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Magma a mass of molten rock formed at

depth, including dissolved gases and




Mid-ocean ridge a continuous mass of land

with long width and height on the ocean



Plates rigid sections of the lithosphere that

move as a unit

• According to the plate tectonics model, the

entire lithosphere of the Earth is broken into

numerous segments called plates.

• Each plate is slowly but continuously


• As a result of the motion of the plates,

three types of plate boundaries were formed:

Divergent, Convergent, and Transform fault


• Divergent boundary is formed when plates

move apart, creating a zone of tension.

• Convergent boundary is present when two

plates collide.

• Transform fault is characterized by plates

that are sliding past each other.

• Plate tectonics give rise to several geologic

features and events.

Glossary of Terms

Continental volcanic arc mountains

formed in part by igneous activity associated

with subduction of oceanic lithosphere

beneath a continent

Convergent boundary a boundary in which

two plates move toward each other, causing

one of the slabs of the lithosphere to subduct

beneath an overriding plate

Crust the outer portion of the earth

Continental Crust the thick part of the

Earth’s crust, not located under the ocean

Plate tectonics a theory which suggests

that Earth’s crust is made up of plates that

interact in various ways, thus producing

earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, and

other geologic features

Primary (P) wave the first type of seismic

wave to be recorded in a seismic station

Rocks consolidated mixture of minerals

Secondary (S) wave second type of

earthquake wave to be recorded in a seismic


Seismogram a record made by a


Seismograph a device used to record

earthquake waves

Subduction an event in which a slab of rock

thrusts into the mantle

Transform fault boundary a boundary

produced when two plates slide past each


Trench a depression in the seafloor

produced by subduction process

Volcanic Island arc a chain of volcanoes

that develop parallel to a trench



Oceanic Crust the thin part of the Earth’s

crust located under the oceans

• The Earth is composed of three major layers:

the crust, mantle, and core which is subdivided

into outer and inner core.

Divergent boundary a region where the

crustal plates are moving apart

• The crust is the outermost and thinnest layer of

the Earth.

Earthquake vibration of Earth due to the

rapid release of energy

• The mantle is the middle layer of the Earth. It

makes most of the Earth’s volume and mass.

Fault a break in a rock along which

movement has occurred

• The crust and a part of the upper mantle make

up the lithosphere. The lithosphere is subdivided

into portions called lithospheric plates.

Fracture any break in a rock in which no

significant movement has taken place

Geology the science that studies Earth

Hot spot a concentration of heat in the

mantle capable of creating magma

• The asthenosphere is the weak layer of the

mantle on which the lithosphere floats.

• The outer core is made up of molten material

and accounts for the Earth’s magnetic field.

• The inner core is the deepest layer of the Earth.

It is made up of solid nickel and iron. The

temperature in the inner core reaches as high as

5000 degree Celsius.

Subduction the process in which the crust

plunges back into the Earth

• The speed, reflection and refraction properties

of seismic waves are used by scientists to study

the structure and composition of the Earth’s


Tectonics branch of geology that deals with the

movements that shape the Earth’s crust

• The Continental Drift Theory of Alfred Wegener

states that the continents were once part of a

large landmass called Pangaea which drifted

away from each other. The continents moved

away from each other towards their current


• Alfred Wegener based his theory on evidences

from fossils imbedded in rocks and rock


• Seafloor spreading is believed to occur as hot

magma rises at the rift in the mid-ocean ridge.

This magma cools down and becomes the new

seafloor as it pushes the former.

• The old seafloor is destroyed at the subduction

zone and melts inside the mantle.

• The age of rocks and the magnetic stripes in

the ocean floor support the Seafloor Spreading


• The Theory of Plate Tectonics helps explain the

formation and destruction of the Earth’s crust and

its movement over time.

• Scientists believe that the plates’ movement is

due to convection currents in the mantle.

Glossary of Terms

Asthenosphere soft, weak upper portion of the

mantle where the lithospheric plates float and

move around

Continental Drift Theory states that all the

continents were once one large landmass that

broke apart, and where the pieces moved slowly

to their current locations

Convection current current in the mantle

because of the heat from the inner layers of the

Earth, and is the force that drives the plates to

move around

Lithosphere the topmost, solid part of the Earth

that is composed of several plates

Lithospheric Plates the moving, irregularlyshaped slabs that fit together to form the surface

of the Earth

Mid-ocean ridge area in the middle of the ocean

where a new ocean floor is formed when lava

erupts through the cracks in the Earth’s crust

Mohorovičić Discontinuity (Moho) the

boundary that separates the crust and the mantle

Plasticity the ability of solid to flow

Seafloor spreading process by which new

ocean floor is formed near the mid-ocean ridge

and moves outward



V. Summary/Synthesis/Feedback

• Many of the audio-video recording technology apply

the relationship between electricity and magnetism

known as electromagnetic induction.

• A typical recording studio consists of an audio-video

console, microphones, computers, studio monitors or

speakers, disc players and cables used for the exchange

of audio and digital data signal during production,

recording, mixing, and even editing of all audio-video

elements digitally stored on disk drives.

• Devices that detect and convert audio inputs to electric

outputs or vice versa are called transducers. Most

transducers like microphones and speakers use the

“generator effect” characterized by the production of

electromotive forces due to either a changing electric

signal within a magnetic field or a changing magnetic

field near a current-carrying conductor.

• Magnetism is commonly attributed to ferromagnetism

and electromagnetism depending on the material and

moving charges. Every atom and all moving charges are

in constant motion and therefore has a bit of magnetism

due to magnetic spins and domains creating a net

magnetic field.

• A magnet has two magnetic poles (north and south

seeking poles).

• Stroking with a permanent magnet is one of the ways

to induce or cause magnetism in an object that can be

magnetized. The polarity of the induced magnetism in

the object is opposite to the polarity of the nearer end of

the permanent magnet. Attraction happens after

magnetic induction occurs.

• A magnet attracts, but do not repel, unmagnetized

ferromagnetic materials such as iron, nickel, cobalt and

some of its alloys like steel and alnico.

• Both forces of attraction and repulsion is possible

between magnets and between a magnet and a

temporarily magnetized object.

• A magnetic field surrounds a magnet. Within this

region, the magnet affects another magnet and other

objects that can be magnetized.

• The magnetic field is strongest at the poles where the

magnetic lines of induction (flux) are closest. The

magnetic field pattern can be shown using iron filings

that align along magnetic lines of induction.

center of the coil of wire, deflecting about a wider angle

than the compass needle along the straightened wire.

• The magnetic lines of induction leave the north-pole

and enter the south-pole in close loops and can be

indicated by the north pole of a compass.

• The end of the current-carrying coil where the

magnetic lines of induction come out acts as the north

pole of the coil.

• The loops of magnetic field lines between like poles

bend away from each other showing a force of repulsion.

The lines between unlike poles join with each other to

form continuous lines showing a force of attraction.

• A magnetic field exerts a force on a current-carrying

conductor. Using the right-hand rule, the direction of this

force is in the direction where the palm faces.

• The earth acts like a giant bar magnet and has a

magnetic field similar to it.

• A charge has an electric field around it where other

charges will experience an electromagnetic force. Like

charges repel while unlike charges attract.

• Moving charges or current in a wire produces a

magnetic field.

• An electromagnet is a coil of wire that uses current to

produce a strong magnetic field.

• The magnetic field patterns of a disk magnet, an

electromagnetic nail, a current carrying straight

conductor, and a current carrying coil are similar to that

of the single bar magnet.

• The magnetic field pattern between the poles of a Ushaped magnet resembles the field pattern

unlike poles of two bar magnets. Compasses aligned

along the magnetic field show that the lines point from

the north to the south poles and back forming close


• If the two bar magnets with two unlike poles which are

close in between is brought together, the magnetic field

pattern will resemble that of the single bar magnet. Lines

from one pole enter the other pole.

• Most refrigerator magnets have a pattern of alternating

bands of magnetic field.

• If the direction of the current is known, the direction of

the magnetic field that is perpendicular to it and the

magnetic force that is perpendicular to both current and

magnetic field can be determined by applying the hand


• Using the right hand rule, the direction of the magnetic

field follows the direction of the right hand fingers when

the right thumb points in the direction of the

conventional current (from positive to negative).

• Using the left-hand rule, the direction of the magnetic

field follows the direction of the left hand fingers when

the left thumb points in the direction of the real flow of

current (from negative to positive).

• The magnetic field is strongest at the center of a

current-carrying coil.

• The magnetic field increases in direct proportion to the

number of turns in a coil with the compass needle, at the

• The motor effect is shown when a current-carrying

conductor within a magnetic

field moves in the direction of the force. The force on a

moving current carrying conductor may be varied by

changing the magnetic field.

• An electric motor is a device that converts electrical

energy into rotational mechanical energy. A simple DC

motor can be assembled using a single coil that rotates in

a magnetic field. The direct current in the coil is supplied

via two brushes. The forces exerted on the currentcarrying wire creates a rotation-causing force on the
• An electric generator is a device that converts

mechanical energy into electrical energy. A simple

electric generator is made when a coil or any closed loop

of conductor moves through or cuts across magnetic

field lines.

The coil will experience an induced voltage or an

electromotive force that will cause a pulsating direct

current (DC) to be generated. The pulsating direct

current fluctuates in value but does not change direction.

• Electromagnetic induction is a process in which

electric current is generated in a conductor by a moving

or changing magnetic field.

• A changing magnetic field occurs when there is relative

motion between a source of a magnetic field and a

conductor; it does not matter which moves.

• A changing magnetic field may also arise from a

changing nearby current.

• The amount of voltage (EMF) induced when a

conductor and a magnetic field are in relative motion

depends on (a) the length L of the conductor or the

number of turns in the coil, (b) the strength and

orientation of the magnetic field B relative to the

conductor, and (c) The relative velocity v of the

changing magnetic field.

• The equation for the induced voltage or

electromagnetic force (EMF) in a wire by a changing

magnetic field is EMF = BLv. By Ohm’s Law the

amount of induced current is directly proportional to the

induced voltage.

• A transformer uses electromagnetic induction in two

nearby coils (the primary and secondary coils).

Typically, the two coils of insulated wire are wound

around an iron core. This device changes the AC voltage

of the primary coil by inducing an increased or

decreased EMF in the secondary coil.