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gful/ssf] k|Zg oxL 5 . t/, ;/sf/sf] /a}of x]bf{ pm rf?dh'dbf/n] pQm kf6L{leq ljb|f]x gofF ;+:s/0f bnfn
g]skf;Fu jftf{ ug'e{ Gbf klg jftf{sf] gf6s ub}{ p;nfO{ ub}{ !(^& b]lv a+ufnsf ljleGg k|x/L
sdhf]/ agfpg], g]skfsf g]tf, sfo{stf{ / cfdhgtfdf
rf}sLx?df ;z:q cfqmd0f u/] . k'h
F Ljfbsf] ;]jssf]
rf?dh' d bf/n] ;z:q o' 4 af6
e|d 5g]{ lbzflt/ pBt ePsf] b]lvG5 . ;fdGtL ;Qfsf] cGTo u/]/ hgjfbL
/fHo ;Qf :yfkgf ug]{ lasNk cufl8
?kdf cfk"mnfO{
g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] ;w}F /fi6«, /fli6«otf / hglxtnfO{ ;fb}{ !(^( df efskf dfn]sf] gfddf pEofpFb+ } bnfnx?sf
s]Gb|laGb'df /fv]/ ;+3if{ cl3 a9fPsf] b]lvG5 . t/, ;/sf/ kf6L{nfO{{ k'gu{7g u/] .
p;sf] dfu ;'gj' fO{ ug{eGbf jftf{ eGb} ljifofGt/ ug{ pBt
o;nfO{ lrlgofF sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n]
ef/tdf a;Gtsf] d]3 uh{g ePsf] c;nL sfl/Gbf ag]sf 5g\ . hgtfx?sf] /ut;Fu
ePsf] b]lvG5 . olb ;/sf/ ;fFRr} jftf{kl| t Odfgbf/ 5 k|lts[of lbof] . tTsflng cj:yfdf
ef/tdf OlGb/f ufGwLsf] ;/sf/ hf]l8Psf d'lQmsf tdfd ;kgfx? hLljt 5g\ . h'g
eg] jftf{sf] jftfj/0f agfpg ;j{ky| d g]kfn sDo'lg:6 lyof] . ;/sf/n] bdgnfO{ { tLa|
kf6L{dfly nufPsf] k|ltaGw lkmtf{ lng'k¥of], p;sf lu/ˆtf/ agfof] . xhf/f}F ls;fg, laBfyL{ , ;kgf @)%@ kmfu'g !$ ut] xTof ul/Psf lbnaxfb'/
o'jfx?sf] ;fd'lxs xTof u¥of] .
ePsf / e"m7f d'2fdf km;fOPsf sfo{stf{nfO{ ;kmfOlbg'k¥of], gS;naf8L cfGbf] n gsdL{ x ?nfO{ {
tTsflng ;/sf/sf] g]t[Tj ul//x]sL
/Dt]nb]lv @)@( kmfu'g @! ut] xTof ul/Psf emfkfsf
km]s OGsfpG6/sf gfddf dfl/Psf g]tf, sfo{stf{nfO{ ;lxb
3f]if0ff u/L ;/sf/n] cf}krfl/s?kdf jftf{sf] cfXjfg
OlGb/f ufGwLn] b]Vg] lalQs} dfg{' egL
cfb]z u/] ls lyOg\ . bdgsf] k|efj
% of]4f dfq xf]Ogg\ d'Qm hLjgsf] ;kgf b]v/] cfˆgf]
ug'k{ 5{ . cGoyf af]nLdf jftf{ / Jojxf/df bdg hf/L tLa| aGof] ;/sf/n] xhf/f}F hgtfsf]
sTn] c fd u¥of] . !(&@ df cd"No hLjg pT;u{ ug]{ xhf/f}+ of]4fx?sf] /ut;Fu
/fv]/ ul/Psf] ;/sf/sf] jftf{ k|:tfjsf] s'g} cf}lrTo rf?dh'dbf/, afa'nfn, cfkfnfn,
5}g . t;y{, ;/sf/n] ;fFlRrs} g]skf;Fu jftf{ ug{ rfx]sf] u]•n ] fn, lgd{nfnufotsf g]tfsf] xTof hf]l8Psf] ;kgfx? x'g\ . tL ;kgfx?sf] /Qme"ldaf6
ul/of] . cGo w]/} g]tf sfo{stf{x?sf]
eP jftf{sf] nflu Go"gtd k|lqmof k"/f u/L jftfj/0f xTof eof] . To;kl5 pQm ljzfn
cfGbf]ng sdhf]/ kg{ k'Uof] . rf?sf
/ftf]em08f 9Ng kfPg . cfh Tof] em08f g]kfn
agfpg'k5{ . cGoyf jftf{, jftf{ eGb} g]kfn sDo'lg:6
kf6L{nfO{ l;Wofpg] ;kgf b]vs ] f] eP Tof] ;/sf/, ;Qf;Lg
;xsdL{x?n] kl5Nnf] ;do klg an
k|of]unfO{{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] nfu"
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] p7fPsf] 5 . cfh PsLs[t hgqmflGt
bnsf] nflu cfTd3ftL x'g] lglZrt 5, r]tgf eof . ug{'kg]{ atfO/x] . olta]nf efskf
dfcf]jfbL gS;fnaf8L cfGbf]ngsf]
cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . ljZj k'h F Ljfbsf] ;+s6 / c;kmntf
dd{ / efjgfnfO{{ k5\ofO/x]sf] 5 .
k|zfGtnfO{{ ;lxb 3f]if0ff M ;xL b[li6sf]0f cyf{t aGb'sn] l6s]sf] / g]kfnsf] ;+;bLo Aoj:yfn] hgtfdfly nfb]sf] ;+s6 /
/fHo;Qfsf] cGTo ug{ aGb's p7fpg}
;kgf v]/ hfg glbg] k|0f kg]{ ;Tosf] ;f/ cfh klg ljZj c;kmntfsf] aLraf6 a}1flgs ;dfhjfbL ;Qf clgjfo{
sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngdf hah{:t 5 .
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] lty{/fhsf xTof/f k|x/L ;+lhj
/fO{sf] k|lt/f]w ug]{ qmddf kf6L{sf xf]gxf/ ;b:o lg/s'df/ /fO{ …k|zfGtÚsf]
of] ;To clxn] laZj k'h F LjfbL ;+s6sf]
cGTo ub}{ a}1flgs ;dfhjfb :yfkgf
ag]/ lasNksf] ?kdf cufl8 cfPsf] 5 . km]l/
;xfbt ePsf] atfPsf] 5 . p;n] k|zfGtnfO{{ dxfg\ ;lxb 3f]if0ff ub}{
p+gsf] ;kgf v]/ hfg glbg] k|0f ;d]t u/]sf] 5 . g]skf ;u/dfyf Jo'/f]
ug{ ;Sg] bla{nf] c:qsf] ?kdf
:yflkt 5 . h;nfO{ { laZjsf
alnbfgLsf] s;d vfP/ p7]sf] 5 . csf]{ a;Gtsf] d]3
OGrfh{ clwsf/n] lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ d[ts ;+lhj /fO{sf] 6f]nL g} lty{ l3ld/]
xTofsf] lhDd]jf/ ePsf] 7f]sj' f u/]sf 5g\ . Jo'/f] OGrfh{ clwsf/n] …sd/]8
pTkLl8t /fi6« / hgtfx?n]
cfTd;ft ul//x]sf 5g\ . g]kfndf uh{g cyf{t\ PsLs[t hgqmflGt .
lty{sf xTof/f;Fu hDsfe]6 x'Fbf k|lt/f]w ug]{ qmddf sd/]8 lg/s'df/ /fO{ sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] :yfkgf la=;+=
…k|zfGtÚsf] ;xfbt ePsf]Ú atfPsf 5g\ . ;'/IffsdL{dfly cfqmd0f gug]{ @))^ ;fndf ePsf] lyof] . @)!) lemNsf] n ] tTsflng k+ r fotL @)#% ;fndf of] ;d"xn] dfcf] bnfn k'FhLjfbsf] ;]jssf] ?kdf
kf6L{ gLlt /x]sf] / kf6L{sf] ToxL ;bf;otfnfO{{ ;/sf/n] b'?kof]u u/]/ ;fndf ePsf] klxnf] dxflwj]zgn] ;/sf/nfO{{ xNnfpg k'Uof] . emfkf larf/wf/fnfO{{ 5f]8o\ f] ;fy} emfkf lab|fx] cfk" m nfO{ pEofpF + b } bnfnx?sf
b]znfO{{ le8Gtlt/ ws]ln/x]sf] atfPsf 5g\ . k' i knfnnfO{ { x6fP/ dgdf] x g lab|fx] d'VotM emfkfsf ls;fgx?nfO{ ug{' g} uNtL lyof] eg]/ kZrtfk ug]{ c;nL sfl/Gbf ag] s f 5g\ .
OGrfh{ clwsf/n] lj1lKtdf eg]sf 5g\, …olta]nf ;fdflhs kmf;LjfbL clwsf/LnfO{{ kf6L{sf] dxfdGqL r'Gof] . ;+ul7t u/]/ ;fdGt hldGbf/x? dfly cj:yf aGof] . @)$^ ;fnkl5 of] hgtfx?sf] /ut;F u hf] l 8Psf
hg xTof/f] s]kL–lks] ;/sf/ Pskl5 csf]{ ub}{ gful/s xTofdf plqPsf] @)!@ ;fndf dgdf]xgåf/f /fhfnfO{{ kmf}hL xdnf ul/Psf] lyof] . emfkf Pdfn]sf] gfddf vf§L ;+;bjfbL eP/ d'lQmsf tdfd ;kgfx? hLljt
5 . ef]hk'/sf sd/]8 lty{/fh l3ld/]nfO{{ ut h]7 & ut] ef]hk'/ 6]Ds] lalGt kq r9fpg] sfd eof] . lab|fx] df emfkfsf wd{k; | fb 9sfnsf] b]vfk¥of] . of] olta]nf qmflGtsf] 5g\ . h'g ;kgf @)%@ kmfu'g !$
do'd ufpFkflnsf jf8{ g+= @ bnl;+u]l:yt af6f] lxFl8/x]sf a]nf lu/ˆtf/ /fh;+:yfsf] rfs8L ug]{ ;xdltdf lab|f]xLx?n] xTof u/] . /fHo bdgn] d"nk|jfxsf] la/f]wL eP/ cfPsf] 5 . ut] xTof ul/Psf lbnaxfb' /
u/L r/d oftgf lbO{ xTof ug]{ dWosf d'Vo xTof/f] k|x/L ;+lhj /fO{ / kf6L{ n fO{ { v' N nf ul/of] . bf] > f] rsf]{ ?k lnof] . ;of}+ qmflGtsf/Lx?nfO{{ emfkf lab|fx] sf] g]tT[ j u/]sf kfqx? / /Dt]nb]lv @)@( kmfu'g @! ut]
pgsf] 6f]nL;Fu c;f/ @% ut] xfd|f] kf6L{ ;u/dfyf Ao'/f] ;b:o Pj+d\ dxflwj]zgn] s];/h+u /fodfemLnfO{{ lu/ˆtf/ u¥of] . bdg oxfF;Dd a9\of] hgo'4sf] g]tT[ j u/]sf] kfqx?df cfPsf] xTof ul/Psf emfkfsf % of]4f dfq
cf]vn9'Ëf lhNnf ;ldltsf ;]qm]6/L sd/]8 lg/s'df/ /fO{ …k|zfGtÚ ef]hk'/ dxf;lra rog u¥of] . /fodfemLn] tTsflng ee{/fpFbf ;r]t emfkfnL larngn] b' j } n fO{ Ps} 7fpF d f xf]Ogg\ d'Qm hLjgsf] ;kgf b]v]/
;b/d'sfddf /x]sf cfˆgf] kl/jf/;Fu e]63f6 ;s]/ kms{g] qmddf hDsfe]6 @)!& df /fhfsf] nfO{gnfO{{ :jLsf/ qmflGtsf/L of]4f jL/]g /fhj+zL, NofOk'¥ofpg] sfd u/]sf] 5 . logLx?n] cfˆgf] cd"No hLjg pT;u{ ug]{
x'Fbf sd/]8 lty{/fhsf xTof/f k|x/L ;+lhj /fOsf] k|lt/f]w ug]{ qmddf u/]kl5 kf6L{df ;+3if{ rls{of] . gf/fo0f >]i7, /fdgfy bfxfn, g]q bnfn k'h F Ljfbsf] ;]jf ul//x]sf 5g\ . xhf/f}+ of]4fx?sf] /ut;Fu hf]l8Psf]
kf6L{sf xf]gxf/ sd/]8 k|zfGtsf] zfxbt ePsf] 5 .Ú @)!( ;fndf ;DkGg t] ; | f ] l3ld/] / s[i0f s'Os
F n
] nfO{{ cfhs} lbg ;Fu;Fu} qmflGtsf/Lx? dfly lgd{d bdg ;kgfx? x' g \ . tL ;kgfx?sf]
lj1lKtdf clwsf/n] eg]sf 5g\, …if8fgGb gu/kflnsf jf8{ g+= !# dxflwj]zgn] t'lN;nfn cdfTonfO{{ cyf{t @)@( kmfu'g @! ut] Onfd ug{ cufl8 cfPsf 5g\ . clwsf/af6 /Qme" l daf6 /ftf] e m08f 9Ng
uf]of 3/ eO{ cf]vn9'Ëfdf sfo{/t xfd|f] kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ ;u/dfyf dxf;lrj rog u¥of] . cdfTo h]n ;fg]{ afxgfdf Onfdsf] ;'vfgLdf lad'v agfOPsf pk]lIft hgtfx?sf] kfPg . cfh Tof] em08f g]kfn
Ao'/f] ;b:o Pj+d\ cf]vn9'Ëf lhNnf ;ldltsf ;]qm]6/L gL/s'df/ /fO{ …k|zfGtÚ cNkdtdf lyP . sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ nluof] / cfTdf;dk{0f ug{ nufOof] hLjgnfO{{ clwsf/ ;DkGg / d'Qm sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n] p7fPsf] 5 . cfh
Ps OdfGbf/, h'emf?, hglk|o / qmflGtk|lt akmfbf/ g]tf x'g'x'GYof] . pxfsf] ljleGg pQ/ r9fjx? ;xg ub}{ t/ pxfFx?n] OGsf/ u/]kl5 uf]nL xfgL u/fpg] p2]Zo /fv]/ g]kfnL hgtfx?n] PsLs[t hgqmflGt cufl8 cfPsf]
zfxbtn] xfd|f] kf6L{nfO{{ ck'/l0fo Iflt k'u]sf] 5 . pxfsf] alnbfgn] bnfn cufl8 al9/x]sf] lyof] . dxfljjfbsf] xTof ul/of] . ;+3if{ u/] . @)@* ;fndf emfkf lab|fx] 5 . ljZj k'FhLjfbsf] ;+s6 /
k'FhLjfbL ;Qfsf] cjzfgnfO{{ cem glhs agfpg] sfd u/]sf] 5 eg] k|efj g]kfnL sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngdf To;kl5 ;of}F emfkfnL of]4fx?nfO{{ eof], To:t} @)%@ ;fnaf6 dxfg\ c;kmntf / g] k fnsf] ;+ ; bLo
j}1flgs ;dfhjfbL ;Qf :yfkgfsf] lglDt l;Ëf] cfGbf]ngnfO{{ yk k|lta4 klg kg{ uof] . ;f]xL ;do emfkfsf] lu/ˆtf/ ul/Psf] cj:yf / kfFrhgf hgo'4sf] ;'?jft ul/of] . of] hgo'4 Aoj:yfn] hgtfdfly nfb]sf] ;+s6
agfPsf] 5 . xfd|f] kf6L{ pxfFkl| t pRr ;Ddfg k|s6 ub}{ efjk"0f{ >4f~hnL l;dfgfdf kg]{ klZrd a+ufn / ToxfF of]4fx?sf] xTof ePkl5 emfkf lab|fx] s;}sf] nx8 / rfxgfeGbf klg g]kfnL / c;kmntfsf] aLraf6 a}1flgs
ck{0f ub{5 .Ú lj1lKtsf] cGTodf OGrfh{n] eg]sf 5g\, …o; l:yltdf xfd|f] p7]sf] a;Gt]uh{gsf] k|efj emfkfdf sdhf]/ kg{k'Uof] . @)!) ;fndf hgtfx?sf] aLrdf cnkq k/]sf] ;dfhjfbL ;Qf clgjfo{ ag]/
kf6L{ p+xfsf] kl/jf/hg, kf6L{ k+lQmsf ;Dk"0f{ sd/]8x?nfO{{ zf]snfO{{ zlQmdf klg k¥of] . @)@& ;fnsf] cGTodf dgdf]xg clwsf/Ln] /fhf lqe'jgnfO{{ d'lQmsf] ;kgfsf] s]Gb|Ls/0f lyof] . lasNksf] ?kdf cufl8 cfPsf] 5 .
abNg / abnfefjsf;fy d}bfgdf v6\g cfu|x ub{5 . b]z / hgtfsf] emfkf ljb|fx] sf] tof/L eof] . g]kfnsf] /fh;+:yf dfG5' eg]/ bfd r9fPkl5 emfkf lab|f]x / hgo'4sf] cf–cfˆg} km] l / alnbfgLsf] s;d vfP/
lglDt lg/Gt/ ;+3if{df 8l6/xg' ePsf sd/]8 k|zfGtnfO{{ dxfg\ ;lxb sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngdf klxnf] ;z:q sDo'lg:6 kf6L{df laefhg ;'? eof] . :yfgdf plQs} ;fGble{stf 5 . oL p7]sf] 5 . csf]{ a;Gtsf] d]3 uh{g
3f]if0ff ub}{ p+xfsf] ;kgf v]/ hfg glbg] k|0f ub{5f}+ .Ú ;+3if{ lyof], emfkf lab|fx] . k~rfotL tTsflng emfkf lab|fx] sf] g]tT[ j u/]sf] b'j} hgtfx?sf] d'Qm hLjgsf] ;kgfsf] cyf{t\ PsLs[t hgqmflGt .
@)&^ ;fn ;fpg $ ut] cfOtaf/ 3

bnfn ;+;bLo Joj:yf / jftf{sf] 9\jfª


@)^)–^! ;fnlt/ sf:sLsf] ko{ 6 snfO{ { vf;} c;/ gug] { / ljKnjsf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{ ‰ofKk} e]6g\ ] jftfjf/0fsf nflu pgLx?dfly 5 < xf] kSs} klg ;Xo 5}g . lsgls n8\g k5{ eGg] ;f]r + dfq ePsf] xf] .
ko{ 6 sLo ufpF 3fGb| ' s hfF b f ko{6sdfly cfqmd0f gug]{ gLlt e]6\g ufx|f] 5 . e]l6Psf g]tf tyf nfu]sf] k|ltaGw x6fP/ /fhgLlts of] bnfn ;+;bLo Aoa:yfdf k|r08 oxfF xltof/ a'emfpg] s'/f sxfFaf6
6]lnlehgsf nflu ;dfrf/ agfpg kf6L{sf] /x]sfn] lagf lxlRsrfx6 sfo{stf{nfO{{ jftf{sf nflu kxn ultlalw ug]{ jftfj/0f agfpg' t dfq xf] O g, cfhsf qmflGtsf/L cfpF5 < xltof/ sf];Fu sxfF 5 <
;dfrf/ >f]t vf]Hg ePsf] ;d:of g]kfn 3'Dg cfpgÚ cfu|x u/] . ;fg} ul/b]p g eg]/ u'xf/ dfUg] l7Ss k¥of] lg . clg g]=s=kf= sf g]tf tyf elgPsf ljKnj uP klg s]xL ug{ ca /Xof] bnfn ;+;bLo Aoa:yfdf
h:tf] ePsf] 5 . jt{dfg ;/sf/nfO{,{ eP klg dfcf]jfbL g]tfsf] cGtjf{tf{ 5 . ToxL u'xf/nfO{{ …laKnj;Fu jftf{ sfo{stf{nfO{{ lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ sfo{ hf/L ;Sb}g . of] bnfn ;+;bLo Aoa:yfaf6 ;xefuL x'g] s'/f, g]kfndf hgjfbL
hf] b] v ] klg ljKnj g] t [ T jsf] lng kfPsf]df d dSv lyPF . Tof] eof]Ú eg]/ xNnf ul//x]sf] 5 ;/sf/ . t 5 g}, otf jftf{sf] 9\jf+u km'ls/xg] cfwf/e"t ju{sf] d'lQm ;Dej 5}g . u0ftGq :yfkgf d"n p2]Zosf ;fy
g]=s=kf=sf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{ h:tf] ;dfrf/ g]kfn jfg 6]lnlehgdf ;/sf/ …jftf{ Û jftf{ ÛÛ jftf{ ÛÛÛÚ ptf g] = s=kf=sf g] t f tyf To;}n] ;/sf/ Û of] bnfn ;+;bLo @)%@ ;fndf z'? ul/Psf] dxfg\
nfUg] clg ;Dks{ ;"q aG5 ls h:tf] k|fyldstfsf ;fy k|zf/0f eof] . To; eg]/ sf]sf]xf]nf] dRrfO/x]sf] 5 . s] sfo{stf{nfO{{ cbfntn] lgbf]{if eg]/ Aoa:yf kl/jt{g ug]{ dfgl;stf;lxt hgo'4sf ;af]{Rr sdfG8/;lxtsf
nfUg] n Tolta]nf d g]kfn jfg ;dfrf/n] lab]zdf ;sf/fTds k|efj ;/sf/ jftf{sf nflu lhDd]jf/ 9+un] 58gf ;fy cbfnt kl/;/af6 lsg jftf{ d f cfpm . bnfn ;+ ; bLo w]/} g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x? cfh ToxL
6]lnlehgdf kf]v/f Ao'/f] sfof{no k¥of] eg]/ ko{6g Aoa;foLx?n] k|:t't x'g kb}{g < ;/sf/ ljKnj lu/ˆtf/ ul//x]sf] < gVv' h]ndf Joa:yfsf] lasNkdf cfpg] j}1flgs bnfn ;+;bLo Joa:yfsf] bnbndf
k|d'vsf] x}l;otdf lyPF . s'g} Ps k|ltlqmof lbP . g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{{ /x]sf g]=s=kf= :yfoL sldl6 ;b:o ;dfhjfbL Aoa:yfdf bnfn, kFm;]/ lrlNnlaNnLdf k/]sf 5g\ .
;Gbe{jz d Ps /ft a:g] u/] lbpF;f] ;dfrf/ k|zf/0f ePsf] Ps–8]9 cfk/flws ;d" x elg/x] s f] 5 . x]dGtk|sfz cf]nL …;'bz{gÚnfO{{ jftf{sf] gf] s /zfxL, ;fdGt / pgLx? …yfn vfd ls eft vfdÚ
ca]/ 3fGb|s ' k'us] f] lyPF . uPsf] a]nf jif{ slt ePsf] lyof], dnfO{ ldlt ;/sf/ Û s] ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn kxn ul/lbg eGg rflxF hfg], clg k|ltlqmofjfbLx?nfO{{ lgif]w x'g5
] . To; ul//x]sf 5g\ . cfh u/La, ls;fg,
‰ofk–em'k %–^ j6f Go'h agfpF eGg] 7\ofSs} ofb ePg . Ps lbg ;fFem sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ cfk/flws ;d"x xf] < ltg}nfO{{ h]ndf sf]r]/ /fVg] < of] Aoa:yfdf cfwf/e"t ju{sf] ks8 dhb'/, ;'s'Daf;Lnufot cfwf/e"t
d]/f] ;f]+r lyof] . d km6fkm6 Go'hsf kv d /]l8of] ;'lg/x]sf] lyPF …u:tLdf ltdLx?sf] s:tf] g}ltstf xf] < x'g5] . s] sDo'lg:6n] rfxg] To:t} ju{kl| t a]OdfgL ePsf] 5 . clg ToxL
nflu leh'cn ;+sng ul//x]sf] lyPF . uPsf] ;'/Iff kmf}hn] kj{tdf sf/jfxL pgLx?nfO{{ h]nd'Qm u/] kf] jftf{sf] Aoa:yf xf]Og / < bnfn ;+;bLo Aoa:yfdf cfwf/e"t
ToxL a] n f 3fGb| ' s ufpF e l/ ubf{ k|jz ] clwsf/L gfdsf dfcf]jfbL nflu kxn ug{ ;lhnf] xf]nf lg < km]l/ klg jftf{ Û jftf{ ÛÛ jftf{ ÛÛÛ ju{sf] kIfdf Pslqt ePsf] qmflGtsf/L
5\ofk5\ofKtL tfTsfnLg lab|f]xL g]tfsf] d[To' ePsf] g]kfnL ;]gfn] ;/sf/ Û klxnf ltdL s'g ju{sf] eGb} …ljKnj xltof/ a'emfp . oxL tKsf km]l/ ;dflxt x'g] < cxF Û of] sbflk
dfcf]jfbLsf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x? hgfPsf] 5 . t/, :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] / s;sf] g]t[Tj ul//x]sf 5f} eg]/ ;+;bLo Aoa:yfdf dGqL ag . ;Qf?9 x'g] 5}g / sbflk :jLsfo{ klg 5}g .
xltof/;lxt lyP / e6fe6 ko{6s;Fu clwsf/LnfO{{ ;'/fIffkmf}hn] nv]6L– k|:6 xf}p . b'O{–ltxfO{ ax'dt NofP/ kf6L{sf] cWoIf ag, dxf;lra agÚ olb sf]xL Tof] bnfn ;+;bLo Aoa:yfdf
rGbf p7fO/x]sf lyP . ko{6sx? nv]6L xTof u/]sf] atfPÚ of] ;dfrf/ ;+lawfg kl/jt{g ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] eg]/ jftf{ k|:tfa NofpF5f} eg] of] ;dflxt x'g\ rfxG5 eg] hfcf];, t/
rGbf lbg cfgfsfgL ul//x] s f ;'Gbf dnfO{{ Psbd g/dfOnf] nfUof] . slyt bnfn ;+;bLo Aoa:yfdf g} sbflk :jLsfo{ 5}g . klxnf t km]l/ klg of] b]zdf cfwf/e"t ju{sf]
lyPgg\ . ToxL Go'h agfpg] ;f]r + df cfk"mn] ;dfrf/sf nflu e]6s ] f g]tfsf] ?dlNng] u/L jftf{df af]nfpg'sf] cfwf/e"t ju{sf] kIfdf ;z:q n8fO{ kIfdf qmflGt hf/L /xG5 .
d k'u]+ . To;sf nflu d}n] ToxfF d[To'n] d]/f] dg s]xL larlnt eP cf}lrTo 5}g . lsgls clxn] ToxL
pkl:yt ;a} sfo{stf{nfO{{ cfk"mn]
dfcf]jfbLn] rGbf p7fO/x]sf] ;dfrf/
h:tf] eof] .
lbgx? laTb} uP, ;dfrf/s} nflu
;+;bLo Aoa:yfcGtu{t /x]sf] ;Qf?9
g]skf;Fu emG8} b'O–{ ltxfO ax'dt 5 .
g]skfsf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{
agfpg nfu] s fn] 6] l nlehgsf] d}n] km]l/ Pshgf dfcf]jfbLsf lhNnf cf]d xdfn v} t sDo'lg:6x?n] rfx]sf] h:tf]
hg>dbfgdf Jo:t
Sofd/fdf af]lnlbg cfu|x u/]F t/ :t/sf g]tfnfO{{ e]6 ug]{ df}sf kfPF . ;+lawfg hf/L ug{ ;s]sf] < b]zL tyf
sf] x L tof/ ePgg\ . Sofd/fdf To; e]6df pgn] …k|jz ] clwsf/L;Fu cfk/flws ;d"x xf] eg] s]sf] jftf{sf] ljb]zLn] sDo'lgi6n] rfx]sf] h:tf] sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{ hg>dbfgdf
af]lnlbg] dfG5]sf] vf]hLdf Sofd/f tkfO{+n] s;/L cGtjf{tf{ lng'eof] < nflu sf]sf]xf]nf] dRrfPsf] < ;/sf/ Û ;+lawfg hf/L ug{ t lbPgg\ l7s Jo:t b]lvg yfn]sf 5g\ . s]Gb|Lo ;ldltn] u/]sf] lg0f{o cg';f/ g]skfsf
af]s]/ Ps xf]6ndf k;]sf] t ToxfF pxfF t kf6L{sf] sf/jfxLdf k/L ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 5 . t/, sDo'lgi6n] cfwf/e"t ju{ g]tf sfo{stf{x? sflnsf]6sf] ufpFufpFdf ls;fgx?sf] v]taf/Ldf hg>dbfg
ko{6s;Fu e6fe6 rGbf p7fpFb} hglx/f;tdf k/]sf] dfG5] xf]Ú eg] . kf6L{nfO{{ x]g{] b[li6sf]0f k|:6 kf/]/ dfq eg] s f u/La, ls;fg, dhb' / , cleofg ug{df Jo:t b]lvg yfn]sf x'g\ . lhNnfsf] a}7s a;L lhNnfdf
ul/Psf] /x]5 . ko{6s;Fu rGbf pgsf] of] s'/fn] d s]xL nlHht jftf{sf] s'/f u/ . ;/sf/ Û ljKnj ;' s ' D af;Lsf kIfdf sfo{ q mdx? ;+u7g ;'b9[ Ls/0f tyf lj:tf/ cleofg yk k|efjsf/L agfpFb} n}hfg]
p7fpFb} u/]sf tL b'Anf] / kftnf] ePsf] dx;'; ul//x]sf] lyPF . x'g\ t g]tT[ jsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{{ NofPsf] v} < pgLx?sf] kIfdf lg0f{o u/]sf] Ps g]tfn] atfP . sflnsf]6 lhNnfsf] knfFtf, krfn em/gf,
dfcf] j fbL g] t fnfO{ { d} n ] cfk" m n] a}slNks hg;Qf rnfPsf] bfaL jftf{df af]nfPsf] xf] eg] rf]sdf uP/ sfo{qmd Nofpg s;n] 5]s]sf] 5 < /f:sf]6, zflGglqj]0fL / g/xl/gfy ufpFkflnsfsf ljs6 ufpFdf g]skfsf
…dfcf] j fbLn] ko{ 6 s;F u rGbf u/]sf] tfTsfnLg dfcf]jfbLn] To; …jftf{df cfpmÚ eGb}df ljKnj jftf{df s] sDo'lgi6 ;/sf/df ju{aLrsf] g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x? ls;fgsf] v]taf/Ldf sfd ug{ Jo:t b]lvG5g\ .
p7fO/x]sf]Ú eGg] ;dfrf/ agfpg a]nf;Dd cflwsfl/s ?kdf s]xL cfpFb}gg\, k|i6 xf]p . rf]sdf uP/ vf8n a9\b} hfG5 < pTkLl8t ju{sf] ufpFdf cfˆgf] ;+u7g lj:tf/df ;lqmo /x]sf g]skfsf g]tf tyf sfo{stf{x?n]
nfu]sfn] Sofd/fdf af]lnlbg cfu|x af]ns] f] lyPg . ;dfrf/ l56f] / /fd|f] ul/Psf] jftf{ cfJxfg t u'08fnfO{{ cfjfh g;'Gg] klg sDo'lgi6 ;/sf/ hgtfsf] hgdt a6'Ngsf nflu ls;fgsf] v]taf/Ldf sfd ug]{ cleofg
u/]F . d]/f] cfu|x ;'Ggf;fy tL g]tf xfNg] gfddf d} n ] kf6L{ s f] u/] h:tf] eof] . cem} klg ;/sf/ Û x'G5 < b]zdf lab]zL zlQmsf] rnv]n yfn]sf] atfpF5g\ .
pT;flxt eP . cfk" m nfO{ { k| j ] z hglx/f;tdf k/] s f JolQmnfO{ { ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 / x:tIf]k gfËf] ?kdf rln/x]sf] 5 . sflnsf]6 lhNnf ;]qm]6/L dgLnfn P]8L …/0fbLkÚn] ls;fg tyf dhb'/sf]
clwsf/L eg]/ lrgfpg] tL g]tfn] c1fgtfjz dfcf]jfbL g]tf eg]/ kf6L{nfO{{ cfk/flws ;d"x 7fG5 / l5d]sL rLgnfO{{ 3]g]{ bfpdf /x]sf] kf6L{ ePsfn] ls;fg dhb'/;Fu} sfd ug]{ cleofg yfn]sf] atfP . pgn] eg],
cfk"m 3fGb|'s Pl/ofsf] ;b:o /x]sf] ;dfrf/ xfn]sf] lyPF . /fhgLlts kf6L{sf] ?kdf x]b}{g eg] cd]l/sL ;fd|fHojfb g]kfn l5/]sf] …xfdL ufpFdf hgtf;Fu} 5f}F . hgtfsf] 3/df c;f/sf] l;hgdf x'g] ;a} sfddf
lhls/ klg u/] n d eg] cfˆgf] l7s To:t} xfnt ePsf] 5, jftf{df af]nfpg'sf] cy{ 5}g . klxnf 5 . g]kfnnfO{{ x8Kg vf]Hg] lj:tf/jfbL ;xof]u ub}{ cfPsf 5f}F . kf6L{sf] lg0f{ocg';f/ g} ;'? ul/Psf] hg>dbfg
PS;Sn'l;e ;dfrf/ aGg] ePsf]df jt{dfg ;/sf/sf] xfnt, s'g JolQm ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn sDo'lgi6 ef/t klg g]kfnnfO{{ slt a]nf x8Kg cleofg cGt/ut ls;fgsf] v]tdf ds} uf]8g\ ,] wfg /f]kfOF ug],{ sf]bf] ;fg]{
dSv lyPF . pgn] d]/f] :ofgf] lkm:6] s:tf] xf], ljKnj g]tT[ jsf] g]=s=kf=sf] kf6L{nfO{{ /fhgLlts kf6L{sf] ?kdf ;lsG5 eg] / ljleGg pkfox? nufot sfddf ;3fpFb} cfPsf 5f}F .Ú g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf e|ft[ ;+u7g
6]lnlehg Sofd/fs} cufl8 cfk"mx?n] s'g x}l;otsf] xf] < s]xL yfxf 5}g . :jLsf/ u/ . ljKnj g]t[Tjsf] g]kfn nufp+b} kvf{Odf al;/x]sf] 5 . blnt d'lQm df]rf{sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o ;fx;Ln] ls;fgx?sf] kf6L{sf sfo{stf{
…hg;/sf/, hg;] g f / laKnjsf] 6\ouf nfu]sf hf] e]6] klg sDo'lgi6 kf6L{nfO{{ /fhgLlts kf6L{sf] /fl:6«otf, hgtGq / hghLljsf ufpFdf hgtf;Fu} /x]sf] atfP . g]skfsf sfo{stf{ e'ldut z}nLdf eGg]
hgcbfnt;lxt a} s lNks ;Qf jftf{sf] ;Gb]z laKnj;Dd k'¥ofOlbG5 ?kdf cflwsfl/s tl/sfn] kq n]vL sdhf]/ x'Fbf s] sDo'lg:6 ;/sf/ cf/f]k dfq} /x]sf] / hgtfsf] kf6L{ hgtfaf6 6f9f x'g g;Sg] pgsf] egfO 5 .
rnfO/x]sfn] cfˆgf] hg;Qfsf] If]qdf ls eGg] nfUbf] xf] . bz jif{ hgo'4 jftf{df af]nfp, ta g x'G5 jftf{ . r'k nfu]/ a:g ;S5 < o;}aLr, g]skf lgs6 o'jf ;+u7gsf e]/L s0ff{nL ;+of]hs lztn lji6n]
3'Dg cfpg] ko{6s;Fu rGbf geO{ n8]sf tfTsfnLg ;af]{Rr sdf08/ …jftf{ Û jftf{ ÛÛ jftf{ ÛÛÛÚ eg]/ dfq b]zdf rf}tkmL{ ?kdf cGofo, e|i6 hgk|ltlglw k|dv ' lgzfgLdf /x]sf] atfP . …/fd|f] sfd ug]x{ ?nfO{{ ;Ddfg
lgoldt s/ p7fO/x]sf]Ú bfaL u/] . clxn] rf]s–rf]s uNnL–uNnLdf x'g] jftf{ x'G5 . cTofrf/, e| : 6frf/, gftfjfb, ug]{ / clgoldttf ug]x{ ?nfO{{ hgsf/afxL ug]{ kf6L{sf] of]hgf 5 . sflnsf]6sf
Tolt dfq xf]Og, pgn], …b]zleq åGå sfo{qmddf e]l6G5g\ . t/, /fhgLlts ;/sf/ jf:tfjd} jftf{ rfx]sf] xf] s[kfjfb, dxFuL, sfnfahf/L JofKt ;a} :yfgLo txdf Jofks clgoldttf ePsf] hgu'gf;f] a9L cfPsf 5g\ .Ú
rln/x] s f] eP klg o; åGån] ultlalw ug{ k| l taGw nufPsf eg] t klxnf pgLx?nfO{{ ;xh ?kdf 5 . s] sDo'lgi6x?sf] nflu ;Xo lji6n] eg] . o;sf] ljifodf kf6L{sf] ;dGjodf o'jf ;+u7gn] 5fgljg ug]{
pgsf] egfO 5 . o'jf ;+u7gsf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o;d]t /x]sf lji6n] clgoldttfs}

;DaGwgljgf ;~rflnt k|flalws sIff tTsfn aGb ug{ r]tfjgL


sf7df8f}F . clvn qmflGtsf/L lg/Gt/ ;+3if{ ub}{ cfO/x]sf] s'/f hDdf egf{ ePsf ljBfyL{sf] !) ^_ z}lIfs dflkmof tyf z}lIfs
lj?4df lhNnfsf ( j6} :yfgLo tx / *@ j8fdf tfnf nufPsf] atfP .
sltko sfd} gePsf of]hgfx?sf] ah]6 hgk|ltlgwn] cfˆgf] vftfdf Nofpg],
sfd geP klg e'QmfgLsfnflu lglZrt k|ltzt dfUg] u/]sf] u'gf;f] cfk"mx?;Fu
cfPsf] x'gfn] cj o:tf ultljlw lj?4 s8f ?kdf k|:t't x'g] lji6n] r]tfjgL
bfËn] l;6LOle6Lsf] ;DaGwgljgf ;j{ljlbt} 5 . o;} ;Gbe{df bfª k|ltzt 5fqj[lQ lgodcg';f/ bnfnx?lj?4 ;fy} lzIff If]qdf lbP . s]xL lbgcl3 dfq} e]/L s0ff{nL Ao"/f] cGt/ut !) lhNnfsf ! xhf/ @
;~rflnt k|fljlws sIff tTsfn aGb lhNnf ;ldltsf] lj:tfl/t a}7s kf/bzL{ 9+un] ;dod} ljt/0f ug{ b]lvPsf tdfd vfn] ljs[lt, ;o hlt o'jfsf] ;+oQ ' m a}7s klg a;]sf] 5 . tL o'jfn] ca ufpFdf cfPsf
ug{ r]tfjgL lbPsf] 5 . g]kfn ;+u7gsf s]lGb|o ;b:o Pjd\ bfª klg cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ . lj;+ultlj?4 cfGbf]ng ug]{ . e|i6 ;/sf/sf sfdsf] pRr lgu/fgL /fVg] atfOPsf] 5 . ;fy} kf6L{sf]
sDo'lg:6 kf6L{lgs6 ;f] ;+u7gn] lhNnf cWoIf sd/] 8 k| L ltdf $_ k|flalws lzIff tyf Jofj;flos &_ ;Dk"0f{ afdkGyL, k|ultzLn,
k|flalws lzIffsf gfddf ljleGg rf}w/Lsf] cWoIftfdf ;DkGg eof] . tflnd kl/ifb\ (CTEVT) sf] nf]stflGqs, b]zeQm ljBfyL{x? sfddf k"0f{ ;do lbP/ ;+u7g lj:tf/df nfUg] / To;sfnflu kf6L{n] ;fdfGo
cfsif{s vfn] e|fds k|rf/ ul//x]sfn] pQm a}7sn] u/]sf dxTjk"0f{ lg0f{ox? ;DaGwglagf ca}w ?kdf ;+rfng Psh'6 eO Jofks df]rf{ lgdf{0f cfwf/e't vr{sf] Joj:yyf klg ldnfPsf] atfPsf 5g\ .
k|flalws lzIff cWoog ug{ ?lr
ePsf ljBfyL{x?n] cfk"mn] cWoog
hfgsf/Lsf nfuL of] k|;
ul/Psf] 5 .
] lj1lKt hf/L ul/Psf gSsnL z}lIfs ;+:yfx?
tTsfn aGb ug{ cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ .
u/L lzIff If]qdf b]lvPsf] ljs[lt,
lj;+ u lt, Aofkf/Ls/0f,
e"sDkn] Iflt k'¥ofPsf k|frLg
ug{ vf] h ] s f] ;+ : yf ;DalGwt
lgsfoaf6 ;DaGwg k|fKt xf] xf]Og,
!= b]zsf] d'lQm, :jfwLgtf / kl/jt{gsf]
lglDt ePsf cfGbf]ngx? dxfg\ !)
clxn] z}lIfs bnfnx?n] k|flalws
lzIffsf gfddf ljleGg cfsif{s
bnfnLs/0f, e| l i6s/0f,
dflkmofs/0fsf] cGTo ug{ /
;DkbfdWo] %* k|ltzt dfq k'glg{df{0f
cWoog cjlwe/ nfUg] hDdf z'Ns aif]{ hgo'4, hgcfGbf]ng, PsLs[t vfn] e|fds k|rf/ ul//x]sfn] PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] dfWodåf/f sf7df8f}F . ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLdf k/]sf e"sDkaf6 elTsPsf g]kfnsf
slt xf] < /fd|f;] uF a'em]/ dfq cWoog hgqmflGtsf] bf}/fgdf cfˆgf] k|flalws lzIff cWoog ug]{ ?lr bnfn ;+;bLo /fHo Joj:yfsf] ;Dkbfx?sf] k'glg{df{0f l56f] ;Sg] nIo /flvPsf] 5 . t/, klg ;Dkbfsf]
ug{ ljBfyL{x?nfO{ cfu|x klg u/]sf] hLjgsf] alnbfgL lbg'xg' ] ;Dk"0f{ ePsf ljBfyL{x?n] cfk"mn] cWoog cGTo u/L >dhLlj hgtfsf] jf:tljs :j?k hf]ufpgsf nflu sl7gfO{ x'g] ePsfn] ;do tf]Sg d'l:sn
5 . s]xL z}lIfs ;+:yfx?n] tf]lsPsf] 1ft c1ft dxfg\ ;lxbx?k|lt ! ug{ vf]h]sf] ;+:yf ;DalGwt a}1flgs ;dfhjfbL ;Qf lgdf{0f kg]{ g]kfn k'/ftTj ljefun] hgfPsf] 5 . ;Dkbf ;"rLs[t ug]{ ;+oQ ' m
z'NseGbf a9L z'Ns ljBfyL{af6 ldg]6 df}g wf/0f ul/of] ;fy} 3fOt] lgsfoaf6 ;DaGwg k|fKt xf] xf]Og, ug]{ dxfg\ cleofgdf nfda4 /fi6«;+3sf] o'g]:sf]n] k'glg{df{0f ;Sg ;r]t u/fPsf] 5 . @)&@ ;fnsf]
NofPsf] kfOPsfn] u}/sfg'gL ¿kdf tyf a]kQf of]4fx?nfO{ laz]if :d/0f cWoog cjlwe/ nfUg] hDdf g]kfnL hgtfsf] cf;f / e/f];f e"sDkn] Iflt k'¥ofPsf k|frLg ;DkbfdWo] $ jif{df %* k|ltzt dfq
a9L NofPsf] z'Ns tTsfn ljBfyL{nfO{ ul/of] . z'Ns slt xf] /fd|f;] uF a'em]/ dfq af]ss
] f] kf6L{ g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ k'glg{df{0f ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . g]kfn k'/ftTj ljefusf cg';f/ e"sDkaf6
lkmtf{ ug{ klg dfu ul/Psf] 5 . @_ sd/]8 clgn s];L sf] ;+of]hsTjdf cWoog ug{ cg'/f]w ub{5f}F ;fy} dfly s]kL–lks] g]tT[ jsf] bnfn Iflt ePsf clt k|efljt !$ lhNnfsf & ;o %# / k|efljt !& lhNnfsf
o; laifodf clvn qmflGtsf/L @* ;b:oLo @# cf}+ lhNnf ;Dd]ng CTEVT åf/f ;DaGwg k|fKt s]xL e|i6x?sf] ;/sf/n] nufPsf] ! ;o #* u/L * ;o (! j6f ;Dkbfdf Iflt k'us ] f] 5 .
bfËsf lhNnf ;Dd]ng cfof]hs cfof]hs sld6L u7g ul/of] . z} l Ifs ;+ : yfx?n] tf] l sPsf] k|ltaGw lkmtf{ ug{, u}/sfg'gL cfly{s jif{ @)&%–&^ sf] cGTo;Dddf hDdf # ;o &$ j6f ;Dkbfsf]
sld6L ;+of]hs clgn s];L / s]lGb|o #_ clxn] ljBfnox?df sIff !! sf] z'NseGbf a9L z'Ns ljBfyL{af6 ?kdf lgbf]{if g]tf, sfo{stf{, k'glg{df{0f sfo{ ;DkGg ePsf] 5 . xfn;Dd k'/ftTj ljefun] #)) j6f, kz'klt
;b:o Pjd\ bfª lhNnf cWoIf egf{ rln/x]sf]n] ljBfyL{ 5gf]6 ug]{ NofPsf] kfOPsfn] u}/sfg'gL ¿kdf ;dy{ s , z' e lrGtsx?nfO{ If]q ljsf; sf]ifn] @( j6f / cGo ;+3;+:yfn] $% j6f ;Dkbfsf] k'glg{df{0f ;s]sf
k|Lltdf rf}w/Lsf] ;+o'Qm x:tfIf/df gfddf ;fd'bflos ljBfnox?df a9L NofPsf] z' N s tTsfn lu/ˆtf/ u/L h]n lx/f;tdf /fv]/ 5g\ . ;Dkbfsf] k'glg{df{0f sfo{df xfn;Dd s/La @ ca{ #( s/f]8 $# nfv vr{
hf/L lj1lKt o:tf] 5– æTofu, klg k/LIff u/fpg] / ljBfyL{x? ljBfyL{x?nfO{ lkmtf{ ug{ cg'/f]w cgfjZos b' M v lbO/x] s f] / ePsf] 5 . cfly{s jif{ @)&%–&^ df sl/a ! ca{ @ s/f]8 k|frLg ;Dkbf
alnbfg / ;dk{0fsf] kof{o xfd|f] dxfg\ k/LIffdf kf; gePsf] gfddf ub{5f}+ . d'7e]8sf] gfddf lgbf]{if g]tf, k'glg{df{0f sfo{df vr{ ePsf] ljefun] hgfPsf] 5 . ljefun] ;Dkbfx?sf] k'glg{df{0f
tyf uf}/jzfnL ;+u7g clvn - k9\gaf6 alGrt u/fO{ /x]sfn] pQm %_ oftfoft, :jf:y, dgf]/~hgdf sfo{stf{nfO{ lgoGq0fdf lnP/ xTof sl7gfO{ x'g] ePsf] eGb} l5§} ;Sg k|of;/t /x]sf] hgfPsf] 5 . k'/ftTj ljefun]
qmflGtsf/L_ lzIff If]qdf b]lvPsf sfo{ tTsfn /f]sL ljBfyL{x?nfO{ /fHon] 3f]if0ff u/]sf] $% k|ltzt u/L cft+s dRrfO/x]sfn] of] cfly{s jif{ @)&^–&& df k'glg{df{0f x'g afFsL /x]sf # ;o *( j6fdWo] ! ;o %)
lghLs/0f, Jofkf/Ls/0f, k9\g kfpg] clwsf/af6 alGrt ljBfyL{ ;x'lnot ;xh ?kdf bnfn, e|i6 ;/sf/sf] /a}ofsf j6f ;Dkbfx?sf] k'glg{df{0f ;DkGg ug]{ nIo lnPsf] 5 . k|frLg ;Dkbfx?n]
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ubf{ jdg ePdf 8/fpg' kb}g{ lkQ pkof]uL x'G5 . 5fnfsf] x]/rfx ug{ ;lsG5 . kfgLsf] sdLn] 5fnf lrnfpg], ;+3if{df plqg] r]tfjgL lbP . bfxfnn] b]zs} ;du| lzIff k|0ffnL g} dxFuf]
lg:s]/ hfG5 . d;nf abfd – £o" s ' d f/L Kofs udL{ d f 5fnfsf] x] / rfx s;/L /ftf] x'g], PnhL{nufotsf ;d:of ePsf]n] e|i6frf/ df}nfPsf] l6Kk0fL u/] . pgn] eg], …;/sf/L pRr txsf
%= h08L;, sdnlkQ ePdf d;nf abfdnfO{{ /fd|/L lkFWg';\ . ug] { < cfpF5 . o;sf ;fy} aflx/sf] w'jfF, sd{rf/Lsf] tna g} #* xhf/ 5 . t/, p;n] cfˆgf b'Oj{ 6f aRrf k9fpFbf
h08L;, sdnlkQ ePdf laxfg o;df b'O{ rDrf £o"s'df/Lsf] h]n != v]taf/Ldf hfg' cl3 k"/f n'uf w'nf]n] 5fnf;DaGwL cGo /f]u klg krf;f}+ xhf/ vr{ ul//x]sf] 5 . o;df l;w} b]lvG5 ls p;sf] ;du| cfDbfgLeGbf
a]ns ' f !–! rDrf £o" s'df/L ;]jg xfNg';\ . o;nfO{{ /fd|/L ldnfP/ nufpg] lglDtg ;S5 . o:tf] ;d:ofaf6 aRg b'Oj{ 6f aRrf k9fPsf] vr{ bf]Aa/ x'g cfpF5 . e|i6frf/ oxLFaf6 ;'? ePsf]
ug]{ u/]df cfFvf, z/L/ kx]nf] ePsf] cg'xf/ / 3fF6Ldf nufpg';\ . sl/a @= aflx/ lg:sFbf 5ftf cf]9\g] of klg k|z:t kfgL lkpg'k5{ . 5 . o;nfO{ /f]Sg h?/L 5 .Ú ;/sf/ / vf;u/L ;DalGwt lgsfon] z}lIfs
x6\b} hfG5 / lgsf] x'G5 . !% ldg]6kl5 /fd|/L w'gx' f];\ . of] Kofs Sofk nufpg] ;' S vf df} ; ddf a9L xfjf ;+:yfx?sf] dgkl/nfO{ /f]Sgsf] nflu lgoldt cg'udg ug{k' g]d{ f klg bfxfnn]
hf]8 lbP . pgn] eg], …t/, kl5Nnf] Ps bzsdf ;/sf/n] cg'udg g} u/]sf]
^= vl6/fdf 9NsFbf] pd]/ ePsf / ;'Svf 5fnf #= sfdaf6 kms]{kl5 /fd|f];Fu z/L/ rNg'sf ;fy} cTolws w'jfF–w'nf] 5}g\ . lsgls pgLx?sf] klg tL ;+:yfx?df nufgL 5 .Ú
vl6/fdf £o" s' d f/Lsf] u' b L ePsfnfO{{ pkof]uL x'G5 . ;kmf u/L cf]efgf] /fVg] x' G 5 . h;n] 5fnfsf] PnhL{ / To:t}, sfo{qmddf g]lj;+3sf k"js { G] b|Lo ;b:o df]ltnfn e08f/Ln] klg
ttfP/ vl6/fdf afFw]df 3fp l5§} sf“ q mf] – £o" s ' d f/L Kofs $= cfˆgf] 5fnfcg';f/ ;gAns lqmd 8lG8kmf]/sf] ;d:of x'G5 . k|z:t z'Nsj[l4sf] lj/f]w u/] . e08f/Ln] s'g sn]hn] slt z'Ns j[l4 u/]sf] 5 eg]/
kfS5 / lgsf] x'G5 . £o"s'df/LnfO{{ /fd|/L ;kmf u/]/ dfq k|of]u ug]{ kfgL lkpFbf o:tf] ;d:ofaf6 klg tYof+s g} ;fj{hlgs u/]sf lyP . pgn] ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] tYof+scg';f/
&= jfo' uf] n fufgf] uPdf o;sf] h]n lgsfNg'xf];\ . Pp6f sfFqmf] %= ;s];Dd 5xf/Ldf a:g], leq sfd ug]{ aRg ;lsG5 . kfgLsf] sdLn] sd ;a}eGbf a9L z'Ns lng] sn]hdf Unf]an sn]h / s]=Pd=;L sn]h /x]sf
jfo' uf]nfufgf] uPdfM ! rDrf sf]/;] f]df sf]//] To;sf] /; lgsfNg';\ . ^= cgfjZos ¿kdf aflx/ 3fddf ghfg] pd]/d} a"9f] b]vfpF5 . To;}n], vfnL 5g\ . pgn] rsf]{ z'Ns lng] ljleGg @) j6f sn]hsf] gfd / pgLx?n] lng]
£o" s'df/Lsf] u'bL, ! rDrf /fd|f] a];f/ Tof] /;nfO{{ h]ndf ld;fpg';\ . To;df &= lgoldt Jofofd ug]{ k]6df kfgL lkpg] afgLn] 5fnf;d]t u/]sf] z'Ns;d]t ;fj{hlgs u/]sf lyP . sfo{qmddf g]lj;+3sf k"js { G] b|Lo
! lrD6L l;b]gg" lkm6]/ tftf] kfgL;Fu clnslt u'nfahn klg xfNg';\ . *= k|z:t kfgL lkpg] ;kmf x'G5 . ha z/L/df clws pkfWoIf lIflth e08f/Ln] klg z'Nsj[l4sf] lj/f]w u/] . pgn] ;/sf/n]
vfnL k]6 s]xL lbg vfPdf 7Ls x'G5 . ca Kofs tof/ eof] . o;nfO{{ (= ;Gt'lnt ef]hg ug]{ ljiffQm kbfy{ x'G5 ta 5fnfdf k|fljlws lzIff tyf tflnd;DaGwL cWofkg u/fpg] sn]hsf] ;DaGw /f]ss ] f]
*= lrgL /f] u -8fOa] l 6h_ df cg'xf/ tyf 3fF6Ldf nufP/ @) ldg]6 nfdf] ;do 5fnfsf] :ofxf/ ljleGg vfnsf bfu / wAaf b]lvg eP klg lzIffdGqLn] u'NdLnufotsf !@ sn]hnfO{ rf]/ af6f]af6 ;DaGwg
lrgL /f]u -8fOa]l6h_ df ! rDrf 5fl8lbg';\ . To;kl5 kfgLn] ;kmf s;/L ug] { < yfN5g\ . To;} n ] kfgL lkpF b f lbnfPsf] cf/f]k nufP . To:t} pgn] g]lj;+3n] cfkmGtx?nfO{ 5fqj[lQ lbnfpg]
£o" s'df/Lsf] u'bLdf ! rDrf u'hf]s { f] ug{';\ . of] Kofs ;+j]bgzLn 5fnf nfdf] ;do 5fnfsf] :jf:Yo /fd|f] z/L/df ePsf] ljiffQm kbfy{ lj?4df gLlt kfl/t u/]sf]n] To;nfO{ sfof{Gjog ug{k' g]{ klg atfP . pgn]
eg], …xfdLn] rGbf gp7fpg] gLlt kfl/t u/]sf 5f}+ . o;nfO{ ;zQm ?kdf
;Tj -lrgL_ lkm6]/ vfg] u/]df /f]u x'g]nfO{{ a9L pkof]uL x'G5 . agfpFgsf nflu a]nf a]nf 5fnfnfO{{ /fd|f];Fu z/L/af6 aflx/ lg:sG5 . sfof{Gjog ug{k' 5{ . To:t}, ljZjljBfnosf pksn'ltx?nufotsf kbdf
lgsf] x'Fb} hfG5 . sfutL – £o" s ' d f/L Kofs ljz]if x]/rfx ug]{ ug{' k5{ . o;sf h;n] ubf{ cg'xf/df wAaf b]lvg], /fhgLlts lgo'lQm ug{x' bF' g} .Ú To:t}, sfo{qmdsf ;efklt ;d]t /x]sf g]lj;+3sf
(= of} j gjfg alg/xg csf]{ Ps k|sf/sf] pkof]uL Kofs nflu tn adf]lhdsf sfdx¿ ug{ cfFvfsf] jl/kl/ rfp/L k"j{sfo{jfxs cWoIf Pjd\ sfFu|]; dxf;ldlt ;b:o dgxl/ >]i7n]
of}jgjfg alg/xg @ rDrf £o" 3/d} agfP/ tkfO{ + k| o f] u ug{ ;Sg' x'g5 ] . kg] { n ufotsf ;d:ofaf6 klg cleefjssx?sf] 9f8 ;]Sg] u/L ul/Psf] cj}1flgs z'Nsj[l4 tTsfn vf/]h
s'df/Lsf] u'bL laxfg a]n'sf vfg] ;Sg'x'G5 . o;sf nflu £o's'df/Lsf] != rGbg 5'6sf/f kfpg ;lsG5 . ug{k' g]{ dfu u/] . cfk"mx?n] ljut nfdf] ;dob]lv z'Nsj[l4sf] lj?4df
ugf{n] s'g} /fun] 5'b}g, bfFt alnof] h]n tyf sfutL rflxG5 . rGbgn] 5fnfdf hDdf ePsf tkfO{+ 8fOl6ª ul//xg'ePsf] 5 ;zQm cfjfh / ;+3if{ ub}{ cfPsf] ;'gfpFb} >]i7n] eg], …ca klg ;/sf/n]
x'G5, :j/ ;'l/nf] x'G5, skfn sfnf] £o"sd ' f/Lsf] h]ndf sfutLsf] /; ljiffQm kbfy{nfO{{ x6fp5 / 5fnfnfO{{ eg] vfnL k]6 kfgL lkpg h?/L 5 . xfd|f dfuaf/] ;'gj' fO{ u/]g / z'Nsj[l4 lkmtf{ u/]g eg] xfdL afWo eP/ ;8s
x' G 5, z/L/df ;F w } an k| b fg ldnfP/ x/]s lbg cg'xf/ / 3fF6Ldf ;kmf, rlDsnf] /fV5 . rGbgnfO{{ vfnL k]6df kfgL lkpFbf @$ k|ltztn] ;+3if{df xf]ldg'kg]{ x'G5 . ;/sf/n] a]nd} f Wofg lbcf];\ .Ú
ul//xG5 . nufpg';\ . la:tf/} cg'xf/ rDsg gl/jnsf] t]ndf ld;fO{ z/L/ d;fh d]6faf]lns /]6 a9]/ hfG5 . o;/L To:t}, >]i7n] d]l8sn lzIff cWoog klg g]kfndf lbgk|ltlbg dxFuf]
!)= s' g } klg ljifdf yfN5 . of] x/]s k|sf/sf] 5fnfsf ugf{n] k"/} z/L/sf] 5fnf ;kmf x'G5 lkPsf] kfgLn] vfgfnfO{{ /fd|f];Fu x'Fb} uPsf]df cfqmf]z kf]Vb} eg] …;/sf/n] PdlalaP;nufotsf d]l8sn
s'g} klg ljifdf £o" s'df/Lsf] /; nflu pkof]uL x'G5 . / z/L/nfO{{ cf/fd ldN5 . krfpg d2t u5{ . h;n] la:tf/} lzIff cWoogdf Ps lsl;dsf] dfkb08 agfP klg clxn];Dd To;nfO{
jf u'bL lgTo ;]jg ugf{n] ;Dk"0f{ a] ; g – £o" s ' d f/L Kofs @= u'nfa tf}n 36fpg klg e"ldsf v]N5 . sfof{Gjog ug{ ;s]sf] 5}g .Ú ljutdf klg cfk"mx?n] rsf]{ z'NsnfO{ 36fP/
Go"gtddf emf/]sf] pgn] :d/0f u/fP . g]kfndf k|fljlws lzIff dxFuf]
z/L/sf] ljif gfz x'G5, an tfut Ps srf}/f £o"s'df/Lsf] h]n u'nfadf le6fldg …;LÚ k|z:t kfgLdf Sofnf]/L gx'g] ePsfn] o;n] ePsf]n] g]kfnL ljBfyL{x? ljb]z k9\g afWo ePsf] pgn] tLtf] cg'ej
k|bfg u5{ . o;nfO{{ dfln;sf] ¿kdf lgsfNg' ; \ . o;df a] ; g, bxL, kfOG5 . To;}n] ;'Tg'cl3 cg'xf/df :jf:Yodf s'g} c;/ k'¥ofpFb}g . ;'gfP . To;}n] b]z wgL agfpgsf] nflu z'Ns j}1flgs / g]kfnL hgtfn]
z/L/df nufpgfn] klg k|z:t kmfO{bf u'nfahn / ;'Gtnfsf] af]qmfsf] w'nf] u' n fahn bNgfn] 8G8Lkmf] / , k|To]s lbg rf/b]lv kfFr ln6/ kfgL wfGg ;Sg]vfnsf] lgwf{/0f ug{k' g]{ pgsf] ;'emfj 5 .
x'G5g\ . ldnfP/ afSnf] n]bf] agfpg';\ . o;nfO{{ kf]tf]nufot 5fnfsf ;d:of sd lkpg'nfO{{ :j:ys/ dflgG5 .
!!= 6fpsf] b' v ] d f cg'xf/ / ub{gdf xKtfsf] b'O{k6s
6fpsf] b'v]df £o" s'df/Lsf] n]bf] nufpg';\ .
dgtftf] kf/]/ s~r6df nufpgfn]
jfth, lkth 6fpsf] b'Vg] 7Ls x'G5 .
!@= k] 6 df uf" 7 f] b] l vPdf
k]6df ufF7f] b]lvPdf £o" s'df/L
s]xL ;dokl5 tkfO{+n] km/s
dx;'; ug{'x'G5 . of] Kofs ;fdfGo
5fnf x'g]sf nflu pkof]uL x'G5 .
£o"sd' f/Lsf] kmfObfx¿ aofg u/]/
t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+
ttfP/ k]6df ufF7f] ePsf] 7fFpdf
afFWgfn] ufF7f] 7Ls x'Fb} hfg]5 .
!#= aRrfnfO{ { slAhPt ePdf
aRrfnfO{{ slAhPt ePdf £o"
s'df/Lsf] n]bf] / ;fa'gsf] ufh lkm6]/
;fWo 5}g . cfufdL kf]:6x¿df o;sf]
c? kmfObfx¿af/]df la:t[t hfgsf/L
lbg] 5f} . kf]:6 dg k/]df ;]o/ ug{
glal;{g' xf]nf .
of] hfgsf/L klg cToGt} dxTjk'0f{
OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+
gfO6f]df jl/kl/ nufpgfn] lb;f
nfu]sf] lgsf] x'G5 .
5.
udL{df / ;fdfGo df};df 5fnfsf]
g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8
!$= jfy ePdf :ofxf/ ug]{ tl/sf km/s x'G5, Pp6} kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&!
jfy ePdf £o" s'df/Lsf] u'bL lgTo pkfon] sfd ub}g{
6 @)&^ ;fn ;fpg $ ut] cfOtaf/

/fhaGbL ;'bz{gnfO{ efjs' / dfld{s kq M tkfO{ xfdf| ] cla/n ofqf ;“u} x'g5] l;+xb/jf/ ufp“ uPsf] 5
an/fd ltdlN;gf
cfb/0fLo bfO{ ;'bz{g Û hgtfsf] d'lQmsf nflu ul/Psf] o; tKsfaf6 rsf]{ la/f]w eO/x]sf] 5 nfnls/0f d':s'/fpmb} eG5 …;'gf}nf]
/lQd clejfbg ÛÛ PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf] Oltxf;df ;'gf}nf] eg] csf]{lt/ ;Dk"0f{ g]kfnL hgtfsf] 3fdsf] ls/0f;Fu} lahosf bl/nf lgv|k] l5 lzsf/ ;lhnf
k|ydtM hgo'4, hgcfGbf]ng, cIf/n] ;lxbsf ?kdf :d/0f cfzfsf] s]Gb| xfd|f] kf6L{ alg/x]sf] xftx? ldnfpg] k|tLIffsf] 38L xftdf
hgqmflGtdf xh'/sf] Tofu, tk:of, e}/xg]5 . s= dxfg, s= k|Hjn, 5 . To;}sf] cf8 / e/f];fdf xfdL afw]/ x]l//x]sf] 5' .Ú sd/]8 Û x/]s l;+xb/jf/ ufpF uPsf] 5
b'Mv, kL8f, h]nsf oftgf, nufgL, nufot sd/] 8 x? cfGtl/s emg} lg8/, sd{7, k|lta4 clg 3'DtL, cK7\of/f, uf}+8f, eGHofËx? pm k'Ugf;fy ufpF b]xftdf
alnbfgLk|lt pRr ;Ddfg AoQm ug{ b'36{ gfdf b]z / hgtfsf] nflu ;lxb lhDd]jf/ alg/x]sf 5f} . sd/]8 Û l5rf]Nb} k|ltaGwsf] k|lt/f]w ul//x]sf]
rfxG5' . ef}uf]lns, ef}lts ?kdf x'g'eof] . Tolt a]nf b]z /f]of], cfd o:tf] kl/l:yltdf a? …cfdfÚ dnfO{{ 5' sd/]8 Û a? stf stf xh'/sf] efudefu ePsf] 5 Û
clns 6f9f /xFbf of] Åbo ljbf/s d'lQmsfdL g]kfnL hgtfn] efjljXjn n8\g l;sfOb]p eGg] efa's ufgf k|ToIf cg'kl:yltn] xfd|f] ;+u7gdf
If0fdf d]/f] dg leq bh{gf} zAbx? aGb} cfF;'sf] wf/f aufP . s= s'df/ u'g u'gfpg km]l/ afWo ePsf 5f} . ck"0f{tf dx;'; eO/x]sf] 5 . t/,
3f]lTng yfn] . To;}n] dnfO{{ of] kf}8]n, s= tLy{ l3ld/], kl5Nnf] sd/] 8 Û ufpg g;Sg] ;fyLx? klg tkfO{ n ] lbPsf larf/ / ltd|f s'v/' fsf] vf]/d}
sfuhsf] vf]:6f]dfkm{t b'O{ zAb n]vL 36gfdf s= gL/s'df/ /fO{ …k|zfGtÚnfO{{ cf+lzs ?kdf aflxl/g] :jfefljs of]ubfgnfO{{ cfTd;ft ub}{ cufl8 rNnf uGg cfOk'U5 pm
xh'/;Fusf] ofqfdf ofqL eO{ e]63f6sf] lgd{dtfk"j{s xTof ul/of] . To; alg/x]sf] 5 . h;nfO{{ laZjf; ul/of] al9/x]sf 5f} . sd/]8sf] zfnLgtf,
dx;"; ug{ rfx]+ . sd/]8 Û nfU5 sfo/tfk"0f{ xTofn] d'lQmsf kIfw/ p;} n ] ;fy 5f] 8 \ b f cfb/0fLo ;+odtf, sfo{qmd of]hgfdf b]ve]6 ltd|f] s/];f af/Ld}
hgo' 4 hgcfGbf] n gdf d} n ] cfdg]kfnL hgtfdfem g]kfnL e"lddf dxf;lra sd/] 8 ljKnjn] ug{ gkfpFbf ck'u efg eO/x]sf] 5 . s/]nf uGg cfOk'U5 pm
lx/f;tafx]s h]ng]nsf] cg'ej u/]sf] rn]sf] PsLs[t hgqmflGtk|lt cufw efa'stfsf ;fy b'O{ zAb eGg'ePsf] t/, klg kf6L{ n ] lbPsf] sfd,
5}g . xh'/n] eg] ef]u]/ cfPsf] dfof, df]x / :g]x a9]sf] 5 . 5. sf/jfxLx?df cgj/t ?kdf rNnf uG5 s/ tf]S5
Oltxf; km]l/ bnfn /fHo;Qfsf] sf/0f Psflt/ jftf{sf] xf}jf km}nfpg] / …qmflGt, hgtf, b]zsf] lglDt d v6L/x] s f 5f} . cfda] / f] h uf/ s/]nf uG5 s/ tf]S5
k'gM bf]xf]l/Psf] 5 . xfdL ;a}nfO{{ yfxf csf]{lt/ hgqmflGtsf of]4fx?sf] PSn} eP5' eg]klg n8\g5 ] Ú, o'jfx?sf] clwsf/ k|flKt, ;'gf}nf]
5, olta]nf ef}lts ?kdf c:j:Yo laeT; xTof ug]{ qmd jt{dfg s]kL– ;xLb aGg tof/ x'G5', ;dfh lgdf{0fsf] sfo{ef/ k"/f ug]{ cj, gf}l;Ë] efn] af]s/]
x'bF fx'bF } klg tkfO{ h]n df]rf{nfO{{ ;dfNb} lks] bnfn ;/sf/n] hf/L /fv]sf] t/ s;d k| l taGwn] k| H jlnt ltdL wfpFg' kb}g{ /fhwfgL
x'g'x'G5 / ;dfln/xg' ePsf] 5 . 5 . olb ;fFRrL g} of] bnfn ;/sf/ wf]sf lbg]5}g .Ú ul/lbPsf]5 .
;nfd ug{ rfxG5' sd/] 8 Û jftf{ rfxG5 eg] p;n] jftf{ ug]{ sd/]8 Û dxf;lrj sd/]8sf] of] cGtdf, …lht] l;+uf] ;+;f/ tkfO{ ;Dem t Sof uHhj ePsf] 5–
zf/Ll/s c:j:ytfsf] aLr h]nsf] jftfj/0f agfpg' k5{, ta g} jftf{ dd{:kzL{ egfOdf xfd|f] ;+u7g o'jf xfd|f], xf/] xfd|f] xftdf h]n g]n / l;+xb/jf/ ufpFd} uPsf] 5 Û
lr;f] s:68Laf6 k|ltaGwsf] k|ltjfb x'g;S5 . …;fk]lIfs ?kdf xfdL jftf{ ;+u7g g]kfnn] clGtd ;do;Dd oxL df6f] 5b}5, c? u'dfpg' s]xL
ub}{ h]n df]rf{sf] sdf08/ e"ldsf lj/f]wL xf]Ogf}Ú eg]/ xfd|f] kf6L{sf ;fy lbg]5 . xfd|f] kf6L{ hgo'4 / klg 5}g . t/, klg xfdL lhT5f} .
v] N g' , Plss[ t hgqmflGtdfkm{ t dxf;lrj s= laKnjn] ;fj{hlgs hgcfGbf] n gaf6 wf] s f kfPsf lsgls xfdL;Fu ;xL sfo{lbzf / cfˆgf] ;]jf cfˆgf] ;'lawf
a}1flgs ;dfhjfb k|flKtsf nflu ?kdf elg;s]sf] cj:yfdf xfd|f] kf6L{ hgtfx?sf] kf6L{ xf] . clGtd g]tT[ j 5 . hgtfsf] cd"No ;fy 5 .
xfdLn] ;f]r]sf] kl/sNkgf / b]v]sf jftf{ ug{ kl5 kg]{ s'/} ePg . t/, bfx;+:sf/ ubf{ub}{, d;fg3f6df /fi6«k|]dL, b]zeQmx?sf] ;dy{g tyf cfkm}F tf]s/] uPsf] 5
;'Gb/ ;kgf emg\ lhpFbf] ag]/ k|:km'6g ;/sf/n] ;fFlRrs} jftf{ rfx]sf] xf] hnfpFbf hnfpFb}, cfuf]sf] nKsfaf6 qmflGtsf/Lx? Pstfa4 x'Fb}5g\ . kxf8 plwGg] gf}n] Eofs'/
eO/x]sf] 5 . tL tkfO{ xfd|f chDa/L eg] p;n] jftf{ s f nflu s] x L lg:s]sf] /ftf] lemNsf] xf], of] lemNsf] alnbfgLsf sf]6fx? k"/f x'bF } uO/x]sf
ljrf/x? k"/f ug]{ af6f]df xfdL k"jz{ t{x? k"/f ug{' kg]{ x'G5 . olb lgefpmg hgla/f]wL tTjx?n] cg]sg 5g\ . Ps lbg nfvf} F o' j fx?n]
cfkm}F af]s/] uPsf] 5
lg/Gt/ k| l ta4 / k| o Tg/t 5f} ;/sf/n] jftf{ rfx]s} xf] eg] xfd|f] xTs08fx? ul//x] s f 5g\ . lgwf/df /ftf] skmg afWg]5g\ . ToxL ;d[l4sf] ;dfhjfbsf]
sd/]8 . s]xL ;dokl5 clns w]/} dxfg\ tyf uf}/jzfnL kf6L{ g]kfn gf}8fF8fkfl/jf6 if8\oGq} if8\oGqsf lbg ;'gf}nf] lbgsf] kbf{ v'Ng]5 . efif0f vf]s/] uPsf] 5
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/x]sf] b]z xf] . s] ljZjdf g]kfn If]qdf Toltsf] k|ult ul/;s]sf 5g\\ .
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t hgo'4 / k~rfotfsfnLg cj:yfdf Kofl;lkms :6«f6]hLdf ;xefuL e};s]sf] ckl/lrt /xg ;S5 < ;fd|fHojfbL gzfn] n¶ ePsf] Pp6f
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nufP . pgn] eg], …Tolt dfq} xf]Og, eg], …cf]nLnfO{ klg oxL Joj:yfn] ;+s6 / To;sf] ;dfwfgsf] nflu cj:yfnfO{ Tof] 7fpFdf k'¥ofpg' k5{ .
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e|i6frf/df r'nD'{ d 8'as ] f] klg pgn] g]kfn===== g} vf]lh/x]sf] 5 . ljZjdf gofF sfo{stf{ l/xf ug]{ h:tf s'g} klg sfd
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ug{ yfln;s]sf 5g\ .Ú lgd{nf kGt ub{5g\\ . ;u/dfyfdf klxnf] k6s cfPsf] xf] . ;/sf/sf k|jQmfsf] o:tf]
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eof] . t/, k|x/Ln] bf]ifL kQf nufpg ljsf;qmddf /x]/ of] b'lgofF hfGg],
;s]g . k|x/Ln] ljKnjsf e"ldut ulgP . nfu]sf] s'/f cfPsf] lyof] . To;}u/L, x'bF f ;xfbt k|fKt ug{' ePsf /fdaxfb'/ l;+x …/fh]zÚ nfO{ PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf
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g]tfx? vf]hLvf]hL kqmfp ug{ ;S5 . lgisif{ lgsfNg] ePsfn] ;j{xf/f ju{sf]
t/, anfTsf/LnfO{ kqmfp ug{ ;s]g . laifox? 5g\,\ h;n] g]kfnsf] kl/ro ;+of]hs /x]sf ;f]dk|;fb kf08]nfO{ kl/jf/hgk|lt ;dj]bgf k|s6 u/]sf 5g\ . lj:kmf]6df k/L 3fOt] ePsf
lbPsf 5g\\ . ljZjs} ;a}eGbf cUnf] larf/ tyf /fhgLlt ;Tosf] ;a}eGbf nufP/ cgf}krfl/s jftf{ eO/x]sf] ;j{;fwf/0f gful/sx?sf] :jf:Yonfesf] sfdgf;lxt kl/jf/hgk|lt ulx/f]
lsg ;Sb}g lyof] < ;SbYof], t/ kqmfp glhssf] ;To x'G5 . sDo'lg:6x?
ubf{ 7"nfa8fx? g} kg]{ lyP . ToxL :yfgdf /x]sf] ltlnrf] tfn 5 . of] rrf{ rn]sf] lyof] . tL ;a} rrf{nfO{ ;xfg'e"lt JoQm u/]sf 5g\ / 3fOt]x?sf] plrt pkrf/sf] Joj:yf kf6L{n]
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eP/ k|x/Ln] kqmfp u/]g . clxn]sf] cj}1flgs kIfaf6 d'Qm x'G5g\\ To;}n]
g]skfsf g]tT[ j ug]{ dfG5] g} o;df ;jf{lws cUnf] / nfdf] kj{tdfnf …jftf{sf nflu ;/sf/ ;bj} tof/ 5 …lxhf] ;fFem wgu9L pkdxfgu/kflnsf ;lxb u]6 glhs} kf6L{ sfdsf] l;nl;nfdf
g]kfnL lxdfnog xf] . ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf ;Tosf] glhs 5g\\ . of] ;dosf ;r]t t/, bfpk]r, zlQm ;~rosf nflu cfTd;'/Iffsf nflu af]s]sf] lj:kmf]6s kbfy{ lj:kmf]6 x'Fbf ;xfbt k|fKt ug{'
;+nUg 5g\ .Ú dflg; sDo'lg:6 ePsfn] vf]h tyf
To:t}, of] ;/sf/ cfPkl5 dfq} le/fnf] hldg ;u/dfyfb] l v jftf{ x'bF' g} .Ú ljKnjn] jftf{nfO{ cfˆgf ePsf /fdaxfb'/ l;+x sd/]8 …/fh]zÚnfO{ PsLs[t hgqmflGtsf dxfg\ ;lxb
s]rgf;Ddsf] e"efu xf] . ljZjsf] cg';Gwfgsf] If]qdf To:tf dflg;n] dfG5] 5'6fpg] / zlQm ;'b9[ ug]{ cy{df 3f]if0ff ub}{ pxfFk|lt efjk"0f{ >4f~hnL JoQm ub}{ zf]sfs'n kl/jf/hgk|lt
b]zdf e"–dflkmofx? ;nanfPsf] / lgSs} ljsf; u/]sf 5g\\ . To;df klg
b]zsf dxTjk"0f{ 7fpFsf hUufx? prfOdf /x]sf] nfdf] kbdfu{ g]kfndf dfq lng ;Sg] dGqL af:sf]6fsf] egfO{ ulx/f] ;dj]bgf k|s6 ub{5f}F . lj:kmf]6df k/L 3fOt] x'g' ePsf ;j{;fwf/0f
-#,#)) ls=ld=_ dfq 5 . k[YjLsf] @ lj1fg / k|lalwsf] ljsf;n] dflg;nfO{ lyof] . dGqL af:sf]6fn] hgo'4sfndf gful/sx?sf] :jf:Yonfesf] sfdgf;lxt kl/jf/hgk|lt ulx/f] ;xfg'e"lt
lghLs/0f ug]{ sfd ePsf] pgsf] Oltxf;sf] ef}ltsjfbL JofVofdf w]/}
l6Kk0fL 5 . pgn] eg], …k|wfgdGqL a:g] :yfgaf6 ;u/dfyf b]Vg ;lsG5— @)^) ;fndf bfªsf] xfk'/d] f uP/ k|s6 ub{5f}F . 3fOt]x?sf] plrt pkrf/sf] Joj:yf kf6L{n] ug]{ k|ltj4tf;lxt
;u/dfyf a]; SofDksf] sfnfkTy/ / ;xof]u k'¥ofPsf] 5 / ;"rgf k|lalwsf] jftf{ eË ePsf] k|;Ë lgsfNb} ca c:ktfn kl/jf/ / pkrf/df ;+nUg :jf:YosdL{x?df 3fOt]x?sf] pkrf/df
lgjf;sf] hUuf g} JolQmsf] gfddf ljsf;n] klg dflg;nfO{ ;+;f/sf]
agfO;s]5g\ . kz'kltgfysf] ;fF9] ;q l;Gw'nLsf] lkmSsnaf6 dfq xf] . km]l/ xfk'/] k'g/fj[lQ x'g g;Sg] atfP . s'g} klg sdL x'g glbg kf6L{ ljgd| cg'/f]w ub{5f}+ .Ú
l;Gw'nLsf] lkmSsnaf6 …wtL{sf] 6k 6' af/]df hfgsf/L k|bfg u/]/ 1fg k|fKt pgn] k|Zg u/], …dfG5] klxnf 5f]8g\ k' g],{ lj1lKtsf] cGTodf lgdf{0fn] eg]sf 5g\, …o; 36gfn] ;j{;fwf/0f
;o /f]kgL hUuf klg JolQmsf] gfddf ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofPsf] 5 . dflg;sf]
agfpg] sfd ePsf] 5 . t/, ;/sf/ a6dÚ b]Vg ;lsG5, cyf{t ;d'bb| l] v d'2f lkmtf{ lng'kg],{ To;kl5 pxfFx? gful/sx?df kg{ uPsf] c;htfk|lt b'Mv JoQm ub{5f}+ . of] b'Mvb 36gfsf]
;u/dfyf r'r/' f];Dd oxfFaf6 b]Vg nflu ;a}eGbf dxTjk"0f{ s'/f eg]sf] jftf{df cfpg' ePg eg] <Ú af:sf]6fn] k5fl8sf] d"n sf/0f bnfn k'FhLjfbL ;+;bLo Joj:yf ePsfn] o;sf] ;Dk"0f{
a]va/ 5 . x'bF fx'bF } l;+xb/af/ klg lj1fgsf laleGg If]q jf zfvfdf ePsf
dflkmofx?n] cfˆgf] gfddf agfO;s] . ;lsG5 . k[YjLsf] ;a}eGbf w]/} e"uf]n cufl8 yk] , …l;s] /fptsf] em} + lhDdf s]kL cf]nLsf] ;fdflhs kmf;Ljfb ;/sf/n] lbg'kb{5 .Ú
b]Vg ;lsg] / w]/} b]zx?sf e"efux? gofF–gofF cflj:sf/x? ePsf 5g\\ . zflGtk"0f{ /fhgLltdf kf6L{ btf{ u/]/
o:tf] sfd t o;cl3 slxNo} klg To;nfO{ dfgj lxtsf nflu pkof]u ;fj{hlgs t:aL/nfO{{ lnPsf 5g\ .
ePsf] lyPg . e"dflkmof ug]{ sfddf b]Vg ;lsg] :yfg ;DejtM ToxL k|lt:kwf{ ug]{ p2]Zosf ;fy cfpg'xG' 5 ;fj{hlgs ul/Psf] ljifonfO{{ …b'ne{ Ú eGb}
l;Gw'nLsf] lkSsn xf] . ljZjs} ;a}eGbf ug{' g} xf] . cfkgf] cfˆgf] cfjZostfsf eg] h'g;'s} a]nf s'/f ug{ tof/ 5f}F . dfl/Psf kf}8n ] sf] b'j} xft 7fpF7fpFdf t:aL/af/] v'n:t ul/;s]sf 5g\ . pgn]
g]skfsf zlQmzfnL g]tfsf] ;+nUgtf nflu s'g rLh slxn] k|of]udf NofP efF l rPsf] b] v fPsf] 5 . t:aL/
5 . ;Dk"0f{ kl/kq ldnfpg] sfd pgn] ulx/f] vf]r + sflnu08sLsf] cGgk"0f{ / lx+;f 5f]l8of], ;+ljwfg dflgof], n]vdf …s'df/sf] xTofdf ;+nUgafx]s
wjnflul/ r'r/' faLrsf] vf]r + g} xf] . eGg] s'/fn] Oltxf;sf] ultnfO{ cWoog k|ltkwf{df cfOof] eg]kl5 ;a} ldN5 . ;fj{hlgsLs/0f / xTofsf08sf] aLrsf] s;}n] lvRg g;Sg] b'n{e t:aL/
g} u/]sf] v'Ng cfPsf] 5 . t/, bf]ifLx? ug{ ;3fp k'¥ofpF5 . ljZjel/ k|fKt ;DaGw s] xf] < eGg] uDeL/ k|Zg
clxn];Dd sf]xL klg sf/afxLdf k'5f/df cyf{t kL+wdf !# ;o ld6/ klxnf] s]xL ljuf/]sf] eP klg eOuf] ;fj{hlgs u/]/ cfˆgf] kx'r F / kl/ro
5 / prfOdf *!^& ld= sf] prfO tYofÍx? / g]kfndf k|fKt ePsf lg t eGg ;lsG5 .Ú plAhPsf] 5 . atfPsf] 5Ú pNn]v u/]sf 5g\ . kf}8n] sf]
cfPgg\ .Ú tYofÍx?nfO{ 5'6o\ fP/ cWoog ubf{ o;}aLr xTofsf08sf] t:aL/af/] xTof ePsf] dlxgf lbg k'Ug nfUbf;d]t
nuftf/ 7"nf–7"nf sf08 36fpFbf 5 . o;n] ljZjnfO{ /fd|/L kl/ro
lbPsf] 5 . ;xh x' G 5 . cWoogsf laleGg ;/sf/L==== g]=s=kf= kf]ln6Ao"/f] ;b:o clgn zdf{ kf]i6df6{d l/kf]6{ ;fj{hlgs gug{n' ] d[ts
klg ;/sf/sf] unt xs{t g/f]lsPsf] zfvfx?n] Oltxf;sf] ljsf;nfO{ s;/L kf6L{n] cfufdL lbgdf tL ;a} xs{tx? lj/xLn] kf6L{sf] d'vkq /ftf] va/
/ u'7L ljw]os NofP/ u'7Lsf hUuf l;4fy{ uf}td hlGdPsf] e"efu kl/jf/n] eGb} cfO/x]sf …xTofsf] k|df0f
b]vfPsf 5g\\ eGg] hfgsf/L lng' h?/L aGb ug]{ lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . d'lQmsfdL ;fKtflxssf] c;f/ @% ut]sf] c+sdf n'sfpg] if8\oGqÚnfO{{ lgs} an k'of{pg]
klg sAhf ug{ vf]hs ] f] pgn] ;'gfP . slknj:t' g]kfndf k5{ . nfdf] tk:of >dhLlj hgtfsf] kf6L{nfO{ k|ltaGw
/ af]wTj k|fKt u/]kl5 g]kfnaf6 g} x'G5 . ;fdfGo kIf s] 5 eg] dflg;sf] …;nf{ x L xTofsf08sf] gfnLa] n LÚ sfd ePsf] 5 .
uh'/]nn] eg], …t/, u'7L sf08df pd]/ xb};Dd slt xf]nf eg]/ cg'dfg nufpg], g]tf sfo{stf{ xTof ug],{ zLif{sdf nfdf] ljj/0f k|:t't u/]sf
sf7df8f}dF f @)^@–)^# ;fnsf] h:t} pgn] ljZjnfO{ zflGtsf] ;Gb]z lbPsf]
nufP/ Oltxf;sf] dfkb08 agfpg lx/f;tdf /fvL oftgf lbg] tyf 5g\ . pgn] k|:t'ltsf] z'? x/km/d}
af9L====
hgcfGbf]ngsf] emNsf] lbg] cfGbf]ng atfOg] u/]sf] 5 . ljZjn] g} o;nfO{ zflGtk"0f{ e]nf ;Dd]ngx? ug{ glbg] l;dfgfdf ag]sf afFw, t6aGwg /
dxTjsf b[li6n] x]5{ . pgsf] ljrf/n] ;lsG5 . clwe" t jfbL tyf g]tf kf}8n ] nfO{{ k|x/Ln] lgoGq0fdf lnO{
ePsf]n] cf]nL ;/sf/sf] xf];\ p8]sf] cfbz{jfbLx?n] olQ ;xh s'/fnfO{ klg /fHosf] sbdsf lj?4 cfufdL @)&^ c+ue+u agfP/ xTof u/]sf] pNn]v cGt/f{li6«o sfg'g ljk/Lt g]kfn
lyof] . ToxL eP/ cfGbf]ng;fd' ljZjsf w]/} e"efudf k|efj 5l//x]sf] ;fpg & ut]bl] v ;]tf] gDa/ Kn]6sf ef/t l;dfgf;Fu 6fFl;P/ agfOPsf
5 . o;/L klg g]kfnnfO{ ljZjn] a'‰g} g;lsg] agfOlbPsf x'G5g\\ . u/]sf 5g\ . To;kl5 xTof u/]kl5
;/sf/n] 3'8F f 6]ss ] f] s'/f xfd|f] cufl8 lj1fgsf] cfwf/df Oltxf;sf] ;Dk"0f{ uf8Lx? ;8sdf u'8g\ k|ltaGw 5]pdf s6'jf k]:tf]n /fvL To;sf] kmf]6f] ljzfn ;8sx?, ul/a >lds
5n{ª 5 .Ú kl5Nnf] ;do ljiffbL lrg]sf] 5 . ul/Psf] 5 . pQm lg0f{osf lj?4 hgtfsf] hf]lvdk"0f{ a;fO{ ug{'kg]{
lxGb' wd{ ljZjsf] k|frLg wd{ xf] . ljsf;qmdnfO{ a'‰bf ;aeGbf ;xL lvr]/ cfk"mlgs6 ;+rf/dfWoddfkm{t
k|s/0fdf klg ;/sf/n] uDeL/ q'l6 / x'G5 . lj1fgn] sfaf]g{ sf] lvOg] pd]/ hglj/f]wL sfo{ u/] / u/fPdf hgtfn] ;'6S' s ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] ls6fgL u/]sf afWotfsf sf/0f k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf
hgtfsf] :jf:Yodfly v]naf8 u/]sf] cem wd{n] /fHo ;~rfng u/]sf] lgoGq0fdf lnO{ sf/jfxL rnfpg] s'/f k/L u/La hgtfn] 7"nf] hgwgsf]
;a}eGbf klxnf] wd{sf] ?kdf lnOG5 . (carban dating) / /]l8of] PlS6e 5g\ . t:aL/ ;Dk| ] i f0f ug] {
uh'/n ] sf] cf/f]k 5 . pgn] eg], …of] IfoLs/0f jf lvOg] (radioactive hfgsf/L u/fpFb} kf6L{sf ;Dk"0f{ g]tf ;+ r f/dfWodsf] ;DaGw 36gf Iflt Joxf]g{ k/]sf] 5 . xfd|f] kf6L{
;/sf/n] ljiffbL r]shfFrkl5 dfq} Tof] wd{sf] hAa/ k|efj /fHo:t/df sfo{stf{x? ;f]xL lg0f{ocg';f/ cufl8 k|fs[lts k|sf]kdf k/L Hofg u'dfpg'
g] k fndf dfq ;a} e Gbf kl5Nnf] disintegration) @ j6f clt g} 36fpg]x?;Fu lgs6 /x]sf] / qmflGt
ef/taf6 cfpg] t/sf/L leq\ofpg] e/kbf{ k|lalwn] (rocks and fosslis) a9\g;d]t of] jQmJodfkm{t\ hfgsf/L / kl/jt{g lj/f]wL ;+rf/dfkm{t t:aL/ ePsf ;a} gful/sx?k|lt >4f~hnL
eg]/ lg0f{o ubf{ xfdL klg v'zL ePsf ;do;Dd /Xof] . dfcf]jfbL cfGbf]ng u/fpFb5f}F .Ú ck{0f ub{5 / kLl8t kl/jf/hgk|lt
/ ;+;bjfbLx?;Fusf] ;+emf}tfaf6 pQm jflif{s pd]/ kQf nufpg ;xof]u aflx/ NofOPsf] s'/f phfu/ n]vdf
lyof}+ . sxfFaf6 ;/sf/nfO{ o:tf] a'l4 ;xfg'e"lt JoQm ub{5 . d[tssf
cfof] eg]sf] t Tof] s'/f !@ lbg klg l:ylt x6]sf] ev{/ !# jif{ ePsf] 5 . k'¥ofpF5 . lk08 !$ sfa{gaf6 !@ kf}8]nsf]==== ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} ;fj{hlgsLs/0fsf]
kl/jf/nfO{{ cNksfnLg, lb3{sfnLg,
g]kfn ;a}eGbf a9L d7dlGb/ ePsf] sfa{g cfO{;f]6f]K;df ablng s]xL /x:onfO{{ yk v'n:t ug]{ sfd ePsf]
l6s]g .Ú lglZrt jif{x? nfU5 . sfa{gsf] ;+;bLo ;ldlt u7g geP;Dd cj/f]w 5 . ;fy} g]tf lj/xLn] 36gfnfO{{ Ifltsf] plrt /fxt pknAw u/fpg
pgn] pQm k|s/0fdf k|wfgdGqL b]z xf] . of] oxL wd{sf] k|efj xf] . qmd hf/L /xg] pgLx?n] atfO/x]sf / 3/af; u'ds ] f]nfO{{ af; / /f]huf/L
log} tYox?n] ubf{ ljZjn] lulgh 8]l6ªaf6 of] jif{ ;+Vof nufOG5 . eL8Gtsf] ?kdf lbP hgtfnfO{{ oyfy{
cf]nLn] s;}sf] bafadf k/]/ cfk"mx?n] o;af6 r§fg / cjz]ifx?sf] jif{ kQf 5g\ . o;af6 klg ;/sf/n] b]vfO/x]sf] ljj/0f n'sfpg] sfd /fHo kIfaf6 Joj:yf ug{ ;DalGwt lgsfo;Fu dfu
ljiffbL k/LIf0f :ylut gu/]sf] eg]/ /]s8{x?df g]kfnnfO{ kG5fpg ;Sb}g . xs{t / To;kl5 k|li6s/0faLr 7"nf] ub{5 . ;fy} ;Dk"0f{ kf6L{ k+lQmnfO{{
To;}n] ljZj;fd' g]kfn ckl/lrt x'g nfUb5 . o'/l] god 8]l6ª tl/sfaf6 ul/Psf] ;d]t atfPsf 5g\ . …36gf
bfafsf ;fy ;fj{hlgs ?kdf af]n] klg jif{ kQf nufpg ;lsG5 . krf; vf8n 5 eGg] s'/fnfO{{ ;txdf dfq xf]Og, 36gfsf] k|rf/;d]t /fxt / p2f/df h'6g\ lgb]z { g ub{5 .
klg To;sf] tLg lbgkl5 dfkmL dfu]sf] ;Sb}g / 5}g klg . o:tfdf ljZjs} NofOlbPsf] 5 .
;'gfP . pgn] yk], …k|wfgdGqLn] kl5 ;a}eGbf ;fgf] l;Ssf ;g\ !&$) k|ltzt o'/l] god l;;fdf kl/0ft x'g
em08} rf/ lalnog -$ c/a_ jif{ xTofsf08kl5 kf}8n ] sf kl/jf/,
hgtfdf e|ldt hgdt lgdf{0f ug]{
p2]Zon] of]hgfj4 /x]sf] b]Vg ;lsG5Ú
;jf] { R r====
dfkmL dfUg'eof] . pxfFn] dnfO{ t dGqLn] lt/sf] g]kfnsf] !–$ hjf eGg] l;Ssf cfkmGt tyf l5d]sx?, :yfgLo ?kdf
-hok|sfz dNnn] k|rngdf NofPsf]_ nfUb5 . r§fgsf] klg slt k'/fgf] xf] n]vdf k|i6;Fu n]vs ] f 5g\ . g]=s=kf=n] ;dodf zfxL g]kfnL ;]gfaf6 ljb|f]x
em'SofP . ;lrjn] em'SofP eGg'eof] . eg]/ lgsflnG5 eg] cjz]ifx?sf] ljleGg kf6L{sf g]tf sfo{stf{ / cufl8 ;f/]sf] PsLs[t hgqmflGt u/]/ hgd'lQm ;]gfdf ;dfj]z x'g]
olb em'SofPs} eP lsg sf/afxL xf] . pRr 3fF6L k"jL{ £ofr, g]kfndf - 36gf:yn j/k/ /x]sf :yfgLox?;Fu
^%&! ld=_ kb{5 . ;a}eGbf prfOdf cWoogdf (palaeontology) af6 /fhgLlts sfo{lbzfsf] nf]slk|otf ljifo hgo' 4 sf] ljifo xf] /
ug{'ePg t < pxfFnfO{ em'Sofpg] xf8 gePsf hLjx? kqsf/, dfgjclwsf/, ;/f]sf/jfnf b]v/] eolet lj/f]wL kIfx?n] lj/f]wL To;k|sf/sf k|Zgx?sf] ;dfwfg
sd{rf/LnfO{ lsg vf/]h ug{e' Pg t <Ú /x]sf] xf]6n ] Pe/]:6 Eo' g]kfn xf], of] kIfx?n] ;fd"lxs ?kdf e]6 ubf{ k|fKt
!@,&!# lkm6df 5 . ;a}eGbf cUnf] (invertebrates) sf] pkl:ylt ldl8ofnfO{{ pkof]u u/]/ qmflGtsf] unf lj:t[t zflGt ;Demf}tfdf ul/;lsPsf]
pgn] tLg rf}yfO{ ax'dt eP klg of] nueu %) s/f]8 jif{cl3b]lv g} /x]sf] ePsf ;"rgf, egfOnfO{{ x]bf{, ;'Gbf klg /]6g\ ] if8\oGq eO/x]sf] eGb} ;ts{ /xg bfjL ul/Psf] 5 . t/, k| r 08–
;/sf/ oxL kf/fn] ca gl6Sg] r]tfjgL af}4 :t'k n'lDagLsf] af}4 :t'k xf] of] 36gf eL8Gt geO{ /fHo kIfaf6
!)%=$ lkm6sf] 5 . ljZjs} ulx/f] b]vfpF5 . #@ s/f]8 jif{cl3;Dd 9f8 k6s–k6s clkn ul//x]sf] ;Gbe{aLr afa'/fdsf] g]tT[ jdf ePsf] hgo'4df
lbP . pgn] yk], …lsgls of] ;/sf/ ePsf, peor/, l3;|g,] p8g];Ddsf of]hgfj4 9+un] 36fOPsf] / To;nfO{{ xTofsf08sf] t:aL/ k|s/0f cufl8 ;xefuL sd/]8x? emns'df/ eut
kmf;LjfbL rl/qdf cl3 al9/x]sf] 5 .Ú pkTosf g]kfnsf] c?0f pkTosf xf] . if8\oGqk"j{s …eL8GtÚsf] /+u e/]/
/fhtGq / /fh;+:yfnfO{ x6fpg] hLjsf] ljsf; (evouLtion) e};s]sf] cfPsf] 5 . / l;+xaxfb'/ zfxLnfO{{ k|r08s}
pgsf cg';f/ cf]nL ;/sf/n] jftf{ kfOG5 . hLj ljsf;sf] ljsf;sf] k|rf/df NofOPsf] w]/} cfwf/x? kfpg o;cl3 c;f/ !! ut]sf] /f]tf] va/ g]t[Tjsf] ;/sf/ ePsf] ;dodf
e+u ul/;s]sf] 5 . pgn] eg], …lxhf] ;a}eGbf kl5Nnf] b]z g]kfn xf] . ;lsG5 . eL8Gt xf]Og eGg] d'Vo
ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf cUnf] :yfgdf /x]sf] qmddf k"j{ dfgj hflt /fdf]lky]s;sf] ;fKtflxsd} g]=s=kf=sf s]Gb|Lo ;b:o bl08t ug] { cbfntsf] km} ; nf
;/sf/sf k| j Qmf ;~rf/dGqL cjz]if g]kfnsf] a'6jn, ltgfp gbLsf] cfwf/sf] ?kdf ;a}h;f]n] 36gfkl5 dfOnf nfdfn] eg] pQm t:aL/ v]bhgs / cl:jsfo{ 5 .Ú
If]Kof:q k|sfzg s]Gb|åf/f k|sflzt, ;Dkfbs M /fh]Gb|k|;fb lrdf}l/of, sfof{no M yfkfufpF, sf7df8f}F, df]afOn M (*$!$)#*%!,
E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com,website: www.janakhabar.com d'bs
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