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Asea Brown Boveri Inc. Km. 20 South Super Highway Sucat, Paranaque Seminar on BASIC PRINCIPLES ON PROTECTION RELAYING November 5, 2001 to November 9, 2001 Caltex Refinery Bauan, Batangas SEMINAR BASIC PRINCIPLES ON PROTECTION RELAYING (By: RR. Licu REE and V. €. Langit Jr. REE) Table of Contents |. Introduction 1A What is Protection Relay? 1.B Importance & Application of Relay 1.C Basic Types of Relay 1D Device Function Number Il, Polyphase System ILA Single Phase 1.B Two & Four Phase ILC Three Phase IMI. Vector Diagram of Three Phase IV. Types of Load & Effect on Vector Diagram IVA Resistive Load IV.B Inductive Load IVC Capacitive Load V. Balance & Unbalance System V1. Sensing Equipment (Instrument Transformer) VLA. Current Transformer VLB_ Voltage (Potential) Transformer VIC Testing of Current & Voltage Transformer VII. Description & Operation of Applied Relays, VILA Reverse Power Refay VILB Loss Of xcitation Relay VILC Negative Sequence Relay Vii.D Voitage Restraint Overcurrent Relay MILE Voltage Balance Relay VILF Differential Relay VIG Directional Overcurrent Relay VILH Current / Voltage / Frequency Relay VII Synchrocheck Relay Vill. introduction to Basic Relay Test Equipment 1X, Requirements on Testing of Protection Relay X APPENDIX 1 Device Number List APPENDIX 2 - Instruction on CT Testing Page No. @ BRO Basas ~ 10 12 13 13 15 16 16 18 18 19 19 4. Introduction: {n the business of servicing electrical equipment, one of the common field is in the servicing Of protection relays. Maintenance engineers are tasked to check, test and calibrate protection relays of different kinds, make and purpose. It is the objective of this seminar to introduce to the maintenance personnel of Caitex Refinery the basics of the protection relays. This will cover the different types, its purpose and provide knowledge for testing these. Because of the enormous number of different relays with its particular purpose, concentration will only focus on the protection relays found inside the Caltex Plant. Relays are either electromechanical or static ( solid state ) devices that are connected to ‘secondary instrument transformer that operate on current , potential, or combination of both to sense abnormal system condition and to operate contact or a solid state switching device. IA. WHAT IS PROTECTION RELAYS? Protective relays are applied to detect defective lines, apparatus or other dangerous or intolerable operating conditions. They can either initiate or permit switching or provide alarms. Protective relays are used in conjunction with potential transformer, current transformer, circuit breakers and buses to provide the building blacks that comprise the Scheme that achieve overall system coordination and equipment protection. The three acts in different way to provide the function as cited, The instrument transformer as Sensor, relays as the initiator and breaker for isolation. IB. IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION OF RELAYS: Faults can be tolerated but should be immediately isolated with minimum service interruption. There are several causes of failure or breakdown of various components of @ power system. Thus Protection relay is to minimize damage to the system and its component, Typical applications are; Motor Protection Feeder Protections Transformer Protections Generator Protections Bus Bar Protections ‘Transmission Line Protections gs aeNss IC. BASIC TYPES OF RELAYS: 1. ELECTROMAGNETIC Plunger construction: This type consist of a bar or cylinder armature which is attracted axially into solenoid coil. The armature carries with itthe movable contact which meets the fixed contact when the armature is Picked up. So sco con Sir Farman onl ene conection