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The effect of the concentration of ions on the selective discharge of ions and the products of electrolysis of

aqueous solutions.

Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 0.001 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid and 1.0 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid, using carbon electrodes.

Set-up of apparatus

Hydrochloric acid

Equation of electrolyte HCl


ionisation

Electrolyte 0.001 mol dm-3 HCl 1.0 mol dm-3 HCl


Ions that are attracted to the H+ H+
cathode
Half equation at the cathode

Observation at cathode

Confirmatory test at the 1) place a burning wooden


cathode (method and splinter at the mouth of the test
observation) tube
2) A ‘pop’ sound is produced

Name the product at the H2 gas


cathode
Ions that are attracted to the OH-, Cl- OH-, Cl-
anode
Half equation at the anode 4OH

Observations at the anode

Confirmatory test at the 1) insert a glowing wooden 1) A damp blue litmus paper is
anode (method and splinter into the test tube placed near the mouth of the
observation) 2) glowing wooden splinter is test tube.
lighted up
2) The gas changed the damp
blue litmus paper to red and
then bleached it

Name the product at the O2 gas Cl gas


anode
The concentration of Conc. Of HCl increases. H2 gas Conc. Of HCl decreases. H2 gas
hydrochloric acid after a is released at the cathode and o2 is released at the cathode and
while and explanation. gas is released at the anode. Cl2 gas is released at the anode.
Water decomposed to o2 gas Concentration of Cl ions
and H2 gas. decreases.

The effect of the types of electrodes on the selective discharge of ions and the products of electrolysis of
aqueous solutions.

Complete the following table for the electrolysis of 1.0 mol dm-3 Copper (II) Sulphate solution, using carbon
electrodes and copper electrode.

Set-up of apparatus

Equation of electrolyte
ionisation

Type of electrode Carbon electrode Copper electrode

Ions that move to the cathode

Half equation at the cathode

Name the product at the


cathode
Observations at cathode

The ions that move to the


anode
Half equation at the anode

Name the product at the anode

Observations at anode

Confirmatory test (method


and observation)
The concentration of copper
(II) solution after a while and
explanation.

Electrolysis In Industry

Three uses of electrolysis in industries are:

Application Example Electrolyte Anode/ Cathode /


Half Equation Half equation
(a) Silver Anode: Cathode:
Electroplating electroplating
Half equation: Half equation:

(b) Purification Anode: Cathode:


Purification of of copper
metal Half equation: Half equation:

(c) Metal Extraction of Anode: Cathode:


extraction aluminium
Half equation: Half equation:

Electrolysis In Industry

Three uses of electrolysis in industries are:

Application Example Electrolyte Anode/ Cathode /


Half Equation Half equation
(a) Silver Anode: Cathode:
Electroplating electroplating
Half equation: Half equation:
(b) Purification Anode: Cathode:
Purification of of copper
metal Half equation: Half equation:

(c) Metal Extraction of Anode: Cathode:


extraction aluminium
Half equation: Half equation: