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Andres, T.D., Understanding The Filipino, Quezon City, Philippines: New Day Publishers,
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Anthony, R.N., Dearden, J. and Bedford, N.M., Management Control System, Homewood,
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Cameron, K.S. and Whetten, D.A., Organizational Effectiveness: A Comparison of Multiple


Models, New York: Academic Press, 1983.

Cochram, W.G., Sampling Techniques, 3rd Ed., New York: John Wiley, 1977.

Cohen, J. and Cohen, P., Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for Behavioural
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Gerloff, E.A., Organizational Theory and Design, New York: McGraw Hill, 1985.

Gorsuch, R.L., Factor Analysis, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1974.

Gujarat, D.N., Basic Econometrics, New York: McGraw Hill, 1988.

Hackman, J.R. and Oldham, G.R., Work Redesign, Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley
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Hasenfeld, Y., Human Service Organizations, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall,
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200
Julian, 5.1., Operations and Maintenance Plan for Irrigation Systems Management,
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Katzell, R.A., Productivity in Organization, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1988.

Kyi, K.M., Performance Evaluation Measures: A Test on their Consisterncy, Validity and
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1982, 1981-1990, Version 2.2, 1982.

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202

APPENDIX A
FIELD RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH PROTOCOL

1. Introduction - 5 minutes

2. Distribution of Questionnaire

3. Answering them by respondents

4. At the conclusion each questionnaire should be checked for completeness.

5. The Focal Unit questionnaire should be explained as respondents need it. Please
check the chart as the respondent draws it while answering the question.
Alternatively, you may read out the questions from one set of the questionnaire
and explain to them what they do not understand. Respondents will fill out the
questionnaire as you go along reading question by question, giving them enough
interval to complete each question. This may be an easier and quicker way of
completing the questionnaire. Answering these questions most probably will
need the Researcher'S assistance.

6. Explaining particular questions from any of the questionnaire is part of the


protocol. But the Researcher must not give examples, or, at least, explanations in
terms of irrigation management but should re-phrase it simply. There is a danger
that any explanation may be taken as models or cues to bias towards.

INTRODUCTION

The main points will be written down so that each can talk on these lines.

"We are here to conduct a research on how irrigation organizations function. The
purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to find out how the different
types of organizations fair differently under differing circumstances and
conditions. We are studying three types of organization. First the Philippine NIA
- corporate type, second the Mahaweli Authority - project type and third the
Irrigation Department - departmental type. We expect that different types of
organizations have some influence on the way organizations operate and also we
wish to find out whether each type of organization performs better under what
kind of circumstances. The second objective is to study the internal operation of
the organization itself. This questionnaire focusses on the individual (decision
maker) and also the work unit in the organization. By collecting the experiences
of a sample of the work units and also the individuals in each work unit, we shall
be able to compare and contrast the experiences of these work units in terms of

A-I
job design, work organization and performance patterns. By knowing the internal
operations of the organization it will be beneficial for both the decision maker as
well as the organization or the leader of the organization itself to make an
improvement or changes on the basis of these findings. This research is carried
out as part of the programme of the IIMl/Sri Lanka Consultative Committee in
which your organization also is represented and also supported by your
organization. I would like to stress the following points ­

1. Most of the questions ask how you do things in the organization and we
wish you to answer as truthfully as possible so that the actual situation
will be known and improvement can be introduced.

2. These questionnaires are going to be utilized and analyzed only by the


IIMI, not individually but only as the group as a whole and, therefore,
complete confidentiality and privacy is assured. In no way is your
position in the organization affected.

PROCEDURE

I am giving each of you a set of questions to be answered. Different people in the


organization answer different types of questions and you can take your time and answer
them as there is no time limit for it but we expect it will be done in an hour or a bit
more.

If there are any questions that you want to raise about the questionnaire or if the
questions are unclear we would be willing to explain to you.

For the people who use the sinhala version you are also given the english version. For
the sake of uniformity you can read the sinhala version and mark in the english version.

At the conclusion of the questionnaire each respondent should write how much time he
took.

SAMPLING DESIGN

First Stage Sample

The first stage unit is a work unit. A unit may be any organized work group; it may
include work groups at various levels ranging from a work section in a lower level to
a Divisional Manager and his sub managers forming as a work group at a higher leveL
The system management which includes an Engineer and his Assistants may be a work
unit. In the same wayan Assistant Divisional Manager in charge of a specialist area and
officials reporting to him in a division under study also could be a work unit. However,

A-2

these work groups will be confined only to the managerial and supervisory groups
which form upper and lower middle managerial staff.

Second Stage Sample

Individuals in Organizational Units.

If there are more than the required number in the sampled work unit, the number
required will be sampled.

QUESTIONNAIRES
QUESTIONNAIRE WHO WILL ANSWER NUMBER
OPTIMAL MINIMAL
Job Design Questionnaire TWo staff members randomly selectedl
One Assistant Supervisor* 2 2
Work Unit Questionnaire (Supecvisor) Supervisor himself 1 1
Environment and General Questionnaire"
Work Unit QU!i:stionnair': IUllit. M'~lnl:,,, .. r) TWo saniur unit members 2 1
Foca 1 Un i t Ques t i onn;, i [>" Assistant sor or senior
member who Is with other units
most. 1 1
Water Delivery Perf()rll.;,n(~"· C\l~·stionnait,,, Supervisor or TA in Charge 1 1
Other Unit Questionnaire'" Any two ft'om importantly related
unit - [MD/GA/Agriculture Dept. 2 1
Actual Performance in lion on Any responsible person from the
Irrigation Systems D.Ha ,-,f five y'!ars system 1 1

Optional. II V',lI d" 11,,1 hdve nlu!"," than one Assistant Supervisor, YOll need not require this.

** This questionna it"02 wi 11 be att.ached to the Work Unit (Supervisor) Questionnaire.

The Tob Design Questionnaire is the same for all staff members including supervisors,
but because of time pressure the supervisor will not be given this questionnaire. We
will want an assistant supervisor or to answer this questionnaire if there are more than
one assistant supervisor. In addition, two members randomly selected will answer this
questionnaire.

The Work Unit Questionnaire (Supervisor) is to be answered by the supervisor only.

The Work Unit Questionnaire (Unit Member) will be answered by two most senior unit
members.

Senior member who has had most dealings and experiences with other units, possibly
an engineer, will answer the Focal Unit Questionnaire.

The Water Delivery Performance Questionnaire should be completed by a supervisor in


charge of water distribution.

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The Other Unit Questionnaire - Respondents to these questions must be interviewed
under separate meeting or responses be obtained from a mail questionnaire.

The Actual Performance Information on Irrigation Systems - Data of Five Years - is only
meant for the system. Any responsible person from the system can answer it. This
questionnaire can be sent in advance to the system manager and collected at the time
of the survey.

IDENTIFICATION - EACH QUESTIONNAIRE, AFTER COLLECTION, SHOULD BE


IDENTIFIED BY THE JOB TITLE OF THE PERSON WHO ANSWERS IT AND ALSO
BY THE WORK UNIT, LOCATION, DIVISION ETC. IT IS THE MOST IMPORT ANT
FACT IN THE FIELD RESEARCH.

A-4

APPENDIX B

THE TEST OF CONSISTENCY BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGN

INDICES AND FACTOR ANALYSIS

One of the important ways of finding out whether the indices, as constructed in
this research, tally with the actual cluster of items in the sample. In other words, our
construction of indices assume that the items included in each index, organizational
index, are theoretically or conceptually related and they constitute a pattern or a scale.
Whether this really is true or whether actual clustering differs from what we take as a
theoretical clustering can be verified only through a factor analysis. A factor analysis
will make no assumption about how items in the scales are formed. It is only on the
empirical exercise on the basis of which a series of factors, each representing a particular
cluster, is identified. In that sense, the factor analysis is a description of an empirical
pattern that emerges from the set of observations; this will provide us with a check on
whether what we have done theoretically is justifiable empirically. With that in mind,
we factor-analyzed all the items in the supervisor-member combined questionnaires.
Meaningfully, we identified twelve factors, each of which formed a scale. We used rule
of thumb that only items which explain the fifty percent of the variance will be included
or will be considered as included in the scale. A convergence between the results of the
factor analysis and items forming the OAI indices is shown in Table B.l.

B-1

TABLEB.I
EXTENT OF CONVERGENCE BElWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL D23IGN
INDICES AND FACTOR ANALYSlS ITEMS
Factors Identified and Loading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMIC INDICES
PERCEIVED UNIT PERFORMANCE
Percentage of Target 0.32
Rating on Quantity 0.81
Rating on Quality 0.87 I
Rating on Innovation 0.75
Rating on Reputation 0.83
Rating on Service Goals 0.79
Rating of Efficiency 0.76
Rating on Morale 0.83
UNIT CQMMUNICATION
WRITI'EN COMMUNICATION
I
Supervisor-Subordinate Reports 0.77
Reports among Members 0.67
Reports with Other Units 0.72
PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Supervisor-Subordina te Discussion 0.73

~
Discussion among Members
Discussion with Other Units
GROllf COMMUNICATION
Scheduled Meetings 0.08
Unscheduled Meetings 0.61
Meetings with Other Units 0.6
CJiAIN' OF COMMAND
Upward info. flow from Subordinates 0.61
Upward info. flow to Supervisor 0.69
Downward info. flow from Supervisor 0.56
Downward info. flow to Subordinates 7.4

=
Upward work flow from Subordinate 0.67
Upward work flow to Supervisor 0.74
Downward work flow from Supervisor 0.67
Downward work flow to Subordinate 0.7
UNIT INCENTIVES - GRQUP 6ASEI2
Group Rewards 0.76
Group Sanctions 0.73
UNIT INCENTIVES - INDIVIDUAL DASEQ
Individual Rewards 0.77
Individual Sanctions 0.69

ONLYFACfOR LOADINGS WHICH HAVE THE VALUE OF .5

OR ABOVE ARE SHOWN HERE. FACTORS 15, 16 AND 17

ARE VERY MARGINAL AND, THEREFORE, OMITTED HERE.

B-2
TABLE B.l (Cont'd.)
EXTENT OF CONVERGENCE BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL DlNGN
INDICES AND FACfOR ANALYSIS ITEMS
Factors Identified and Loading 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMIC INDICES
GROUP PRFSSURE
Group on Laggar 0.61
or Rate Buster
Group encourages Individual
Members competitive
lOB QEPENDENCE - ON SUPERVISOR
t%.it
Input 0.65 1 1
Process 0.82
Output 0.64
IQB DEPENDBNCE - AMONG UNIT MEMDERS
Input ~2
Process 0.65 I
I
Output 0.69 I
1012 DEPENQBNCE - ON arHER UNITS
Input 0.7
Process O.
Output 0.62 !
DlSfRIBlITION QE AUTHQRITY
SUPERVTSQR SAY
On Unit Tasks
On Performance 0.46
On Appraisal
On Rules etc. 0.35 0.55
BMPWYEE SAY
On Unit Tasks
On Performance 0.77
On Appraisal
On Rules etc. 0.76
COLLEGIAL SAY
On Unit Tasks I
On Performance 0.671 I

On Appraisal I
On Rules, Policies etc. 1
0.67
EXTERNAL SAY
On Unit Tasks
On Performance 0.77
On Appraisal 0.57
On Rules, Policies etc. 0.75
STAFF QFFICERSAY
On Task
On Criteria
On Appraisal
On Rules, Policies etc.
+-t
0.40 0.52
.72

ONLY FACfOR LOADINGS WHICH HAVE THE VALUE OF .5

OR ABOVE ARE SHOWN HERE. FACfORS 15, 16 AND 17

ARE VERY MARGINAL AND, THEREFORE, OMITTED HERE.

B-3
TABLE B.1 (Cont'd.)
EXTENT OF CONVERGENCE BEIWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL DmIGN
INDICES AND FACTOR ANALYSIS ITEMS
Factors Identified and Loading
ORGANIZATIONAL DYNAMIC INDICES
UNIT CONFIlCT
5 6
= 'J 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Supervisor vs. Subordinate 0.'70


Among Members
With Other Units
Get ahead at Other's Expense
Perfonnance Criteria
CONFLICT Al!QIDANCE
A VOiding Issues 0.80
0.'70
0.56
0.09
..n.Ol
=
Smoothing Over 0.84
Confronting Issues 0.01 !

By Hierarchical Authority 0.35 i

ROLB IN IERCliANGEABlUTY IN UNIT


Member Perfonns Same Tasks I
Member qualified in one another's Job I i

Ease of Job Rotation


Frequency of Job Rotation
UNIT SKILL HE1EROGENIE'IY
Years of School beyond Grade School
Type of Major
UNIT .wroMt\TION
Extent use Mechanical Devices
Type of Mechanical Devices
Reliance on Mechanical Appraisal System 0.67
Frequency of Mechanical Breakdown 0.87
Downtime due to Mechanical Failures
UNIT SfANDARDIZADQN
Clarity of Unit Perfonnance Standards
= 0.86

Preciseness of Unit Rules, Policies, Procedures


Degree Perfonnance Criteria Quantified
Percent Unit Rules, Procedures Written Out
Extent Unit Rules Violated
Strictness of Rules Enforcement

ONLY FACTOR LOADINGS WHICH HAVE THE VALUE OF .5

OR ABOVE ARE SHOWN HERE. FACTORS 15, 16 AND 17

ARE VERY MARGINAL AND, THEREFORE, OMITTED HERE.

B-4

The first factor that is identified in this factor analysis includes seven question
items highly loaded to the factor. That means each of the seven questions are correlated
with 0.75 or above with the factor identified. That clearly indicates that these seven
items form a definite scale. In addition, factor loading with all other questions items are
negligible. These seven items also are included in the original perceived unit
performance organizational index. Besides these seven items, the PUP index included
one additional item, the percentage of target attained. This consistency between Factor
One and the PUP scale or PUP index points out that our original conception about PUP
forming a scale is justified.

The next factor, Factor Number Two, also conforms to this pattern. Factor Two
is highly loaded with nine items which vary from the frequency of supervisor
subordinate rapport to the frequency of unscheduled meetings. All these items, likewise
in the other case, also have high percentage of factor loading, varying from 0.55 to 0.76.
Interestingly, all these questions are rei a ted to communication, various aspects of
communication. Therefore, we might call this cluster, Factor Two, as intensity of
communication. On the other hand, this factor does not correlate with the rest of the
question items. Therefore, we can. safely say that this particular factor is naturally
formed out of these nine items. When we compare this with the organizational design
indices, we find that this factor coincided with the items included in the unit
communication index. Unit communication index essentially is found by the three sub
indices. They are written communication consisting of three items, personal
communication consisting of another three items and group communication consisting
of another three items. In the original indices we divide the unit communication into
three sub scales, each relating to type of communication such as written, personal or
group communication. However, in this natural formation all these nine items appear
as one cluster or one factor. We concluded that Factor Number Two, which should be
named as the intensity of communication is groupwise comparable to the unit
communication in organizational design indices. Whether all these items should be
included in a single scale or three sub scales will not matter much as the whole set of
items included in the communication scales are equal to the items included in Factor
Number Two. This, again, suggests that there is a strong consistency between the
indices that we have constructed and the actual clustering of items in the empirically
constructed scale, as represented by this factor.

The next factor is Factor Number Three, which is formed from items related to
the downward and upward chain of command. In our questionnaire we have included
a set of questions, eight in number, which are related to downward or upward formal
communication in the organization which were not part of the original AOI
questionnaires. We constructed a scale called chain of command out of these questions.
In the factor analysis we also find that all of these questions, except the one that is
downward work flow, are included in Factor Number Three. Again, these items are
highly loaded with the factor, ranging from 0.55 to 0.74 in their correlations. This, again,
shows that the chain of command indices that we have constructed is highly consistent

B-5

with the natural cluster as discovered in the factor analysis.

The next is Factor Number Four which includes eight items which are all related
to various types of questions regarding incentives. In our original indices we have
created three indices, one on group-based-incentives consisting of two items, the other
on individual-bas ed-incentives consisting of two items and group pressure on individual
member to conform consisting of four items. The unit incentive in the organization
design is inclusive of these eight items. In the factor analysis we are also glad to note
that these eight items again form a factor which we named as extent of performance
orienta tion.

We have in this scale all items, except one, again significantly loaded with the
factor. This again indicates that unit incentive inclusive of three sub scales is coinciding
with the natural cluster as we have observed from the factor analysis. The dividing of
unit incentive into three sub scales will not handicap in any way the consistency
between the two groups. This division may only help understand the effects of group­
based incentives, individual-based incentives and group pressure separately.

The next factor we identified is Factor Number Five which includes six items.
These six items are the same as items relating to the index of job dependence on
supervisors and that of job dependence among unit members. In other words, items
concerning job dependence on the supervisors and among unit members themselves
form a factor or a natural cluster and job dependence on other unit is excluded from this
scale. This itself is very interesting, again confirming our idea that the job dependence
of the unit on the supervisor and the unit member could be considered forming a
pattern because these two sub scales are related to internal management relations. This,
I think, is quite reasonable if the internal relations, not external dependency is the crux
of the management process in NIA and we may call this scale 'extent of internal
dependency.' Although the factor does not exactly match the job dependence items, the
inclusion of all the items relating to job dependence among the inside personnel, both
supervisor and members, suggests the natural formation of internal relationships or
internal dependency itself as a cluster. We may again conclude that the natural cluster
as formed by the factor analysis again is consistent with at least two sub scales of job
dependence, one on supervisor and the other among unit personnel. It will be
interesting to note also that three items we left out in this factor, relating to job
dependence on other units form another factor which we identified as Factor Number
Seven. On the whole, all the items relating to job dependence are accounted for by the
two clusters or two factors, Factor Five and Factor Seven. Factor Five combining both
job dependence on the supervisor among unit members and Factor Seven only relating
to job dependence on other units.

The next three sets of factors, Factor Number Six, Factor Number Twelve and
Factor Number Fourteen are related to distribution of authority or extent of say on the
various aspects of management. You will note that in our original organizational indices

B-6

we classified the type of authority by person who exercises authority, that means,
supervisor authority, employee authority or collegial authority and external authority
and authority of staff officer. However, the clustering of items under three factors we
have identified does not exactly follow the same pattern of logic. Instead of clustering
on the basis of the type of position such as supervisors, members, specialists etc. the
items in the factors are grouped on the basis of the nature of the question than on the
order giver's position. For instance, Factor Six is made up of three items, supervisor's
say on performance, employee's say on performance and collegial say on rules, all
having the correlations of .4, .77 and .67 respectively. We could definitely say that this
factor represents how much say various persons, particularly employees and collegial
group, enjoy regarding one particular aspect - setting performance standards - as an
exercise of authority. Likewise, Factor Eight includes two items. One, the employee's
say on rules and the other, the groups' say on rules. The supervisor's say on rules show
also some correlation but it was 0.4 which is below the minimum that we have set as an
acceptable norm, that is 0.5. On the basis of these two items, we would say that this
factor is concerned with the extent of say on the rules which members as well as the
group or the team other than the supervisor enjoy. Both of these factors may be
considered as representing more participative authority since each factor closely
correlates with employees and collegial group.

In the next factor, Factor Twelve, there are three items which are loaded with the
factor. One is supervisor say on rules and the other is external say on rules and the last
one is say on unit rule by staff officer. In contrast to the previous two factors, this factor
measures the extent of say enjoyed by the various authoritative figures such as
supervisor, external authority and the staff officer regarding the rules. In other words,
this factor is concerned with how much say the authoritative positions carry in the
organization. When both Factor Eight and Factor Twelve are considered together, we
should say that the authority regarding rule-making functions has broken down into two
types - one enjoyed by employees and collegial group and the other by men holding
more authoritative positions.

The next factor, Factor Number Fourteen, is formed by three items. One is what
say the supervisor has on performance criteria, the other is the extent of the external say
on performance criteria and the other external say on performance appraisal. Here, in
this case, the item relating to supervisor's say on performance criteria is not sufficiently
loaded. It does not satisfy our minimum criteria but its correlation is .41, whereas the
other two items are well above the minimum criterion of .5.

It should also be noted that this factor is formed on the basis of both the position
of the man who has a say and also the type of say or the type of subject matter, in this
case setting performance standards and making performance appraisal. By looking at
the four factors we have identified with regard to the authority, we could suggest that
the extent of authority is both defined by the type of decisions such as defining task,
setting performance standards etc., as well as by the position of the persons. Though

B-7

almost all question items related to this variable have been accounted for by the four
factors, the factor patterns and the additive indices as designed by us does not really
coincide. However, the fact that the factors are formed on the basis of subject matter
and the position of the person should be noted. On the whole, we shall say that the
subject of authority or who has a say on what matters is an important criteria or variable
in organizational research, although the natural cluster does not conform exactly to the
indices designed.

The next two factors, Factors Nine and Ten, are concerned with the to extent of
conflict and type of conflict avoidance respectively. In the case of extent of conflict,
frequency of supervisor-subordinate conflict, frequency of conflict among men and
frequency of conflict with other units form this factor, having the correlation of 0.55 and
above. Two questions - getting ahead at other's expense and the extent of conflict on
performance criteria - included in the additive indices on the extent of conflict are not
accounted for here. It is interesting to note that the extent of conflict is defined by the
type of conflict such as super-ordinate conflict, conflict among members, not by the type
of behaviour such as getting ahead at other's expense. Likewise, in the conflict
avoidance, the items regarding conflict resolution by avoiding the issue, conflict
resolution by smoothing issues and conflict resolution by hierarchy form a factor.
Conflict resolution by confronting issues is not visible in this factor. This, again, is very
logical because avoiding issues, smoothing issues and resolution by hierarchies are rather
opting a way out without really facing the issues. The fact that they form a close
relationship is understandable. Conflict resolution by confronting issues is by nature
different from the other three types of resolutions. On the basis of this finding, it may
be advisable that when we analyze the conflict resolution methods we should analyze
item by item score rather than by a total additive score as formed by the index.

We also note that there is a factor which includes three items relating to job
interchangeability. We find that most of the question items that we have used in such
indices as mechanization also could be identified as a factor although each index has
only two items. On the whole we should say that the natural cluster formed by the
factor analysis generally conform to our classification of indices and especially the first
twelve indices are very closely related to the twelve factors that we have mentioned.

B-8

APPENDIXC
SHOWING THE BASIC STATISTICS OF COMBINED (SUPERVISOR AND MEMBER)
SUB INDICES AND QUESTION ITEMS
NATIONAL IRRIGATION ADMINISTRATION, THE PHILIPPINES

ROLE INTERCHANGEABILITY IN UNrr


Number Var. Description Coefficient
Observed Variation
111 RI Role Interchangeability in Unit 39.36038
02 rforming same tasks 17.7721901
Q3 No. qualified immediate subordinates 444.2221666
Q4 Ease of rotating Jobs of immdt. subordi 54.8232019
05 How often immdt. subordinates rotate Jo 39.4925194

CHAIN OF COMMAND
Number Var. Desalption Mean Standard CoeffIcient
Observed Deviation Variation
111 CC Chain of Command 2.9072712 0.5416637 18.6313442
08 Subordinates comm. go through you 1.4019608 0.8236577 58.7504073
Q9 Upward comm. go through immd. superv. 3.0392157 1.2261311 40.3436674
010 Supv. comm. downward goes through you 4.3235294 0.9663831 22.3517184
011 Comm. downwards go through imm. subord. 3.0392157 1.0236952 33.6828742
012 Suborindates work go up through you 31.6562723
013 Work upward go through immd. super. 2.19 47.9680969
014 Work from super. go down through you 57.15546
015 Work downward go through imm. subord. 31.5846903

UNIT AUTOMATION
Number Var. Description Mean Coefficient
Observed Variation
111 UA Unit Automation 3.557598 .4298946
016 How mudl automated equip. is used in unit 2.7342342 .7876709
018 Appraisal relled on automatic control systems 4.3529412

019
Frequency of breakdowns 3.4313725 1.1982645 34.9208498
020 Down time as a result of breakdowns 3.7843137 1.131261 29.893426

UNIT STANDARDIZATION
Number Var. .Description Mean
Observed
111 US Unit Standardization
021 How clearly are performance targets set
022 How precisely are rules etc. speficied 4.3627451
023 Degree numerical procedures used to measure
024 Percentage of rules etc. written out
025 How often these rules etc. ignored
026 How strictly are rules etc. enforced 33.6809459

C-l
SUPERVISORY AUTHORITY
Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoeffIcIent r
Observed Deviation Variation •
111 SA Supervisory Authority 3.3284314 0.7260878 21.8147137
027 Say on tasks as Unit Head 4.1470588 0.9376298 22.6095134
028 Influence on criteria as Unit Head 3.4117647 1.0932098 32.0423573
029 Appraisal made by Supervisor 3.6078431 1.1183161 30.9968055
030 Influence on rules as Unit Head 2.1470588 1.1466443 53.4053529

UNIT EMPLOYEE AUTHORITY


Number Var. Description Mean Standard Coefficient i
Observed Deviation Variation
111 UEA Unit Employee Authority 3.7571321 0.6644346 17.6846207
031 Immd. subordinate say on tasks 4.024024 0.8155208 20.2663003
032 Immd. subordinate influence on criteria 2.996997 0.7295988 24.3443224
033 Appraisals made by immd. subordinates 4.5285285 1.2903828 28.4945277
034 Immd. subordinate influence on rules 3.478979 1.2027152 34.5709239

UNIT COLLEGIAL AUTHORITY


Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoeffIcIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 UCA Unit Collegial Authority 3.256006 0.8205236 25.2003112
035 Subordinate say as a group on tasks 3.4294294 1.1186097 32.6179535
036 Subordinate influence as a group on criteria 3.2492492 1.095877 33.7270833
037 Appraisals of subordinates as a group 3.2147147 1.0363074 32.2363721
038 Subordinate influence as group on rules 3.1306306 0.9429176 30.1190952

EXTERNAL AUTHORITY OVER UNIT


Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoeffIcIent I
Observed Deviation Variation •
111 EAOU Extemal Authority over Unit 2.7030229 0.6029719 22.3073163
039 Supervisor say on tasks 2.6966967 0.9798985 36.3369941
040 Supervisor influence on criteria 2~ 0.9294305 43.622321
041 Appraisals of supervisor 3.7 1.0304997 27.2308223
042 Supervisor influence on rules 2.3431373 1.1301021 48.2302969

AUTHORITY OF STAFF OFFICER


Number Var. Description Mean Standard Coefficient 1
Observed Deviation Variation
111 AOSO Authority of Staff Officer 2.0755719 0.6295825 30.332965
043 Say on tasks by staff outside unit 2.6201201 0.9842628 37.5655613
OM Sayan criterial by staff outside unit 2.2612613 0.9343667 41.3206013
045 Appraisals by staff outside unit 1.7957958 10.7593474 42.2847281
046 Influence on rules by staff outside unit 1.8039216 0.9651267 53.5015908

C-2

DISTRIBUTION OF UNrr AUTHORITY


Number Var. Desalption Mean Standard CoefficIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 DOUA Distribution of Unit Authority 3.0110294 0.4835796 16.060275
SA Supervisory Authority 3.3284314 0.7260878 21.8147137
UEA Unit Employee Authority 3.75/1"':;1 10.6644346 17.6840207
UCA Unit Collegial Authority 3.256006 0.8205236 25.2003112
EAOU Extemal Authority Over Unit 2.7030229 0.6029719 22.3073163
AOSO Authority of Staff Officer 2.0755719 0.6295825 30.332965

GROUP BASED INCENTIVES


Number Var. Desalption Mean Standard CoefficIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 !GBI Group Based Incentives 1.9797297 0.6922384 34.966307
047 Achievements recognized as a group 1.8843844 0.7751809 41.1370908
Q48 Reprimanded as a group 2.0750751 0.8030053 38.69676515

INDIVIDUAL BASED INCENTIVES


Number Var. Desalptlon Mean Standard CoeffIcIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 IBI Individual Based Incentives 1.8333333 0.7186805 39.2007541
049 Achievements recognized as an individual 1.6516517 0.6695869 41.7513516
050 Reprimanded as an individual 2.0294118 1812 50.2205235

GROUP PRESSURE ON INDIVIDUAL MEMBERS


Number Var. Desalption Mean Standard CoefficIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 GPIM Group Pressure on Individual Members 3.066585 0.6076457 19.8150631
051 Gang-up on indo whose work is far below 3.627451 1.3269601 36.5810626
052 Gang·up on indo whose work far exceeds 1.9411765 0.462955 23.849196
053 encourage individuals to excel 2.9954955 0.7766997 25.9269208
054 Compete with each other 3.6372549 1.3334183 36.660017

UNrr INCENTIVES
Number Var. Desalption Mean Standard CoeffIcIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 UI Unit Incentives 2.4836601 0.4666643 18.78938
GBI Group Based Incentives 1.9797297 0.6922384 34.966307
IBI Individual Based Incentives 1.8333333 0.7186805 39.2007541
GPIM Group Pressure on Individual Members 3.066585 0.6076457 19.8150631

WORK FLOW INDEPENDENCE WrrHIN UNrr


Number
Observed
Var. Desalptlon
Mean I ~ard
evlatlon
CoeffIcIent
Variation
111 WFIU Work Flow Independence Within Unit 3.0942342 0.8722226 28.1886416
055 Independent work flow 2.8993994 1.1140243 38.4225885
056 Sequential work flow 3.2642643 0.9625483 29.4874502
057 Reciprocal work flow 3.0555556 0.9822499 32.1463595
058 Team work flow 3.0945946 1.0551992 34.0981387

C-3

JOB DEPENDENCE OF SUPERVISOR


Number Var. Desaiption Mean Standard CoefficIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 JDOS Job Dependence of Supervisor 2.7875817 0.7718781 27.6898838
Q59 UM rely on Sup. for materialslinformation 2.0980392 1.189973 56.7183389
Q60 UM depend on Sup. to do their job 3.0294118 1.2464276 41.1442129
Q61 UM rely on Sup. to perform next step 3.2352941 1.3800306 42.6554925

JOB DEPENDENCE AMONG UNIT MEMBERS


N Description Mean Standard CoefficIent
Deviation Variation
nee Among Unit Members
bers for materiallinfo.
er members to do their job

JOB DEPENDENCE ON OTHER UNITS


Desaiptlon

Job Dependence on Other Units


2
UM rely on staff outside for materiallinformation 3.3137255
UM depend on staff outside to do their job 2.3431373 1.1981429 51.1341337
UM rely on staff outside to perform next step 3.2522523 0.7903664 24.3021282

JOB DEPENDENCE AMONG UNIT PERSONNEL


Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoefficIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 JDAUP Job Dependence Among Unit Personnel 2.9055919 0.5421592 18.6591644
JDOS Job Dependence Of Supervisor 2.7875817 0.7718781 27.6898838
JDAUM Job Dependence Among Unit Members 2.9771242 0.8498493 28.5459801
JDOU Job Dependence on Other Units 2.9520697 0.7166809 24.2772355

WRITTEN COMMUNICATIONS
Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoefficIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 2.9847495 0.7174956 24.0387216
members 3.2387387 0.7445498 22.9888801
ritten reports among unit members 2.6201201 0.8890953 33.9333802
Written reports with staff outside unit 3.1862745 1.1750744 36.8792581

PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS
Number Var. Description Mean Standard Coefficient
Observed Deviation Variation
111 PC Personal Communitations 2.4618736 0.7391509 41.1644323
Q71 Discussions between you and unit members 2.7941176 1.1632852 41.6333639
Q72 Discussion among unit members 1.8823529 1.1798147 62.6776559
Q73 Discussions with staff outside unit 2.7567568 2.3873386 86.5995387

C-4

GROUP COMMUNICATIONS
Number Var. Description Mean Standard Coefficient
Observed Deviation Variation
111 GC Group Communications 2.4335512 0.7319118 30.0758735
074 How often staff meetings are held 3.3963964 2.1344995 62.8460051
075 Unscheduled meetings with subordinates 1.872549 0.8750849 46.7322843
076 Unscheduled meetings with staff outside unit 2.1372549 0.7965174 37.2682437

UNIT COMMUNICATIONS OR INFORMATION FLOWS


Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoeffIcIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 UCIF Unit Communication/Information Flows 2.6267248 0.6015422 22.9008448
WC Written Communications 2.9847495 0.7174956 24.0387216
PC Personal Communications 2.4618736 1.0134163 41.1644323
GC Group Communications 2.4335512 0.7319118 30.0758735

UNIT CONFLICT
Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoeffIcIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 UC Unit Conflict 2.1862745 0.562357 25.7221585
077 Disagreements between you and unit members 1.7745098 0.7022857 39.5763212
078 Disagreements among unit members 1.6862745 0.6597388 39.1240454
079 Disagreements with staff outside unit 2.7647059 0.880779 31.8579648
080 Get ahead with regard for unit members 2.5980392 0.8473582 32.6152968
081 Agree with criteria decision 2.1078431 0.7695551 36.5091273

METHODS OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION


Number Var. Description Mean Standard Coefficient
Observed Deviation Variation
111 MCR Methods of Conflict Resolution 2.5220588 0.7112202 28.199986
082 Disputes handled by ignoring issues 2.7207207 1.181542 43.4275371
083 Dispute handled by smoothing over issues 3.1568627 1.3404972 42.4629535
084 Disputes handled by open discussion 2.5588235 1.3093232 51.1689537
085 Disputes handled by Supervisor resolving 1.7058824 0.8741416 51.2427812

PERCEIVED UNIT PERFORMANCE


Number Var. Description Mean Standard CoefficIent
Observed Deviation Variation
111 PUP Perceived Unit Performance 2.5882353 0.5502554 21.259868
086 Percentage of performance targets attained 1.8823529 0.8593587 45.6534311
087 Ouantity of work produced 1.5490196 0.6983354 45.0824103
088 Quality of work produced 1.4607843 0.8974283 61.4346906
089 New ideas introduced 1.8137255 1.0691941 58.9501627
090 Reputation for work excellence 3.6568627 1.2858337 35.1622081
091 Attainment of goals 2.0098039 1.0762522 53.5501089
092 Efficiency of unit operations 3.9509804 1.3814718 34.9652916
093 Morale of unit personnel 4.3823529 0.9015291 20.5718061

C-5

APPENDIX 0

FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

1. Current ratio. The ratio of current assets divided by current liabilities indicates
a coverage of current liabilities by the current liabilities, the short term liquidity
of the operations.

2. The return on the total assets. The ratio of the net income divided by total assets
shows the profitability of the total assets in per cent.

3. The return on the current assets. This ratio indicates the profitability or
percentage of return on the current assets utilized.

4. The gross revenue divided by the total assets indicates how much revenue is
created per 100 monetary units of the total assets.

5. The gross revenue divided by the current assets is the ratio of the efficacy of the
use of current funds, that is, how much revenue is generated by per 100 monetary
units of current assets.

6. The net income-net asset ratio equals the net income divided by net assets (total
assets-current liability). The return on the profitability is calculated on the basis
of the net amount of assets involved in the operations.

7. The repayability ratio indicates the number of years that will be taken to repay
the long term debt with the current net income of the corporation.

8. The ratio of long term debt to retained earnings. This ratio compares the relative
size of the long term debt to the amount of the retained earnings accumulated.
This indicates the repayability of long term loans, if the alternative use of retained
earning is made.

0-1
APPENDIX E

OPERATING RATIOS FOR THE YEARS 1980-1989

1. Elements of operating income as per cent of the total revenue. These percentages
will indicate the relative importance of each of the operating revenue items in the
total make up of the revenue.

2. Elements of non-operating income as per cent of the total revenue. This again
shows what percentage of the total revenue is contributed by each of the non­
operating revenue items.

3. The operating income as per cent of personnel services cost. This ratio denotes
what percentage or proportion of the personnel services is covered by the
operating income of the Corporation.

4. The operating income as per cent of total expenditure indicates the relative size
of the operating income to the total expenditure or to what percentage of the total
expenditure the operating income contributes.

5. The profitability of the enterprise. The total income divided by the total
expenditure indicates the rate of loss and profit of the operation.

E-l
APPENDIX F

QUESTIONNAIRES

JOB DESIGN QUESTIONNAIRE

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Definitions: This questionnaire asks many questions about your job and how it
is organized or designed.

Most of the questions ask you to circle one of several numbers that appear on a
scale below the item. Corresponding with each number on a scale is a brief
description of what the number represents. You are to circle the one number that
most accurately reflects your answer to each question.

For example, if your answer to the following question is "very much" (and we
believe it should be), circle the number "5" on the answer scale:

How much is it worth my time to fill out this questionnaire during the
next hour ?

NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE VERY


A BIT MUCH

1 2 3 4

If you do not understand any question, BE SURE TO ASK US FOR HELP. We realize
that not all questions are simple, and that is why we are here to answer any
questions you have.

F-2

JOB DESIGN QUESTIONNAIRE

THE NATURE OF YOUR WORK AND JOB

1. WE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW THE MAJOR KINDS of funct ions, tasks and work
activities you would have been performing regularly during the past three
months. If functions, tasks and activities you do are not included in the
1 i s t, please use the extra blank space provided and descr ibe these
functions, tasks and activities. Select a few important functions or tasks
you perform regularly and indicate approximately how many hours spent each
week for each of these functions or tasks. (You do not need to use items
not important or relevant to you) .

Function 1: Office Administration

Function 2: Programming/Budgeting

Function 3: Checking, Auditing and Reporting,

Controlling

Function 4: Personnel Relations/Management

Function 5: Analysis, Planning and Design

Function 6: Water Allocation/System Operation

Function 7: Maintenance

Function 8: Construction

Function 9:

Function 10:

Function 11:

Function 12:

F-3
PLEASE ANSWER THE fOLLOWING QUESTIONS BY THINKING ONLY ABOUT THE TYPES Of FUNCTIONS OR TASKS THAT OCCUPY MOST OF yOUR WORKING TIME.

2. To what extent do you perform the same tasks trom day to day 1 (Circle a nu.m.ber below the scale.)

ALMOST ALL MY TASKS MANY OF MY TASKS ARE !\BOUT HALF MY TASKS ARE SOME OF MY TASKS ARE ALMOST NO TASKS ARE
ARE THE SAME DAY-TO-DAY THE SAME DAY-TO-DAY THE SAME OAY-TO-DAY THE SAME DAY-TO-DAY THE SAME OAY-TO-DAY

J. (Cirel"

VERY MUCH THE SAME MOSTLY THE SAME QUITE A BIT DIFFERENT VERY MUCH DIFFERENT COMPLETELY DIFFERENT

4. How easy is it tor you to know whether Y<lU do your work correctly?

VERY 01 FFICULT QUITE 01 FFlCULT SOME:WHAT EASY QVITE EASY VERY EASY

5. To what extent are you generally Sure of what the ~ of your work efforts will be

40\ OR LESS 41\ -60\ 61\-75\ 76\-90\ 91' OR MORE


SURE SURE SURE SURE SURE

6. how frequently do exceptions arise in your work which require substantially different
for d01l19 it ?
VERY RARELY OC(':AS [fINALLY QUITE OFTEN VERY OFTEN CONSTAN'i"LY

2
7. fn the past 3 mOhr.hs, how o!to1:'n did difficult prvblot'Pls .:.ri£...: in YOUl work tor whi.ch there were nO immediate or apparent
solutions '?

ONCE A WEEK Of< LESS AB()UT ONCE A DAY ABOUT 2-4 TIMES A DAY ., TIMES OR MORE A DAY

2
8. About how much t irne did you spend sol ving th-ese work problems

LESS THAN I HOUR/WEEK ABOUT I HOURI DAY ABOUT 2-3 HOURS/DAY 4 HOURS OR MORE PER DAY

2
9. To what extent does just your work alon€ > give you many clues t<> figure out how well you en-e doing your job (without relying
on feedback from your supel'Vlsor or co-wol·kersJ ?

MY WORK GIVES ME MY W()RK C I VI!:S HE MY WORK GIVES ME MY WORK elVES ME MY WORK GIVES ME
NO CLUES A FEW CLUES SOME'. CLUES MANY CLUES ALL eLVES

10. During the past J months, how often did you l€ : 'ceive s~lggestions or feedbdck trom your co-workers on your work 7

NOT ONCE ABOUT ONe E A MONTH ABOUT ONCE A WEEK ABOUT EVERY DAY OR SO SEVERAL TIMES A DAY

11. How tnanr hours per week. on or otf the job do you spend in some kind of re<'1ding or training to keep current in the skills
needed 0 do your J061

LESS THAN IHR/WK ABOUT 1- HR/WK ABOUT 4 -6 HR/WX ABOUT 7-9 HR/WK ABOUT 10 HR/WI< OR MORE

12. Describe tortno;'tl training pt".:.ugrarn$ you have gonE> throW:Jh.

Type (Just tick) Indicate number ot months spent


Technict.tl {Local J

Technical {Foreign;

Aciminiscrat:ive (Local!

Administrative (FOI",igl1,i

I) .

A FEW HOURS OR LESS ABOUT A DAY ABOUT A WEEK' ABOUT A MONTH MORE THAN A MONTH

F-4
14. How often do you tollow about the same work methods or steps for doing your major tasks from day to day 7

VERY SELDOM SOMETIMES ABOt.1l' HALF THE TIME QUITE OFTEN VERY OFTE.N

IS. To what extent did you follow standard operating procedures or practices to do your major tasks during the past 3 montha?

TO NO EJITE.NT LITTLE EXTE.NT SOME EXTE.NT GR EAT EXTE.NT VERY GREAT EXTENT

16. How many written rules and procedures exist for doing your major tasks?
VERY FEW IF J\N'( A Sw<LL NUMBER A MODERATE NUMBER

2 5

17. How precisely do these rules and procedures ~ how your major tasks are to be done

VERY GENERAL MOSTLY GENERAL SOMEWHAT SPECIfIC QUITE SPECIFIC VERY SPECIfIC

2 5

18. How heavy was your work load during the past months:

OFTEN tlOT ENOUGH TO SOMETIMES NOT ENOUGH JUST ABOtn' THE RIGHT HARD TO KEEP UP E.N'I'!RELY TOO MUCH
KEEP ME IlUSY TO KEEP ME BUSY AMOUNT WITH FOR ME TO HANDLE

19. How tar in advance do you generally know how much work will be required of you

ABOUT AN HOUF OR LESS ABOt.1l' A DAY ABOtn' A WEEK ABOUT A MONTH ABOtn' MONTHS OR MORE

20. During the past 3 months. how much control did you have in setting the pace of your work
tlOtlE VERY LITTLe SOME QUITE A B!T VERY MUCH

21. various situations that arise 1n performing your work. what percent of the time do you ~ written
wi th them "?

0·20\ ;: 1 40' 4 I bf)\ HI ·100\

22. four cOfIL'non decisions about your work. How much authority do in making each of the following
your wory.? Also mention which of the fnd)Or fUflctlon you are to when answ~rin9 this qu~stion~
will be on€' of those mentioned earlier in your answer to Question

¥lhen I answer the followlng quest lorI, the major 1unction 1 am referring to is:

AMOUNT of AUTHORITY I HAVE IN EACH DECISIOtl

NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT SUFfICI E.NT

Determining tasks I wi 11 perform from

day to day ~TFh-r,.n> to the above function

b.

c. Establ ishing rules and rocedures about how


tr.y wor l S 0 e ,.on(;, \0111 t \ regal' to theaoove
tun<::tion.

d.
2

23. How much does your supervisor ho~r:t you personally a.:'countable tor th02 work de.;isions you make in your job '"I

NOT liT ALL VERy LI TILE SOME. QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

24. How clearly do you know what,: level of work p!rtonnance is expected fl'om you lin tel'ms of amount, quality and timeliness of
output) ?

VERY UNCLEAR OU 1 TE UNCLEAR SOMEWHAT CLEAR QUITE CLEAR VERY CLEAR

F-5
25 How clearly does your job descriPtion specify the standards of performance on which your job is ev,ft,luated ?
NO JOB DOES NOT STATE ANY VERY GENERAL IN STATING QUITE CLEAR IN STATING VERY CLEAR AND PRECISE IN
DESCRIPTION PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERfORMANCE STANDARDS PERFORMANCE STANDARDS STATlNG PE:RFORMANCE STANDARDS

26. 1'0 what degree has your supervisor discussed with ~ these performancQ standards on which your job is. evaluated 7
MY SUPE:RVI SOR MY SUPER V I SOR MY SUPERV! SOR MY SUPERVI SOR
NEVER DISCUSSED ONLY ME.N'T'tONED VERY GENERALLy DISCUSSED QUITE SPECIFICALLY DISCUSSED IN A VE:RY DETAlLED
AND DID NOT CLARIFY AND CLEARLY AND CLEAR WAY

27. ~ is it to ~ the level ot performance that is expected from you?


I DON'T KNOW WHAT'S QUITE EASY QUITE MRD VERY MRD BUT EXCESSIVELY HARD AND
EXPECTE:D OF ME ATTAINABLE AND IMPOSSIBLE 1'0 ATTAIN

29. To what extent do you believe that the performance standards upon which you work is evaluated are ~ ?
I DON'T KNOW WHAT STANDARDS ARE: USED VERY UNFAIR SOMEWHAT UNFAIR QUITE FAIR VERY FAIR

29. ~ do~s your supel·visor hold you personally responslble tor achieving these pertormancE.' standards for your job?

NOT AT ALL VERY LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH


-----_ _-_ _ - - - _ ... ... .... _---_..._ - - - - - - - - - ­

30. Ouring the past year, how otten did your itnrnediate supe:-rvisor diseUSE". your work pertorman.::e with you
NOT ONCE Al3OU'l' 1-4 TIMES A yEAR ABO!)T ONC E A MONTH ABOU'I' oNC E A WEE)( ASCOT EVERYDAY OR SO

31. When your work pertormanc(:' wa.s discussed with YClU, how otten did you n?ceive practical suggestions tor improving your work?
NEVER SELDOM ABOUT HALF THE TIME OFTEN EVERY
---------_._---_._-------­

32, If you attain the ;Jertormancl;: level th~t is .:-xpected Of you, how likely
IS 1t that e4ch or Ehe fol[owlng WIll happ.:-n:

N{, CHANCE SMALL CHANCE SOt CHANCE QUITE LIKeLY ALMOST A CERTAINTY

You wi 1 t tJ€ (-'\?('('9ni :!.o-d f··'1 y('Llt 'I'.;("·!

w(![ k :.'

b. You will be given i:I promotic1n If. thj:;;

organization 1

33, If you do not attdin the pertorm.'ln<:e level that is expected ot you. how likely is it that each of the following will happen:

NO CHANCE SMALL CHANCE SQ% CHANCE QUITE LIKELY ALMOST A CERTAINTY

a. YOu will be rE'prim;mded, 01 told (0

improve your work ?

b. You will be demoted

YOOR I"l!:l!.LINGS ABOCI'I' YOUR Jail

NOW WE WOULD LIKE TO AsK YOU SOME QUESTIONS AElOU'l' HOW YOU PERSONALLY FEEL ABOUT YOUR JOB.

34, How sat i sf i ed arE' you VERY UNSATISFIED QUITE UNSATISFIED SOMEWHAT SATISFIED QUITE SATISfiED VERY SATl SF! ED
WItn each of thE> toll OWl ng:
a. YOUl~ job 7 2
b. Your supervisor

c. Your pay?

d. The friend] illl2'$$ o!Ind

cooper-at i vene$$
( i f
your co-worker;?, ? 2

e. The career· pr(.gl ess Y0U h<-'Iv,:­

made In thIS orga111zdtion

upto now "1

t. Your chances tOt'


advancement in "":-:;-=-;.,->,,. za'( ion

1h the future ?

F-6
NONE A LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VERY HUCK

35. How much effort do you put into your work 2

36. How much did you try to improve your job


performance in the past three months 1 2 3
37. Each ot the statements below something that a person might say about his or her job, Please indicate your own l personal
feelings about your job by ing the appropriate cWgree of agreement or disagreement for each scatement.

01 SAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE SOMEWHAT NEUTRAL AGREE SOMEWHAT AGREE STRONGLY

a. I do not rea 11 y care much about


whether or not the work Qets done
right,
b. My opinion of myself goes up when
1 do this job well.

c. My supervisor often lets me know how


well 1 ~ performin9 my job.

d. I feel a great sense of personal


accomplishment when I do this job
weli.

e.
~e;~~~S~br~rryhi~~ ~~~r:~l,~f Iea~s~~al
OilS Job' 2

t. frequently think of quitting this

Q. I feel bad and unhappy when 1


discover that 1 have performed
poorly on this job, 2
h. My co-workers on this job dlmost
never give me -f£>edb.'lck· about
now weIll am on my work.. 5

i. I feel 1 should ly take the


.;r<o?dit v1" bl~,m~ It-''';U its or
my work on th~s.

j, My own fee 1 i I1gs genera 1 are not


affected much one way or o"'tfi'er
by how well J dQ on this
k.. 1 am r~(""nqni:o?"l /1,1'1'1 It-'w.,.r<!i'.;! I()I"
pun:ing i;) ~ddit tlJ!ldl E-IIorf: to do
superiot" worl-"
1 . I am INn tOned OJ • ShAl.Jo? ljP~
when 1 d6 intE:-II"'1 W'l to, ifI thi~ job, 5

WHAT ~IND OF JOB DO YOO PREFER 7

PEOPLE DIffER IN THE KINDS OF JOBS THEY WOULD MOST LIKE TO HOLD. THE QUESTIONS IN THIS SECTION GIVE YOU A CHANCE 1'0 SAY JUST WHAT
IT IS ABOUT A JOB THAT IS MOST IMPORTANT TO YOU PERSONALLY.

FOR EACH QUESTION BELOW. TWO 01 FfEP£NT KINDS OF JOSS ARE SRIEfLY DESCRIBED. YOU ARE TO INDICATE WHICH Of THE JOBS YOU PERSONALLY WOULD
PREFER IF YOU HAD 1'0 MilKE A CHC>In: BETWEEN THEM.

IN ANSWERING EACH QUESTION. ASSUME THAT EVERYTHING ELSE AWArr THE .I'A' IS THE SAME. PAY ATTENTION ONLY TO THE CHARACTERISTICS ACTUALLY

LISTED.

ONE EXAMPLE IS GIVEN BELOW.

JOB A JOB B

A req\Jiring work with m~ch.:.ni~"dl t;-quipment A job r(-"quil'ing work with vt h<r1 I' peopl~ most of the
01 th<> day. ddy.

I --------2------ --(1)---------4-----------5
STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NEt.rrRAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
?FlEFER A PREFER A PREFER 8 PREFER B

IF YOU LIKE WORKING WITH PEOPLE AND WORKING WITH EQUIPMENT EQUALLY WELL. YOU WOULD CIRCLE THE NUMBER 3, AS HAS BEEN DONE IN THIS
EXAMPLE.

PLEASE ASK FOR ASSISTANCE IF YOU ~) NOT UNDERSTAND EXACTLY HOW TO DO THESE QUESTIONS

JOB A JOB B

38. A job where the- pay I!;" Vt'I'y good. A job wh~l-e there is considel'able OpPOrtunity Co be creative
and i nnovat i ve,
~-~~~~2-- ~ - . -4 - -- ----s
STR')NGLY. SLIGHTLY NElJTRAL SL!GHTLY STRONGLY
PREFER A PREFER A PREFER B PREFER B

39. A job where yOq ~r.:' )f ro?~l ref11) i n"d r 0 m..'lt:i' i mrJ" 141': ,'.or A iob with many 1..oI~asant peop)e to work. wit:h.
deGi s i ,)Os
i- . .:..; - - - i" -4 ' . .. -, -~,
-"1'f.' ",tJ'-;!.l r:[.j,'"jHTL"i N!:::lrrr-",;L :·;L I ''':H'TI ,1' STR"NC;L)
PRtFF"P A PREFEf.· A !'H~fr:F< R ~'REFER R

F-7

JOB A JOB II
40. A job in which greater responsibilit.y is given to A job in which greater responsibility is given to loyal

those who do the best work. efJq;)loyees who have the most seniority.

! ---- ---- -2-- -- --- - - -j- --- ------4-----------5


STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NElfI'RAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
PREFER A PREFER A PREFER B PREFER a

41. A job in an organization which is in financial A job in which you are not allowed to have any say whatever
trouble - and might have to close down within the year. in how your work is SCheduled or in the procedures to be used
in carrying it out.

1---------2---­
STRONGLY SLIGHTLY

PREFER A PREFER A

42. A very routine job. A job where your co-wol-kers are not very friendly.

1- ---- ----2---- ---- - -3 ----- -----4--- ----- - --5


STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NEUTRAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
PREFER A PREFER A PREFER a PREfER B

43_ A job with a supervisor who is very otten critical A job that prevents you fl'orn using a nwn.ber of skills

of you and your work in tront of other people. that you worked hard to develop.

1- -- -- --- -2--- -- - - - - -3 --- -------4 ----- -- - - --,


STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NEUTRAL SLIGH'l'LY STRONGLY
PREfER A PREFER A PREFER B PREFER B

44. A job with a supervisor who respects you and treats A job that pt'ovides constant opportunities for you to
you fairly. learn new and interestirl9 things.
3- ·4·--- -··-··S
STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NElrrRAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
PREfER A PRt::FER A PREfER B PREFER B

45. A job where there is a real chance you could be laid A job with very little .:::hdnce to do challenging \Nark.
otf.
J---- ·---2--- --·3-----·----4---------­
STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NEUTRAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
f'REFF;R A PREfER A PREFER B PREfER B

46. A job in \Nhil:;h the!-(~) .~ fE'",l .:-hAn<:'E' 101 V''''J rCl A i"b rhi1t j)1'ovides lots ot vacation time and an
d;;,.v€h'~l n€ w ~.kl; 1;.- '11,·1 '_1dV,-tIl"\! In t.r.,;. ·.,rfJ,1HI:~.. 1 l ",;":'_'",,1 !";'III I) 1119';' b~Ple[ its p.:.ck ..." Ige.

1---------:2­
STRONGLY SLJ GHTLY Nf:trrRAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
PREfER A PREFER A PREfEP B PREFER B

47_ A job with littli:: il'l?€-,:k,m


bnd indepE'nden::€ " t".:10 A jDL- w/;€"f€" (he wvrldng conditions aTe poor.
your work the way you think best .

1 -­ • -~. ---4--· ----- -s


STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NEUTRAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
PREFER A PREFER A PREFER B PREFER B

48. A job with very satisfying t.eflmwOl-k. A job thctt ~llow.s you ( 0 use your skills and abilities
to the fullest extent .

J --­ -2- . ---. -3·- -- ----4


STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NEtrrRAL SLIGHTLY S'rRONGi~Y
i'f..'I-:t-.'EJ.< A Pf.l:f.Ft-:R B

49. A job which ottE'rs lin J€ or no ch<'tllenge, A job whiCh requiTE'S you to be completely isolated trom
co·workl2t's,

I - -­ --2--- --- -3 --4------~:,


STRONGLY SLIGHTLY NEUTRAL SLIGHTLY STRONGLY
PREfF.R A PREfER A PREFER B PREfER B

A SELF--APPRAISAL OF YOUR JoB

NOW MAKE AN ASSESSMENT OF THE WAY YOllR JOB IS ORGANIZED. HOPEFULLY. THE QIJESTlONS YOI) HAVE ANSweRED SO FAR HAVE HELPED YOU THINK ABOUT
TH !NOS ~OU WAN'!' TO SAY TO EACH QUESTlON BELOW.

A. Oes<:!ribe what ~ ",bout the w~y your job is olganizE'd.

a. Des.::::ribe whdt spe.;::itic prOblems you expE'rien('E' witn I:he W\'ty your job is oPJ-anL!€ < d.

F-8

FINALLY, PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING OUESTIONS ABOUT YOURSELf. YOUR ANSWERS ARE USEFUL fOR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND ARE STRICTLY
CONFIOENTIAL.
'fears

50. How long have you worked in this organization?

Years

51. a) How many years did it take for you to reach a tnanaQerial
or supervisory position
Years

b) How many years have you served in the present position

52. Indicate your sex: Female Male -2--­

53. How old were you on your last birthday _ _ _ _ _ Years old.

54. How many dependerlts do y..,u have -: (You and others who depend on your" income tor thell" financial support.J
Number of dependents.
55. How tnany years ot academic, vocational. or pl"oiessional education have you obtained beyond high school ..,

YEARS ArTER HIGH SCHOOL

GRADE SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL OR CRAFT COLLEGE BACHELOR'S MASTER'S DEGREE DOCTORAL DEGREE
DIPLOMA DIPLOMA CERTIFlCAT1(>N DEGREE

57. Tick the specific ma.jor or field of sg!cialization in which you obt<:dned this d~gre~.

tl) Technical/EnqineerinS,l ~_ U: Other professional such dS Law (4} Social science _ _

IS) Arts, SciencE' And Other$..


58. Your job titl~:

F-9

WOR!< UNIT QUESTIONNAIRE (SOPERVISOR)

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Definitional Th1Q queationnaife Aaxa many ~eat1on8 abo~t your job and how it is organized ot d~&1gned.

Host of the questions ask you to cIrcle onl? ot sevelal numbers that appear on a scale below the ltem Corresponding with each number
on a scale is a brief desCnptlon ot what the number represents. You are co circle the one number that most accurately reflects your
answer to each question.
For example. if your answer to the following question is "very much" tand we believe it should be}, circle the number "5- on the answer
scale:

How much is it worth my time to till out this questionnaire during the next hour?
NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE VERY
A BIT MUCH

If you do not \,Inderstand any question, BE SURE TO ASK US FOR HELP. We realize that not all qu~stions are simple, And that is why we
Are here to answer any qu@stions you have.

F-IO

WORK UNIT QUESTIONNAIRE (SUPERVISOR)

THE NATURE OF YOUR WORK AND JOB

1. WE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW THE MAJOR KINDS of functions, tasks and work
activities you would have been performing regularly during the past three
months. If functions, tasks and activities you do are not included in the
list, please use the extra blank space provided and describe these
functions, tasks and activities. Select a few important functions or tasks
you perform regularly and indicate approximately how many hours spent each
week for each of these functions or tasks. (You do not need to use items
not important or relevant to you).

Function 1; Office Administration

Function 2; Programming/Budgeting

Function 3: Checking, Auditing and Reporting(

Controlling

Function 4: Personnel Relations/Management

Function 5: Analysis, Planning and Design

Function 6: Water Allocation/System Operation

Function 7: Maintenance

Function 8 ; Construction

Function 9 ;

Function 10:

Function 11 ;

Function 12 ;

F-ll
WORK UNIT QUESTIONNAIRE (SOPERVISOR)

This questionnair~ is to be answered by the supervisol' of the organizational unl t or work unit under study.
TEE ORGANIZATION AND WORK OF YOUR UNIT

The following questions ask how your unit is organized to its work and achieve its performance goals. Please keep in lnind that your
unit ~::on$ists of you, as the unit supervisor, and dll individuals who report directly to you,

LIST OF CATE.GORIES OF JOB TITLES HELD BY YOURSELF !\NO ALL UNIT PERSONNEL WHO REPORT NUMBER OF PERSONS IN EACH
DIRECTLY TO YOU (INCLUDE ALL fULL- AND PART-TIME SALARIED STAFF CATEGORY OF JOBS
AND VOLUNTEERS)

1.

2.

3.

5.

6.

7.

a.

10.

11,

12.

2. During the past 3 months. how many of your imm>2"diat .... unit subordinatOi?$ r)erfortn~nci;' the same basic tasks. or did each perform
a di t ferent task ? ---­

NO ONE PERFORMED SAME ONLY A FEW PERFORMED SAME ABOUT HALf PERFORMED SAME MANY PERFORMED SAME ALL ~ERFORHE.O THE
TASKS TASK!'; TASKS TASKS SAME BASIC TASKS
,--~~-~-,.-~~-- .... - - _ .... _ - - _.... --~---~---------

J. How many of your immedidte subOHllOaCE'S at'e q\A-"Ilified to do one another'S job?

NONE ONLY A fEW ABOUT HALF MANY ALL

4. so that each could do a 900d job performing the

VERY DIFFICULT, MOST QUITE DIFFICULT, SOME SOMEWHAT DIFFICULT QUITE EASY. SOME VERY EASY, NO MEMBERS
MEMBERS WOULD NEED MEMBERS WOULD NEED A FEW MEMBERS WOULD MEMBERS WOULD NEED WOULD NEED RETRAINING
EXTENSIVE RETRAINING ElITENSIVE RETRAINING NEED RETRAINING RETRAINING,

S. DU}'ing the Pdst J m<.>nttl::'., I.,.'w ,~It""i) di<i ,j,,1 iln.mt.'di',1ti' Sllt.')ldin,.,t~,.::; I()c~'te theil j,)I.)$ by p'ii?rforming one anothers' work

NVT ONCE AiMJ1' EVE:R Y DAY ABOUT EVERY HOUR


- - - - - -...
..... -------~.- .... -------­

6. How much sa or influence do ear:h ot the following have 1n deciding


w d In s 0 WOt"'S or "=":SKS arE' to 02 fJ€ r toulled in your unIt: AMOUNT OF SAY IN DEcIDING UNIT'S WORK

NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH


- ..- . - - - - -.... -~------~-

a. Your supervisor· (s) or his sup~Tion;; 5

b. ~! as the un. t head? 2

c. Your lllUl'lediate s'Jbordinaces individually?

d. You and your immediate $Ub')l"'lin~te~ ~'s .!'t group in unit meetings ;' 5

e. People
un i C ?

F-12
7. To do its work. how much does your unit use .automated equipment. machines, or computer d~vices (e.g. computer desk lJ'\onitor8~
di rect data entry;-or:-TBH cards} '"I
NO'!' AT ALL VERY LIT'l'LE SOMEWHAT Q(JITE A BIT VERY MUCH

8. Specifically. please indicate the kinds of equipment, IDachines r or computer devices used by your unit to do its work.

9. How frequently did your unit encounter breakdown in these mechanical devices for doing its work during the past three
monEhs'
NOT ONCE ONLY ONCE IUlOU'l' EVER Y MONTH ABOU'I' EVERY WEEK AIlOUT EVERY DAY

10. About how lJ'\uch non-work -down time- did all people in your unit accumulate as a result of breakdowns in these mechanical
devices dUrln(J tne past thr~e months ?

NO DOWN TIME A FEW HOU!<S AIlOUT oNE MAN-DAY 2-4 MAN-DAYS S MAN-DAYS OR MORE
EXPER I ENCED OF DOWN TIME

CRITERIA AND METHODS USED TO EVALUA~E THE PERFORMANCE OF YOUR ONI~

11. Consider now the specific (criteria or measures th<Jt are used to determine how effectively your unit performs its work~

Rank the importance of these three criteria.

List bE-low the thn:-e most imp('.ortolnt criteria rha!:" iH~ most important
used to measure how well your una performs its W01"k. second most important
third most important

RANK:

2.

RANK

3.

RANK;

12. ~fu:fff:~j~Bj§!!:£d~J:! tor


each of the fo) lowing have in
.;;;: evaluating the pertorm.:;nce of your unit: AMOUNT Of INfLUENCE IN DECIDING CRITERIA

NONE LIT'I'LE SOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

a. '(our supervisor and his superiors 2 5


b. ~. as the unit hedd ? 2 S
c. Your immediate subordinates individudlly 2 S
d. You and your immMlate subordin.ues as ."I group in unit meetings 2 S

13.

NvT A'I ALL A'~I<E~ A LITTLE AGREE QUITE A BIT AGR EE VERY MUCH

14. To What; de-gree ~re num<?ricdl 1)! qu<'mtiti€ ' d prQ.;(-dul-es u~.~d to m~,-'1Sure these pel"tOrtM,n,::e t;riteria ot your unit

NO HE.ASU~E.ME.NT 1S '.tNLY SI)&JE':TIvt NON 1..fX.)SE BUT r':;VANTIFiED QlllTE SPECIFIC QUANTIFIED VERY SPEC I FIC AND PREC1SE
MADE QVANTIflED IMPRESSIONS Mf.I\SURES ARE RECORDED Mf.I\SlJI'ES ARE RECORDED QUANTIFIED Mf.I\SlJI'ES AND
ARE RECORDED PROCEDlJI'ES ARE RECORDED

NO REPORTS AR E ALTHIJV(;H MEASUf.lE.O 0NLY AT YE.AR-END EVERY MONTH EVERY WEEto:: EVERY DAY SEVERAL TIMES DAILY
DEVELOPED I HAVE NOT RECEIVED
ANY PE~-'R'T'

F-13
A VARIETY OF APPRAISAL METHODS CAN BE RELIED UPON TO DETERMINE AND EVALUATE HOW WELL AN ORGANIZATIONAL !)NIT IS ACHIEVING ITS
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA.

16. To what degre~ of the following methods of .appraisal


relled upon to how well your unit pertollllS its wOl-k; DEGREE RELI EO ON FOR EVALUATING WORK

NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

a. Automatic control systems or built-in monitoring devices (e.g. computer

control devices. mechanical a)erts ) 7

b. Appraisals made by your supervisor or his superiors '1 5


c. Appraisals made by you individually, as the unit head 1 2 5
d. Appraisals o~ ~~~~o!::~!a~e subordinates who individually review and
evaluate

e.
2

Appraisals made by staff or specialists positioned outsidE> of your


immediate- work. unit? --- 5
17. liow clearly have spe.;i tic peorfonnance targets been set for your unit

NO TARGETs WERE SET TARGETS ARE VERY UNCLEAR TARGETS ARE SOMEWHAT CLEAR TARGETS ARE QUITE CLEAR T.i\P:GETS ME VERY CLEAR

18. HowdiEficu1t is it tor your unit to~thE>se performanCE> targets:

NO TARGETS WERE TA~~ETS VERY EASY TARGETS Q\lITE EASY TARGETS DIFFICULT TARGETS VERY DIF- TARGETS IMPOSSIBLY
SET TO ATTAIN TO ATTAIN BUT ATTAINABLE FICULT TO ATTAIN DIFFICULT TO ATTAIN

2
19. Overall. what percent of these performance targets were attained by yovr unit last year
NO TARGETS WERE SET 0-20\ 21-40\ 41-60\ 61-80\ 81-90\ 91-100\ MORE THAN 100\

20. When t a rge t p~r! 0nnanCe <;Io('j I s f or your un i t .::~.:.r.::.e_a::.t:.;t:;.;.;:.;i~n:.:~:.::d~o.:.r....:.SU::.l:.J1>t:::a::;s;:;s:;e:d=-_ _ _ _ _ _ _~H=OW-=-O=-FT~EN:.:._T~H~I~S~H~A:P=P~EN=S_ _ _ __


how o~o the following things happen:

ALMOST NEVER SELDOM ABOUT HALF QUITE OFTEN ALMOST


THE TIME ALWAYS
-------~ .... --------­

21.

a. All people in r:hi urdt;;'l:;'.., group arc- I~l",rim.;anded or told to "shape


up' to lmprov"," p.;-rformance }

b. Specific:' in<:lividIJ03jS. in your unit <lrt0' l"'I.,rim:;uv-led or totd to "sh.'\pe


up' to lmprove theIl- individua) pertormdn.::es ?

22. ~ do membel S 01 your unit do thE:> following things; HOW MUCH THIS HAPPENS

NOT AT ALL A LITTLE: SOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

b, ·Gang-up· on the individual whose wo)'k is fal" beiow that


of the (')f.ht'l't'. t ,"·,rd<lnn tp 9l"t·,lIIJ (l<'I'n:.'::

c. ilGanQ-up' on the individual whose work t.il" i-xceed that ot


th~ others to confOt'ffl to group norms?

d. Encourage individuals to (lnd 'Strive fOl- lflcf'(o'dsingly


hIgher levels of wOl-k "DrT=~.,.-D ?

e. Try to get ahf-ad wi thout regdrd for tho€' }nterest of other


unit members ?

F-14
ABOl1'1' YOOR ORGANIZATION

The following questions ~re concerned with how your organization generally operates with regard to the line of communication, work
flow etc.

The four questions immediately following this statement are concerned with the communication or work flow originating from your
subordinate or your superior. ­
Four types of possible responses are given and circle the appropriate nWllber to indicate practices in your organization.
AlMAYS '!'IIII()QGH /IDSTLY THR()QGH GENERALLY THI!OQGH NO lIARD lINt) FAST
YOU YOU WITH A FEW YOU WITH QUITE A lUlL!:;. ~Y-PASS£S
BY-PASSES ONLY BIT Of BY-PASSES ME AI..LOWED DEPENDING
ON OCCASION. TYPE
OF JOB. URGONeY ETC.

23. a) To what extent communication output


from your subordinates go through you. 2
b) To what extent communication downward

from your supervisor passes th rough you. 2

C) To what extent does the work frorn your

subordinates PdSS 1)r:)\IJr;'trd throll9h you. 2

d) To what extent does the work from your

superior pass downward through you. 2

The followin9 questions are concerned when you yourself communicate upward or downward or pass work upward or downwards.
Four t~s of possible responses are given and circle the appropriate number to indicate practices in your organization.
AlMAYS MOS'l"I.Y WITH VERY NO HARD lINt) FAST IUJLE.
FEW &xCEPTlotIS BY-PASSES ME MADE DEPENDING
ON OCCASION. TYPE OF JOB.
'JRGONeY, ETC.

24. a) To what extent wh\?n you cOtrUltunicate upwards


do you 90 through your i~diate supervisor. 2
bj To what extent when you communicate downw.-.rd$
do you 90 through your if1\m,~iate subordinate
cj Mhen you pass work u~ards. do you send
thrOu9h your immf'dh1f to s;.ulr€ - rvl $''1.
d) TO what extent wh~n you pass work downwards
do you go through your i~ediate subordin4te.

RULXS, POLICI&S, lINt) PROC&DtTRE:S FO~ 'l'HlI UNIT AS A WlIOLE

THINK A1lOUT THE VMlOUS OPERATING RULES, POLICIES. AND PROCEOOf<ES THAT ALL PERSONNEL IN YOUR UNIT ARE EXPBCTED TO FOLLOW TO COORDINATE
lINt) CONTROL ALL TtiE WORK ACTIVITIES PERFORMED IN YOUR UNIT. THESE RULES lIND PROCEDURES Ml\Y BE I'ORHAL OR INFORMAL. Wl>ITTEN OR
UNWIUTTUL THEY APPLY TO ALL PEOPLE IN YOUR UNIT, REGARDLESS OF THE PMTlCULAR JOB EACH PERFORMS.

25. Please list of th:"i:ba;:;S~ic~~oP<'E,:..:a:;t::.;i:.:n.::.9!....;1:..:.U::.I:,:":.:S:,:,....tPO:;;.:I~I.;;;C..:.i.:.,,::.s_a::.n:.:;d::-pt:!,;ro::;c;;;"::d::,:u:.:,.:,,:.::,s used to co-ordinate and control all jobs and
activities your unit :5
~ Whole.

26. How pret.:'l$ely .1.... rh.,.~ ... r'Jl(-s.. p·-·li,-i~;--. ;~n-l 1""'-';;'']111':>$ !::q:.e.::-ify how w,>,II-: ~C',:ivitie~ dre to be coordinated and controlled
1n your unit ';
VERY GENERAL QUITe SPOCI FIC VERY SPECIFIC

27. HoW ott~n did unit members violate or ignore these opel'4ting rules. policies. ~nd procedures during the past three lIIonths?
NOT ONCE VERY SELOOH ABOUT tlALI' THE TIHE QUITE OfTEN Al.L THE TIME

28. How strictly 4tE' thE'se opeT4ting rules. pol i<:;-iesr and procedures ~ in your unit?

NOT AT ALL ENFORCED VF~Y LOOSELY ENFORCED SOMEWHAT STRICTLY ENFORCED QUITE STRICTLY ENFORCED VERY STRICTLY ENFORCED

2
29. What
or • PPC;C:iRlijr" I'II.:tlllJdl

0-20\ 21 ~4 0\ 41~60\ 6 J -QO\ 80-100\

F-1S

30. How Much intlu~nce or say did each of th& following AMOUNT O~ INFLUENCE IN
nave In decldlng upon these utilE operating rules, DECIDING UNIT PROCEDURES
policies . and procedures:
NONE LITTLE SOME OUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

a. Your supervisor or his superiors? 2


b. ~t as the unit h~ad '"} 2 5
c. Your immediate subordinates individually 5
d. You and your immediate subordinates as a group in unit meetings? 5
E!. People in staff or specialist positions outside your immediate work
unit 1 --­ 2
THE NEXT FOUR QUESTIONS ARE ABOllT THE INTERNAL Fr.ow of' WORK AENEEN YOllR IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES. LI STED AND DIAGRAMMED BELOW ARE FOUR
COMMON WAYS THAT THE WORK PEPF'JRMlm IN YOU~ UNIT CAN FLOW BE1"WEEN YOUR IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES. (YOU, AS THE UNIT SUPERVISOR, SHOULD
CONSIDER YOURSELF OUTSIDE THE BOXES BELOW,

31. HOW MUCH WORK NORMALLY FLOWS BETWEEN MY IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES


IN THIS MANNER

ALMOST NONE LITTLE ABOUT 5 0' OF ALL A LOT AI.MQST ALL OF


OF THE WORK ALL THE WORK THE WORK

a. Independent Work Flow Case, where work and


actlvltles are performed by your immediate
subordinates separately and do not flow between
them '1 5

Work Enters Unit

HOW MUCH WORK NORMALLY FLOWS BE1"WEEN MY IMMEDIATE SUBORDINATES


IN Till S MANNER

ALMOST NONE LITTLE 1\!lOU'T 50\ OF ALL A LOT ALMOST ALL OF

OF THE wORK ALL 'fHE WORK THE WORK

b. sequential Work Flow Case, wherE' work c'tnd


fl··w L""twl2"'!'1 's"JU!
.:\ctlvltle5 '(1r..;"
subordinates, t..U( most 11' i 11 (Jflt" rt?,:t 1 '~'Il.

Work Ent~t:-..,.

c. Reciprocal Work Flow Case, where work and


actlvltl~s flow between your immediate subordinates
in a back-and-forth manner oller a period ot time 7

work Enters

Work Lf<i:lV€$

F-16

HOW HUCH WORK NOIUlALLY FLOWS BETWEEN MY IHHEOIATE SUBORDINATES


IN THIS HANNER

ALMOST NONE LITTLE AB<X1I' 50\ OF ALL A LOT ALMOST ALL OF

OF THE WORK ALL THE WORK THE WORK

d. Team work Flow Case, where work and activities come


into your unIt and your immediate subordinates
diagnose. problem-solve, and collaborate as a group
at the same time in meeting to deal with the work.

Work Enters

Work Leaves

32. To obtain the information and materials needed to do their work.


~~~pi~~h do unit members have to.!!.!.l::. upon each of the following
NOT AT ALL A LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

a. You, the unit Supervisor!


b. Other members in your unit

c. People outside 01 youl- unit? 2

33. How much do unit members have to depeng on each of the following
people While doing their respective JO 5 ?

a. You, the unit Supervisor? 2

b. Other members in your unit

c. People outside of your unit?

34 • . After unit members finish their part of the task, how much do they have
to.!!.!.i:. on each of the following people to performtJi'@fi'@Xt steps in the
process before the total task or serviCE> is completed!

a. you, the unit Supervisor? 2

b. Other members in your unit 2

c. People outside of your unit? 2

35. During the past 3 monrhs. t('l wh<'lt e>:tent did YCll! ~xPE'rience
problems in cool'dindting W(>l", <Kl.i~: NO EXTENT LIITLE E.XTEN'T' SOME EXTENT LARGE EXTENT v. LARGE EXTENT

a. Between you Clnd \in i t miE"m~l"S :" 2

b. Among unit members?

c. With people outside of your unit? 2

HOW OFTEN RECEIVED OR SENT WRITTEN REPORTS OR MEMOS IN PAST 3 Mom'iIS


36. To coordinate the WOl"k ot yOUl" unit during the P<'Ist
how often were written reports or memos sent or received
NOT ONCE ABOUT 1-3 ABOUT 1-3 ABOUT 1-3 ABOUT EVERY HOUR
TIMES/MONTH TIMES/WEEK TIMES/DAY

a. Between you and unit members 2

b. Among unit members? 2

c, Between you and people outside of your unit 2

37. HOW OFTEN HAD WORK DISCUSSION IN PAST THREE MONTHS

NOT ONCE ABO<.rr 1-3 ABOm 1-3 ABOm 1-3 ABOm EVERY HOUR
TIMES/MONTH TIMES/WEEK TIMES/DAY

a. Between you and unit members 2

b. Among unit members?

c. Between you and p~')rde outside of your unit?

38. How frequently did you conduct regularlr scheduled staff HOW OfTEN MEETINGS WERE HELD IN PAST THREE MONTHS
or unit meetlngswith your immediiait~~~s~uTIbO~I~~,~n~art~~s~druuTrTl~n9~::__________~::-=~~~::~~~~~::~~~::~~~~::~~
the past three months ?
______
NOT ONCE ABO<.rr ONCE ABOUT EVERY ABOm ONCE ABOm 2-4 ONCE A
A MONTH TWO WEEKS A WEEK TIMES/WEEK DAY OR
MORE

F-17
NOT ONCE ABOtn' ONCE AaouT EVERY AaouT ONCE AaouT 2-4 ONCE A
A MONTH TWO WEEKS A WEEK TIMES/WEEK DAY OR
MORE
39. During the past 3 months, how frequently were you involved
in impromptu~ unscheduled meetings to solve specific work
problems:
a. With two or more ot your subordinates? 5

b. With two or more people from outside .....,t yOU! unit

HOW OFTEN DISAGREEMENTS OR ARGUMENTS OCCURRED

40. During the past 3 months. how otten were there


di slligreements or arguments; NOT ONCE ABOtn' ONCE ABOUT EVERY ABOtn' ONCE SEVE.RAL TlMES EVERY DAY
A MONTH 2 WEEKS A WEEK A WEEK

a. Between you and un i t memJ)€'Ts

b. Among un l t rnembel-s ? 2
c. Between you and people in other units 2 5

41. When these disagreem~nts OJ disputes occurred. HOW OFTEN DISPUTES RESOLVED THIS WAY
how often were they hdndled i n e~ch ot the
tol1o"'l1og w~ys dun ng the P.;Jst ""l1i"ree monthS 7
ALMOST NE:VE:R SELDOM ABOUT HALF THE TIME OFTEN VERY OFTEN

a. 8y ignoring 01" avoiding the issues? 2


b. Sy smoothing ()Voi> I trl~ )s:;"ues 1.>1 by making
seem less important?

c, By bringing th~ iSSll""~ ',;;:­ in the .:'pef! <11'.,.1


working them out am')flg the parries involved

d. By having a higher-level sup.:-t"vlsor t"esc>ivt-" the­


issues be tween un its ? 5

42. Over.!'),ll, to what ~ does this cont}k:t resolution h~lp or hinder your unit's pertormanr:::e

HINDERS A LOT H lNDE:RS MORE THAN HELPS NEITHER HELPS NOR HINDERS HELPS MORE THAN HINDERS HELPS A LOT

5
43. How much are unit mt-mb~l$ willing to give other m<::>mbers the suppon: they nei"d to do') good job

NONE LITTLE .sOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

44 In relation to otrler <:ompdlaLl~ ot-ganizationaI urlits. FAR BELOW SOMEWHAT BELOW AaouT SOMEWHAT ABOVE FAR ABOVE
hov"~~r unit, (,~r,,-"> ,'f< t-,",~h ,'.f tlit' ":.1 !<:0I.;i1l9 AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE
rA:ctr)fS l,unng fh,,' r·/i:d ,•. ,;:,~

2 5

C_ flumMr ot i nnovat ions or new ideas i nt roduced by


un it? 2 5
d. R~put~tion tOl' work 01' s.".rvice ("xcel1~nce 7 2
iL Attainment ot unit productions or service goals 2

g, ~ of unit p(-rsonnel

F-18
NOW MAKE A SELF-ASSESSMENT OF THE ORGANIZATION AND EFFECTIVENESS OF YOOR UNIT. HOPEFULLY. THe; QUESTIONS YOU HAVE ANSWEilEO SO FAR
STIHULATEO YOQ TO MllJ<E SUCH A SEI,.F-ASSESSHENT.

A. List the major strengths of your work unit.

B. List the major weaknesses of your work unit.

C. List the specific organizational changes you think are n€cess~ry to improve the eftectiveness of your unit.

FINALLY, PLEASE ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ABOUT YQURse;LF. YOUR ANSWERS ARE USEFUL FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND ARE STRICTLY
CONFIDENTIAL.

45. How long have you wodced in this org('l.niZdtion ?

LESS THAN b MONTHS MONTHS -2 YEARS 3-5 YEARS 6-\0 YEARS MORE THAN 10 YEARs

'(ears

46. dJ How mdny ~'t2~t.;;:, ,Ii·'! it :,~I: ... tvl yv~l t.· ,,,',1..-;h it manago?lial
or supervisory position?
Years

b) How many years have you served in the present position

Indicate your sex: Hale

How old were you on your- last birthday?


49. How many dependents do you hdV~? iYou and others who depend on your income tor their tinancial support~)
Nu~~r of depen~nts"

so. How many years of ac~demic, voc~tion~l. or protession~l education have you obtained ~yond high school?
YEARS AFTER HIGH SCHOOL

o 7

Sl. What is the hi9hifS( edu<;:a(iona) qu.;llification you obtained

GRADE SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL OR CRAfT COLLEGE BACHELOR'S MASTER' S DEGR EE
DIPLOMI\ DIPLOMA CERTIFICATION DEGREE

S2. Tick: the specifiC' major or field ot specialization in which you obtdined this degree.

{Jj Ot ht!> 1· professiondl such ,os Law (4 J social science

53. Your job title:

F-19
WORK UNIT QUESTIONNAIRE (SUPERVISOR)

ENVIRONMENT AND GENERAL SITUATION

(To be completed by the supervisor and 1 Senior Member)

The following questions are rela~ed to the environment and general situation in which the unit
operates.

1. How certain is the amount or level of budget at which your unit will be operating for the
next financial year.

Very Uncertain Uncertain Somewhat Inbetween Certain Very Certain

3 4 5

2. How likely is tilat your organization or aqency itself will face the budget crunch in the next
three years.

Most Unlikely Unlikely Somewhat Unsure Likely Most Likely

2 3 4 5
3. How uncertain is it for your unit to get resources (money, physical inputs, co-operation,
information, other support) to get the job done.

Very Uncerulin Uncerta in Somewhat Inbetween Certain Very Certain

3 4 5

4. How likely is it Lhat your uniL wi 11 r<'emain, in (<'erms of its functions and its size,
essentially tt](' salll~' in th<'e next UHec~ yea[~s as ic is today.

Very Unl ikplv lin 1 if:", 1 Likely Very Likely

2 3 4 5

5. How likely is it that our organization or itself will remain without major structural
changes 0[' transformatlons 1n the next t

Very Unlikely Unlikely Somewhat Sure LikelY Very Likely

2 3 4 5

6, How high do you think is the standing of your organization, compared with other agriculture­
related agencies, in the eyes of goveLnment minIstries.

Low High

4 5

F-20

THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE TO BE ANSWERED BY HEADS IN CHARGE OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS. THOSE HEADS
NOT DIRECTLY IN CHARGE OF ANY PARTICULAR SYSTEM OR MEMBERS WHO ARE NOT IN THE UNITS DIRECTLY
OPERATING A PARTICULAR SYSTEM NEED NOT ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS.

7. How likely is it that your unit or system may face environmental changes such as drought in
the next three years.

Very Unlikely Unlikely Somewhat Sure Likely Very Likely

1 2 3 4 5

8. How well do you think your unit performed in the last year in providing service to water
users, farmers ?

Select the degree of performance level which you think your unit has achieved with regard to
each of the following criteria.

a. Adequacy of water suppl ied for crop requirement ?

Low Level of Performance High Level of Performance

2 3 4 5
b. Timeliness of water supplied for crop requirement ?

Low Level of Performance High Level of Performance

2 3 4 5

c. Fairness practiced in distributing water to farmers in different locations.


Low Level of Performance High Level of Performance
2 3 4 5

12. What importance do you give to outsiders such as political or other influential groups in
making decisions with regard to water distribution.

DEGREE OF IMPORTANCE
Lowest Highest
1 3 5

F-21
WORK UNIT QUESTIONNAIRE (UNIT MEMBER)

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Definitions I This questionnaire asks many questions about your immediate unit
and your unit members.

* -=-=.=-=-:::-,;;;;..;::.c..;::.=....:;...::.=..::=-=- means that person whom you report to di rect ly, today.

* Work unit means your immediate supervisor and all individuals (your co­
workers) who directly report to your immediate supervisor. The immediate
supervisor can be at the different levels of organizational hierarchy. In
the case of the field work unit, the immediate supervisor many be the
field engineers or system managers. In the case of a ional office, the
immediate supervisor will be the regional or divis I manager and
immediate subordinates may include his list or subject area
assistants and also system managers.

* Unit members are all the individuals in your immediate unit except your
immediate supervisor.

Most of the questions ask you to circle one of several numbers that appear on a
scale below the item. Corresponding with each number on a scale is a brief
description of what the number represents. You are to circle the one number that
most accurately reflects your answer to each question.

For example, if your answer to the following question is "very much" (and we
believe it should be), circle the number "5" on the answer scale:

How much ~s it worth my time to fill out this questionnaire during


the next hour ?

NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE VERY


A BIT MUCH

If you do not understand any question, BE SURE TO ASK US FOR HELP.


2

We realize
3 4
o
that not all questions are simple, and that is why we are here to answer any
questions you have.

F-22

WORK UNIT QUESTIONNAIRE (UNIT MEMBER)

THE NATURE OF YOUR WORK AND JOB

1. WE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW THE MAJOR KINDS of functions, tasks and work
activities you would have been performing regularly during the past three
months. If functions, tasks and activities you do are not included in the
list, please use the extra blank space provided and describe these
functions, tasks and activities. Select a few important functions or tasks
you perform regularly and indicate approximately how many hours spent each
week for each of these functions or tasks. (You do not need to use items
not important or relevant to you) .

Function 1: Office Administration

Function 2: Programming/Budgeting

Function 3: Checking, Auditing and Reporting,

Controlling

Function 4: Personnel Relations/Management

Function 5: Analysis, Planning and Design

Function 6: Water Allocation/System Operation

Function 7: Maintenance

Function 8: Construction

Function 9:

Function 10:

Function 11:

Function 12:

F-23
WOIU': ONI'!' QUES'!'IONNAIRE (eNI'!' KEMSER)

'l'BE ORGANIZA'!'ION AND WOIll( OF 1I0O'R eNI'!'

SO PAR yOU HAVE BEEN ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR WORK AND YOUR 00B. This part asks how your unit is or9'ani2ed to do its work and
achieve its perfoI1'l\ance goals. Plea.se keep in mind that your unit consists of your immediate supervisor and all individuals (your
co-workers) who report di rectly to your supervisor.

2. Durin<,;; the past 3 months. how many other people in your unit performed the same basic tasks as yOll did
ONLY ONE A FEW OTHERS MOST OTHERS ALL OTHERS

3. How many other p~ople' in your unit are qualified to do your tasks 7

NONE ONLY ONE A FEW OTHERS MOST OTHERS ALL cmiERS

2
4. How easy would it be to rotate the between unit members, so that each could do a good job performing Someone else's tasks??
VERY DIFFICULT. MOST QUITE DIFFICULT. SOME SOMEWHAT 01 FFICULT QUITE EASY_ SOME VERY EASY. NO MEMBERS
MEMBERS WOULD NEED MEMBERS WOULD NEED A FEW MEMBERS WOULD MEMBERS WOULD NEED WOULD Ne:t:O RETRAINING
EXTENSIVE RETRAINING EXTENSIVE RETRAINING NEED RETRAINING RETRAINING_

2 5

5.
AMOUNT OF SAY IN DECIDING UNIT'S WORK

NONE LITTLE SOMe: QUIT!:: A BIT VERY MUCH

a. Your superiol·s ~bove your unit supi? fvisor ? 2


b. Your unit supervisor 2
c. Unit members lndivldu':'.dty 2 5

d. The unit supervisor fwd m~mbers dS a <noup in unit meetings?


e_
2
CRI'!'ERIA FOR EVALUATING UNI'!' EFFEC'!'IVENESS

CONSIDER NOW THE SPECIFtC CRITERIA OR MEASURES THAT ARE USED TO DETERMINE HOW EFFECTIVELY YOUR UNIT PERFORMS ITS WORK AND
RESPQNSIBI LITIES_

6. Consider now the spec} t critet·i" or me-dsune-s that .:tre used to determine how etfectivE.>lY your unit performs its work.

Rank th~ importance of these three criteria.


List below the tn!"!?£> most imJOttdnt criteria that rlre most important
used to measure ow we yO~lr uni per Orl1'\$ i t s WOl"k. second most important
third most important

1.
-'~--'--'----

HANY-;
..- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ­ ----------­
2.

RANK:

3.

RANK:
.. -------~~----~~-----------------

7. How much influenct> or say did each of the following have in


deCiding upon these (Titerl(\ ~valuating the performance of your unit: AMOUNT OF INFLUENCE IN DECIDING CRITERIA
-.------~---~----------

NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VERy MUCH

b. Your uni t supervisor 2 S

c. Your immediate sub0rdinatE'~. individually? 5

2
People in staff 0'1' ;:;p>:>'::1<'11i5( positions ~ 01 your immE'di(\te \Work
unit: 2

F-24

8. How much do people in your immediate unit ~ that these are the three most important criteria for evaluating the
performance of your unit ?

AGREE A LI'!'TLE AGR EE SOtIEWllAT AGREE QUITE A BIT AGREE VERY IlUCH

9. Overall. how clearly have specific performance targets been set for your unit
NO TARGETS SET TARGETS VERY UNCLEAR TARGETS SOMEWHAT CLEAR TARGETS QUITE CLEAR TARGETS VERY CLEAR

10.

NO TARGETS SET TARGETS VERY EASY TARGETS QUITE EASY TARGETS 01 f f I CULT TARGETS VERY TARGETS IMPOSSIBLY
'!'O A'!'TAIN '!'O A'!'TAIN Btrr A'!'TAINABLE DIFFICULT '!'O A'!'TAIN DIFFICULT '!'O A'M'AIN

5 6

1], How frequently do you receive information about how well your unit achieves these performance targets 7
NO TARGETS SET NEVER ONLY AT YEAR END EVERY MONTH EVERY WEf>K EVERYDAY SEVERAL TIMES DAILY

12. Over~ll. what percent ot these performance targets were attained by your unit last year?

NO TARGETS WERE SET 0-20\ 21·40\ 41 -60\ b 1-80\ 81-90\ 91·100\ MOR E THAN 100\

Jj. How much do members of your unit do the following things: HOW MUCH TH I S HAPPENS

NOT AT ALL A Ll'!'TLE SOtlE QUITE A BIT VERY IlUCH

a. Comp;te with each other to achi~v@ performance targets? 2 5


b. ·Cang-up· on individual whose work is tdr below that

th~
ot the others to contorm to g.·oup norms ? 2

·Cang-up· on the individual whose work far exceed that of

the others to conform to group norms ?

d. Encourage individuals to and strive tor increasingly

hlgher levels of work ~~rOC","=,'~a ? 2

e. Try to get ahei1d wlthout r~gard tor the intel"est ot othel'

unit me-mbers ?

A&O~ YOUR ORGANIZATION


The following questions dt(> ....:oncern~d with how yuur {ll(-ld:!nizdr:ion glo;'n~lally operdtes .....ith regard to thl!? line ot communication, work
flow etc.

The four questions immedidtely fc'llowin9 thi St<tt~lth:mr: ~\roE> ';(;1I'~t'"rn€-d with thi>" communicat ion or work flow originating from your
subordinate or your su~rio!'.

ALwAYS THROUGH MOSTLY THROUGH GENERALLY THROUGH NO HARD AND FAST


YOU you WITH A FEW yOU WITH QUITE A RULE. BY-PASSES
BY-PASSES ONLY BIT OF BY-PASSES ARE ALLOWED DEPENDING
ON OCCASION. TYPE
OF JOB. lJRG ENCY ETC.

14. a1 To what extent communication


from your subordin~tes 90 2

b) To what ex~ent commun i,:'at ion downward

from your su~rvisor passes thl~ough you

c} '1'0 what extent dV1il:s th~ work fn:>tn YOUl

subordinates pass u(lWitl"d through you.

d) To what extent d0€'"S thE:' work tY0M youl

superi or pass downwdrd tlwou9h ¥(lU.

F-25
The following questions are conc~rned when you yourself communicate upwdrd or dO'wnward or pass work upward or downwards.
Four types of PO'ssible responses dre given and circle the appropriate number to indicate practices in yO'ur organi2.ation~

ALWAYS MOSTLY WITH VERY GENERALLY NO HARD AND FAST RULE.


fEW EXCEPTIONS BY-PASSES ARE HADE DEPENDING
ON OCCASION, TYPE OF JOB,
URGENCY, ETC.

1S. a) To what: ext:ent .....hen you cQmmunicate upwards


do you go through your immediate supetvisor. 2

b,l When you pass work upwdrds. do you send

through your immediate supervisor.

c) To what extent when you pa.ss work dO'WTlwards

do you go through your im.medi at:e suboro1 nate.

d} TO' what extent when you cO'mmunicate downwards

do you gO' thrO'ugh your immediate subordinate.

ROLES, POLICIKS, ANn P80CEOUR£S FOR TR& UNIT AS A WHOLE

THINK ABoUT THE VARIOUS OPERATING RULES. POLICIES. AND PROCEDURES THAT ALL PERSONNEL IN YOUR UNIT ARE EXPECTED TO FOLLOW TO COORDINATE
AND CONTROL ALL THE WORK ACTIVITIES PERfORMED IN YOUR UNIT. THESE RULES AND PROCEDURES MAY BE fORMAL OR INfORMAL, WRITTEN OR
UNWRITTEN. HOWEVER, THEY ARE DiffERENT fROM THOSE USED TO GUIDE EACH INDIVIDUAL IN PERfORMING HIS OR HER OWN J08, 8ECAUSE THEY APPLY
TO ALL. PEOPLE IN YOUR UNIT. REGARDLESS Of THE PARTICULAR JOB EACH PERfORMS.

16. Please list names of th~e~b!a~S~ic~'~O~Pte~r~d~t~i~n~9~r~u~l~e~s~,-&p~O~1~iC~i~e~s~a~n~d~p~r~o~c~e~d~u~r~e~s used to co-ordinate and control all jobs and
activities of your unit !s a Whole,

... ~-~--~---------- . - - -.... - - -

17.

THERE ARE NO SET RULES VERY GENERAL SOMEWHAT SPECrFIC QUITE SPEC I flC VERY SPECIfiC

A.R·)t.rT' HALf THE TIME QUITE OFTEN ALL THE TIME

NOT AT ALL ENfORCED VERY LOOSELY ENmRCED SOMEWHAT STR IC1'LY ENfORCED QUITE S'l'R lCTLY ENfORCED VERY STR ICTLY ENFORCED
. __ _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ­
...

F-26

20. How much influence or say did each of the following AMOUNT OF INFLUENCE IN
have In decldlng upon the rules:-poricies. and procedure for your unit: DECIDING UNIT PROCEDURES

NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VERY MUCH

a. Your superiors above your unit supervisor


b. Your unit supervisor
c. Unit me~rs individually

d. You and your immediate subordinates as a group in unit meetings?


e. People in staff or specialist positions ~ your immediate work

uni t 7

COORDINATION OF JOB AND UNIT ACTIVITIES WITH OTHERS

IN GENERAL. YOUR JOB AND YOUR UNIT DO NOT EXIST IN ISOLATION FROM OTHE;R PWPLE IN THIS ORGANIZATION. THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ASK HOW
MUCH YOU DEPEND UPON AND COORDINATE WITH OTHERS TO DO YOUR WORK.

21. To obtain the materials. clients, or information needed


to aro-your job. how much do you have to rely on each of the NOT AT ALL A LITTLE SOME QUITE A BIT VE;RY MUCH
following people-:--­

a. Your uni t supervj sor 7 2

b. Other uni t members or co-workers 2

c. People outside of your unit?


22. While doing our assi ned tasks. how much do you have to
~ on ~ 0 0 OWing peoi=' e

Your unit supetvisor ?

b. Other uni t membEors or co-workers. ?

c. People outsirle nt your unit?

23. After you finish yom pent of th~ work. how mudl do you hav..:.­
to ~ upon each of the following people to pel"rOlan the next steps
in "'E"'fi"e'proces"'S""'l5efore the total task or service IS completed:

a. Your unit supervisor? 2

b, Other un i t members or co-workel"s 2

c. People outside of your unit?

24. During the past 3 months. to what extent did you NO EXTENT LITTLE EXTENT SOME EXTENT LARGE EXTENT V.GREAT EXTENT
..:.-xperiencE- lJloLl~Jn:::> ill ..:vordindtin~e 'w'vl~:
activities wHh each of the follo'w'ing pe-ople:

a. Your unit supervisor?

b. Other unit m~mbel-s or CQ-W01"kE-rs ? 2

c. People outsine at your unit?

25. During the past ,l months. how often did you receive HOW OrTEN RECEIVED OR SEl'IT WRITTEN REPORTS OR MEMOS IN PAST 3 MONTHS
or send written l"eports or memos related to yc,ur work
from or to each or the forT""O'Wi7ig peopl~:
NOT ONe E ABOLrf 1 - ] ABOUT 1-3 ABOUT 1-3 AIlQ(JJ' EVE;R Y HOUR
TIMES/HTH TIMES/WEEK TIMES/DAY

a. Your unit supervisor

b. Other unit members 01­ co-wol"ke-rs

c. people outside of your unit? 2

26. During the past 3 months. how often djd you have work­ HOW OFTEN HAD WORK DISCUSSION IN PAST THREE MONTHS
related discussions (face-to-race or by telephone) with
each of Ehe following pe0pie;
NOT ONe E ABOUT I - 3 ABOUT I - 3 ABOUT 1 - 3 ABOUT EV ER Y HOUR
TIMES/HTH TIMES/WEEK TIMES/DAY

Your unit supel"visOI ?

b. Other unit memb4i:"rs 01 co-workE-rs ?

c" People ')utside "f Y'-::'UI unir

27. During the past J months, how ott..:.-n W~I'" YOli involved HOW ,)FTEN MEET INGS WER E HELD I N PAST THREE MONTHS
in special group probI..:.-m solVIng meetings with:

NOT ONCE ABOUT ONCE ABOlrr EVERY ABOUT ONCE ABOUT 2-4 ONCE A
A MONTH TWO WEEKS A WEEK TIMES/WEEK DAY OR
MORE

a. Two or more people from yOUl" unit?

b. Two or more people fl"Om outside or YOlll unit?

2B. How oft~n 'w'e-re 1~<::]\,I,illy s..-llo2,Ii,) 1::',1 ~"t,.:,! r lIIo?,,·( lngs
field among peopl'2 in "y'r'l.ll Ullir. ?

F-27
29. During thE' past 3 mont:hs how ~ did .;;;d.;.i;;;..d.;;.g
...r;.e;.e;.;m.;;e:n:t:.=-_ _ _ _ _ _~H~OW~.:.O.:.F.:.T.::EN~D::.I::.S:.:A.:.O:.:R:.:E:::EH:::.:.:ENTS OR ARGUMENTS OCCURReD
or arguments occur:
NOT ONCE ABOUT ONCE ABOUT EVERY ABOUT ONCE SEVERAL TIMES EVERY DAY
A MONTH 2 WEEKS A WEEK A WEEK

a. Between unit members and your supervisor 2


b, Among unit members 7 2 5 ,
c. Between people in your unit and people outside

of your unit?
5
30. In general, when these di sagreemehts or arguments HOW OFTEN DISPUTES RESOl.VED THIS WAY
occurred. how often were the~handled in each of ,,-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
the follOWing ways dUTlng Ene past threemonths:
ALMOST NEVER SELDOM ABOUT HALF THE TIME OFTEN VERY OFTEN

a. By ignoring or avoidin9 the issues


b. By smoothing over the i SSU€ s or by maki og

the issues seem less important? 2

c. By bringing the issues out in the open and


working them out among the people involved 2 5
d. ey having a higher-level supervisor resolve the
i SS\1~S between the people invol ved ? 5

31. overall, to what ~ does this conflict resolution help or hinder your unit's performance
HINDERS A LOT HINDERS MORE THAN HELPS NEITHER HELPS NOR HINDERS HELPS MORE THAN HINDERS HELPS A LOT
----------~ ------­
..

32. ~ are unit members willing to give other membE'rs the support they need to do d good job?
NONE Ll1"fLE SOME f,;:>f)l'T'E: A BIT VERY MUCH

33. In relation to other comp<.\rable orgd:nizacion~'!1 units. FAR BELOW SOMEWHAT BELOW ABOUT SOMEWHAT ABOVE fAR ABOVE
how~r unit rdte on e.!tch of the following JWERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE AVERAGE
factors ourlng th~ past yerr:- _______________________________________________________________

d:. The quantity or ~ of wot·k or service produced? 5

b. The ~ 01- dCCUld:CY of work or service pl-oduced ?


c. The number of i nnov.;\t ions or new ideas i fit l~oduc\?d by
the unit? 2 s

e. Attainment 01 anit productions ('I' s<?rvi,:-", goa15 ? 5


f. of unit or to what degree are
n most economi <:31 w~ys 7 5
9 . !:i2!.ili (; f un i t pE< r $, )nn~ i 5

A SELF-APPRAISAL OF YOUR UNIT

NOW MAKE A SELF-ASSESSMENT OF THE ORGANJZM'ION !\ND EfFECT1VWESS Of YOUR UNIT. HOPEFUl.LY. THE C~'ESTIONS YOU HAVE ANSWERED SO fAR
S1'IMUI..ATED YOU TO MAKE SUCH A SELF -ASSE$$ME:N"I',

A. Describe the major strengths of youl work unit

8. Describe the Mdjor weaknesses of your work unit

F-28
FINALLY. PLEASE I'.NSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS iUlOU'I' YOURSELF. YOUR I'.NSWERS ARE USEFUL FOR STATISTICAL I'.NALYSIS I\N'D ARE STRICTLY
CONn DENT IAL .

34. How long have you worked in this organization

35. a) How many years it take for you to reach a Dtdnageria I


or supervi sory ion ?

b) How many years have you served in the present: position

36. Indicate your sex: female Male


2

37. fiow old were you on your last birthday Ye-ars old.
38. How many dependents do you h~ve 7 {~ou and others who depend on your income tor their financial support.)
Number of dependents.
39. How many years of academic. vocational; or professional education have you obtained beyond high school ?
YEARS AfTER HIGH SCHOOL

2 7 S

40~ What is the highest educational qualification you obtained

GRADE SCHOOL HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL OR CRAfT COLLEGE BACHELOR'S DOCTORAL DEGREE
DIPLOMA DIPLOMA CERTII'lCATION DEGREE

41. Tick the specific majol or field <>1 sp:;:cializ,ation in which you obtained this. degr@e.
Ii} "I'echnical/Enginef?ring _ _ ! 2) M~n"'gel'f\ent {3 J Other professional such as Law i4j social Sci@nce _ _

(5) Arts. Science and OthelS


42. Your job titl&:

F-29
FOCAL UNIT QUESTIONNAIRE

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS

Definitions: This questionnaire asks many questions about your unit and other
units.

* Your unit includes you (as the supervisor) and all individuals who report
directly to you. If you are not a supervisor, then your unit includes
your immediate supervisor and all individuals (your co-workers) who
directly report to your immediate supervisor.

* Other units refers to any other groups, departments, levels, or divisions


within or outside of your organization that your unit coordinates with.

This questionnaire asks you to answer each question five times, once for each of
the five most important other units that your unit coordinates with. These
other units are listed in the columns to the right of the questions. For each
question there is a five-point answer scale with brief descriptions of what the
numbers of the scale represent. You are to choose one number that most
accurately reflects your answer to each question for each other unit and write
it in the appropriate column.

For example, if you were asked the following question, and your answers were
"daily", "monthly", "hourly", "never", and "weekly" for other units 1 to 5
respectively, then you would write the numbers "4", "2", "5", "1" and "3" in the
appropriate columns for the other units like this:

How often were in contact with this other unit during the past six
months ?

NEVER MONTHLY WEEKLY DAILY HOURLY Unit 1 Unit 4 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5
~~~---- .......
---~

2 _4_ _ _2_ _S_ _ _1 _ _ _3 _

If you do not understand any question, BE SURE TO ASK FOR HELP. We realize that
not all questions are simple. That is why we are here to answer any question you
have.

INTRODUCTORY QUESTIONS

The following questions are very important for properly coding and analyzing the
data. As indicated before, all responses are kept strictly confidential. When
you have completed this questionnaire, seal it in the accompanying envelope. It
will not be opened until it is received by the Senior Management Specialist,
IIMI.

1. Name of DIVISION in which your work;

2. Name of OFFICE or CITY in which your work

3. Name of UNIT in which you work

4. Write your present JOB TITLE or POSITION:

F-30
Higher Admin.

Levels

Govt. Ministries,
Departments, Farmers
Agencies, Inter-agency and Farmer Organizations
coordination groups etc. Cooperatives

Other units YOUR Other


in the same UNIT Divisions
Division

Suppliers,
Business firms

Lower operating
Levels

The External Relations of Your Unit

In varying degrees your unit does not exist in isolation. As the fuigure
illustrates, your unit may have to maintain many relationships with other units,
levels, and divisions within your organization, as well as with various groups
and agencies outside of your organization. These relationships may exist for a
variety of purposes, such as: coordinated work flows; obtaining money, personnel,
equipment, and technical services; responding to demands or requests of farmers,
farmers' groups, cooperatives and political organizations etc. or initiating
changes in the way in which things are done.

This questionnaire focuses on these external relationships your unit maintained


during the past six months. In the space below, draw a picture that indicates
the major units, levels and groups within and outside your organization that your
unit had contact with during the past six months. Identify these other units by
name. Use the above f above as a guide for drawing your picture below.

F-31
PICTURE OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS MAINTAINED BY MY UNIT

F-32

WE NOW FOCUS ON THE MOST IMPORTANT "UNITS OR GROUPS" THAT YOUR UNIT MAINTAINED
OR DEVELOPED CONTACTS WITH DURING THE PAST SIX MONTHS TO ACCOMPLISH YOUR UNIT'S
GOALS AND RESPONSBILITIES.

IN ALL QUESTIONS, THE TERM ·OTHER UNITS" REFERS TO ANY OTHER GROUPS, OFFICES,
LEVELS, DIVISIONS, AGENCIES, COMMITTEES WITHIN OR OUTSIDE OF YOUR ORGANIZATION
THAT YOUR UNIT COORDINATES WITH. "OTHER UNITS" COULD ALSO MEAN A GROUP OF
FARMERS, FARMERS' ORGANIZATIONS ETC.

PLEASE NOTE THAT UNIT INCLUDES ALL WORK UNITS. GROUPS AS DEFINED ABOVE

1. NAMES OF KEY OTHER UNITS (·Fi GROUP ~. REIISONS fOR RELATIONSHIP WITM C~HER 3. IMPOllTA.NCE
UNIT OR GROIJP
from the picture you drew. wri t€ thE'
namesof the most important other
Sto'\te as '71e-arly
•• possible th~ r·E-..' Ison.$ why
your unit: hdd to coordinate or work WIth thl S
How important was this other
UOlt to attalo1og the goals
unlEs that your unIt had to other unt t. <lut" i ng the Pdst six months. of your unit the past six
coor inate with during tho six months.
months. (Select upto t i ve the
most important other un i ts) (Write d number from scale
below)
For o~ratin2 mdnd2et·s in the
irriga lon systE-ms, UnIt No-. S is 1 = Not very important
reserved for fanners' groups 01 Somewhat important
~

organizat ions. Other manager's nnt 3 ; Quit~ important


di rectly managing the system, plE-ast::' 4 = Very important
ignore preceding sentence. S Absolutely crucial
~

uni t 1

I I I I J
I
J 2 J 4
Name:

Unit 2

I
1
I 2
I ,
I 2
.J
I
Name:

Uni t !

I I I ,
I .'
I
I 4
Name:

Unit 4

I I I I 4
I
1 2 .1 4
Name:

Unit S

I
J
I 2
I
3
I <,

4
Name:

F-33
IT IS ADVISABLE TO WRITE DOWR THE UMIT'S NAME YOU ARE REFERRING TO AT THE HEAD OF EACH COLUMN

IN THE COLUMNS ON THE RIGHT, PLEASE ~RITE


THE MANE OF THE FIVE OTHER UNITS THAT YOU :NANE: :HAME:
SELECTED ON THE PREVIOUS PAGE. THEN
ANSWER THE FOLLO~ING QUESTIONS FOR EACH
OTHER UNIT INDIVIDUALLY BY WRITING IN THE UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 I um 5 II
1 I
APPROPRIATE COLUMN THE MOST ACCURATE NUMBER 1 I
I
1
FROM THE ANSNER SCALE FOR EACH QUESTION. _ _ _ _ _ 1_ _ _ _ _ 1_ _ _ _ _ - - - - - 1 - - - - - I
I I
I I I I
I I I I I
! I I I I I
I I I I 1 I
Does this other unit exist within your I I I I I I

organization? (Circle No or Yes) : No Yes: No Yes: Mo Yes: No Yes: No Yes:


I I I 1 I
If Yes: a. Do you supervise this other unit: I I 1 I I
I
I I I I
in your organization's I ! I I I

hierarchy? No Yes: No Yes : No Yes: No Yes: No Yes:


I I I I
b. Do you forlally report to this II ! I !
!
I
I
I ! I
other unit in your I
I I I I ! I

organization's hierarchy? : No Yes: No Yes : No Yes: No Yes: No Yes:


I ! ! I
! I ! I
I I ! I
If No: a. Do you have a contracted or : I
I
I
I
I
!
I
I
I
required relationship with this: I I I ! I

other unit? : No Yes: No Yes : No Yes : No Yes: No Yes :


I I 1
d. Is it undatory by goverAlent or: I I I
I
I I
regulations that you coordinate: I I I I

with this other unit? No Yes: No Yes: No Yes No Yes: No Yes :


I 1 I I
e. Is it a seIIi obligatory or I I I I I

partially required relationship?: No Yes: No Yes: No Yes No Yes: No Yes :

5. During the past six .onths, hov luch vas


your unit involved vith this other unit
for each of the following reasons:
(use scale below)
a. To receive or send vork or chents
(custolers, rav laterials or
vork objects) ?
b. To receive or send resources (loney,
personnel, euqiplent, office space,
infmation) ?
c. To receive or send technical
assistance (e.g. consultation or staff
services in functional areas) ?
d. To receive or send inforution for
purposes of coordination, control,
planning or evaluation?
e. To lIork together in collaborative
or joint activities?

NOT AT A SOME- QUm VERY


ALL LITTLE WHAT ABIT MUCH

F-34
UNIT 1 UNIT 2
,, UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5
,, ,
,-­ _.._-_._,,
I

, , -',
6. To what extent have the terms of the ,,, ,
,, ,, ,,
I
relationship between your unit and this ,
I

other unit : :Extent: :Extent: :Extent: :Extent: :Extent:


,,
a. Been explicitly verbalized or discussed 1:
b. Been written down in detail?

TO NO LITTLE SOME CONSID­ GREAT


EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT ERABLE EXTENT
EXTENT

1. For how lIany years has your unit been


directly involved in sOle fashion with
this other unit ? _yrs. _yrs. yrs. __ yrs. yrs.

8. Prior to the past six lonths, to what extent


has your unit had effective working
relationships with this other unit?
(Write best scale nUMber in each coluln)

NO PRIOR TO NO LITTlE SOME CONSID­ GREAT:


CONTACT EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT ERABLE EXTENT:
EXTENT

3 4

9. For this other unit to accollplish its goals '


and responsibilities, how lIuch does it need I
the services, resources, or support froll your:
unit?

HOT AT VERY SOME Qum VERY


ALL LITTlE UIT MUCH

10. For your unit to accolp1ish its goals and


responsibilities, how Much do you need the ,
services, resources, support or collaboration:
froll this other unit?
(Use scale for Question 9)

F-35
PLEASE CONTINUE TO ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
QUESTIONS FOR EACH OF THE OTHER UNITS IN THE : UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5
RIGHT COLUMNS, REMEMBERING TO USE THE :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
SANE UNIT NUMBER AS THAT ON THE PREVIOUS :
PAGE. ,:
11. How well infonned are you about the
,,
I
specific goals and services of this other ,
I
I
unit ? ,,,
t
NOT AT LITTLE SOME- QUITE VERY
nll ,,
I

All mORMED mT INFORMED


t
INFO- INFO­
RMED RMED
,, t

t
----------------------------,,
2 3
, t

,, I

12. How luch say or influence does this other :


unit have on the internal operations of your: I
I
unit? I
,
I

t
NONE LITTLE SOME QUITE VERY "

I
ABIT MUCH I
I
I

3 4 ,
I
I
13. HOIl luch say of influence does your unit have:
on the internal operations of this other
unit ?
(Use scale for Question 12.)

14. ~rite the job title and location of the


prilary individual that you caontact or
comlunicate with when d.ealing with this
other unit?

UNIT 1: Job Title: Unit's Address:

UNIT 2: Job Title: Unit's Address:

UNIT 3: Job Title: Uni t' s Add ress:

UNIT 4: Job Title: Unit's Address:

UNIT 5: Job Title: Unit s Address:


I

F-36
um 1 UMIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5

'-~----
15. How.any years and lIonths have you personally: Yrs. ' Yrs. Yrs. Yrs. Yrs.
known the contact person in this other unit?: Iths. IIths. ' aths. Iths. aths. '

16. How well are you personally acquainted wan


the contact person in this other unit ?

MO NOT VERY SOMEWHAT QUITE VERY

PERSONAL WEll WEll WEll WEll :

ACQUAINT­

ANCE

11. How lIuch do you and this contact person


agree or disagree on:
a. The goal priorities of your unit?
b. The specific ways work is done or

services are provided by your unit?

c. The specific terlS of the relationship

between your unit and this other unit? '

DON'T DISAGREE AGREE AGREE AGREE AGREE

KNOW MUCH A SOME­ QUITE VERY

WHAT ABIT MUCH

18. To what extent does this other unit:


a. Obtain its funding froll the sale source

as your unit does?

b. Do the sale kind of work as your unit

does or do work compli.entary to what

your unit does?

c. Have the salle clients or custo.ers as

your unit ?

d. Have operating goals similar to your

unit's goals?

e. Have elployees with sililar professional

or trade skills as those required of

personnel in your unit?

f. Use the sale technology, equipRent or

inforllation sources as your unit in

doing its work?

DON'T TO NO lITTLE SOME COHSID- GREAT

KNOW EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT ERABH mEkT:

EXTENT

F-37
UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNH 4 UNH 5
I
 _______.__ I ~ _____ ~_I
I
____ ~I
I
_ _ _ _­

,
!
,I ,1 I

I
19. To wnat extent did invidivuals in this
other unit hinder your unit in performing
its functions during the past six lIonths ?
(Use scale for Question 18 above)

20. Consider now the equality of the give-and­


take relationship with each unit. COllpared
to otner units that you are involved with,
how fair do you feel are the 'payoffs' or
reciprocal benefits to your unit froll this
unlt ?

WE GET ~E GET BAlA- WE GET nGET


MUCH SOME­ NCED SOME­ MUCH
lESS WHAT WHAT MORE
THAN LESS MORE THAN
WE THAN THAN WE
OUGHT WE WE OUGHT
OUGHT

21. During the past six lonths how frequently


have peop Ie in your unit communicated or
been in contact with people in this other
unit?

NOT 1-2 ABOUT ABOUT ABOUT ABOUT MANY 1


ONCE TINES MONTHLY EVERY WEEKLY OAIlY HMES:
2 OAIlY:
WEEKS

o
22. Specifically, how frequently did your unit
cOllllunicate with this other unit through
each of the following ways during the past
six months?
a. Through written letters, lIellos or
reports of any kind?
b. Through personal face-to-face
discussions?
c. Through telephone calls?
d. Through group or cOlllittee meetings
between three or lore people froll your
unit and this other unit?
(Use scale for Question 21)
1
- _ _ _ _ _ _ 1_ _ _ _ _ _- - - , - - - - - - - - _~ _____ , _ _ _ _ _ ,

F-38
UNIT I UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5

23. In general, what percent of all these


communications with this other unit were
initiated by people in your unit during
the past six tonths ?
(Indicate percent) -­
, -­
, --'
24. Overall, how luch difficulty do you
experience in getting ideas clearly across
to indiviauls in this other unit when you
comlunicate with thea ?

NO NONE LITTlE SOME QUITE VERY:


CONTACT ABIT MUCH:
I
I

4 5:

25. When you wanted to cOlmunicate with


individuals in this unit, how luch
difficulty have you had getting In touch
with thel ?
(Use scale for Question 24.)

THE NEXT TWO QUESTIONS MAY BE flIFFICUl T TO


ANSWER. MAKE THE MOST APPROXIMATE ESTIMATE ,I
YOU CAN. WRITE '0' IF YOUR ANSWER IS NONE
OR HOT APPlICA8L E

26. During the past six lonths:


a. What percent of your total working hours:
did you spend on utters directly related:
to the operations, work, or projects of I
this other unit ? -­
, , ,
b. What percent of a11 the work done by
your unit cale frol this other unit? -­
, -­
,
c. what percent of all technical assistance I
and services did you receive froll this
other unit ! I , - -I
d. What percent of your unit's operating
budget (loney, personnel, supplIes,
equiplent) was obtained frol thIS other
unit ? .....................
, ,
21. During the past six lontns :
a. What percent of all the worK cOlpleted by;
your unit was sent to thIS other unit ? ----­
, %
b. What percent of all resou rees ail oeated
by your unit was given to this other
unit? , ,
UNIT 1 UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5

I
I

c. What percent of a11 person-hours of :

technical assistance or services provided:

by your unit was given to this other

__I _ _I
unit ?

28. During the past six .anths, how luch the


salle were these work llaterials, resources,
services or informatian each tille they were
sent to or received froll this other unit ?

ALMOST MOSTLY ABOUT MOSH Y AlMOST

AlL THE HALF DIFFE- ALL

THE SAME THE RENT DrFFERENT

SAME EACH SANE EACH EACH

EACH TIME EACH HME TIME

HME TIME

2t To what extent did your unit enmnter :


interruption or delays to the noml flm af:
work, resaurces, inforllation or services froll:
this other unit during the past six .onths~

TO NO LITTLE SOME MUCH VERY GREAT

EXTENT EXTENT EXTEKT EXTENT EXTENT


I

30. During the past six lonths, how often did


exceptions or problells arise in sending or
receiving work, resources, infarMtion or
services ta ar fro. this other unit?
I
I

NOT 1 OR 2 ABOUT ABOUT ABOIlT SEVERAL :

ONCE TIMES MONTHLY WEEKLY om Y TIMES A:

DAY

31. To coordinate activities with this other


unit during the past six lIonths, ta what
extent :
a. Have standard aperating procedures been

established (e.g. rules, .1lcies, forls

etc,] ?
I
I ! I I
I .~_~~ _ _ _ ' _ _ _ _ _ ~I _________ ~_I _ _ _ _ ~~t _ _ _ _ _ _. _ _ I
UNIT 1 I
UNIT 2 um 3 UNIT 4 um s
. _ _ _ _ I1_

_ _ _- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I

b. Are forlal cOR.unication channels


fo lloved ?

TO NO LITTLE SOME CONSlOERABLE GREAT :

EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT :

---------~--- .... ---,I

32. During the past six lonths, how often were


there disagree~ents or disputes between
people in your unit and this other unit?

NOT ABOUT ABOUT ABOUT SEVERAL Emy:

ONCE ONCE EVERY ONCE mES DAY

A 2 A A WEEK

MONTH WEEKS WEEk

33. When these diagreelents or disputes occurred


how often were they handled in each of the
following ways during the past six months?
a. By ignoring or avoiding the issues? 1

b. By sioothing over the issues or by laking:

issues sm less illportant ?

c. By bringing the issues out in the open

and working thea out along the parties

invo lved ?

d. By having a higher level .anager or

authority resolve the issues between the

parties involved?

ALMOST SELDOM ABOUT HALF OFTEN ALMOST

NEVER THE TIME ALWAYS

- - - - - .. -~ ....- --------­

34. How well are any differences worked out at


this tile between your unit and this other
unit?

VERY POORLY ADEQUATElY QUm VERY

POORLY WELL WELL

-----~-- ------­
...
___ I
1
j

,
I ,
- - - - - - - - - - , _ _ _ _ ~_I

F-41
-------, 1

UNIT 1 UNIT 2 um 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5


1 1 1 1
1_ _ _ _ 1_ _ _ _ _ 1_ _- , _ .... _ _ _ _ 1_ _ _ _­
I 1 1 I
1 1 I
1 1

TO CONCLUDE THIS SECTION, PLEASE ANSWER


THE FOllOWING QUESTIONS USING THE SCALE

FOLLOWING QUESTION 41.

35. To what extent has this unit carried out


its responsibil it ies and cOllllitments in
regard to this other unit during the past
six months?

36. To what extent has your unit carried out


your responsbilities and cOlllllitments in
regard to this other unit during the past
six lIonths ?

37. To what extent do you feel the relationship 1

between your unit and this other unit is

product ive ?

38. To what extent is the tille and effort spent


in developing and maintaining the
relationship with this other unit
worthwhile?

39. Overall, to what extent were you satisfied


with the re lat ionship between your un it and
this other unit during the past six months? 1

40. During the past six months, to what extent


has your unit changed or influenced the
services or operations of this other unit? I

41. During the past six 1I0nths, to what extent


has this other unit changed or influenced
the services or operations of your unit?

TO NO LITTLE SOME CONSIDERABLE GREAT

EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT EXTENT:

I
- - - - _ . _ . _ - - - - - - - - - -_ _ _ _ _ _ 1
,,
4
I
I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ - - -____ I __ ---~--~... _.I _ _ _­

F-42
A SELF APPRAISAL OF YOUR UNITS EXTERNAL RELATIONS

NOW MAKE A SELF~ASSESSMDn' OF THE RELATIONSHI P YOUB UNfT MAIN'l'AINED WITH EACH OF THE O'rHER UNITS. HOPEFULLY, THE QUESTIONS YOU HAVE
ANSWERED SO FA.R HAVE STIMULATED Y,)UR Tv MAKe Slh.:H A SELF-ASSESMDn'.

~~s~~~~~i ~~~ i ~~j ~r thr~~~hm~ f y~~~ h~~~e~n~~~~~ e,~;~~ i r~~ ~.~~ dl~I~~~
suggest some specific ways for overcoming these
six months. -
problems with each or
the other units.

ONI'!' 1 Name

ONIT 2 Name

ONI'!' 3 Name

ONI'!" 4 Name

ONI'!" 5 Name

F-43
THE WATER DELIVERY PERFORMANCE QUESTIONNAIRE

GUIDELINE TO QUESTIONNAIRE

Because of the do-it-yourself character of the questionnaires, a step-by-step guideline is


given for responding to the questionnaire.

STEP 1

Respond to the questions by filling in the first column with a 'yes' or 'no' for all possible
situations.

It is the intention to respond to the whole list in the sequence given, and that you
consider for every situation carefully if it occurs in your system or organization. It is
important to follow the given sequence because the given situations have a cumulative
nature, which means that a next situation usually implies the former. In many instances,
a situation is supplemented in the consequent situation with additions like: "True, and
in addition ..." You have to answer all of these situations with respectively: "yes, yes,
no" or "non, no."

Try to base your answers as much as possible on the presently existing situation, and
not on the ideal situation or good intentions. Watch out for another effect. As directly
involved person you have the tendency to over estimate your own level of control. This
leads to a form of inflation. It is clear that this would reduce the quality of this
diagnosis. Moreover, it is even possible that after comparison with other systems, the
conclusion will be that your level of control is too high. Therefore, try to look at your
own situa tion as objectively as possible. Discussion with colleagues or experts who are
familiar with your situation may stimulate the objectivity.

STEP 2

For all situations which have been responded with 'yes' during Step I, determine the
frequency that the situation occurs.

Base the frequency on estimates. In some cases you may be able to obtain required data
from the administration but this may be easily too time consuming. Estimates are
sufficiently reliable for this diagnosis. The estimates of the frequency has to be based
on the percentage of the number of 'Working hours spent: in many cases the best estimate
is the time utilizations of involved staff.

Note the frequency in the related column with a percentage between 0% and 100%

If the answer during Step 1 is 'no' the frequency is irrelevant or 0%.

F-44
ADDITIONAL NOTE

Contrary to what you might have expected, a high score will not necessary be the best
score. While these scores indicate a level of perfection of the management, presently no
conclusions can be drawn from these figures. A low figure with a high system
performance may be very cost effective and thus better than a high level of perfection ­
- representing also increased costs -- with the same overall system performance. Such
conclusions can be drawn only in the near future after IIMI has collected data from any
system performance of the involved systems. The present exercise is merely to pilot-test
this methodology in a limited number of systems in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

Please note if responding to a question gives problems, to allow us to improve the clarity
of the questions indicate as follows:

If you consider any question to be :

NOT UNDERSTANDABLE OR COMPREHENSIBLE: Mark the question with "A"


NOT RELEVANT TO YOUR ENVIRONMENT: Mark the question with "B"

In addition, we welcome any comments you wish to make. Use any blank space on the
questionnaire for this purpose.

F-45
SEASONAL PLANNING
~ questions on this page and the following 3 pages deal only with the seasonal
The
planning. The questions should not be answered for allocations during the cultivation
season.
1. HOW DOES TIlE SEASONAL PLANNING RELATED TO IRRIGATION WATER AND
CROPS TO DIFFERENT AREAS TAKE PLACE AT THE START OF TIlE
CULTIVATION SEASON?
Yes/No Frequency
Only one of the follawing 1.1 (a) to 1.1 (d) can be responded with 'yes'
1.1 (a) The gate operators determine the starting date of the cultivation
season and the areas to be cultivated
(b) Field supervisors detennine the starting date and the different

extents to be cultivated

(c) Senior officers in the hierarchy determine the starting date

and the different extents to be cultivated, but only for a

limited part of the irrigation system

(d) The starting date, different extents and possibly crops to be

grown are detennined at a central point for the whole

irrigation system

Only one of the following l.5(a) to 1.5(c) can be responded with


'yes.' Only for the questions responded with 'yes' the related
sub-questions have to be responded.
1.5 (a) Individual water user requests (actual) are considered
in seasonal planning if water is abunbdantly available

True, while in addition informing water users and gate

operators before the start of the season

True, and in addition water users and gate operators

are consulted

True, and in addition the majority of farmers or their

representatives accept the allocations

15 (b) Actual requests of the smallest sub-systems (for example


tertiary or field canals) are considered in the seasonal
planning if water is available abundantly
True, while in addition informing water users and gate
operators before the start of the season
True, and in addition water users and gate operators
are consulted
True, and in addition the majority of farmers or their
representatives accept the allocations I
Yes/No Frequency
15 (c) Actual request of important sub-systems (for example
distributary canals, tracts of blocks) are considered in
the seasonal planning if water is available abundantly
True, while in addition infonning water users and gate
operators before the start of the season
True, and in addition water users and gate operators
are consulted
True, and in addition the majority of farmers or their
representatives accept the allocations
1.17 A fixed seasonal allocation policy exists and is
implemented. (This policy gives procedures and guidelines
regarding possible starting and completion dates for the
cultivation season, crops, water duties for different
areas. Or, it determines which sub-systems get priority or
are denied cultivation for different water availability
situations).
1.18 This seasonal allocation policy is detennined in
consultation with headquarters, water users, local
administration/ government officials, relevant agencies and
possibly politidans
1.19 This seasonal allocation policy is evaluated after each
season
1.20 Seasonal cultivation plans are in accordance with
agricultural plans
1.21 Seasonal allocation dedsions are in line with annual and
seasonal maintenance plans, rehabilitation and improvement
plans
1.22 The seasonal dedsions are in line with the long term
allocation strategy. (Por example, if no rice cultivation
is allowed in areas where only water is available for less
water consuming subsidiary field crops, the seasonal water
duty allocates are in line with these envisaged long term
water allocations.)

F-47

2. HOW IS TIlE IMPLEMENTATION OF TIlE SEASONAL ALLOCATION DEQSIONS PLANNED

Yes/No Frequency
2.1 The urgency of requirements of water users or sub-systems
(for example agricultural inputs, credits, labour
availability) determines actual starting dates or staggers
between water users or sub-systems
2.2 A system of fixed priorities/rules for implementation of
seasonal plan is laid down in schedules and is implemented
2.3 Seasonal agricultural plans and maintenance plans form the
basis for the implementation of the staggers
- True, but in addition these staggers are determined as
well by an annual agricultural and maintenance plans
2.5 A weekly schedule for the implementation of the cultivation
season exists on paper in which all related tasks are
scheduled in time
- True, and in addition to this weekly implementation
schedule, a time utilization schedule is made which
reflects the degree of utilization of the different
involved divisions in time
- True, and in addition, a time utilization schedule for
every individual staff member exists
- True, and in addition, this time utilization schedule is
detailed by means of a bar schedule
2.9 'Ine implementation planning is executed by a central
planning officer

F-48
3. HOW IS THE PRCX::;RESS MONITORING AND EVALUA TION (QUANTITATIVELY AND
QUALITATIVELy) OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEASONAL ALLOCATION PLAN BY
OWN SfAFF AND STAFF OF OTHER ORGANIZATIONS?

Yes/No Frequency
3.1 Monitoring and evaluation of starting up of cultivation
season through supervisions of gate operators by field level
supervisors
3.2 Monitoring and evaluation of starting up of cultivation
season through supervisions of gate operators by supervisors
who are hierarchically higher than field level staff
3.3 Regular at least weekly) progress meetings with involved
staff
- True, but also with participation of farmers or their
representatives
3.5 Regular documentation of progress and delays in starting
dates of the cultivation season for different cultivated
extents
3.6 Formal, documented completion of starting up of seasonal
plan and verification of realized water duties during
starting up, cultivation crops, and cultivated extents
- True, and in addition written reporting and analysis of
causes of deviations from plan
3.8 Regular comparison of implementation progress with plan
- True, with written reporting and analysis of causes of
deviations
3.10 Monitoring and evaluation of costs involved (for example
salaries, transport) in implementation of seasonal plan for
important sub-systems by calculation at conclusion of
starting up of season
- True, but in addition written reporting and analysis of
deviations

F-49
IN-SEASONAL ALLOCATION
NB: The questions on this page and the following 3 pages have to be responded for allocation
of water during the season only.
4. HOW IS THE DEMAND OF WATER DUruNG THE CULTIVATION SEASON MATCHED WlTII
THE AVAILABLE WATER RESOURCES?
Only one of the following 4.1(a) to 4.1(d) can be responded with 'yes'

Yes/No Frequency
4.1 (a) Gate operators can allocate water volumes (= timing,
quantity and duration) according to own judgement and
preferences
4.1 (b) Field Supervisors determine these in-seasonal allocations
4.1 (c) The allocation of water volumes for a limited part of the
irrigation system is determined by senior officers in the
hierarchy
4.1.c is true, and this determination of the
allocation happens
c.1 daily
c.2 weekly
c.3 biweekly
c.4 monthly
c.5 irregularly
4.1 (d) The allocation of water volume is determined at a central
point for the whole irrigation system
4.1.6 is true, and this determination of the
allocation happens
d.l daily
d.2 weekly
d.3 biweekly
d.4 monthly
d.5 irregularly
Only one of the following 4.15(a) to 4.15(c) can be responded with ~eS
4.15 (a) Individual water user requests (actual) are considered in
water allocations if water is available abundantly, also in
view of requirements and allocations of other users
True, while in addition informing water users (or their
representatives) and gate operators before the
implementation of the scheduled allocations
True, and in addition water users or their representatives
and gate operators are consulted

F-50
Yes/No Frequency
True, and in addition the majority of farmers or their
representatives are in agreement with the allocation
4.15 (b) Actual requests of the smalles sub-systems (for example
tertiary or field canals) are considered if the water is
available abundantly, also in view of requirements and
allocations of other sub-systems
True, while in addition informing water users (or their
representatives) and gate operators before the
implementation of the scheduled allocation
True, and in addition water users or their representatives
and gate operators are consulted
True, and in addition the majority of farmers or their
representatives are in agreement with the allocation
4.15 (c) Actual requests of important sub-systems (for example
distributary canals, tracts or blocks) are considered if water
is available abundantly, also in view of requirements of other
sub-systems
True, while in addition informing water users (or their
representatives) and gate operators before the
implementation of the scheduled allocations
True, and in addition water users or their representatives
and gate operators are consulted
True, and in addition the majority of farmers or their
representatives are in agreement with the allocations
4.27 A fixed in-seasonal allocation policy exists and is implemented.
(This policy gives procedures and guidelines regarding water
volumes for different extents in timing, quantity and duration.
Or, it determines which sub-systems get priority or are denied
water for different water availability situations).
4.28 This in-seasonal allocation policy is determined in consultation
with headquarters, users, local government officials, relevant
agencies and possibly politicians
4.29 This in-seasonal allocation policy is regularly evaluated
4.30 In-seasonal allocation decisions are in accordance with the
seasonal allocation plan
4.31 In-seasonal allocation decisions are in accordance with the
seasonal agricultural implementation plan
4.32 The decisions are in line with a long term allocation strategy.
For example, if no rice cultivation is allowed in areas where
only water is available for less water consuming subsidiary field
crops, the water allocations are in line with these envisaged
long term water allocations

F-Sl
5. HOW IS TIlE IMPLEMENTATION OF TIlE IN-SEASONAL ALLOCATIONS PLANNED?

Yes/No Frequency
5.1 The urgency of requirements of water users of sub-systems (for
example labour availability, input supply, pest or disease
incidence, other agricultural reasons) determines the actual
allocations (timing, quantity and duration) to different
sub-systems
5.2 A system of fixed priorities/rules has been laid down on paper
and is implemented
5.3 A schedule of actual water requirements from different
sub-systems forms the basis for the allocation implementation
scheduling
- True, but the allocation scheduling is determined also by a
written schedule of seasonal or annual water delivery
performance and agricultural production targets
5.5 A weekly allocation implementation schedule exists in which
related tasks in time have been scheduled and indicated as well
5.6 This weekly allocation implementation schedule is supplemented
with a time utilization schedule (reflecting the degree of
utilization of the different involved divisions in time)
5.7 In addition, a time utilization schedule for every individual
staff member is provided
5.8 In addition, this time utilization schedule is detailed by means
of a bar schedule
5.9 This implementation planning is executed by a central planning
officer

F-52

6. HOW IS PROGRESS MONITORING AND EVALUATION (QUANIITATIVELY AND QUALITAT


OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF 1HE IN-SEASONAL ALLOCATIONS BY OWN STAFF 7

Yes/No Frequency
6.1 Progress monitoring and evaluation of actual water
delivery through supervisions of gate operators by
field level supervisors
6.2 Progress monitoring and evaluation of actual water
delivery through supervisions by officers who are
higher in the hierarchy than field level staff
6.3 Regular progress meetings (= at least biweekly) with
involved agency staff
- True, but also with participation of farmers or

their represen ta tives

6.5 Regular documentation of monitoring and evaluation of


deviations in timing of start and completion of actual
water delivery
6.6 Formal documented completion and verification of water
delivery performance (for example timeliness,
predictability, adequacy, efficiency)
True, and in addition documented reporting and

analysis of causes of deviations from scheduled

allocation

6.8 Regular comparison of implementation progress and


scheduled implementation

True, with documented reporting and analysis of

causes and deviations

6.10 Monitoring and evaluation of costs involved (for


example salaries, transport) in implementation of
in-seasonal allocations for important sub-systems by
ex-post calculation
- True, but in addition documented reporting and

analysis of deviations

F-53
GATE OPERATIONS AND WATER FLOW REGULATION
NB: The questions on this page and the following page have to be responded only for the actual gate settings
(procedure, size, frequency) and actual water flow regulation. This is different from the earlier questions
regarding allocation of water volumes.

7. HOW DOES 1HE PREPARATION OF GATE SE'ITINGS (= PROCEDURE, SIZE AND FREQUENC
OWN STAFF TAKE PLACE ?
NB: This question does not refer to the planning in time of these operational methods and plans, which had
been covered in questions 1 to 6 already. Questions 7 and 8 refer to the mIl1Ulgement concern that
actual water flow regulation through the execution of gate settings at a specific momemnt itself happens as
effec.tivtly and efficiently as possible.

Yes/No Frequency
7.1 The gate operators do the preparation of procedure, size and frequency
of different gate settings by themselves
In principle, only one of the following 7.2(aV·7.2(a.3), 7.2(b) and 7.2(e) can
be responded with 'yes: However, it is possible to respond both 7.2(b) and
7.2(c) with 'yes.'
7.2 (al) Field supervisors give specific instructions to the gate operators
about the procedure, size and frequency of different gate settings
7.2 (a2) Officers who are hierarchically higher than field level staff give
specific instructions to the gate operators about the procedure, size
and frequency of different gate settings
7.2 (a3) Supervising officers do the administrtive and technical preparation d
procedures, size and frequency of gate settings (for example rating
curves for gates)
7.2 (b) There are fixed rules/standing orders for procedures, size and
frequency of gate settings (for example for important water level
fluctuations after rainfall or for safety)
7.2 (c) Special technical staff do the preparation of procedures, size and
frequency of gate settings
7.7 Such special technical staff has up to date information of hydraulic
conditions of canals, control and measurement facilities
7.8 Regular analysis of gate setting procedures by means of historical data
7.9 Systematic analysis for different water flow scenarios by means of
time-and-motion techniques (=non-stop monitoring for some days)

- GATE SETTINGS ­
Yes/No Frequency
7.10 The outcomes of such analyses are discussed with the supervisors
7.11 The analyses are discussed with the gate operators, for which
inputs from their side are expected

F-54

8. HOW IS THE CONTROL OVER TIME UTIUZATION BY GATE OPERAroR~ "

Yes/No Frequency
8.1 Supervisors check their actual working hours
8.2 Gate operators record their own daily working hours
8.3 Methods like multi-moment recordings (=continuous monitoring for a
couple of days), are used for fixing once in every two or three
years the working hours in a representative period
8.4 Gate oeprators record their time taken per operation
8.5 Time taken per operation is regularly analyzed by means of
comparing different operations

Only one of the following 8.5 and 8.6 am be responded with 'yes'
8.6 Working time norms are developed by means of historical data
8.7 That time norm is determined by means of work studies or
multi-moment recordings
8.8 Analyses are done on actual time spent in comparison to norms
8.9 Such analyses are done by a special officer (for example, who is
involved in the preparation of operational methods as well)
8.10 The outcomes of the analyses are discussed with supervisors
8.11 The outcomes of these analyses are discussed with gate operators,
whereby their input is expected

F-55
SOME BACKGROUND INFORMATION

What size is the irrigation system for which you answered the questions ?
Is the water availability for the whole system abundant or not in average years?
What is the average seasonal water duty of this system?
What is the average annual cropping intensity ?
Is the constructed command area fully utilized ?
What percentage of the area has never been irrigated ?
What type of water supply is available for this system? o diversion of river
o storage in reservoir
o pumping from river
o other, _ __
How many numbers of the following staff levels work approximately in this system? And what percen
time do they spend on water delivery activities?
Number % time involvement in water delivery
Gate operators
Field level supervisors
Officers higherin hierarchy, but not engineer
EnhTineers
.- What was the approximate value of the irrigation system at the time of construction?
What year was construction completed ?
In what years was the system rehabilitated, and what were the costs involved ?
What are the average annual recurrent expenditures on: 1. Maintenance
2. Operation
What crops are grown in the system? rice, ______ % of the annual cropped ar
other crops, % of the annual cropped a
What is the average yield in the system? rice, _ _ _ _ __
Other crops, _ _ __
How long is the main canal? _ _ _ _ kilometer/mile
If there are two, how long is the other? _ _ _ _ kilometer/mile
How may cross-regulators are in these main canals?
Describe the type of cross-regulator (= fixed/gated/on-off undershot or weir, number of g
What type of offtake structures control the water distribution from main canal to distributary/secondar
lateral canal?
Are there facilities to measure water flow or level in the main canal?
How many?
Are these used ? How often?
Are they calibrated? How frequent?
Are there facilities to measure water flow or level in the distributary/secondary /lateral can
How many?
Are these used? How often?
Are they calibrated? How frequent?

P 6
What is the size of the average area commanded by a secondary / distributary hectare/acr
What kind of cross-regula tors are provided in the secondary / distributary /lateral canals? (= fixed/gate
undershot or weir, number of gates etc.)
What is their density? number of cross-regulators/kilometer or mile
What type of offtake structures control the water distribution from distributary / secondary /lateral/cana
tertiary /field canal? (= fixed/gated/on-off undershot or weir, number of gates etc.)
Are there facilities to measure water flow or level in the tertiary /field canal?
Howmany?
Are these used ? How often?
Are they calibrated? How frequent?
What is the size of the average area commanded by a tertiary/field canal? hectare/acr
What is the average size of the land holding per water user in the system? hectare/acr
How much time has it taken you to complete this questionnaire?

THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR RESPONDING TO THIS QUESTIONNAIRE.


Please add potential general remarks or comments on the back.

F-S7