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5G System Evaluation Tool

Koshiro Kitao, Anass Benjebbour, Tetsuro Imai, Yoshihisa Kishiyama, Minoru Inomata, and Yukihiko Okumura
5G Laboratory
NTT DOCOMO, INC.
3-6 Hikarino-oka Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, Japan

Abstract—We developed an evaluation tool that evaluates the Start


system performance of fifth generation mobile communication
systems that use multi-antenna technologies such as massive
Decision of connecting BS Step 1
MIMO and beamforming that compensate for the increase in
path loss due to high frequency usage in various areas based on
computer simulation. The tool calculates propagation Decision of optimum antenna pattern for BS and MS
characteristics utilizing ray-tracing and the SINR/throughput Step 2
based on the Shannon capacity using the obtained propagation
characteristics. This report describes the tool functions and
Selection of
presents evaluation results.
evaluation type
Keywords—5G mobile communication systems, Ray-tracing, Uplink
Downlink
evaluation
Beamforming, Dynamic TDD, Area evaluation evaluation
SINR/Throughput SINR/Throughput
I. INTRODUCTION Step 3 calculation calculation
Utilization of the 6 to 100 GHz bands is investigated for the
fifth generation mobile communication systems (5G) to Output of calculation results
increase the system capacity, because these bands have
possibility of assignment of a relatively wide band [1]. In these Fig. 1. Calculation flow of SINR/throughput.
high frequency bands, multi-antenna technologies such as
massive MIMO and beamforming are used to compensate for B. System Evaluation
the increase in path loss due to high frequency usage [2]. We Functions of the system evaluation comprise generation of
developed a 5G system evaluation tool that evaluates the 5G the antenna pattern and calculation of the SINR/throughput.
propagation characteristics and system performance in various
areas based on computer simulation. The tool calculates The antenna pattern generation is prepared to evaluate the
propagation characteristics using ray-tracing and the SINR/throughput using beamforming antenna patterns that are
throughput based on the Shannon capacity using the obtained calculated using a set number of antenna elements and interval
propagation characteristics. This report describes the tool between elements on a uniform planar array (UPA). Moreover,
functions and presents evaluation results. arbitrary antenna pattern data such as measured data can be
utilized for evaluation for this tool.
II. FEATURES OF 5G SYSTEM EVALUATION TOOL
Fig. 1 shows the calculation flow of the SINR/throughput.
The 5G system evaluation tool features the capability to In the following description, multiple base station (BS)
calculate changes in the SINR and throughput due to changes deployment is assumed and the evaluation area is divided into
in the direction of the beamforming antenna pattern. an arbitrary sized mesh where a mobile station (MS) exists on
Throughput is calculated based on the SINR, which is described. Furthermore, the SINR is obtained based on the
calculated based on ray-tracing simulation results of the radio propagation calculation results and antenna pattern.
evaluation target area. Each function of the tool is explained in
the following sections. Step 1: Decision of connection between BS and MSx

A. Radio Propagation Calculation This step decides which BS is connected to MSx In this
flow, MSx connects to BSx from which the downlink received
A radio propagation model comprises a static structure level is maximum. In this calculation the BS and MS antenna
model such as a building and terrain model, which is generated patterns are static and the antenna pattern can be set by the
based on a map database and moving object model such as that users.
for cars and human bodies. The moving object model is the
same as the ITU-R channel model in which cars and human Step 2: Selection of optimum antenna pattern
bodies are defined as metal plates. Users can set an arbitrary
This step decides the optimum antenna patterns for BSx and
plate size to the moving objects. Basically, the tool adopts a
MSx when beamforming is available for the BS and MS. The
ray-launching method for radio propagation calculation;
optimum beam pattern is a combination between the BS and
however, knife edge diffraction is applied to calculate the
MS antenna patterns that generate the maximum received level.
blockage loss due to the moving objects in the same way as the
ITU-R channel model [1].

978-1-5386-4834-6/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEE


Step 3: SINR/throughput calculation
The SINR/throughput of the selected link is calculated.
Both the up- and downlinks can be selected. This section
describes the downlink case. After the SINR is obtained, the
throughput can be obtained by plugging the SINR into the
equation based on the Shannon capacity. Moreover, the
received level of the desired wave is given by the radio
propagation calculation results and optimum antenna pattern
selected in Step 2, and the noise level is given as a constant
with the related parameters. The calculation procedure for the
received level of an interference wave is described as follows.
First, a BS except BSx is connected to only one MS. If there is
only one BS (BSi) except BSx, the source of the interference is
BSi and MSi which is connected to BSi. MSi is selected
randomly within the meshes that are set in the first step of the Fig. 2. Evaluation results.
simulation. If beamforming is selected in the simulation
settings, users can choose two ways of beamforming direction TABLE I. EVALUATION PARAMETERS
control for BSi and MSi. One is a random direction and the Parameters Values and Types
other is the optimum direction, which is the same as in Step 2.
Moreover, dynamic TDD can also be evaluated for interference Center Frequency 28 GHz
evaluation [3]. The link status such as downlink of uplink Bandwidth 400 MHz
between BSi and MSi can be given randomly by setting the Link Type Downlink
ratio of the downlink or uplink, and the received level of the
BS/MS Beamforming BS only (Random direction)
interference wave can be calculated at MSi (BSi for the uplink
case) considering the antenna pattern and link status between BS Transmission Power 44 dBm
BSi and MSi. Number of BS Antenna
(8×16) × 2
Elements
By substituting the SINR based on the above procedure into
the following equation based on the Shannon capacity, MS Antenna Omni
MS Noise Figure 10 dB
𝑇𝑇 = 𝛼𝛼∙𝐵𝐵𝐵𝐵∙𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚{log 2 (1 + 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆/𝛽𝛽) , 𝛾𝛾} (1)
Thermal Noise Level -174 dBm/Hz
throughput T (bit/s) can be obtained [4]. In this equation, α is Number of Layers 2 layers
the coefficient considering the overhead of the transmission
Max Modulation 256QAM
signal, BW is the bandwidth (Hz), β is the coefficient of the
SINR that is decided by the number of layers (MIMO streams), has three BSs is shown; however, realistic BS deployment
and γ is the maximum bit per symbol [bit] that is decided by cases will be studied in future work.
modulation method.
As described in the above, this tool generates selections of IV. CONCLUSION
interfering MSs, the direction of beamforming antenna patterns Features of the 5G system evaluation tool and evaluation
of interfering BSs and MSs, and the status of the uplink or results in Tokyo using this tool are presented. This tool
downlink of TDD as random processes. The tool evaluates evaluates the system potential when dynamic beamforming and
stochastic characteristics of the SINR and throughput by TDD are adopted; therefore, more realistic evaluation can be
iterating Steps 1 to 4 for an arbitrary link between BSx and MSx. obtained than from existing evaluation tools. However, there
Moreover, moving objects such as cars and human bodies can are differences between the evaluation methods of the tools and
be deployed as random processes; therefore, stochastic actual systems in in terms of the interfering MS selection and
characteristics can be evaluated due to changes in the beamforming control. Therefore, improvements on these points
surrounding environment. are targets of future work.
III. EVALUATION RESULTS REFERENCES
Fig. 2 shows area throughput evaluation results in Chuo-ku, [1] ITU-R M. 2412-0, “Guidelines for evaluation of radio interface
Tokyo at 28 GHz. Table I gives the evaluation parameters, technologies for IMT-2020,” Oct. 2017.
which were decided considering trends in standardization such [2] S. Satoshi, et al., “5G Multi-antenna technology,” NTT DOCOMO
Technical Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 29-39, Apr. 2016.
as those by the 3GPP and ITU-R. In (1), α = 1.4, β = 2, and γ
= 8. A BS is established on three sector markers, the [3] A. Benjebbour, et al., “5G radio access technology,” NTT DOCOMO
Technical Journal, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 16-28, Apr. 2016.
throughput is expressed by a heat map, and each throughput
[4] P. Mogensen, et al., “LTE capacity compared to the Shannon bound,”
value is the average from one hundred events on each MS site. VTC2007-Spring, pp. 1234-1238, Apr. 2015.
Throughput in the line-of-sight (LOS) environment is higher
than that the non-LOS (NLOS) environment from the
calculation results. In this paper, only a simple example that

978-1-5386-4834-6/18/$31.00 ©2018 IEEE