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TECTONIC EVOLUTION

The tectonic evolution of East Java Basin is somewhat complicated. According to several publications,
events such as collision, basin uplifting, subsidence, and folding and strike-slip faulting have happened
during the development of the basin since Cretaceous (Figure 1 and Figure 2).

Figure 1 Tectonic, structural, and stratigraphic evolution of East Java (Sribudiyani et al., 2003).
Figure 2 Regional tectonic setting of East Java Basin (Mudjiono and Pireno, 2001) (top) and tectonic
element of East Java Basin (Sribudiyani et al., 2003).
Pre-Tertiary

According to Sribudyani et al. (2003), during the period of Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary, the
contemporaneous northeastward movement of the Australian plate resulted in subduction under the
Sunda Microplate along Java-Meratus suture. Late Cretaceous magmatic activity can be traced
continuously from northeast Sumatra through Java to southeast Kalimantan (figure 3).

Figure 3 Subduction evidence from magmatic arc during Late Cretaceous – Early Oligocene (Sribudyani et
al., 2003).

Meanwhile, age determination has been conducted by Soesilo et al. (2015) to reconstruct the collision
and age relationship between Meratus Complex, Bantimala, and Karangsambung tectonically. Almost of
metamorphic rock are Cretaceous ages except in Meratus Complex and Mangkalihat which are available
Jurassic ages (Figure 4). In addition, four wells have been drilled to reach pre-Tertiary rocks in
Kangean/Lombok area, include metavolcanics, quartzite, chert, and serpentinised amphibolite (Bransden
and Matthews, 1992). These lithologies could be interpreted as accretionary material. Figure 5 and Figure
6 show tectonic evolution illustrations of the collision between Eurasia and East Java Microplate.
Figure 4 Distributions of Metamorphic rock ages (above) and magmatic rock ages (below) (Soesilo et al.,
2015).
Figure 5 Illustration of tectonic evolution of Eastern Sundaland margin during Cretaceous-Pliocene (Sapiie
et al., 2017).
Figure 6 Mesozoic tectonic evolution of southeast Sundaland margin (Soesilo et al., 2015).

The basement configuration is also controlled by RMKS Fault Zone. Northern part of the fault consists of
Low-grade metamorphics (phyllite, quartzite, and meta-tuff) basement rocks while the southeastern part
has intermediate igneous rocks (monzonite and diorite) basement (Satyana et al., 2004).

Palaeogene

This period is marked with localized rifting event during early Eocene and wide spread by late Eocene
(Bransden and Matthews, 1992). The major fault zones show a broadly E-W trend. To the north of East
Java onshore, the fault system changes to NE-SW trend (Figure 7).
Figure 7 Palaeogene fault trends, isopach thicks, and Neogene inversion axes (Bransden and Matthews,
1992).

In both onshore and offshore of east Java, a similar age quartz clastic unit known as Ngimbang Fm. is
found in both NE-SW (along Meratus trend) and E-W graben known as the Sakala trend (Sribudiyani et al.,
2003). Ngimbang Fm. is distributed further east in the East Kangean-Pagerungan area. This formation was
penetrated near TD of EJ-1 well. Seismic section in the vicinity of the well shows strong reflector below
Ngimbang Fm., suggesting the presence of deeper sedimentary units grouped as Pre- Ngimbang Fm. It has
been reported that Pre- Ngimbang Fm. was penetrated in several wells in East Kangean area. From limited
data, this formation occurs along E-W trending depression and is unconformably overlain by Ngimbang
Fm.

The vertical facies development in the early to mid-Eocene rift systems is transgressive with a gradation
from non-marine (fluvial and ephemeral lacustrine), to coastal plain (frequently with coals), and marginal
marine. Continued transgression led to the widespread deposition of the Ngimbang carbonate, suggesting
that little or no topography remained at this time, resulting in rapid transgression.

Oligocene – Early Eocene


the beginning of Oligocene was marked with a widespread rapid reduction of plate movement took place.
The northward Australian Plate slowed from 18 cm/year to only 3 cm (Hall, 2002; Sribudiyani et al., 2003).

A prominent seismic reflector is identified over much of the KangeadLombok area which is pronounced
on structural highs where it enhances and becomes indistinguishable from the late Eocene event (T34)
(Figure 8).

Figure 8 Line BP91-105 shows probable channels above mid Oligocene unconformity.

A regional marker of N4/5 age (late Oligocene) is known as Prupuh Limestone. Seismically, the Prupuh is
a regionally recognised high amplitude event. The palaeoenvironmental and seismic suggest the Prupuh
is a maximum flood surface (Galloway, 1989; Bransden and Matthews, 1992).

Mid-Miocene – Late Miocene

The latest and most pronounced period of compressional tectonism began in Late Miocene time and
continued episodically through the Pleistocene and up to the present (Mudjiono and Pireno, 2001). Pre-
existing graben faults were reactivated with a reversal in throw, resulting in large inversion structures.
According to Sribudiyani et al., 2003, In easternmost of East Java, the dominant basement grain is east-
west, as can be particularly well observed controlling the Kendeng and Madura Troughs. E-W grain forms
part of the underlying continental fragment previously transported from the south and which collided
with Sundaland along the Meratus Suture (NE-SW structural grain). Meanwhile, another type of basin
configuration developed at the collision zone oriented NE-SW, parallel to the direction of the suture. This
orientation is dominant structural grain at the western half of East Java.

During Neogene time, a zone of tectonic disturbance known as RMKS Fault Zone situated at the northern
side of East Java from Rembang through Madura and Kangean Islands to Sakala-Sepanjang offshore areas
(Satyana et al., 2004) (Figure 9 and Figure 10). The possible controls on Neogene fault movement reversal
in the East Java Sea are the compression resulting from blocking of the NW Borneo Trench in the late early
Miocene, the interaction between Buton microcontinent and Sulawesi in early Miocene with major
deformation in mid Miocene, and and the Banggai-Sula continental fragment collided with Sulawesi in
Latest Miocene (Davis, 1990; Davidson, 1991).

Figure 9 RMKS Fault Zone illustration in a cross section from Madura Island to the south (Latief et al.,
1990).

Figure 10 Seismic line on Kangean Area (Matthews and Bransden, 1995).