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HANDOUTNO. I VAJIRAM & RAVI SK MANOCHA BIOMES "THE EQUATORIAL REGION/AMAZON TYPE/SELVAS (selva FROPICAL RAIN/EVERGREEN FORESTS/: “ie between 0 ‘and 10 degrees north and south *the largest area isin the Amazon lowlands *other areas: Congo Basin, Guinea Coast of ‘Africa, parts of Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Philippines *Temp. averages between 25 to 30 degrees C “seasonal range of temp. is very fess, seidom more than 3 degrees C “cloudy weather, especially in the afternoon *relative humidity high “heavy rainfall throughout the year *very dense forests *trees are very tall(as much as 45m) *canopy formation “several ‘varieties in a small area “forests always look green because there is no particular season for shedding eaves and no seasonal Period for flowering “broad leaved trees “trees are mostly hard wood type ike MAHOGANY, EBONY, ROSEWOOD, RUBBER, CINCHONA, GREENHEART *many plants are parasites, there are others which grow on plants without being parasites {€Epiphytes: take the support of trees to climb toa height to take sun light, like, for example, Bromeliads or orchids etc) “generally undergrowth/surface growth is not dense as sunlight does not reach the ground *cover 10% of world’s area but hhave less than 5% of world's population *MAIOR TRIBAL GROUPS: SEMANG IN MALAYSIA; KUBUS IN SUMATRA, DAYAKS IN ‘BORNEO; PYGMIES IN CONGO BASIN AND AMAZON INDIANS IN SOUTH AMERICA. é THE TROPICAL MONSOON / DECI INDIAN TYPE FORESTS: "le between 10 and 25 degrees north and south and in ‘ase of India and Pakistan, the region extends up to 30 degrees north *modifed form of Savanna * three seasons in Northern Hemisphere *HOT SEASON: MARCH TO JUNE (temperature between 26 and 46 degrees C *RAINY SEASON: June to middle of (October: heavy rainfall, which may exceed 500 cm in @ period of 3-4 months only *COOL SEASON: November to February (period of N € Monsoon) “rainfall: 25 to 300 cm and varies from place to place and also unreliable *Southern Hemisphere: the ‘main Monsoon area is found in northern portion of Australia (there are the same three seasons but are reversed) “natural ‘eeetation varies according to rainfall in areas of heavy rainfall, there are dense forests for eg. Myanmar, Himalayan slopes, Cambodia and Vietnam “trees are broad leaved, deciduous, shedding thet leaves just before the great heat commences “important trees:TEAK, SAL, ROSEWOOD, DEODAR *DENSE GROWTH OF BAMBOOS IS FOUND IN GOOD RAINFALL AREAS * in the drier areas (less than 100 em rainfall there stall grass and thorn bushes/scrub *tidal forests/mangroves grow in deltaic plains (Sunderbans). ‘THESAVANNA/SUDAN TYPE/TROPICAL GRASSLAND: “in Venezuela, these grassland are called LLANOS and in Brazil, these are called CAMPOS “on either side ofthe equatorial belt, between the hot deserts onthe poleward side and the equatorial regions “lie between 7 and 20 degrees north and south * form 2 continuous belt in Afica and Australia * the other areas are: South America-Brazilian highland, parts of Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina; Central America: Cubs, Jameica, and islands in the Pacific; Africa: Sudan, Senegal, Guinea, Mal, Niger, Chad, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and Togo; Australia: the northern, region and Queensand “few clouds “low humidity *hot, dry and dusty winds “average monthly temperature Is wetween 22 and 37 degrees C *highest temperature is before the rainy season ‘distinct wet and dry season “rainfall varies from 25 to 150 cm "Elephant grass grows upto 4.5 m *have scattered trees, broad leaved variety “most trees are drought resistant and shed their leaves inthe cool dry season *BAOBABS and BOTTLE trees of Australian Savanna have huge trunks end store un water ‘during short rainy season; some shed their leaves during the hot season *some tres have underground stems and long roots, MAJOR TRIBAL GROUPS: MASAI (Tanzania) of rican. ond thie fenced-in village iscolled KRAAL * KIKUYUS ive to {the.north of mount kenyo, HAUSAS: LIVE SOUTH OF SAHARA IN WEST AERICA * THE SHEPHERDS OF VENEZUELA in SOUTH AMERICA are called LANEROS. ‘THE HOT DESERTS TYPE: “these ie in high pressure belts between 20 and 30 degrees north and south and most of them .ccupy the western sides of the continents in the trade winds belt “Areas: NORTH AMERICA: Arizona and lower California of ‘the U.S, the Mexican desert; South Ameria: the Atacama desert; AFRICA: Sahara and Kalahari ASIA! Arabian and Thors [AUSTRAUA: The Great Australian Desert *very high temperatures “clear skies and almost absence of rain (Death Valley of California) “large daly range of temperature *low humidity “evaporation is very high *the rainfalls very scanty and is unreliable *vegetation is admirably adapted to its environment *vegetation has large root systems, widely spaced, Widespread shallow roots, deep tap roots, leathery leafless stems and sharp spines and distasteful juices * thelr stomata have more hairs and cll to prevent excess evaporation “ephemeral (short led) species typical desert plants:cactus and prickly Dear * these deserts occupy about 14% of the earth's land but support a very small proportion of its people “MAJOR TRIBAL GROUPS: *TUAREGS: WESTERN SAHARA; *BEDOUINS: ARABIAN DESERT; "BUSHMEN: KALAHARI, *BINDIBUS: AUSTRALIA. THE MEDITERRANEAN REGIONS: Tropical margins of middle latitudes (between 30 and 40 desrees north and south) “they Cccupy the western margins ofthe continents, on the poleward side *Areas: Europe: countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea *North America: California *South America: Central Chile *Africa: Cape Province of South Africa “Australia: Southern ‘and South Western Australia “summers are hot and nearly dry (average summer temperature varies from 20 to 26 degreesC) “in summer, trade winds blow from the land and are dry “the winter temperature varies between 5 and 15 degrees C these Fegions come under the influence ofthe moist westerles in winter withthe shift of pressure belts “plants grow in winter and Aare xeropl yc “plants are evergreens, shedding their leaves at no regular season (exs.; OUVE, MYRTLE, HOLLY, LAUREL, MADRONA AND CORK OAK are tree species) * the vine develops very long roots “onthe dr hillsides the chief vegetation is dense moss of low shrubs ond sweet sme (known 08 MA \ARIGUE in Europe: CHABARRAL in Colforna: EYNE in South Africa; MATTORAL in Chile tal tres are rare *OAK, WALNUT, CHESTNUT, ALMOND, FIG, CEDAR, JUNIPERS, PINES AND FIRS are generally found *regions are known for wines production * densely populated ateas *these regions are called world's orchard lands * produce majority of world's exports of etrus fruits. ‘THE TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS: *found between 40 and 55 degrees north and south *ie in the interiors ofthe continents (those in South America and South Africa are nearer the sea) *Areas: Southern regions in Canada and the Central US; ‘Mangolia; Murray-Darling Basin in Australia; parts of South America; there is no typical temperature for any one Temperate 1 » 4 Grassland type; al these grasslands inthe Northern Hemisphere len the interior ofthe large continent, therefore climate is very extreme “in summer the average temperature vais from 18 to 24 degrees (the dismal range of temperature is large)*in winter the temperature varies between -4 degrees C and 2 degrees C ‘rain falls in spring and early summer and varies between 25 and 65cm (most oft isn the form of ight showers) “generally consist of open teeles plains "trees appear only cn the slopes of mountains where rainfalls more *WILLOWS, ALDERS AND POPLARS ae the common trees “inthe drier parts SAGEBRUSH OR SACRUB with thorny plants are found “short qrass grows everywhere and is shorter, less coarser and more ‘nutritious than the arss in the Savanna/Tropicol grassland ° the temperate grasstands of the Southern Hemisphere donot show the extremes “alferentnomes : PRARIES (NORTH AMERICA) PAMPAS ARGENTINA VELDT {SOUTH AFRICA); DOWNS (AUSTRALIA); PUSTAZ (HUNGARY); STEPPES (RUSSIA). ALL TEMPERATE GRASSLANDS CAN BE DIVIDED PES: PRARIE TYPE (MORE HUMID) AND STEPPE TYPE (ORIER) °MAJOR TRIBAL GROUPS: K/RGHI2 (CENTRAL ASIA): RED INDIANS (NORTH AMERICA) AND HO" |OUTH AFRICA WEST EUROPEAN TYPE/COOL TEMPERATE OCEANIC/DECIDUQUS FORESTS/MARINE WEST COAST TYPE: le between 40 and {60 degrees north and south on the western side ofthe continents *Areas: North-Western Europe, Western Canada, North ‘West USA, Southern Chile, Victoria, Tasmania, South Island of New Zealand “these regions are under the influence of cool ‘ain-bearing westerles blowing from the ocean *average temperature in summer is between 18 and 25 degrees Cand in winter tray fall below zero “but winters are, on the whole, mild for the latitude (warm ocean currents) there accur no lage extremes of temperature *average rainfall varies between 5O and 120 cm ands wel distributed over the year “IMPORTANT ‘SPECIES: OAK, ELM, MAPLE, BEECH AND BIRCH “hard and durable wood “trees oe deciduous, shedding ther leaves in autumn (coiled fol period) *other species ae:DOUGLAS FIR AND REDWOOD *The KAURI, the largest tree of New Zealond, i highly rized for its timber and yields o valuable resin called kauri gum. #EROUS FOR! TEMPERATE Ce TAIGA: lie between $5 and 70 degrees Cin Northern tinuous belt thern Conedo, Northern Europe and Russio "the T ies on ‘north and Temperate grasslands on the south *Areos: Southern Alasko, Southern Canad, pots of Norway, Sweden, Finland, em Russia, Northern Si jaln land *winter are very cold and severe for 6 to 7 months with temperatures below freezing *summers are short (3 or 4 months) rainfall varies from 25 to 100 cm “rainfalls throughout the year but maximum in ‘summers *snow takes place in winters *these forests. reates forest belts i “the trees are ros of ‘and a short. se0s0n “very few species, omong which PINE, FIR, HEMLOCK, \ARCH, CEDAR AND SPRUCE predominate "they are evergreen and have small needle ike leaves to reduce the surface to ‘minimum *the trees look cone shaped and branches are short and remain drooping, 50 that the snow slips down "the trees are soft wooded *there is litle undergrowth *one tree species covers huge areas *in Canada, during winter season, the farmers ‘migrate to northern forests to get employment - these farmers work as lumberers and are known as Lumberjacks. ‘THE LAURENTIAN TYPE/ST. LAWRENCE/COOL TEMPERATE EAST MARGIN TYPE: lies between 45 and 60 degrees in Northern Hemisphere only *t ies inthe same latitude as West Europe but on the eastern margins of the continents *Areas: St lawrence lowlands, north-eastern parts ofthe US, north-eastern part of China, Amur river region in Siberia and northern Japan (Hokkaido) “the climate is not so equable as that of the West Marain (West Europe) and also not so extreme os thot of ‘the Central zones (Praries) "the major difference les inthe winter temperature, which is low between -3 degrees and-17 ‘degrees C “the westerlies bring cod influences from the interior ofthe continent *cold ocean currents further reduce the ‘possibility of warming influences from the sea “summers are short and average summer temperature is between 18 and 24 degrees C *rainfallis throughout the year (moderate 50-125 cm) and most of its during summers *veaetation consists mastly of coniferous forest “but inthe extreme southeast, deciduous trees flourish for example MAPLE and various kinds of OAK, ‘BEECH, ASH, CHESTNUT AND ELMS *the mountains in Manchuria and northern Japan are covered with dense conifers, made up of SPRUCE, FIR, LARCH, KOREAN PINE * the region also produces fruits such as PEAR, PLUM, PEACH, APPLES AND ORANGES. ‘THE WARM TEMPERATE EAST COAST REGIONS/CHINA TYPE/TEMPERATE MONSOON TYPE: le between 25 and 40 degrees north and south on the eastern margins ofthe continents “Areas: Asia: North and Central China, Southern Japan, Southern Korea; North America: South eastern states of USA; South America: Southern Paraguay, Northern Argentina, Uruguay, ‘Southern Brazil; Australia: New South Wales and Southern Queensland *there are many variations inthis matic group, but ‘there are also a number of common features for example: the summer temperatures are high wit high humidities (temperature varies between 21 and 27 degrees Cin the Northern Hemisphere) *winters in Northern Hemisphere are colder than in the Southern Hemisphere ‘light frosts thee in winter *the monsoon conditions bring heavier rainfall in summer than in winter (annual average varies from 75 to 125 em) *tropicol cyclones/hurrcanes also offect these parts ofthe USA, China, Japan and Australia *high sumnmer temperatures and heavy ran favour evergreen forests *the natural vegetation in the lowlandsis of deciduous forest *the mountains are thickly forested with PINES, BEECH, OAK, MAGNOLIAS AND CAMELLIAS ‘tmulberry thrives the best in these regions. ‘TUNDRA: lies roughly beyond 65 degrees north “Areas: northernmost parts of Canad, Alaska, northern Scandinavia, (Gf@bniand,leland, Siberia, Spitsbergen islands *in Finnish language the word Tundra means a barren land (what tis in winter) ‘and in Russian language the word means a marshy plain (what it isin summer season) ‘itis the most continuous of all biomes - it occurs unbroken along margins of northern continents “tis extremely fragile biome as it lacks diversity *summer isotherm of 10 degrees € marks the beginning and 0 degree C marks its limit on the poleward side *winters are very long (9/10 months) and very severe (-35 to -40 degrees C) and dark too "summers are short and relatively warm -temperature may rise to 10 degree C ‘because of very long day length and continuous insolation (however the rays ae very inclined, so that there isa very diffused ‘neating) *rainfallis less than 25 cm and mostly in summers “the Bush Tundra borders the Coniferous forest belt and it consists of dwarf Alders, Birches, Junipers and Willows *next to Bush Tundra, there is the Grass Tundra it consists of mosses, lichens, sedges and RHODODENDRONS “the vegetation is well adapted to withstand extreme cold and to survive on a minimum ‘moisture it can also remain alive beneath the snow in winter) *Tundra biome is characterised by PERMAFROST ie. permonenty ‘Srozen sub-soil portion (< Im depth)--when the upper ice cover meits during summer, the sub-sol still remains frozen ond the ‘results spongy swamps (called muskegs) and bogs throughout the region. "em Rita OK ae Yarrow 1°16 annua antl ‘annua beeen etd JFMAMJJASOND q, wewien ms se 10 1000 as 200] 30 100] 25 700] BE hs 00] c 500) a ot ho pe Rese A Is 300) ° lo 200] 1 \ STPMAMTIASOND | 1. TROPICAL RAINFOREST 6. CONIFEROUS FOREST. 2. HOT DESERT Z TROPICAL MolSooN 3. MEDITERRANEAN (NH) 4, TUNDRA 5. SAVANNA CAIMATE ‘regan vest = ania torn EA rsictores ron io ee EBB serrcerte ond ian FE errbie ns etapa Ramee seethagen [roman wunda a mectaranan The mata types of climax vegetation. a