de
l'infériorité du nègre » and « La Guinee supérieure et
ses missions » :

« The main cause of the inferiority of the Negro is

because he was deprived of the light of Christ and even
of the slightest reflection of it so that the evil spirit could
settle as a master in this disinherited land of Africa ...
Since immemorial times Blacks have been delivered at
the mercy of a vile lust (sensualism), cruelty and lies (...)

Today, Negroes live under the detrimental effects of so

many impure generations, that it will be astonishing to
see them adapt themselves in an immediate and
superior moral civilization.

- William Shockley (1919-1989, Physicist, Nobel Prize

Physics 1956 and co-inventor of the transistor) asked
the Academy of American Sciences for the following:
« That research would be conducted to find out the
consequences of the high birth rate of the black
population on the quality of the American populations
and suggested to sterilize all those who had an IQ of
less than 100. »

Given intercontinental fluctuations in IQ, the Chinese

have an average score between 102/105, Europeans
between 98/102 and Africans between 96/100.
As a scientist William Shockley knew very well these
(doubtful) figures and the consequences of his words.

The long and short of it is that if he had had the
opportunity to gather enough people to carry out his
plans (and there were plenty of them), he was actually
able to commit a selective genocide upon the total
African American and African population, except onto the
10% with a quotient between 100 and 140 or higher.
This would also apply to a not insignificant part of what
was in fact his "own people", but also to a large part of
the Chinese and other Asians. He was also the author of
a bill that would provide a financial allowance to all black
women who would let themselves be sterilized.
Around 1900 this way of thinking was very common and
normal because of the presence of many eugenics laws
that regulated forced sterilization and even worse
arrangements. It was highly disturbing that the same
authors who created these laws often had major
interests in banks, plantations and the colonial
exploitation while they were also the founders of so
called philanthropic institutions. The anti-slavery
campaigns are examples of this. Fortunately the Catholic
Church slowed down the further evolution of Eugenics,
but continued to defend slavery. * In some countries, this
extremely social Darwinist thinking is still present, but
remains in exclusive groups because of the risk of
criminal prosecution for incitement to some forms of
eugenics or euthanasia, mutilations or other cruelties,
except for abortion. Furthermore, many reports and data
were kept secret or simply destroyed in these dark
social-Darwinist periods. An example of this is the Congo
report of "Savorgnan de Brazza" which was recovered
only after 107 years.
That's after for almost five generations. **

** See also the book of: Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch: « Le Rapport Brazza ».

The rediscovery and publication of this report was due to
the efforts of university student Catherine Coquery-
Vidrovitch. Many who are talking about King Leopold's
ghost will claim that in the French territories it was worse!
They are right ... but there are some considerations ...
more than 50%, perhaps 80% of the concessions in
French territories that bordered the Congo Free State,
(French Congo, French West- and Equatorial Africa until
Cameroon and the South of Sudan or the Lado/Redjaf
enclave) were in the hands of (mostly Belgian)
middleman of Leopold II. The same occured in sections
of Kabinda and Angola. *
The situation in those concessions was similar to that of
the SAB, ABIR de Anversoise and other in the Congo
Free State of Leopold II. In fact, the King had virtually all
three of the Congo areas in his hands. **
The abuses were never committed by the large group of
new coming unarmed settlers. The total segregation
prevented this. Deeper analyzes show that the abuses
and violences were committed only by the few who had
enough "powerful means" to do this. This was made by
commanders of the armed forces (alias Force Publique)
especially at the lowest level. For example, one single
agent responsible for a concession could make for years,
hundreds of victims, often on a daily basis, with
sometimes a drastic depopulation of areas within this
concession. Commanders of units with a few leading
European officers and African soldiers, assisted by such
agents violently subjected an area larger than Europe.***
* file-history-memory-information-on-lado-kingdom-in-africa.
** Leopold II had plans to expand Congo until Khartoum.
*** The Katangese secession and the Simba rebellion (1961-64) show how the
Force publique or gendarmerie and ANC, with a small number of European
commanders at the head of a relatively small army of 10,000 African soldiers,
could control and suppress any rebellion in an area of two and a half million km2.
Leopold II was the creator of this system.

In case of emergency or excessive resistance the
concession holders could always rely on the military
units which were spread in Garrisons.
These units would become later on the Force Publique.
One or more sentries were immediately appointed in
each newly discovered village. In fact, despite a small
number of agents, everything was apparently under
control. But it would take more than thirty years for all
regions to be mapped and that (almost) all village chiefs
were more or less subjected. Traditional life was
completely disrupted, the abuses increased and
pandemics were hunting down the red rubber collectors.
It is therefore understandable that the demographic
cycle of the whole Congo basin showed a downward
trend until 1945. The South African Boers, the British
Imperial army and the armed gangs of Cecile Rhodes,
the Force Publique of the Congo Free state, the
Portuguese, the Dutchmen and even the Germans and
Italians surpassed the achievements of the
conquistadors in America. The use of African militia
equipped with artillery, Maxime caliber.303 guns and
thousands of Albina rifles with unlimited ammunition,
had made this possible since 1883. Many commanders
and their officers became national heroes and were
ennobled. The political home front and the passive
groups who participated from afar have too often turned
a blind eye to the horrors committed. The fact that
these abuses were not pursued is the major disgrace
reproached to Leopold II, who was ultimately
responsible for it. He was smart enough to never visit
his domain and was often deeply indignant when some
horrors were reported or revealed.
1- Les-derives-de-la-colonisation-en-afrique-equatoriale-francaise.
2- Le Congo au temps des grandes compagnies concessionnaires 1898-1930.
3- Anversoise and 80% of FRENCH concessions in hands of Leopold II

Although he threatened to withdraw if the abuses didn't
stop. But those were vain words. He increased
production according to the "Swahili" example, by
creating numerous plantations and sending "more skilled
agents". He probably expected that the storm would die
down after a while.
The Berlin conference had in fact been an unimportant
event and represented nothing more than a
smokescreen, the fate of Africa had been sealed long
before that. But times had changed.
The international community looked at the latest
development with different eyes now. A colony in hands
of a private person who acted as a large landowner and
bloody dictator, was not acceptable anymore.
The promised free trade zone had become a Leopoldian
monopoly. No dime went back to the Congo Free State
except for some cheap barter goods, luxurious facilities
for the agents and weapons. While the colony was
plagued by one famine after the other, megalomaniacal
buildings and projects arose in the motherland and
generous banquets were held for further promotion of
this system. He was already having a bad reputation, and
the revelation of decades long abuses probably pushed
him over the edge.The Congo Free State was also an
unique phenomenon.All other areas were colonies which
were bound by the legislative (constitutionnal) power, the
executive power and the juridic power of the mother
countries. The Congo Free State was the only territory in
the world that was owned by a private person.
Its inhabitants didn't even have a nationality.
The only laws that prevailed were those of commercial
exploitation with forced labor under a reign of terror and
segregation (apartheid).

The Belgian state was forced to its knees and had to take
full control over the Congo Free State or transfer the
territory to the French. The lease of the Lado or Redjaf
enclave ended and the boundaries of the Congo Free
State had to be adjusted and defined. Leopold II had
been rather generous in annexing territories as can be
seen on maps of that time.
This also explains the smoke coming out of the chimneys
of the palace of Leopold II for several days. It was the
burning of the secret administration and accounting of its
extra profits through intermediaries from the French
territories which were enormous and invisible.
The international community and the Belgian State
should in no way suspect his complicity in such matters.
Leopold's secrets were burned, but the shares and
participations in all concessions were inherited by the
Belgian government and only sold between 1920 and
1930. It's not clear where all this capital went to.
If the report of Savorgnan-de-Brazza would have been
published in 1907, revealing crimes in the French
concessions, but controlled by Leopold II, he would have
been sentenced without mercy to the gallows for
"democide" or crimes against humanity in a sovereign
territory that didn't belong to him. This had been almost
the case for the crimes committed in the EIC, without the
presence of a report about the French Congo.
The mentality of the missionaries and certainly the
history of the explorers in the central basins of Africa
between 1850 and 1900 deserves a special attention to
better understand the later events and we will meet them
one by one.

The Congo Free State history in International Universities. *
* All the references pointing to ADAM HOCHSCHILD in the thesis of
STEVEN P. JOHNSON are in fact provided by JULES MARCHAL.

But first of all let us once again give the Christian

Churches the opportunity to speak.

Since when the popes defended slavery
as instituted by God? *

The « papal chronology »

confirms that this has been
the case since the beginning
of the ecclesiastical calendar.
The way in which the church
has supported this thinking
gives a good picture of the
depth of its invisible roots: **
Let’s look at that chronology:

From - 4 to 70: This period begins with the theoretical

birth of Jehoshua of Nazareth in the year 1 (there is no
year zero) and ends with the destruction of Jerusalem
in the year 70(?). This date is important because with
the the disappearance of Jerusalem as the center of
Christianity, the effective diaspora of the gospel was
begun and the new center became Rome. ***
From 70 to 362: Saint Linus was the first pope of Rome
around 70. The Synod in Germanicopolis or Gangres in
present-day Turkey (Çankırı) threatens in 362 with
excommunication anyone who incites the slaves to
disobey his master, disrespect him or withdraw from his
After 1200, this even becomes an ecclesiastical law.
From 354 to 430: St Augustine states that it is God who
determines who is chosen and whether or not has
inherited a benign character and will share the fate of
slave or lord. The later Papal leaders used this
argument to maintain an old tradition.

* See: “Thee Demoncratic Version” Part I p271/272

Introduction to the role of the church conserning slavery.
** The theory of evolution and the Social-Darwinism was seen as heresy.
*** This birth took place in the year or -4 + 6 depending on the interpretations.

In 650: Martinus the first condemns as pope all those
who incite slaves to choose for freedom or help them if
they choose to be free. *
This were the first wars asking more autonomy during
the Conflict between Constantinople and Rome around
638-655. This pope was sentenced to death, but this was
converted into perpetual exile.
Around this time, the spread of Islam became a fact.
The Christian church ended in a schism. This is how the
Roman Catholic Church and the Orthodox Byzantine
Catholic Church emerged. But the Islam too would know
the same evolution and it got three spiritual opposed
caliphates, a Sunnit, a Shiite and a Fatimidic. Later, even
more splinter groups were added to both, Christians and
Muslims, the reverberations of this struggle are still very
tangible. **
In 1089: During the council and synode of Melfi, Pope
Urbanus II started tge first crusade and condems all the
priests'wives to slavery.
After 1200, this becomes an ecclesiastical law too.
In 1179: The third Lateran Council under Alexander the
third confirms the condemnation to slavery of those who
helped the Levant Saracens.
From 1224 to 1250: From the advent of the first version
in 1150 of Gratian, a professor of theology at the
University of Bologna, the justification of slavery
contained in this "Corpus Juris Canonici", was
proclaimed by Pope Gregorius I in the year 1224.
This canonical code would apply all these "Official
ecclesiastical laws" until 1913.
Four justifiable arguments were put forward by some
wise scribes and theologians regarding the legal
possession of slaves:

See : * la religion et la vie religieuse dans l'Empire romain-Robin Lane Fox

** Conflict between popes and byzantine emperors and split in Islam
- Defeated enemies were war booty and became slaves,
including the slaves in possession by them.
- The possession of slaves condemned to slavery for
crimes was authorized.
- The voluntary offer to become a slave or to sell himself,
as well as a father who sold his children as slaves, was
- The children of a mother who was a slave, could also
been kept as slaves. This fell under the divine curse or
punishment for sin and was strongly defended 50 years
later until 1274 by saint Thomas Aquinas and by many
popes after him.
During the 4th Lateran Council "the inquisition" was
introduced by the ecclesiastical leadership to put an
end to arbitrary persecution. This "Divine" justice
without defense for the accused, included torture
methods and pyres, with a cost of lives of tens of
thousands of innocents. * After the period of mutual
religious wars, intrigues, murders and crusades with
millions of deaths, more definitive schisms would take
place, such as the Anglicanization and the reformations
of Calvyn and Luther.
In 1435: Pope Eugenius the fourth condemns the
enslavement of the natives of the Canaries, the
Guanches, but does not condemn the existing slavery.
The almost total extermination of this people, as a
result of this attitude, has never been discussed in the
The eradication of perhaps more than 100 million
Indians and Aborigines remains a question of
mandatory silence or Omerta.
* Not millions as is often erroneously asserted in myths and literature,
but the whole injustice remains horrible!

The slave trade during the rise of the Islam was not as
large as that of the growing Atlantic triangular trade.
The slave trade on the oriental coast of Africa became
mainly a Portuguese affair for a few centuries.
In 1452: In this year Pope Nicholas the Fifth published
a bull, the Dum Diversas or the "Doctrine of Discovery"
and terra nullius, with which was given to the
Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator, the exclusive
right to enslave Moors, Saracens, and other pagans or
This also concerned their offspring.
The colonial slave trade was legitimized by this papal
bul and the extensive expeditions that were then
organized to India were mainly financed by the slave
This approval of slavery was again confirmed and
extended in his Bul Romanus Pontifex in 1455.*
In 1493: Shortly after, Pope Alexander the sixth would
extend this even more.
The king of Spain was authorized to reduce the
heathen Indians of America who were at war with the
Christian armies into slavery.
This in turn resulted in an almost total eradication of the
population of North and South America.
From 1537 to 1548: In 1537, Pope Paul III condems
the arbitrary way in which the South American Indians
were enslaved.
In 1548, however, he turned back the clock by giving
both priests and laymen the right to own slaves.
* The "Doctrine of discovery" and terra nulius- nomansland
The children of the mission posts (who were mostly kidnapped or bought) in
the Congo Free State, surpassed in number all the other colonies combined.
(See link Dutch Version)

IN 1639: Pope Urban the eighth condemns very
strongly the enslaving of converted Indians in South
However, the four legitimate and righteous
conditions that are required for the possession of
slaves still remain in force.
In 1741: Pope Benedict fourteenth also condemns
the arbitrary subjugation into slavery of the Indian
population of Brazil.
However, there was no effective condemnation of
the whole slavery trade, nor a ban on the importation
of African slaves.
In 1765: In that year, the theologian Bellon de Saint-
Quentin, holds the following reasoning in his
"Dissertation sur la traite et le commerce des
nègres* :
« Can buying "negroes” somewhere on the African
coast, to transfer them after that and to sell them in
the American possessions be regarded in good
conscience as legitimate?
Answering that question depends entirely on the
main point of view that indicates whether or not it is
justified to own slaves in order to let them perform
duties and services.
To this argumentation I answer explicitly that slaves
may be owned in order to use them; this ownership
is neither contrary to the laws of nature, nor to divine
laws, nor to the laws of the gospel themselves.
Indeed, it is true that once it is proven that owning
"negroes" in serfdom is legitimate there is no doubt
that one can buy them and sell them... »
* "Essay on trafficking and trade of negroes" original texte

In 1839: Despite the more severe condemnation by
Pope Gregory XVI for unjust forms of slavery, such as
the organized international slave trade, the possession
of slaves was maintained in his bull "Supremo
Some American bishops still continued to defend to
own slaves until the eve of the abolition.
In 1866: Instructions wre written by the Holy See,
signed by Pope Pius IX which declared:
That in essence, slavery itself was not in conflict with
the natural or divine laws."
There existed legitimate conditions and titles for slavery,
or for the sinners punished by God.
Pagans were therefore the first to be considered.
Well-known theologians and the speakers waved
enthusiastically with these holy Canons.
It was not in conflict with natural or divine laws that one
could buy, sell, exchange or give away slaves ".
This instruction was not new and was eagerly taken
over by the aristocracy, missionaries and lay people
with colonial interests.
Their conclusion was that it was also not in conflict with
state laws, which was a crucial point. This was an
integral takeover of the ideas of the extreme theologian
Bellon de Saint-Quentin 100 years earlier, at a time that
slavery was abolished by the most non-Roman
countries, such as Germany, Denmark, the USA, the
UK and even later the Netherlands.
From the foregoing, one can draw the conclusion that
the Roman church fully supported the need for forced
labor and slaves. After the universal abolition of slavery,
their instructions left the door open for forced labor,
segregation or apartheid.

In 1888: The big turn came with Pope Leo III who
condemns slavery in more precise terms, and supports
the anti-slavery movements.
But this was nothing more than an attempt to shut the
stable door after the horse has bolted.
In 1918: When Pope Benedict the fifteenth proclaimed
the "new Code of canon law", it was prohibited to act in
Unfortunately there was still no general ban on the
possession of slaves.
In 1965: It lasted until the "Second Council of the
Vatican” before the inherent values and human rights
were recognized and that all violations of human
integrity including slavery were condemned.
There were also the Calvinist sermons in South Africa
with their terrible doom scenarios of the last judgment
and predestination which continued to point fingers at
the curse of the posterity of Ham.
This justified the Afrikaner apartheid since the 17th
century. The "kaffer" as an inferior life form should live
completely separate from the superior white man.
After the abolition of slavery this segregation remained
maintained even after WWII.
In small countries such as Belgium and the Netherlands
that possessed enormous colonies, a not unimportant
population average appeared to have deep and bitter
feelings of hatred towards everything what's African, a
phenomenon that is also noticeable in the USA.
But whether this emerging extreme modern racism can
still be attributed to Calvin or Rome is very doubtful
because it is showing a proliferation to even much more
The Africaner and Johannes Calvin

In 2018: "Back to the future" of the 21st century shows
us that there are more slaves today than 125 years ago
after 4 centuries of transatlantic trade.
This trade is much larger in financial value than the
entire current global drug trade.
The current estimate of the number of modern slaves
in the world is above 46 million men, women and
This is obscured because the Western demoncratic
world is shrouded in a Hijab or Burka. Not to hide its
seductive beautiful traits, but out of shame because the
heart of the world would stop beating at the sight of its
true demonic face.
In addition, the history of penetration in the New World,
Africa, the Far East and elsewhere by the "explorers or
conquistadors" on behalf of their Western governments
is completely distorted by a nationalistic "hero worship"
that lacks independent investigation into the
scandalous glorification of some dramatic historical
Columbus, Magellan, Cortes, Rhodes, H.M.Stanley,
Leopold II and countless others remain on a pedestal.
Tippo-Tip, M'siri, Simon Kimbangu, Shaka Zulu, Manco
Cacac II, Geronimo, Patrice Lumumba and hundreds of
other big names from Africa and other parts of the world
are on the other hand since the beginning permanently
The arguments used for both, hero worship and
demonization, are based on incorrect, non-existent and
self-forged historical events.
How can the present be explained if one only wants to
compare time with the arguments from a misleading
and twisted simple past!

The never ending Exodus

« The robbed land »

Wene wa Kongo

or the

« The Geological Scandal »

See recapitulation links intro of Part I

1- Are we really all made of stardust?

2- "Out of Africa" or "Out of Nowhere"

3- homo-sapien-remains-jebel-irhoud Homo Sapiens

The Genesis and Exodus of Africa are until this day
enveloped in a sphere of mystery.
Africa is not a continental plate, but a collection of
large swellings or cratons, which arose 3,600 million
years ago and are connected by almost perfect
horizontal rock layers that have remained extremely
stable since 300 to 600 million years. As a result, the
concentration of minerals and gold and diamond,
close to the surface, is much higher than elsewhere in
the world. *
All of this makes that he position of Africa is situated
an average of dozens of meter higher than the other
continents and most rivers are plunging significantly
down before reaching the coastlines.
…Africa is huge!
From the Mediterranean Sea to the Cape the distance
is more than 4,350 miles, which is about the same
distance from Dakar to the Horn of Africa.
The world's longest river is the Nile with its length of
4165 miles and the Congo basin alone covers an area
of 1.430 million sq. mi, larger than India (w.i. 1.235
million sq.mi).
The United States, China, India and Europe to
Moscow, including New Zealand and a large part of
South America all fit together into Africa. But Africa
has a demographic average which shows a much
thinner population than the rest of the world.
Meanwhile, this doesn’t apply to the animals and from
this point one meets one paradox after the other.
Africa is the most stable earth mass in the world and
is the evolutionary cradle of many plants and animals.
* Earth's mantle is still much hotter there where "Pangea" originated and this
gives expansion which pushes up the crust. That's why Africa is positioned a
few tens of meter higher than the other continents.
Some scientists doubt about the Plate TectonicsTheory of the Archean.
Why are plate tectonics failing? and The Archean Eon

The controversial theory, "Out of Africa", suggests that
this also applies to the human evolution.
But the human species were spared from the
explosive growth trends in number and species of all
other forms of life in this great continent.
The Exodus or "Out of Africa", more than130 000
years ago, is characterized by the emergence of many
forms of civilizations in the world which is not found in
Africa or to a lesser extent.
However, everything points out that after going out of
Africa, more recently, there was already a
development of a high-grade alternative characterized
by the lack of modern civilization aspects or a
technological culture and without major metropolitan
areas. This was characterized by the existence of
numerous small and peaceful communities that had
no political shapes, long before outside influences
brought changes into it.
"Out of Africa" or the spread across the world offers a
few other surprises.
The numerous sites of occupation and settlements in
Africa indicate that at the time of their trek out of the
continent, the number of the present population was,
at least, one million. Compared to the small group that
took the leap across the Red Sea this was a huge
number. The fact remains that possibly there was
already an existence or presence of modern humans
elsewhere in the world.
Homo Sapiens was perhaps a million or more years
older on other places in the world. The group that left
Africa was very small, maybe a mixed group of no
more than hundred, hence the unique (but misleading)
maternal lineage.

But it does not matter that much, if there were, in
fact, several multiples of hundred (some thousands
or more), the number remained very small and
anyway, it doesn't explain the anomaly of the
population growth of humankind in Africa and the
rest of the world.
The Imperial data of China from the beginning of our
era are very reliable.
Everything was recorded with great precision and
archived in the imperial library. China showed a
population of 57.6 million back in the year 2 AD.
Data from the year 14 AD by the Roman Empire are
talking about a population of 54 million, this is also a
reliable source due to the notification and archiving
of all important data in the Emporium Romano.
The population of India could not have been less
than that of the Roman Empire.
Of the Americas and Australasia, it can be said that
they were of the same size.
The modern man who would have left Africa had
multiplied to a global population of over 200 million
at the beginning of our era while Africa is
disregarded in this figure.
This impressive growth fits well within the norm of
human reproduction possibility, but there are still a
lot of things to explain.
For example, what has been the population growth
of those who stayed behind in Africa?
The propagation speed of several hundred or some
thousands whit a growth reaching 200 million around
or between the years 2 and 57 of our era, versus the
growth of at least one million who stayed behind and
didn't immigrate.

The multiplying coefficient should logically have
shown a similar trend.
In the year 200, however, their grow reached just 20
million of which more than half lived in North Africa
and the Nile Valley belonging to the Roman Empire
and that count had already been included therein.
Around 1500 AD that number was estimated at 47
million. Both groups, from within and outside Africa
were from the same evolutionary species, the Homo
Sapiens, who all had acquired the same talents and
psychological skills during four million years.
The question is why the population of the few
immigrants grew at such a rate. From several hundred
130,000 years ago to 200 million at the beginning of
our era and to 300 million by the year 1500. Is Africa
herself responsible for this demographic anomaly, or
are there alternative explanations?
It is also notable that the appearance of the first
primates took place about 60 to 45 million years ago
outside of Africa and not in it as one would expect
logically, this also applies with regard to their diversity.
This would be an indication that the "Out of Africa"
theory should be revised once again. The cradle of the
modern wise man should then to be sought elsewhere.
Perhaps simultaneously in different places of the
world. *
On the other hand, it is also remarkable that the
demographic stagnation or anomaly in Africa probably
appeared only during the last 500 to 1,000 years of its
* 1- Real cradle of humankind in Himalaya? French
2- worldnewsdailyreport "frozen-caveman-discovery-in-himalaya"
3- "Out of Africa" is just a theory which is controversial
4- Dr Anne Dambricourt-Malassé (Numerous insights of Darwin are wrong)

Perhaps this has nothing to do with the idea that the
growth came to a standstill, but that it was rather due
to the disappearance of a large part of its population
with a climax during the last 300 to 500 years.
The history represented by the Western World has
shown in the recent past, because of national pride,
the "need" to estimate the population of Africa as
being "extremely low".
This was also the case in the New World too. There
are many circumstances that explain the origin of this
false pride.
This is confirmed by the accelerated post-colonial
demographic growth of all the African countries.
Whether we like it or not, the truth is that what is seen
cannot be unseen and it is a fact that controversial
things happened in Africa.
The alleged Africa estimates from the Roman period
are a recent fictional construction.
The first explorers from Herodotus to Stanley have
always been talking about extremely large populations
during their travels, wherever they came.
Concerning the other continents, we are looking at a
similar development.
And then, in a time frame of a few generations or half
a century, numerous areas were depopulated.
We also see that the African population were bearing
the hallmark of being primitive, stupid, illiterate
savages without any civilization and which didn't
evolve, living in a traditional system of slavery and

Even to date this is advanced by some Westerners,
irrespective of the fact that in the same period, in their
own country, there were a great ignorance, illiteracy
and lawlessness, among their own people.
These were mostly serfs whom were living as slaves
or forced laborers. This was the work of the nobility,
the clergy and the rich who saw themselves
archaically exalted above them, this at the dawn of
the20th century... to date they didn't change! Common
people were (are) despised! Unlike in Africa, poverty
and hunger was a common cause. In fact, it is a
distressing comparison, after all in Africa not all was
rose-tinted. But the social life in Africa didn't know any
of the specific symptoms that were peculiar to the
West. There was no organized prostitution and
therefore no spread of venereal diseases, but there
were rather certain forms of polygamy among leaders
or rulers, but it was not available to everyone like this
is sometimes assumed erroneously.In contrast to the
civilized world, where it was prohibited almost
completely, divorces were handled rather smoothly
and the divorced woman was not blamed. Incest was
barely present and the notion of criminality with its
specific prosecution institution was unknown.
However, there were forms of law, procedures and
punishment. Of course there were phenomena too,
which were shocking, horrifying the Western world,
such as the many magical rituals and unquestionably
the feared Cannibalism.

* Link: 1- Living in the 19de century in the Netherlands:

2- Les villes civilisées de la Belgique au 19e siècle. Persée french
3- Le monde social au 19e siècle - revue urbanites french
4- The-child-slaves in the UK-daily mail
5- travail des enfants

The child slaves from Britain around 1900.

The child slaves of Belgium around 1889

The African population and their Exodus

Under the pressure of the Asian and European

migration to North Africa, there has been, from present
Cameroon and Nigeria, some massive movements of
the Bantu population traveling to the south. But this
explanation is showing some weaknesses. Given that
North Africa and Central Africa were separated by the
Sahara makes that the Euro-Asian invasion could not
be the cause of these Bantu excursions. But besides
that, it is not very clear when exactly the Sahara
became finally a full desert. The first signs of dryness
occurred in 5000 BC.

There are many other theses, situating for example
the exodus waves even in a more distant past.
But it is certain that at an earlier stage, around 2000
BC, the people of North Africa declined sharply and
was pushed back to other areas because of the
formation of the Sahara desert.
The Bantu population of the Nile Valley in Egypt and
Nubia moved westward and settled in the areas
around Cameroon. It is not clear how big this
desertification was at the time or whether it had
already become an insurmountable barrier.
The fact is that around the 12th century we could see
trans-Saharan raids of not Bantu peoples coming from
the North.
Once again this resulted in migrations. *
Under this pressure the equator region and the
Congo/Zambezi basin, became in their turn, intensely
populated. During several millennia the Bantu went
back and forth before there came a relative stability.
Consistent research shows that, the trek of the Bantu
is comparable to that of the Germanic tribes in Europe,
it experienced at least three phases spread over more
than 3000 years. Concerning South Africa it was the
Xhosa who came as very firsts into contact the existing
with Khoisan around 1100 AD. Some of these regions
showed, over time, a mixed population. And here too,
just as by many other Bantu peoples, one can hear in
the oral narrative history references to Egypt as being
their original habitat. The Upemba area is about
halfway to the south of Kamina on the road to Manono,
it is a marshy depression of the Congo River of about
5800sq.m whit at least some fifty lakes.
Bantu (people) is the plural of Muntu (man) and it is therefore incorrect to
write it as "Bantus" since Bantu is already a plural form. (Sometimes
written as Bantou in French or Bantoe in Dutch).
Here too around 1900 one could discover in the oral
stories of the past about the exodus out of Egypt due to
drought and other plagues 3000 years earlier. Referring
to Egypt as the place of origin is indeed typically Bantu.
In the region of Sanga there are a hundred major
archaeological "sites". There are tombs with an age of
1000 years and perhaps even older. This is because
ancient Egypt not only extended to the Middle East and
North-West Africa, but also far below the equator, far
beyond the Zambezi. The intermingling during the
various wanderings in Africa was absolute. The entire
Bantu and other populations with few exceptions did
not really own typical physical characteristics any more
of one group. The differences were cultural rather than
ethnic in nature. Coastal areas and the interior of Africa
were not sparsely populated, but rather densely
populated. This becomes clear by looking at the
number of ethnic main groups which have their own
language. For the Congo Basin alone, there are several
hundreds. Around the 19th century Wene wa Kongo
had local population densities of 101 inhabitants per
square mile. By the turn of the century in 1900 the
density was barely 13 inhabitants per square mile. The
population growth for the Congo Basin was in 1945 just
over 2% per year. This growth was about the same in
the XIX century. This means that without unnatural
disturbances its population doubled every 30 years.
Making a total estimate of the entire population at
different times in its history is however a difficult task. A
logical demographic graph line for Africa, at the turn of
the 19th century, should give us a population of 250
million as an absolute minimum. This represented one
sixth of the world population of that time.

And the Exodus went on…

The exodus or large migrations in Africa are often

attributed to Chaka Zulu's imperialism. But they are
much more the result of a process that has been going
on for centuries or even thousands of years. There
was a direct connection with the formation of earlier
empires and the associated slave trade and ultimately
with the arrival of the European colonizer from the 16th
and especially from the 18th century.
The actual scramble for Africa had begun much earlier
than the "Berlin Conference" in 1884/85 that was held
following a private initiative of Leopold II.
It was around the turn of the 19th century that the great
colonization took place.
The Portuguese and the Dutch farmers had already
started this one hundred and fifty years earlier.
Many Flemish and Dutch, but also Germans and
Huguenots went to the "Germanic Cape Colonies".
However, Natal was populated with an important
majority by the British.
Due to the reluctance to work of the local Africans in
Natal, very soon many workers were imported from
Later on Natal would be renamed Durban.
More to the North, large local populations were
disrupted by the arrival of the Germans and the
already present Portuguese who, together with some
Persian Sultanates of Oman (Muscat), ruled over a
part of Tanganyika (Tanzania).
Their headquarters were on the main Islands of the
Zanzibar archipelago and Mombasa.
From the South the pressure of the British and Boers
increased and bloody mutual conflicts erupted
between them and the European settlers.

If we look back again to Chaka Zulu, or rather to the
peoples who lived around him, we see that the Nguni
of the Zulu nation gave these dramatic evolutions the
name "Mfecane", which literally means "crush".
On the other hand, the Sotho people, with a related
language, calls this exodus “Difaqane", which can be
translated as "compulsory relocation or departure".
The beginning of this exodus in the Serengeti and
Mozambique areas and South Africa started with the
arrival of the Bantu in the first centuries before our
The Twa, the Aka, the Baka and the Mbuti but also
the Khoi and the San were expelled and settled
The "Mecane" meant by the Nguni, however, points
to the period between 1815 and 1830 and later when
ethnic groups and tribes were confronted as a result
of territorial expansion.
This led to the expansion of the Zulu nation of Chaka
and its successors who felt threatened by the
Portuguese in the North and by the British in the
South and whose activities made other groups move
to Zulu territory.
Successive wars were inevitable.
It took some time before the resistance of the Zulu
nation, composed of different peoples, was broken.
Then it triggered a chain reaction leading to further
confrontations and wars.
The Great Trek of the Boers with its various wars
against the British Empire, the conquests of Rhodes,
the creation and exploitation of the Free State of
Congo in the north and the arrival of the Germans
ensured a lasting destabilization.

Ivory Trade in South Africa 1880 - 250,000 lbs a year.
Furs and horn were also important. *

Unlike other colonies, several million settlers would

arrive in British South Africa, including quite a few
Boers. Game was disappearing at an accelerated rate
and crops were destroyed, which aggravated the
already painful situations in many places.
Barely a generation later, when not everything has
recovered, had new epidemics broken out because of
imported diseases. The Rinderpest and other
unknown cattle diseases would strike repeatedly.
From Abyssinia to Central and even in South Africa,
outbreaks of rinderpest occurred, destroying more
than 90% of the herd and claiming millions of lives as
the result of the famine that followed in and after 1890.
Portuguese Congo and Cabinda were depopulated. In
the Congo basin both in the French and in the Congo
Free State parts, large numbers of people fled and
sometimes large groups disappeared mysteriously.

The killing fields of Rinderpest

But in the French Congo, it was argued that large

groups had fled to the Congo Free State.
But where did all these people actually go if it was
said on both sides that they had fled? Here we come
across one of the secret activities of Leopold II. He
burned the records of it in 1908.
Fortunately, there are other sources as evidenced in
the "de Brazza" report that was found back after 107
years. The reality was that, unsuspected for the
outside world, Central and South Africa had a
miserable appearance on many places. The image
of large villages with thousands of homes that
required sometimes more than a day's march to
move from one end to the other and the large armies
with countless tough well-built and well-fed warriors
had disappeared. The large herds of cattle and other
domestic animals were gone, the corn and other
crop fields were empty and everywhere ruins of the
former settlements could be found.

Expansion of the Zulu Empire 1818-35 and the exodus or Difaqane
with repeated cycles until 1900

The roads of Grand Trek 1834-54

The fate of the fugitives who would swarm out in all
directions was uncertain. A miserable life was all
what remained for those left behind.
Most of them died of starvation or new "imported"
diseases or became prey to wild animals. Many were
also lynched for alleged crimes.
Those who had taken refuge in the jungle, mountains
or desert were doomed to survive by hunting scarce
game and collecting equally scarce crops and fruits.
The largest Boer War against the British, which
began in 1899, took a terrible toll. The army of the
British Empire had no less than 610,000 soldiers
who had to fight an army of 90,000 Boers.
In figures of loss of human lives, there were nearly
100,000 casualties, including those of more than
20,000 British soldiers and 14,000 Boer fighters.
Among the non-combatant victims there were more
than 26,000 Boer women and children who died of
malnutrition and disease in concentration camps.
This was a 100% clear case of Democide or even
Genocide because the premeditation to exterminate
them all.
The number of Africans who died in this giant conflict
was between 13,000 and 20,000.
Perhaps there were more because figures about
"kaffers" were rarely mentioned in the books of the
British or the Boers.
Although slavery was banned in the mid-19th
century, it remained small-scaled in a last stronghold
in the clandestine market of Zanzibar.
This was due to the steady growth of plantations and
the Ivory trade especially in the Congo Basin.

New Africa

L’Empire de M’siri, they overthrow the
Lozi who went more to the South.

The Lozi took over

again around 1880 Le Mfecane

Compare the time needed for Mr. M. Stanley to go from M'Bagamoyo to Ujiji.

A part of the captured slaves from Lake Tanganyika
were used to supply manpower to the numerous local
plantations in that area.
Without a chain of plantations, it was not possible at
all to organize trade activities.
Caravans and ivory carriers, mostly young and strong
men, required large amounts of food.
Only a very small part of these slaves was sent to the
Far East, a part went to Madagascar and the Mauritius
islands but most of them were used locally as forced
However economic booms would change that.
During the rain seasons there were no caravans and
due to the long inland journeys, this involved hardly
one to two combined Ivory and slave caravans per
year. The journey on the larger East Coast ships could
take two years due to the semiannual rotation
changes of the monsoon winds and the inactivity
during the rainy seasons.
Only the smaller dhows could travel back and forth
within the year.
The slave trade was therefore smaller in size but
lasted more than a thousand years, especially during
the Great Ottoman Empire.
With the arrival of so many Europeans and their
imported Asian work force and the never-ending
conflicts, the local tribes and kingdoms got a hard time.
Due to this reduced trade, the population growth on
the East Coast continued to show a positive balance.
However, on the West Coast, this trade was much
larger due to more favorable circumstances but lasted
only five centuries, nevertheless over there whole
areas were depopulated.

This representation of the major peoples below the equator is
impressive but deceptive. The Congo alone counts more
than 450 ethnic groups, each with its own language.
This is similar in all the surrounding contries.
The following map is another attempt.
For a complete detailed overview
a map of 20m2 is needed

Volkeren van het Zuidelijk gedeelte van Afrika:
Van de 17de tot halverwege de 19de eeuw.

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic F=Fulbe

Gur (Voltaïc)

Isolated languages
Khoisan Not Niger-Kongo

außer means other than

This map is a rough representation of African linguistic zones

of the nineteenth century. Note that there are no traces at all of
Arab colonies. However, n the 19th century, independent Arab
traders traveled to Madagascar and Kilwa.
Suddenly there was a general need for a larger number
of slaves.
In a short time a huge number of African slaves were
imported into Iraq for immense and dangerous irrigation
works and pearl fishing by divers or for palm date
plantations. Because of that more than two million
descendants of them now live around Basra (Bassora).
The government claims that there are barely 5 to
600,000, but that depends on the criteria. At least 10%
of the Iraqi population has African DNA and some of
these descendants live in Iran. So the Zanj have left a
mark in Iraq.
Their history is very old since there are archives in Iraq
that tell the story about the Zanj uprising which ended
in 883. The French needed urgently slaves for the
plantations in the Comoros and the Mascarenes and
appealed to the markets of the city states of the Swahili
despite a ban. Madagascar knew an intense slave
trade too, but it experienced a separate development. *
The Portuguese were the biggest buyers in this century
due to the sudden economic growth in Brazil and the
growing demand for red rubber on the world market.
African leaders who had settled in new territories such
as Mirambo, M'siri and Tippo Tip as well as many other
chiefs as far as the banks of the Orange River, such as
the Griqua and the Taung, continued to maintain this
serfdom system.
It was the Ivory and the number of human carriers who
determined the value of coastal trade.

* At first Mauritius was an uninhabited island. The first inhabitants were Dutch,
hence the name. Large sugar cane plantations were built (with quite a few
slaves). These plantations still exist. The Dutch left the island after a
destructive hurricane. In 1721 the French took it over. In 1815, France was
forced to cede the island to the British. Until 2019, the United Kingdom refused
to cede some islands of the Mascarene archipelago to the Republic of
Mauritius. These are the last colonial strongholds in the world, except Hawai.

The Portuguese government in the Baía da Lagoa
(Lourenço Marques - now Maputo) continued to
trade slaves despite the ban because there was
practically no enforcement of the embargo by control
ships on the east side of Africa.
This incited entire populations to flee to areas where
they felt safe, however, this resulted in insurgencies
and massacres, which Livingstone would encounter
during his treks.
After the Western powers had violently suppressed
these systems, the whole of Africa was transformed
in a giant colony. The whole continent would become
totally unstable in the 21st century.
There was a complete destabilization of social life
and traditions because of the many artificial
countries that had never existed on before, together
with the huge compulsory migrations and forced
labor. This forced labor system, that had replaced
slavery, has continued to exist until this day.
It is a known fact that once a system is implanted in
a society, this system automatically maintains itself
for generations. The slave trade to the new world led
to a century-long migrations, but there was more.
The partition of Africa among the European powers
moved and split even more communities who
suddenly looked at state borders that ran through
their territories.
A part of their population was ruled by the French,
another part by the Belgian King as a private
possession, and another was since a long time in
hands of the Portuguese.
Local entities and their leadership often disappeared
after bloody repressions.

Therefore the African exodus has a lot more
backgrounds than just the imperialism of Chaka Zulu
and his successors.
The Arabs on the East Coast of Africa did not
depopulate this region with their alleged slave trade,
for the simple reason that they weren't even there
between 610 and 1800.
They had other concerns. *
The slaves who arrived in Iraq before the year 950
came from Ethiopia and Egypt with the Coptic States
as suppliers of eunuchs. Muslims were forbidden to
mutilate slaves, especially when it came to
Although later on there came an undeniable and
intensive human trafficking, this cannot be attributed
to the Arabs.
Yet it does happens daily
The reason can be found in a lack of knowledge and
personalities with (populistic) prejudices.
The slave trade, from hunting and capture to the
delivery was largely done by Swahili and other Bantu
clans. The buyers were Pakistani, Indians and
Persians or Ottomans and Turks with some Arabs,
but also Copts, Chinese, Portuguese, French, British
and probably other nationalities who were
comfortably waiting at the numerous market places.
The Persian sultanates Kilwa and Madagascar were
the "trading hot spots.
Zanzibar became an exclusive financial center.
* The few so called Arabs were too busy between 610 and 950 to spread
Islam and after them the Ottomans came to power.
Madagascar and Kilwa were Persian.
The Copts were Christians and could castrate slaves.

An explosive growth of these markets took place due
to developments in Brazil and expansion of the
plantations of Madagascar, Zanzibar, the Comoros
and the areas east of the Great Lakes. This revival
began at the end of the 18th century and lasted until
the beginning of the 20th century. The 19th century
saw together with the Portuguese two- and three-
master vessels, the appearing of the newer large
Dhows with the triangular sail, more than 100 feet
long, with a crew up to 30 which could embark
beside a high-quality freight of a few thousand ton,
up to 150 slaves. *

* This data can be found in the reports of the British Indian Ocean
ships that monitored the banned slave trade.

Was divided in an independant,
French and Spanish part.

i T
and neighbors o

………Wene WA Kongo with M’Banza Kongo and the Bakongo Rulers.

Map of the African Political states and Swahili entities around the Lake
Tanganyika before the Scramble of 1884. The Congo basin counted more than
450 ethnical groups with each their own language. Between 1864 and 1894 there
were only armed West European powers on the Eastcoast of Africa and all small
Swahili or other entities, including the Persian / Omani sultanates of Zanzibar and
the coast were strongly dominated by the Brittish, French and Portugeuse
presence. However, they managed to retain their Ivory monopoly. Therefor the
so-called War against slavery around the Lake Tanganyika, organized by Leopold
II is a misrepresentation of history. In reality, it was a take over with extreme
violence of the fabulous Ivory trade and the annexation of Katanga before Cecile
Rhodes would do it. This War would destabilize the whole region and create a
series of famines and new diseases.
IN 1 8 8 4 / 8 5 Rio

After 1914 there would be a first shift in power due to the dismantling of two
big empires. The German and the Ottoman. As a result, Ruanda-Urundi
became a Belgian Protectorate, and both German Southwest and German
East Africa came under British rule. This gave the British the opportunity to
build their Railway from Cape Town to Cairo through the Anschluss of both,
Ottoman Sudan and Egypt as British protectorates. In the history of some
countries such as Cameroon we can see that they knew different Western
rulers in a very short time. For Cameroon and Togo, these were first the
Portuguese, then the Germans and finally a sharing of power between the
French and the British. A few years earlier several alarm bells had started to
ring. The word Democide, including cases of genocide was used multiple
times. Belgium, Germany, Portugal, Spain, the Dutch, the Ottomans, the
British Empire, the USA and France expressed their concern… of course all
of them would deny these accusations… even until the first quarter of the
twenty first century… They had all brought nothing but civilization and
freedom. They all still finger point at each other without daring to look in the
mirror of their own national or family history.

Before Mohammed and the rise of Islam, there were
only a number of tribes and Semitic clans (or also called
Qabila). They lived as nomads in the Arabian Peninsula.
Iraq was under Persian rule and Syria and Egypt, as
well as the whole of North Africa, were not Arab at all.
After Mohamed, four Islamic caliphates unified these
clans, some of them called themselves Arabs and the
Islam was spread to the farthest corners.
Kiswahili is perhaps the most widely studied African
However, until now, most researchers who write about
the east coast of Africa have only repeated the
standard folk opinions about the historical and cultural
development of this language instead of build a real
basis for discussion about this.
These popular views emphasize a dominant Arabic
influence in the Kiswahili at the expense of indigenous
and authentic African origin, in the sense that the
Swahili coastal residents and their language are often
seen as not belonging to the Bantu language group of
the African interior.
The main point is that even if the Swahili folks were
coastal residents, making connection with the more
Northern Coptic and Jewish kingdoms of the north and
their Persian counterparts.
And although the cities where they lived had often
become Islamic in the 19th century, their language and
culture remained cast in their own typical African form.
While the Swahili culture and its language may seem
remarkably more influenced by the Arab language or
Islamic culture than it is by Bantu groups, this is only

This represents only a thin layer of varnish on the solid
core that is shared with other African Bantu groups.
The Muslim influence (often wrongly called Arab) and
the entering of loanwords in Kiswahili on the east coast
is relatively young.
That started only around the late 18th and 19th century.
There are no traces at all of mosques before the 13th
(some in the 14th) century, while the Kiswahili language
can be traced back just before our era when groups of
Bantu were moving eastward.
The Persian and Indian or Pakistani influences were
much older, just like those of the Baloch. Before many
loan words of Arabic origin got inserted in Kiswahili, this
had already happened hundreds of years earlier with
Persian words such as "Bunduki-rifle" and others.
This means that Arabic is not the origin of Kiswahili.
The Imam of Oman, Sayyid Said bin Sultan Al Busaidi
of very ancient Persian-Yemeni descend had inherited
his title from his father. In 1822 he received the support
of an armed force of the British East India Company in
a punitive expedition to a rebellious Arabian Clan.
Almost the entire English expedition was murdered.
A year later the British came back with a larger force
and subdued the rebels. With the help of the Persians,
he conquered the rest of the Zanzibar archipelago,
Mombasa and other port states of East Africa in 1837.
He permanently moved his capital from Muscat to
Zanzibar and under pressure of the British he would
abolish slavery.
The first step towards the end of the African exodus
was taken.
* Note: the sharia says that an imam must be chosen and the title cannot
be inherited.
East : In this link there is confusion with the punishment expedition of 1821/22
and the conquest of Mombasa in 1837.

The Persian fleet that assisted the Sultan/Imam of
Muscat and Oman had a majority of Balochi (Wabulushi)
and Sindhi/Cutchi (Masindi) soldiers with a few
Persians (Waajemi), Hadrami (Washihiri)* and Pathan
officers on board.
Of course, there is a possibility that there was an
individual Arab among them too. Almost all of them,
brought-over their families from India, Pakistan and
Persia. They settled in the coastal towns, in or around
the forts and the newly built camps, as we could see
around Saa-teeni just outside the city or at Fort Jesus
in Mombasa (the largest fortification in East Africa), and
at the Baloch cavalry settlement in the main city of
Beside the important shrink of the population on the
East coast due to the slave trade, mainly organized by
the Swahili Realms and city states, there was also an
urge to the north of many tribes due to the expansion
of the Zulu empire during and after Shaka Zulu and the
steady progression of the British and the Dutch.
With the explosive growth of trade in Zanzibar and
political influence all the way to Lake Tanganyika,
Baloch squadrons were deployed in Tabora in central
Tanzania and Kigoma on the lake.
In 1870/73, about half of the Sultan’s 3000 Zanzibari
troops engaged in the war in Unyanyembe in the
interior against the Nyamwezi ruler, Mwêne Mirambo
were Wabulushi (Balochi) and Washihiri (Hadrami)
In these years David Livingstone, Cameron and H.M.
Stanley were at Nyangwe and Ujiji. **

* History_of_the_Jews_in_Hadramaut.html
** ... The founder of the RD Congo.

Some Baloch soldiers joined the trade caravans as
guards and reached the Congo with the legendary
trader Tippo Tip. (Hamed bin Muhammad al-Murjebi,
who is said to have had under his command 1600
armed men for his caravans and depots, including
freemen and slaves). The Congo Free State would
follow a similar system to hold under control the
uncountable forced laborers but on a larger scale.
Tippo Tip was the first and only person from Zanzibar
who became the ruler of upper Katanga unto the
Stanley Falls. Later, in 1890, he became for a short
time the first governor of the Kongo Free State. He
shared the region with the legendary M’siri and
married one of his daughters.
He introduced Livingstone, Stanley and Cameron to
this immense region. In his younger years he had
already made numerous and very deep explorations
on both sides of the great lakes.
A Baloch in East Africa is generally known as Bulushi
(pl. Wabulushi), and almost all of them spoke Swahili
at home until recently; nowadays, some of them speak
a mixture of Balochi and Swahili because of new
Baloch immigrants.
The early Baloch settlers frequently intermarried with
other Muslims of East Africa of diverse ethnic origin
and adopted Swahili as their home language.
Often new Baloch households emerged with "fresh
blood" from newcomers from their former country,
Iranian Baluchistan.
For many East African Wabulushi, their "Baloch"
identity was the result of a self-assessment. Someone
was a Baloch because of his paternal line, even if
someone didn't speak the Balochi language.

In reality, all Swahili, Baloch and Muslims, or all those
who wore Oriental clothes or had a similar behavior,
were simply labeled as Arab by the leaders of the big
western holy trinity. *
This holy trinity possessed a new system of
commandments and laws that would guarantee
freedom and equality to all peoples of the world.
It was the demoncratic version of legislative,
executive and judicial powers that would ensure a fair
distribution of the world's wealth.
In this way, an elite of roughly 1 to 3% of the world's
population would be entitled to 97% of the world's
In fact, almost all of humanity has to content
themselves with the miserable alms of 3%.
To defend this, the elite of 3% needed a mystical black
scapegoat, to put the blame on it, for the horrors in
Africa and the world that were done by themselves.
Their traces had to be erased and confusion would
hide more of it.
Therefor Cham was blackened, his offspring cursed,
and the hands were washed in innocence.
As far as the Arab expansion is concerned, their
military power really didn't meant much.
But just like the very first small Christian communities,
they managed to introduce a new version of
monotheism in many different countries.
The second step was to make them form a common
Culturally and religiously, the Arabic language would
leave a mark on the history of the world through the
spread of the Islam through the Qur'an.
However… …

However, it would not take a long time before the
entire Islamic world, Asia and even part of Europe
were subjected to a terrible killing machine.
This cruel machine would dominate immeasurable
territories for a millennium and reduce millions to
The devastating Mongol Hordes were responsible for
this historical turn.
Finally, a certain Osman would become the founder
of the great Ottoman Empire.
It is remarkable that the Ottomans adopted very
quickly the Islam as their new religion because
substantially Islam means peace.
Adopting the Alif Ba Ta scripture of the Quran was
made to make things easy and uniform.
After winning many wars combined with looting and
the massacre of the conquered, a more effective
policy was introduced
It has appeared to be far more lucrative to subject the
vanquished as slaves or forced laborers than to kill
them. Finally their murderous urge for destruction
came to an end.
The reason of this changeover must probably be
sought in the first example of a massive submission
to the Islam as was done by the Seljuk Turks who
were driven to the West.
The origin of the word “sclavus” is Roman (or Latin)
and designs all those who were captured.
However, slavery is much older than that.
It is a fact that even Mayans and Aztecs and other
American nations kept Slaves.
The three monotheistic religions of the Near East
tolerated the possession of slaves.

Concerning mass slavery we can point to the ancient
Egyptians, the Sumerians and Babylonians, the
Indians, the Japanese and Chinese, the Greek and all
the other countries of Europe, there were no
exceptions. In the countries where the own population
was used as slaves this could be hidden behind a
caste system or it was simply named serfdom.
But what's in a name if anyway everything belonged
to "The Boss".
An economical Big Bang occurred when the New
World was in need of an enormous number of cheap
labor. An ingenious system of triangular trade would
be the cause of a massive exodus of nearly twenty
millions of Africans to that New World in a relative
short time-lapse. Finally we were able to meet on the
East coast of Africa a lot of people of different origins,
Swahili and other Africans, Ottomans and Persians
(to put it bluntly, all called Arabs), but also Indians and
All of them were involved in the slave trade in slaves
in and out the mainland of eastern Africa. This was a
comparable revival as on the West Coast albeit of a
more moderate level.
The main reason of this economic revival was an
increasing demand for ivory, gold and rubber in
Europe and America. There was a huge need for
porters to transport merchandises from the interior to
the coast while huge plantations were created along
the caravan routes for permanent food supply and
valuable commodities such as cotton, sugar cane,
coconut and cloves.
This kind of "trade" required a very complicated
organization in terms of logistics and transport.

But times changed.
In attempts to stay away from the British Navy control
vessels, the Brazilian merchants moved their activities
on the West coast of Africa to the East side of the
On that side of Africa they would buy slaves from the
coastal traders on the Zambezi mouth and the shores
of Portuguese Mozambique.
They also got help from the Praezeros, the very
powerful descendants of Portuguese fathers and
African mothers, operating mostly along the Zambezi
River. They also had their own independent territories
and towns. Beside the Praezeros the Swahili were the
upper class of the coastal population which consisted
of mixed African, Indian, Persian or other origin.
Among them we could find powerful Sultans or Chiefs
with capable government officials and ship owners.
They all lived in graceful wealthy houses including
domestic helpers and slaves, which indicated that they
were the main suppliers of anything.
They controlled the whole region and the trading
centers of Kazeh (Tabora) and these of the great lakes
such as Mwanza, Ujiji and Kigoma.
Their help was crucial for the Brazilian, Portuguese
and other merchants.
There was a great mutual struggle for possession of
certain areas. The consequence was that Kazeh
(Tabora) was completely looted and set on fire by
Mwêne Mirambo the leader of the Wanyamwezi.
After that he demanded a toll for caravans passing
through Unyanyembe. Therefore the Sultan of
Zanzibar had no other choice and was forced to
intervene with an armed force.

Other suppliers for the Portuguese and Brazil were the
Makua, who controlled the coastal areas on the east
of the Yao, while remaining far enough out of the reach
of the Wanyamwezi.
The Yao in of the northern Mozambique expanded
their territory from the North-East of the Zambezi River
to the Nyasa Lake and the South-East of Lake
Tanganyika forming several new realms by submitting
the Ngoni and the Chewa. They became very wealthy
as they were a main supplier of Ivory, smoked and
dried meat and fish, maize, sorghum bicolor and
slaves for the Swahili and the mighty Wanyamwezi on
the East of the Lake Tanganyika.
The Yeke were on the North of Katanga including the
West shores of Lake Tanganyika under the reign of
the famous Mwami M’siri of Katanga at Bunkeya.
They had as neighbor Mwêne Mirambo with his
Nyamwezi at Urambo.
The two Realms organized a bulk business in ivory,
other valuable goods and slaves, for gunpowder,
firearms and fine fabrics and they expanded their
M’siri was in contact with the Realms of the West coast
of Angola who provided him especially with slaves. As
it became more and more difficult to buy or catch new
slaves he used them not as a merchandize but forced
them to produce labor to collect and transport the
valuable goods or gave them a job in the numerous
plantations. They were never sold. He was the first
African leader to use Western military tactics and
possessed numerous guns.

* The exodus and the rise of the Yao.

Countless officials and governors worked for his
centralized government and organized everything.
Tippo Tip, Mirambo and many others followed his
To confuse Mirambo, as well as M’siri or Tippo Tip with
slave traders, while glorifying in the mean time the
European colonizer as the heroic liberator, is totally
They were the very first to explore and colonize the
interior of central Africa just like the Dutch did in Java.
A system that Leopold II too would copy-cat as the
perfect example. These rulers and many others should
be rehabilitated in the history books because, unlike
Cecil Rhodes, Savorgnan de Brazza and Leopold II,
they acted in their own habitat and the latter were
nothing more than profit seeking foreign invaders.
Several army expeditions of Leopold II would act
under the cover of the Belgian Anti-Slavery Society
that was founded in 1888 as a pretext to submit as a
separate entity the mineral rich Katanga region before
Cecil Rhodes could do it.
The king was supported by the Catholic Church which
was against any interference of the Islam and what
they called wrongly "the Arab presence".
The Mwami Mwenda M’siri Ngelengwa Shitambi was
murdered during these actions under very strange
A few years before that, in 1885, the Chokwe got the
opportunity to invade and occupy part of the Lunda
The once so powerful empire was weakened and as
well the Lunda as Mukanda Bantu, Msiri's successor,
were forced to join the Congo Free State forces.

The only way to chase away both, the Chokwe and the
Sanga was with a combined strength and this could
also prevent the BSAC from taking possession of
Katanga. That means that Katanga never was a part of
the Congo Free State.
It is then that the anomaly of the boot or "pedicle of
Katanga" arises. Zambia (which was becoming
Northern Rhodesia at the time) was almost divided in
two. After 130 years, this still represents a heavy
financial burden for the mining in Zambia.
Due to the state borders, the heavy mining transport
had to make a detour of more than 620 miles and no
straight railway could be built from the "Copperbelt" to
The number of population movements in Africa from
one region to another continued to increase due to the
mutual conflicts between the European powers. But a
much larger exodus was created to areas "out of
To understand the umpteenth African Exodus or
Mfecane, it is therefore useful to have a thorough
knowledge of the coastal areas of the Indian Ocean
between 1790 and 1890.
It was there that we see the ports with numerous small
coasters and Western three masted schooners
alongside the large seaworthy dhows. In the past even
enormous Chinese junks with five masts were seen.
Monsoon winds and ocean currents favored the
maritime trade via fixed ocean routes, but at the same
time it was tied by the seasons just as it has been for
thousand years. The Portuguese had seen their
merchant fleet and navy expelled by England and
France and withdrew to Goa in India.

However the western sailing vessel had an important
draught and could therefore visit fewer ports than the
traditional Dhows, whose crew consisted mainly of
Africans. Western traders would rather use sail
vessels than steamers for voyages to the East being
much longer than those in the Atlantic, where local
coal was not that expensive. If we compare with the
Atlantic situation, we soon discover that the
techniques used and the socio-cultural aspects were
completely different. Therefore it was necessary to
know how to make the best choices.
To better understand the "Out of Africa" exodus, it is a
must to have a closer look at the Indian Ocean. What
was the extent of the slave trade and forced
migration? How long did it take for slaves to regain
their freedom, and to what extent did they lose their
identity and influenced their new environment?
In addition, there was a considerable difference on the
coast and on the numerous islands of the Indian
Ocean in the 19th century. There were large
concentrations of slaves but also entire groups of
freed ex-slaves such as in Zanzibar. Islamic rules
entailed certain obligations. On the once uninhabited
island of Mauritius, this was due to the British who
declared a large enslaved population as free. The total
size of slaves that were shipped from East Africa is
difficult to calculate. There are almost no sources
compared to the Atlantic triangular trade, because
there is less or no available data. It is also obvious that
prejudices or an often fanatic populism wants to
attribute the slave trade exclusively to the Arabs or at
least is trying to minimize European involvement.

* Causes and Consequences of Africa’s Slave Trades by Nathan Nunn

Nathan Nunn's sober estimates, based on Ralph
Austen’s * statistics, set credible minimum figures for the
nineteenth-century slave trade. For the number of slaves
shipped via the Atlantic, he shows an estimate of 12
million and for the East coast, Sahara and Red sea trade
at least 6 million. There was also an import of slaves in
the Maniema instead of an export.
We also can read in the diaries of David Livingstone in his
encounter with the Swahili at Nyangwe and Ujiji that a
group of slaves didn’t want to go further with the local
Sultan on his way to the Lualaba. They refused to obey
even after the Sultan promised to raise their wages as he
was in an urgent need of porters.
After the attack at Nyangwe Livingstone proposed to
hang the three perpetrators but that couldn’t be done
because they belonged to another village. First the three
were referred as Arabs, however it appeared later on that
they came from another village. Were there as many Arab
villages as that? The answer is simple.
At the time there was a growing population of Islamic
converted Bantu and Shirazi, first some came from Persia
or India but another wave came from the Nigerian and
Senegalese areas.
Questions also arise about the kind of weapons used by
three men and their helpers who killed 400 people in a
short time, as we can see on pages 132/138 of The Last
Journals of David Livingstone, 1874. Vol. II **
Other sources speak about slaves at several clove
plantations who received reasonable salaries and that the
number of working hours and days were limited, with of
course different rules in times of harvest, sales or
* Ralph A. Austen is Professor of African History, co-chair of the Committee on
African and African American Studies, and chair of the Committee on
International Relations at the University of Chicago.** zie statistiek volgend blz.

According to Islamic customs, various scenarios were
possible that could make slaves free again.
Sometimes they received a piece of land where they
could build a home and grow some crops.
Livingstone came through villages with a large number
of Muslims whom he called Arabs. Some had highly
evaluated titles and were Washirazi or Waswahili, but
most were Bantu from distant lands.
He didn't realize that populations were forced several
times to leave the Western Hump of Africa direction
southeast of a region that would become the Belgian-
Congo. Small Nilotic groups did the same.
A great example of an Islamized true Bantu was the
Tetela leader Gongo Lutete. Unfortunately he would
become the umpteenth victim of the Congo Free
State. Just like Kibonge and Stokes (a British citizen
staying at the Lindi River), he would be sentenced to
death by a self-proclaimed martial court without
defense and executed. Because of the murder on
Lutete, the Batetela would revolt for almost fifteen
years, especially at Luluaburg. It is also precisely the
Stokes affair that would be the first step to the end of
the reign of Leopold II in the Congo.
A murder remains a murder and behind these three
there was a whole cemetery!
The recollection of this political murder was therefore
decisive for Patrice Emery Lumumba's reference to
the atrocities of the colonial past. Hence the sharp
answer to the heavily offensive paternalistic speech by
Baudouin on that day of June 30, 1960.
Prime Minister Lumumba was indeed a Tetela. *
* A few thousand Tetela were systematically slaughtered by the Force
Publique in those 15 years.

Previously, there had already been a few hundred
cases like Lutete/Kibongo with other tribal leaders and
more would follow.
These were all political killings. This did not prevent
Van Eetvelde from reporting to Leopold II that "the
Arab slave traders" had been defeated and that
everything around the Stanley falls, Riba-Riba and
Bena-Kambwe, especially in Nyangwe and Kasongo
had been destroyed, including their supplies and the
plantations. A complete Islamic Swahili and Bantu
community was wiped off the face of the earth.
A famine stood for the door due to the destructions
and the looting. Some of the survivors sought refuge
in Zanzibar and they would return to the Maniema in
small groups between 1910 and 1930. The Great War
of 1914-18 will significantly delay their return. But did
Dhanis and Van Eetvelde commit genocide in this so
called liberation war, which was in fact a shameful
charade? In this case, there is indeed a premeditation
aimed at completely eradicating a community that
adheres to a certain conviction. This is the bare
qualification of genocide. Leopold II bears the ultimate
responsibility because the facts were communicated
to him by van Eetvelde and Dhanis. That these
operations were intended to free the Congo Free State
from slave traders has been refuted since a long time
by many historians. The intention was to destroy
everything that had an "Arab/Islamic" look. Nyangwe
and Kasongo with a population of 40,000 souls had
indeed disappeared after the passage of the Force
Publique. A few years earlier, another well-known so-
called "slave trader" had been liquidated by the troops
of Dhanis.

The history of Mwenda M’siri Ngelengwa Shitambi is
well known, but the history of its capital a little less.
Before the arrival of the armed forces of Dhanis,
Bunkeya had almost 100,000 inhabitants.
After the murder on M'siri, Bunkeya was an
abandoned place. Here too, the Force Publique was
guilty of mass murder.
The few thousand survivors were forced to leave
Bunkeya to settle somewhere else. The Force
Publique of Dhanis had a strength of 16.000 men with
a tail of porters half the size of the force including a lot
of wives and children and their small livestock. Dhanis
amassed an immense fortune in spoils of war and
looting. An insurmountable problem turned out to be
the supply of food for such a large army that was in
fact a murderous gang without discipline.
The only solution to the problem was to loot all eatable
stocks and crops which was a devastating measure.
In the various provinces of the Congo old historical
conflicts continue to divide the Muslim community.
In the Maniema for example, it are the turuqs
members, known as Sufis, who are considered as
strangers. On the other hand, there are the Tawahidi,
who are associated with a new Islamic trend. They are
also regarded as the original inhabitants of the Swahili
region on the west side of the great lakes.
The difference between both is that the Turics, a
Qadiriyya order known as Sufis, preach in classic
Arabic while the Tawahidi are doing this in Kiswahili
so that the message from the Quran is understandable
for everyone. The Quran itself is still written in
Kiswahili but no longer with the Alif Ba Ta (Arabic)
* M’siri
Islam :
L’histoire cachée :

Many Turuq left the Maniema during the Dhanis war in
the Congo Free State to Zanzibar. The whole Islamic
population was expelled on order of Leopold II but their
descendants came back to the Maniema between 1920
and 1930 and were discriminated and persecuted during
years by the Belgian authorities and the local settlers.
They did not get along well with the Tawahidi Muslim
community. As soufis the Turiqs preached only in Arab,
using the original Arabian Quran. The expelled Tawahidi
settled on the shores of the Tanganyika Lake or in
Tabora in (non-Catholic) German East Africa.
A few years later, they secretly returned to their native
region and rebuilt Nyangwe, Kindu and Kabambari.
Because of the disputes with the Turuq, they built their
own mosques. Another very important difference is that
the Swahili speaking Muslims are rather modern and
liberal than conservative. Their women show their face
openly, drive cars and have joint control.
That means that each group is creating its own doctrine,
the one of the Tariqa and the one of the Tawahidi.
Both are conflicting!
It is the dispute between the Wenyeji (natives) against
the Wazalia (newcomers).
The "Arabized" against the "non-Arabized".
However in Belgian Congo during the interbellum period
(by order of Albert I?) Mosques were burned again in the
Maniema, just as in the Dhanis time when members of
the Qadiriyya brotherhood tried to recover the lost
possessions and territories that were owned by their
(grand) fathers long before the Free State.
Countless persons were expelled to Tanganyika (actual
Tanzania) or ended for a very long time in prison.

* A number of them disappeared (were killed). In Belgian colonial history books

there is no mention at all of these serious violations of human rights.

Rumaliza or
Muhammad bin Khalfan bin Khamis al-Barwani

He was just like Tippo Tip of

mixed origin but was a slave.
Through the intervention of
Tippo Tip he became both, a
free man and eventually the
Sultan of Ujiji.He also became
very wealthy. The difference
with Tippo Tip is that he was
the largest supplier of slaves.
A big part of the estimated
300,000 slaves traded in the
Swahili cities in the 19th
century were supplied by him.
On January 9, 1894, he lost a
final battle with the Force
Publique troops.
Captain Lothaire was the commander of it. These units
were part of the troops of Dhanis who himself had
meanwhile become wealthy with the previously seized loot
of Rumaliza consisting out of a huge amount of Ivory, gold,
ammunition and food found in Kasongo and areas on the
west of Lake Tanganyika. Another great leader was Mtyela
Kasanda, better known as Mirambo. He would unite all the
Nyamwezi heads including the Watuta and Zwagendaba.
These were subgroups of the Ngoni people who were
driven to the North by the Zulu wars in South Africa.
Mirambo would also fight the Swahili and WaShirazi **
including the Sultan of Ujiji Rumalizi and the Simba.
This forced the Sultan of Zanzibar to send troops. Mirambo
admitted missionaries to his Kingdom and did not
participate in the slave trade. He had a friendly commercial
relation with Tippo Tip. ***
*Rumaliza trok zich terug in Duits Oost Afrika waar hij aziel kreeg van de Duitsers.
***Mirambo et Tippo Tip Par R.P. FOUQUER

Going back to 1650 when the Persian Omanis drove
out the Portuguese from Muscat, they helped the
Swahili cities of East Africa in their attempt to liberate
themselves from the yoke of the Portuguese.
The historical conquest of Portuguese Fort Jesus of
Mombasa in 1698 would mark a new era because
Oman with Zanzibar could now claim that they had full
control over the Swahili coast.
However the Sultans of Oman and Zanzibar were not
strong enough to exploit fully this situation.
Swahili ports revolted, but after that, they lost the
complete trade that the Portuguese had built up the
last century. For merchants from Oman and India with
Swahili wives who had settled permanently on the
East coast, the decline of Portugal was a positive
thing. *
The old trade routes to Persia, Pakistan and India
were reopened by the Dhows that were no longer as
vulnerable as on before. In that large curve on the
North-west side of the Indian Ocean, traders had a
tendency to call into Muscat because this port was
conveniently located.
Coming from the North, the Kamba, Galla/Oromo and
some Somali tribes moved to Kenya because of the
Christian-Semitic Amhara tribes of Yemenite origin
who raided and enslaved systematically the Oromo
and the Muslim Somalians.
Their society knew four basic layers. The higher and
lower clans, different caste groups (artisans) and
slaves. **
* Their descendants formed the WaShirazi people and were often eroneous
called Arabs. ** The number of Clans and tribes on the Northeast coast,
beside the Swahili and Washirazi was very high and underestimated
because of the use of one single common designation: Arabs or Arabised.

Trade with India and China increased steadily, Omani
and Shirazi merchants prospered, and Oman
emerged as a key player in the Indian Ocean trade.
This created considerable anxiety among the
European players, and the British treaty with Oman in
1799 reflects this anxiety. Of course the British Empire
would not accept any loss in their trade with India.
Commercial competition between France and Britain,
was a normal phenomenon in the 18th century and
makes the relationships clear between the various
parties, Europe, India and the Ottoman Empire and
Africa, in the Indian Ocean,
In the decades before 1799, Britain had already taken
over the lead from France. First the French had taken
advantage, but in 1761 they lost the capital of the East
Indian Company at Pondicherry during a seven year
long war with the British (1756-1763). After that their
new capital became Mauritius and Reunion. There
they had already realized some huge sugarcane
plantations in 1742 with imported slaves from
Madagascar. When these plantations required more
workers, the French went looking for slaves on the
East African coast. The French were also forced into
further action due to the increasing demand for labor
in the French West Indies. Of course we already have
met several times the Ujiji trader who was operating
around the great lakes. Tippo Tip, or with his full name,
”Hamed bin Muhammed Al-Murjebi”, an independent
Swahili of African-Persian (or even) Indian parentage,
whose grandmother was a slave. He is constantly
wrongly depicted in the West. A few things need to be
straightened out.*
* The Belgian-Congolese history is saturated with this!

Let‘s keep in mind one thing: all what Stanley did,
except the journey from Stanleyville to Boma, was
already done by Tippo Tip during his 15 year long
journey. After that he became an Ivory and gold trader
and he owned several thousand slaves as porters to
carry ivory and other goods. Some were promoted as
housekeepers, soldiers, guards or as various
functionaries in the caravans or in his headquarters.
He later became Governor of the East of the Congo,
first under the Sultan of Zanzibar and after that under
the Belgians. He helped Stanley to take over the ivory
trade on the west side of Lake Tanganyika and his
boss, Leopold II, would improve his system, but with
forced labor since Congolese slaves had now become
"liberated". In the 15 years that his journeys lasted, he
never said a thing in Arabic or used a classical Muslim
expression, not even in his (oral) autobiography.*
He was nothing but just a real Swahili.
The slave trade on the East coast of Africa had its
atrocities, no one can deny it.
But to resume 12 centuries under the heading «Arab
slave trade» is a myth inspired by fierce hatred, carved
in heart and soul ... and chiseled in statues. Why?
Pretending that there was a war against «Arab slave
traders» under Leopold II is a lie. It was a violent
takeover of a lucrative business in strategic locations.
The Oriental lifestyle and the historical events from
Mozambique to India and the Alif Ba Ta script were all
called Arabic without distinction. This also applied to the
countless languages including Kiswahili, who used this
Alif Ba Ta writing in this immense area. The abolition of
slavery by the British in 1835 and the control of
shiploads at sea did not mean that it was over.
* He did not write his biography himself but dictated it to a writer.

It was clear that after juggling for pieces from Africa and
the Berlin conference in 1884/85, most colonial powers
introduced a system of forced labor as a compensation
tax and excluded the African population (by apartheid)
from participating in profit sharing. This also meant that
many regions that were all larger than Europe were
inhabited by "liberated natives" without nationality.
But why so many had to die after the conquest?
To compensate for their liberation, the entire population
was forced to pay contributions in kind, such as ivory,
huge amounts of red rubber, cotton, copal or digging in
the copper and gold mines, becoming a porter or
enlisting in the army or the Force Publique. The working
conditions were very demanding and the environment
often deadly. It simply means that the Congo Free State
and the separate territories of Katanga and the enclave
of Lado were since then submitted to the same forced
labor system of the Dutch in Java, including coercion
corporal punishment (death), hostage-taking and
permanent terror. Already in 1879, in service of his
majesty, H.M. Stanley had to kill thousands of
Congolese to carve its way. Starting in 1884 the king
ordered to build roads, railways, concessions as well as
open mines and a complete infrastructure to exploit the
country. This demanded hundreds of thousands of
other killings, including the elimination of the so called
Arabs and kings like M'siri. Finally in less than 25 years,
many lives were wasted and since 120 years there is a
long and hot discussion about how many died because
the killing didn't stop after 1908. But there is no doubt
that we are talking about multiple millions. The exact
numbers doesn’t matter. They are huge!

The group of settlers, still alive and their offspring
continue to fanatically deny all of this. This is not in line
with the heavenly life that they themselves had.
The beautiful colonial construction that made the
African happy too during the colonial era was
thoroughly destroyed by the same African.
Something unforgivable! Wrong interpretations and the
generalization of an Arab presence in some East
African countries, are still popular in 2019.
The Western conception of “the Arab Entity” is one that
often resembles at images of a heat-distorted desert
where tribes of scarf-wearing Bedouins riding on their
camels and fighting each other for the possession of
female slaves. There are indeed numerous drawings of
naked female slaves on markets.
In the tents or palaces we can see virgins, guarded by
colossal black eunuchs. They all are absolutely white
and beautiful while the men are usually old and ugly.
These series of colorful drawings were made by
unknown (western) artists to show how cruel the "Arab
slave trader" could be.
Anyone wearing long oriental robes and a headscarves
or using the Alif Ba Ta writing was called "an Arab"
regardless his nationality or language. This resulted in
a huge falsification of our history. That means that all
the Islamic and Oriental communities all were called
Arabs by the Western world. All Arabs?
There is a lack of real documents that can support the
full extent of the East Coast slavery.
The only certainty we have is that there have been
slaves since ancient times.

China and Oman: See IV. Under the Yuan Dynasty and t he Mongols:

As a matter of justice, only facts perpetrated by real and
well-known individuals or groups can be called into
account. But the abolition of slavery and the war against
the slave traders in Africa did not mean that it was over.
The slave trade on the East coast of Africa had its
atrocities, but the name “Arab slave trade” is a myth.
Many languages such as those of the Ottoman, Egyptian
and several Persian and Berber, India, Swahili, Somali
and many others all use the Alif Ba Ta characters and
their writings were all erroneously called Arab. Many
historical or geographical events, such as conquests
and the slave trade, all received an Arabic denominator.
However, this still results in an incorrect generalization.
If we look at the history of Oman that always has been a
very powerful link in the slave trade, we clearly see the
generalization of the term «Arabic».

This photo shows us very clearly that the children of a
Sultan of Zanzibar, and himself very probably too, were
rather of a mixed ethnical origin than full Arab or Persian
or Indian. Tippo Tip himself was from a Swahili and
divers Zanzibari origin. In the Western vernacular, all
different (or mixed) ethnic groups from this regions are
still called "Arabs", which is very confusing.
The presence of Arabs, but also of Ottomans, was a
matter of individual traders in the Indian Ocean. In the
Arab or Turkish/Ottoman world there was not such a
thing as enormous National or Imperial organizations
like the East or West Indian companies of the European

Of course there were also some slave traders among
them, but most of the Indian Ocean merchants were
more involved in a far more lucrative trade than the
slave trade. The dhows of the Indian Ocean were totally
unsuitable for passenger transport until the 19th
century. Only in the mid of that century larger versions
appeared. This slave trade was rather the kind of
business of the British, Portuguese and the French
state owned companies.
Nevertheless, there is such a thing as a deliberate
attempt from populist circles to add a chapter of “1300
years of Arab slave trade” to the history of the Oriental
trade in media like Facebook and the associated
literature. However, the history of Oman, the Persian
Gulf and the Pakistani and Indian peoples of that time
do not support this. On the contrary! Between 1053 and
1154, Oman was part of the Great Seljuk Turk Empire
until the Nabhani took over. The Achaemenids,
Parthians and Sassanids from Persian origin still
exerted control over the coastal areas of Oman but
were overruled by Yemeni tribes after the Portuguese
occupied Muscat for a 140‐year period (1508–1648) a
decade after Vasco Da Gama discovered the seaway
to India. The Sultans of Oman, all of Persian descent,
went out the interior of Oman. However, they didn’t
really withdraw from the whole country but kept the
capital Rustaq, Masqat and the seaports of the North
and didn’t resist no longer to the waves of migration of
Bedouins to the urban areas of Oman.*
In 1698, Zanzibar became part of the overseas
possessions of the Sultan of Masqat and Oman.
In 1747 the Sultan of Muscat broke all ties with Persia.

* A History of Modern Oman by Jeremy Jones, Nicholas Ridout

The Portuguese, still busy in the Persian Gulf were
expelled a second time and a lucrative trade in slaves,
ivory, Myrrh, spices and silk thrived at Muscat along
with an expanding plantation economy centering on
cloves, cotton and sugar cane on several places of
the Zanzibar archipelago. The Omani Sultans built
garrisons at Zanzibar, Pemba, and Kilwa.
The height of the Omani rule came during the reign of
Seyyid Said (more fully, Sayyid Said bin Sultan al-
Busaid, whose roots goes back to the Sasanid era)*.
In 1840 he moved to Zanzibar and made Stone Town
his new capital. He founded a Swahili/Shirazi ruling
elite, supported by a group of Arab ottomans and
Indian bankers and in particular by the British Empire.
After that he used the slave labor force which was
already present on the island to further expand the
clove plantations.
According to the British rule of law, the trade and
export of slaves was prohibited, but the possession of
existing slaves was not. A large Ismaelian community
from India settled in the African interior and spread
beyond the great lakes. The Sultan died in 1856 and
his sons disputed the legacy. This led to a definitive
division into two different Sultanates on April 6, 1861.
As the sixth son, Sultan Sayyid Majid Bin Said al-
Busaid would rule over Zanzibar, he also controlled a
large part of the coastal areas and trade routes in the
interior to Ujiji and Nyangwe and even to Kindu on the
Congo/Lualaba. **

* Sasanid
At the end of the 19th century, in order to counter slavery, the British promoted
the immigration of Indian workers to Kenya and some settled in Maniema
between 1880 and 1890. The latter became involved in the wars of the Congo
Free State and part of the survivors was driven away to Kenya.
There, in 1963, a new deadly persecution emerged.

The old fort Rustaq and the main town of Oman, before Muscat
became the capital.

The old fort of Stone Town the main town of Zanzibar

But from 1887 to 1892 all possessions on the
mainland were lost due to the appropriation by the
great colonial powers, the British and German Empire,
Italy and France.
Mozambique was already in the hands of the
Portuguese and the big nose of Leopold II had already
been sniffing around everywhere.
Although some were not formally sold or ceded until
the 20th century, (Mogadishu to Italy in 1905 and
Mombasa to Britain in 1963*), the bulk was conquered
by brutal force. Zanzibar's spices attracted merchants
and there ships came from far away as China and the
The latter having already opened a diplomatic channel
in 1837. The first major concerns of the British as for
Zanzibar were motivated by two fundamental reasons:
the lucrative trade and the determination to put an end
to the slave trade.
It would take another 55 years after the British
represented by Fairfax Moresby had signed various
treaties with Sayyid Said, Sultan of Oman and Muscat
in 1822 before these agreements finally became a law
that banned the sale of slaves in 1877.
The possession of slaves, however, remained legal.
This was the famous period of David Livingstone,
Henri Morton Stanley and Maisha ya Hamed bin
Muhammad al Murjebi, yaani Tippu Tip, the era of
great African explorers. Before the colonial time, Islam
was the ruler over that area for many years.
This well-known and famous Swahili ruler was in fact
the representative of the Sultan of Zanzibar.
Tippo Tip who governed vast territories of the Congo
for the Sultan until new colonial powers seized it.

Without him, Livingstone and Stanley and others
would never have achieved their goals.
Arab Muslims had a great role in the promulgation of
Islam but they didn’t went to the Congo.
Islam reached the Congo from the west via the
migration of groups of Muslims from Nigeria, Mali,
Senegal, and West African regions, and from the
north via Sudan and it spread among Zande tribes.
Islam reached the area from the east too when the
Persian sultan of Zanzibar expanded his territories.
The Ishmael Muslims from India and Pakistan
moved from the coast into the regions of the great
lakes and founded centers to participate in different
kind of business or labor opportunities and to spread
the message of the Quran among the local
population. Finally, different branches of the Islam
emerged in one region.
Through the good social skills of the numerous
Muslim traders who came to Congo for business
reasons and the friendly relationships they had with
their African counterparts, Islam found a fertile
ground and spread rapidly.
Many citizens embraced the Islam especially in the
areas in the east of the Congo and also in the
Mosques were built and the Islamic rituals and
clothing that covered almost the entire body were
adopted without hesitation the population.
Muslim traders moved from the Great Lakes further
to the north and the west, and also paved the way
for the return of their caravans to Mombasa or
Bagamoyo on the east coast.
These activities greatly increased from the 1850s.

In 1860, Muslims founded two Islamic Centers
(Musjid), and the call to pray reached the Congo River
from the cities of Nyangwe and Kasongo. * Thus two
Musjid were founded and Islam spread further among
the Congolese in the neighborhood. These so-called
Musjid or Mosques, in the middle of the Central African
jungle, and the Islamic Adhan or call to pray became
more common between the 1860s and 1870s.
However, Maraboutism and witchcraft remained
strongly mixed up in the new believe and in social life.
This coincided with the time that Tippo Tip reached the
BaYemba (Songye) region, between the Lualaba and
Lomami Rivers, where he made an agreement with a
Congolese leader in 1872 pursuant to which the latter
recognized Hamad bin Jomaa as the Sultan over the
area. ** He claimed this area for the Sultan of
Zanzibar, following the example of “de Brazza with
Stanley" and the right bank of the Congo, Leopold II
no longer had the right to appropriate this area.*
Afterwards Tippo Tip moved to the north where two
rulers in the northeast of Congo submitted to him.
Then he moved southwards and expanded his power
over an area 60 miles to the south of Kasongo. It was
a well visited region because Cameron had also a few
contacts with Tippo Tip. He showed him the trail that
crossed over the Copperbelt the whole African
continent until arriving at Benguela on November 7th,
1875. In 1876 Henry Stanley arrived in the Congo, and
Ahmad bin Jomaa helped him in exploring the Congo
* Islamic center or Musjid:
** Hamad bin Jomaa: short version of the full name of aka Tippo Tip
Maraboutism: Although this book is accurate as to the facts, the writer,
probably influenced by Western populism, makes the mistake of calling
the slavers "Arabs" while they were gangs of various origins:

As such, the Belgian royal influence popped-up in
Africa in his imperative need to possess a colony.
Stanley made an agreement with bin Jomaa in 1887,
whereby the Belgian King recognized the authority
of Tippo Tip in all the areas he claimed to control.*
His reign over the Batetela and Bakusu peoples,
both belonging to the Ana-Mongo group, in Central
Congo lasted until the Belgians brought him down.
He returned to Zanzibar and remained there until his
death in 1905.
Until the last quarter of the 19th century, a large part
of Eastern Congo was converted to Islam and
listened predominantly to the rules of the Islamic
Ismaeli Imamat of the Aga Khan from India.**
But just before the British gained full control over
Zanzibar and Kenya the prosperous regions were
regularly looted by mixed Swahili and Shirazi gangs
or traders from all over, looking for slaves due to
sudden increase in demand and almost no supply.
The markets on the West- and East coast were
A milestone in the legislation for the prohibition of
slave trade was the British pastor Livingstone who,
when he reached Nyangwe, saw how (probably)
Muslims killed almost an entire village for no
apparent reason.
But actually there are new traces indicating that the
story was different and that the attack was done with
the participation of his own men (slaves).

* At the end all the Islamic settlements were simply called “Arabs”.
Beside that, Pakistani, Iranian (or Shirazi) , Indian, Yemenite or
Mameluke traders, as well as all others dressed in Oriental clothes
were known under the euphemistic name "Arab".See also page 250
concerning the claiming of the Stanley Falls on following link:
** See Aga Khan IV

After his dead in 1873 the total abolition became a fact
and stopped completely when Zanzibar became a
British protectorate in 1890.
However Missionaries found their way to the great
Lakes and used every mean to convert the population
in the area assigned by Leopold II to Christianity.
This was witnessed by the construction of the first
cathedrals. *1
Many children, so-called orphans, were in fact
kidnapped and grow up in the missions to be
redirected and serve in the Force Publique army.
Many schools were built, but with two subjects only,
the Christian doctrine and becoming skilled for simple
production, construction or other work such as mining,
for a growing labor shortage in the often obscure
exploitation societies.
Christianity now spread on the same way as the Islam,
and in the homelands philanthropic people now
spread the news that this was due to the construction
of churches, schools, hospitals and cultural centers.
There was no mention that there was also a cruel
inquisitorial prosecution of idolatry.
This was because King Leopold II introduced even
more missionaries following the example of the
French, however the Catholic missions played as
mentioned a dubious role.
The Portuguese efforts of the 16th century had been
nullified by the depopulation of the coastal areas by the
transatlantic slave trade.
Catholic missions became the real governors of central
*1 La cathedrale sacre-coeur Brazzaville de1892
* The killing of the Ismaelic Muslims in Kindu around 1892. : See references 1 to 7

The non-Catholic Christian missions remained on the
back seat, but together they tried to repel the Islam
with any means.
In fact the Belgian king, as a colonizer, fought fiercely
the Islamic presence in the area for obscure reasons.
This entire population without distinction without
distinction was labeled as "Arab slavers".
This gave the impression that he was dealing with
intruders or invaders and Leopold goes to war against
a non-existent Arab enemy.
His true intention was either the expulsion or physical
elimination of the various Swahili sovereignties or any
other undesirable presence and especially the taking
over of their trade (and their slaves).
The Goas and other Indians or Pakistani who have
been settled for generations were also targeted.
It further concerned the subjugation of the Tetela, the
Bakuba, the Baluba, the Lunda, Bemba and others, as
well as the annexation of an area called Katanga with
a British presence.
The war against the slave trade was in fact nothing but
a religious war or crusade to prevent Muslims from
building more mosques and Koran schools (Talib)
while remaining under the authority of a few
Sultanates. Their huge ivory supplies worked like a
magnet on the commanders of the expeditions of the
Congo Free State. There was also the fear that the
territory to the east of the Stanley Falls, of which the
famous Tippo tip, was both governor and sultan,
would eventually fall under the authority of the Sultan
of Zanzibar, which in fact was already the case before
the arrival of the Germans.

Hence the philanthropic gesture of Leopold II to
undertake a "humanitarian war" (Sic) against an (non-
existent) Arab slave trader.
This resulted in a weakening of the further spread of
the Islam followed by a humiliating exodus of many
Muslim inhabitants to the Eastern side of the Great
The settlers cultivated an extreme hatred against
Muslims, especially in Kasongo where they were
persecuted, tortured, imprisoned, banished or killed.
In addition to the ecclesiastical administration of the
missionaries and the evangelization of the Congolese,
most commanders, concessionaires and agents had
the absolute power to act as they pleased.
This led to a fatal abuse of human dignity as never
seen before.
The most obvious proof of this are the repeated
democides committed by the expeditions of the Force
Publique of Dhanis in 1893 that caused an
unforgettable massacre of about fifty thousand Muslim
civilians along the way.
During 1893, many Swahili defenders, including a
large number of Tetela, had been killed when a series
of their Boma were attacked by the units of Dhanis.
After the latter decided to join the troops of Dhanis,
they lost even more warriors in skirmishes. Their
contribution was therefore decisive.
Paradoxically, Ngongo Lutete their leader was killed
by a Belgian officer.
See under alinea 12:L’expulsion des musulmans. The expulsion of Muslims
Le Congo au temps des grandes compagnies concessionnaires 1898-1930.
Tome II, by Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch. See her other books:

This led to a revolt that would go on and on for many
years and remain in the collective memory until 1960,
just like the stories of M’siri, Kimbangu and of many
others. Their stories are still recorded on "street art" *
paintings and sculptures with oral accompaniment and
dances according to age-old patterns and much
clearer than the cold and static written western
historiography. This also explains why in 1960
Muslims were among the first national forces to
support the MNC party of Patrice Lumumba.
Similar attitudes were seen in Tanganyika and Kenya
when these countries became independent in the
sixties. These events are not including the bloody and
sad destruction of Nyangwe and the huge and
numerous food plantations in that area, which would
create a series of deadly famines. There were more
than a thousand stone buildings in this peaceful city
with many hut villages surrounding it.
Only one building survived the total destruction.
Even the buildings on the island of the river were set
on fire. But all valuable goods, tons of Ivory, gold, silk
were secured before the arrival of the armed forces of
the Congo Free State. Although Nyangwe seemed
reasonably defensible against intruders, it wasn't a
match for Dhanis against. The 75mm Krupp field
artillery and the Maxim machine guns that they had
deployed would do wonders. However, in Kasongo,
the events took another turn and the booty was huge
and almost enough to cover all the existing debts of
Leopold II.

Les+massacres+de+Dhanis Lieutenant Dhanis. Même les têtes coupés de

Lusinga et Msiri et des centaines d’autres chefs sont commémorés dans
les régions diverses, tandis quáux institust anthropologiques en Belgique
on ne retrouve pas dans la collection des cranes.

The real purpose of the conquest of Kasongo and other places
were indeed the immense stocks of tons of Ivory.
Large amounts of loot had already been seized by Captain
Guillaume Van Kerckhoven, Dhanis and Storms, but also by
Stairs with Le Marinel and many others, during the annexation
of Katanga. In Kasongo alone they found 25 tons of Ivory, in
addition of immense stocks of ammunition and food, but also
expensive spices, gold, silk, satin and skins, making them
nothing more than ordinary thieves and pirates.
His campaigns became more and more ethnocidal.
This was only a part of what was taken in the previous years.
In Alexis's book we read that the booty of Kasongo was barely
three tons of ivory. That's 80 to 100 tusks or a small booty,
while 800 to 1000 tusks represent a fairly large booty of 25 to
30 tons as other sources mention. But nothing was free. The
brother of Dhanis was shot dead. This was also the case with
Captain Guilaume De Kerckhove who died from bullets in his
back coming from his own troops, and the number of dead
own ranks increased non-stop.
Inscriptions tell us that "the Belgian military heroism destroys
the Arab slave driver" (sic).
The fact that hundreds of (slave) porters were bought locally
by the ECI is only mentioned in hidden archives. However this
number would eventually rise to a few thousand. There was a
huge need to replace whit all means the many runaways and
those who succumbed along the way. They were mainly
needed to transport the huge volumes of booty and the
products of the results of forced labor. They all were slaves
that were taken over or newly purchased. The social
Darwinian and narcissistic spirit of Dhanis or that of the horde
of missionaries and agents is very difficult to summarize. *

* This could in no way be called a war against slavery or a humanitarian

liberation of slaves. These were greedy, Islamophobic conquistadors who
eradicated everything that resisted their urge to possess. On the Intro page of
a book by F. Alexis-M.G. from 1897, we can clearly see the kind of
criminal/morbid faculties that many former Kongo agents needed to be able to
do their job. For a majority, this Islamophobic hatred and the qualification of
the inferiority of the Congolese are still present in their daily life after their
return to Europe.
Soldiers and missionaries

In the Congo, from 1891 until 1894

Baron DHANIS and the War
against the Arabs
Chapter I.
Prior situation - First hostilities

HE MUHAMMADANISM - The invasion of
Africa by the so called Arabs started twelve
centuries ago when Muhammad was
making plans to send out his sectarian
fanatics to conquer the world.
As absolutely opposed to Christianity,
which preaches altruism and charity, the doctrines of the
Koran are only in harmony with human passions: they flatter
the pride and selfishness of the strongest; they authorize him
to reduce the weakest to slavery, to treat them as vile pigs,
by obliging them to serve him all imaginable pleasures, with
the right to decide about their life and death when they
become useless or inconvenient.
This way we can understand how Islamism, by fanaticizing
its followers, could spread through blood and fire in the half
of the Old Continent. Today there are Arabs or "Arabized"
and Muslim peoples throughout Asia, in Malaysia, in the
southern part of Europe and in Turkey, where Constantinopel
is their capital; they dominate over two-thirds of the African
continent, where their progress will only cease by the action
of the European powers, now interested in safeguarding the
new possessions they have acquired in that region.

By F. Alexis-M.G 161 and page concept by Victor E. Rosez

© Translation
The spread of a smallpox epidemic as a biological
weapon remains out of the question, is almost never
mentioned or is alleged to have been initiated by Sefu.
Much remains to be said about it. There are quite a lot
of travel reports of the paddle steamers on the Congo
River from the Congo Free State. On one of these
journeys a few "porters" were infected with smallpox.
In all haste they were disembarked preventively on the
banks of the river. Until now it remains logical! The
Western passengers were aware of the risk of
contamination. The contaminated porters that had
been put overboard had received gifts for the
neighboring villagers who would look after them in
return. These were lugubrious practices. As a result
many villagers died. Massive attacks by other villagers
along the full length of the river on later passages
prove that they had to do with retaliations. News is
spreading very fast in Africa. The obligation to collect
more and more rubber after these kind of deadly
intimidations became unbearable. After the Leopold
period, the situation deteriorated in some areas
compared to that of the rubber harvest.
The compulsion to amass Copal would cause massive
death. In Basankusu, consequences were dramatic
and persisted until 1929.
After a previous depopulation, it would happen again
that in a span of 10 years half the population had
disappeared. Copal was found in the Lulonga,
Maringa and Lopori basins. From this sub-fossilized
raw material varnishes, incense and gems were made
and had fluctuating but high values. However, working
in swamps, shallow rivers and creeks, made the
majority of Copal searchers fell by deadly epidemics.

A peak in death rates was reached between 1920 and
1923 when world market prices rose rockethigh. So
(forced) workers were recruited on a large scale. It was
a step back to the situation just before the turn of the
century because the demand for rubber was also
These Copal seekers, seduced by bonuses, are
staying away from home all day, sometimes for weeks
and even months. An abominable déjà vu. * A very
large number of children was also forced to work in the
marshy areas. The chaos was huge because
everywhere one could see abandoned villages. Even
some missions were forced to shut their doors. From
these repeated and alarming periods of the colony we
speak very little about it. The Belgian government
refused to intervene as national revenues increased
spectacularly. It was not until the late 1920s, when the
dead were no longer buried and all Christian hospitals
were overcrowded, that an interdiction was issued on
putting women and children on forced labor.


… Next chapter: see The Demoncratic Version Part II

“The Demoncratic Version – Part II” by Victor E. Rosez

Rwanda and Burundi were located at the juncture of three

empires and became the object of a diplomatic fight for
possession. The Belgians and Leopold II, the Germans,
and the British wanted possession of the territory.
However, by 1910, and agreement handed control of
Rwanda and Burundi to the Germans. But a Rwandan
part remained under controle of the Congo Freestate.

Actual border
Bukavu Historical region
Ruanda XIV century

Conquests XV century
Conquests XVI century
Conquests XVII century
Conquests XVIII and
XIX centurles

Precolonial Rwanda

Burundi had about the same border-shifting problems as

Rwanda. The lack of clarity is due to the fact that both regions
are considered as separate entities. In the pre-colonial period,
Ruanda-Urundi formed a whole of Kingdoms that included the
region of Costermanstown to the south as well as the coastal
areas of the East side of Lake Tanganyika almost as far as
Kigoma and in the norththe Bahunde highlands.
“The Demoncratic Version – Part II” by Victor E. Rosez

The Kingdoms of the Great Lakes at the end of the XIX century.
A part of the Watutsi moved to the Bahunda highlands in the
XVII century due to internal conflicts.

Le Ruanda-Urundi précolonial