The Cesnola

Phoenician Collection
TEIXIDOR

Inscriptions of

the

JAVIER

THE PHOENICIAN INSCRIPTIONS studied here were

discovered by Louis Palma di Cesnola at Kition during the years when he was Consul of the United States at Cyprus. The excavations of various archaeological sites, which he carried on from 1865 to 187I, unearthed a great number of statues, pottery, inscriptions, sarcophagi, and other artifacts. All these objects, some 35,000, formed the Cesnola Collection; the largest surviving part of the collection is owned today by The Metropolitan Museum of Art. It would be an arduous task to trace back the whereabouts of the dispersed objects. Some of the early finds were sold by auction in Paris in I870;' others were bought from Cesnola by European and American museums, or by private collectors. In some cases Cesnola sold the objects to raise funds for his excavations. One consignment sent by him to London was lost at sea off Beirut. Furthermore, it should be remembered that Cesnola used to complain about tourists walking out of his museum at Larnaca with items stolen from the collection.2 The texts of the Cesnola Collection are either inscribed on fragments of votive bowls or stelae, or painted on earthenware jars. These inscriptions, like
i. March 25-26. The catalogue does not mention any inscriptions among the 388 objects sold. 2. Myres states that several important objects of the collection never reached New York and that they are known from the descriptions of Cesnola, or of G. Colonna Ceccaldi, who saw them before the collection left Cyprus; see also CIS, p. 44. Important informa-

everything else in the collection, have their own history. They were made known to the learned world for the firsttime on May 6, I870, in a reportread by E. Rodiger at the meeting of the Prussian Academy of Sciences of Berlin. Rodiger mentioned then many of the Phoenician inscriptions that are today in the Metropolitan Museum, but his interpretation of the texts was based on drawings made by his correspondentin Cyprus, and this correspondentdid not know Phoenician. Two years later P. Schroder, a well-established authority on the Phoenician language, presented a more reliable report on the inscriptions to the Academy of Berlin. Schroder had had the opportunity of spending several weeks at Larnaca making facsimiles of the inscriptionsstored in Cesnola'shouse. He failed to find all the texts published by Rodiger, but he found others unnoticed by Rodiger's correspondent. Cesnola carried the whole collection to London in 1872 and it was acquired there by the Metropolitan Museum.3However, it was not until May 1874 that the Trustees of the Museum were able to report that the collection had become the property of the Museum.4 In May 1874, at a meeting of the American Oriental
tion about Cesnola's activity in the island can be found in G. Perrot, "L'ile de Chypre. Son role dans l'Histoire," Revuedes deuxmondes 48, III Series, December I, 30 (1878) pp. 51 I-512; 49, III Series, February 1, 31 (879) pp. 588-605, esp. pp. 593, 598. 3. Myres, pp. xvii-xviii. 4. Howe, p. 156.

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v abd. For the name of Milkyaton's father. 125-I55. bymm]29 lyrh[. this department included "all the sculpture. but there is another Baalrom whose title is "lord" or "prince. KAI 32. note 3. 122:5 abc. A Historyof CyprusI (Cambridge. Hill. L. 7. he does not bear the royal title. . there has been no review of this epigraphic material. p. 1528."sHall then restudied the collection and discovered additional inscribed vases. then the Director of the Museum. To the texts already known he added three that he himself had discovered at the Museum. W. in the year . with Baalmilk I and ended with Pumiyaton.Society. Ward presented a note on the Collection's Phoenician inscriptions. Myres I806-8. CIS 88. H. Atlas III. 20. Milkyaton's son. jewelry. G. Grammatik 3 5a. "on the 29th day of the month . In I882 Isaac H. The inscriptions clearly fall into two groups: votive texts written on fragments of marble bowls and two broken stelae. ]4 Imlkmlk[ytnmlk . Unlike my predecessorsI see the no. 9 cm. with some new photographs and some improved readings. RES 1531. Peckham. .. p.. 57). 5. at the time the Persians 5. . pottery. Pumiyaton's death took place in 312 B. Of the first group Schroder remarked that the fragments corresponded to I8 different bowls or kraters. the Corpus Semiticarum.2275-77. The remark is in order here because the old facsimiles and the CIS photographs can give the erroneous impression that the fragments belong to a few bowls only. I18. VOTIVE INSCRIPTIONS I. XLVII.. and this privilege continued until his forty- seventh year (316 or 315). HistoryI.c. Renan in I88I. Peckham. Myres in 1914. kty] w'dylb[n brlrm . 20. but he must have recovered part of his power after Alexander's death for in the fortieth year of his reign he began to strike gold coins again (323 or 322 B. 79) says that he was put to death by Ptolemy because of his alliance with Antigonus. Hall 2.C. . D. bsnt.C. probably from 392 to 362 B. and inscriptions on vases.. 9:3. 7. 158. 6.. 4th of the reign of Milkyaton king of Citium and Idalium. antiquities. Fine characters incised on rim: . This is easily verified when the fragments themselves are handled. For the history of this period. The group Imlkis to be interpreted as an infinitive qal preceded by the preposition.. go. Since then. son of Baalrom" The plural formymm is known at Kition. Bibliography: CIS 21. Teixidor 1974. I hope to encourage scholars to search for other Phoenician materials from Cyprus that may be forgotten in local museums. 1949) pp. 10:13. with photographs and facsimiles sent to him by Cesnola. While these inscriptions are not an important part of the glamorous Cesnola Collection.. i8. p. pp. they are nevertheless valuable for the study of the political and religious history of Cyprus during the Persian and Hellenistic periods. Cypruspls. inscriptions. Rodiger XLIII.C. krater 85 cm. Hall became the Curator of the Department of Sculpture at the Museum.. By publishing them here in a more accessible manner." CIS 89 (KAI39. pl. .7 Diodorus Siculus (19. The union of Citium and Idalium started in the middle of the fifth century B. edMeanwhile. of 74. The first systematic classification of all the Phoenician inscriptions of the Museum was made by J.The dynasty of Milkyaton had started around 475 B. Schr6der 4. note 29. Hill.). The reign of Milkyaton over Citium and Idalium is documented by Phoenician inscriptions and coins. The name of Milkyaton's father is known from several inscriptions. 17-22. 17 ab. 219. contained only the inscriptions published by Rodiger and Schroder. glassware. II. It 56 extended over a long period. Howe. Inscriptionum ited by E.C. p. and such other objects of art as commonly are termed Bric-a-Brac.6 Pumiyaton yielded to Alexander. porcelain.51. 20 and not a mem the broken stroke that appears in sign before the numeral 9. Three rim fragments of a krater: L.

8 ?v 1 L?i --to an inscription found in 1879. published in 1968. The reconstruction of the full formula remains conjectural.r . Teixidor 1970..5 cm..? dl -. This represented the triumph of the Phoenician elements of Citium over the cities that had been supported by Athens. R6diger XLVIII. Cyprus pl. Fragment of rim: 74. Ward 2. Io:I2. "of the reign of Milkyaton king of Citium and Idalium" 3. Resefwas the Phoenician Apollo of Idalium. Citium emerged then as the most important city after Salamis. occasionally. pl. pp. r?. Atlas III." The correct interpretation of the inscription seems to be "Resef is the god Mukol of Idalium. Bibliography: pl.2274. according L. Bibliography: CIS 18.. After mentioning the day of the month and the regnal year of the monarch the inscriptions must have identified the objects dedicated to the deity as well as the name of the devotee and. . 4 cm.aC. was 7 cm. The cultural significance of Citium's political victory over Idalium may be reflected in the inscriptions mentioning the cult of Resef-Mukol. Myres I812. "king of Citium and Idalium" The following fragments (4-9) exhibit a similar type of text. 122:9." that is.. Fragment of rim: 74. Many Phoenician inscriptions from Citium and Idalium belong to the period in which the two kingdoms were united. (in the I870S the L. and Mukol. 2. Ix.51. 5. Hall 2. Schroder 6.8 gained control over the island. An inscription in the British Museum. Atlas III. 69. Orientalia (i968).?z . Myres 1805. pl. .228I. 122:4. . ]mlk kty w'd[yl .51. 8. Peckham has rightly seen in this syncretistic formula a diplomatic gesture of the victorious Citium vis-a-vis Idalium. . Resef is to Idalium what Mukol is to Citium. 37 57 . CIS 19. the (god) Mukol who is at Idalium.. Hall 2. L..). 319-320. was the god of Citium. deals with the dedication of a statue "to Resef. lm]lk mlky[tn mlk kty w'dyl . his title. Iv. Cyprus i0o: .

pl. Fragment of handle: 74. 123:12. "this statue" (or "this fictile object"). 4 cm." . ]t '[ytn . The restoration [qbr]t. xvI. Moreover. ndr may be here a noun to be interpreted as "vow" or "votive gift. 4.51. Hall 2.2289. . Bibliography: CIS 29. 5. sml always means "statue. Myres 1817. this cup which gave .51. H. Schr6der 17.51. pl. "offered an image to. I23:14. Rodiger XLIX o. AtlasIII. but this is conjectural. L. pl. "cup. Fragment of rim: L. Cyprus pl. The sentence could be translated ". ]ml'z[.. 6.lm[ This has been read ndr slm 1.5. The term is known in Ugaritic and Hebrew." but the reading of sade can hardly be justified. . Fragment of rim: 74. L. 11:16. 74.4. Atlas III. as said in no. ]ndr. I V!.. Cyprus Bibliography: pl.. Myres I82. Myres 815. 5 cm. XIV.. ' \ Aj M The commentators have restored [s]ml 'z. Schroder 13." seems likely. CIS 34. 2. Hall 2. Atlas III. RES 1533.2284. R6diger XLIXi. 1I:20. 123:16.5 cm..2286. CIS Bibliography: 3o. 58 ." hence the term is out of place here. ." followed by the numeral i. XV .. 5. to mention the dedication of a statue on the rim of the bowl appears inappropriate. . Hall 2.I I. xII.

Cyprus pl. Rodiger XLIX h. Myres 1819.v 9. . ] sytn[. pl. Schroder I. Hall 2.. the inscription preserves the title of the dedicator of the krater. ]bn[ "son of. xv ab. Atlas III. 120 cm.51. Schroder i9. 3 cm. q. Carefully incised. 1818. Schroder 5. I would restore a name such as Abdresef. "which gave . mls krsym." The letter before bn seems to be ape rather than ayod as proposed in CIS.. 35. son of. ]ytn ml[s] krsym [ . Pr~~~~~~~~~~~~. which is known at Idalium.X. Bibliography: CIS 36. . I23:20. Fragments of rim: 74. m. xx. ..." i. . pl. Atlas III.or mls hkrsym. Atlas III. R6diger XLV. 19. Myres 1809. CIS 93. Fragment broken on all sides: 74. . 80 cm. . .51. I :18.. the words separated by dots. 123:15 ab. Hall 2. pl.3Ib~"A?i 8.7. . Fragment of rim: 74.2278. 16. rS]pbn '[ . Cypruspl. Myres 1824. Original D. 122:6. Bibliography: CIS 3I.2293..appears in contemporary inscriptions of Citium (CIS 44) and Idalium (CIS 88) 59 . Bibliography: CIS 22 ab. VI. Hall 2. Original D.-t 7. .2287-88.51. If so. 11:22. . L. f.

io. The Phoenician inscription thus exhibits the Aramaic form. D. L. CIS pl. 83. then the restoration '[gn]. since in the Aramaic documents of the Persian period the sefira was not only the "scribe"but also somebody who could translate the official documents.as being the title of a certain Resefyaton. I54). 97. 1903) p. Schrbder 14. In Aramaic. Cooke. see no. The title "interpreter of the thrones" must indicate the charge of "dragoman" to the court. who usually were of various ethnic extractions.which contain the final sentence of the dedication. was to have Egyptian boys to whom Greek was taught (2.10Interpreters. whose office was to act as an interpreter between the Cyprian kings and the Persians. bowl. Cyprus 11:23. 16. G. 4.. Thus the name [rSf]ytn can be rightly restored in the Cesnola fragment." is possible. 123:13. von Soden. Hall 2. 9.however. l'[dny l'smn mlqrtybrk] In the first line the restoration '[ ytn]. according to Herodotus (2. One of the privileges granted by Psammetichus to the Ionians and Carians who helped him regain the throne. and Arabic krsmeans "throne" or "seat". Myres 1816. of bowl 23 cm. Institutions Seleucides (Paris.for instance in Genesis 42:23 where an "interpreter" (herin meneutes the Septuagint) stands between Joseph and his brothers. Fragment of bowl: 74. They are one of the seven classes (heptagenea) into which the Egyptians were divided. 9. W.9The title is probably Phoenician in spite of its heteroclite character. The title means "interpreter of the thrones. 10. Syriac. A. R6diger XLIXk. In any case it derives from Akkadian kussu. The term occurs frequently in the Late Aramaic texts but is also found at Ugarit. in Hebrew and Phoenician the term is ks'." Reallexikon fur Antike und Christentum4 (1959) cols. Bibliography: 37. "Dolmetscher. 60 . 7. A Text-Book North-Semitic of Inscriptions (Oxford. 5. Two lines of text are visible: '[ . Atlas III. must have been much in demand under the Persian rulership. 29-31. "ewer. of inscription 2 cm. pl. des II. 6i. "which he gave. but if the alephis the first letter of the first word in the dedication. E.2285. The second line is reconstructedin the light of the following fragments.51. Bickerman. . For the cult of EsmunMelqart. We also know that the Seleucids instituted a service of interpreters to explain the orders of the generals to the soldiers. 1938) p. Polybius. 13. XIII." Phoenician mis is to be related to Hebrew mlys. I64)." seems more appropriate.

pl. Myres 1823. Hall 2. E~ ~ ~~~~~ 1 . io-I6.. l]'dny l'smn wl[mlqrtybrk] The closing commendation "to his Lord Esmun Melqart. Myres 181o. VIII. Bibliography: pl. Myres I811.2292. Cyprus pl. The text can be translated "to his Lord Eshmun and to Melqart.. pI.5 cm. RES I534. CIS Bibliography: 39.iji j: `'t i r F. 141. Rldiger XLIX p.. ^ X(IK.. pl.5 cm. May he bless him" . Rodiger XLVI. Hall 2.51. L.2280. I'dny l's]mn ml[qrtybrk] __x v /t 13. offers an interesting variation in this fragment. vii. 122:7. . 123:I9. 2. XIx. rl 12. Cyprus Io:Io. L. Ward 3.ii.. See no.?'." thus confirming my conviction that the personalities of the gods. Fragment of rim and handle: 74.3 III. of rim 7. Atlas III. 1. L. . "." which appears in nos. pl. I051. Fragment of rim: 74.2279. bn rbd]mlqrt l'dny l'mn[mlqrtybrk son of Abdmelqart to his Lord Esmun Mel- qart. even when homologous. never merge.51. Fragment of rim: 74. CIS 23. Atlas II. I6. V ?%I ? . Bibliography: CIS 28.. Hall 2. Schr6der 18. 7 cm. Atlas III..:? t. V/I . May he bless him. II:17.. 122:8..51..

Schroder 8. Hall 2. combined 19 cm. son of Abdmarnai to his Lord Esmun Melqart. I40 cm. Bibliography: CIS 27. 62 Nos. The theological conception underlining this practice requires a commentary. Myres 1803-4. XLIV. Hall 2. inI ab. the god of Sidon.14. Schr'der 7. I0:I4. I'dny l'smn ml]qrtybrk I6. Myres 1813 ab. Schroder 9). Cypruspls. 9:I. (Myres' and Hall's references to Cyprus are incorrect.51. 11:21. RES 1530. 9. Myres I8I4. 4 cm. 3.2282. Esmun. The inscriptions do not appear in Cypruseither. was often invoked by the . L. and 28 (Rodiger XLIX n) are not in the Museum. 26 (Rodiger XLIX b).2272-73. Atlas III. XLII. pl. 123:11. x (who wrongly believed that Schrbder 21 belonged to the inscription). Io:15. Hall 2.51. 122:10. Rodiger XLIX1 (incomplete). Bibliography: CIS 16 ab.51. they were already missing in 1885 when Hall studied the collection. Atlas III. L. Fragment of rim and handle: 74. I I8.. Atlas III. Cyprus pl. pl..2283. Fragment of rim: 74.. L. 122:3 ab.) l'dny l'Imn ml]qrtyb[rk] The CIS inscriptions 24 (Rodiger XLIX d. Teixidor I974. Original D. R6diger XLIX c. l'Imn mlq[rtybrk] b]n rbdmrnyI'dny "of the reign of Milkyaton. XI. May he bless him" 15. pl. CIS 25 ab. Io-I6 reveal a widespread form of Phoenician religiosity: the simultaneous worship of two deities. Fragments of rim: 74.5 cm. Cyprus Bibliography: pls. 12:30. lml]k mlkytn[ mlk kty w'dyl . Ward I. Rodiger XLIX a.. Schroder 15 (incomplete). king of Citium and Idalium .

'2 The god is explicitly identified with Aesculapius in an inscription of the second century B. KAI 73. in Sardinia.. provided Tyrians and Sidonians with "food. Malakbel associated themselves in couples. a Carthaginian. TheAncient Relating to theOld Testament. 17. Baalazor son of Elisa (rlIt). The cult of Sadrafa is associated with that of Sid at Antas. This of course did not interfere with their belief in the supreme Phoenician Baal Shamin. B. Esmun. or in Sadrafa of Sardinia'6 the sponsors of their concrete enterprises and needs. Supplementary 14. Teixidor 1972. M. 79-81. together with Melqart. Sadrafa. pl. Guzzo Amadasi. found at Carthage in I894. in E."'5 But the use of the preposition before the name of each deity is far from consistent. was "a devotee of Sid Melqart" (CIS 247. 23: i8. Resef. Cyprus 9:5. and Aramaic pantheons: Astart.C. TextsandPictures NearEast. Studi semitici 28 (Rome.. according to an inscription recently found. not its disunity. 91-92. Le iscrizionifenicie epuniche in occidente. cited in no. L. ]ht The two letters seem to be the end of a votive formula.J.C. and the question whether the copulative conjunction between the two divine names is used or not seems to me to be irrelevant. I I where the names of Esmun and Melqart are separated by the conjunction w and the preposition i. ed. They saw in ESmun of Sidon. Punic. the god to whom the heavens belong. Besides the example offered by the dedication to Resef-Mukol. is dedicated "to Astart. Original D. pp. dellecolonie 13. The worship of couples of deities is a known feature of Phoenician." and "oil. Fragment of rim: 74." "clothes. 12. G. Sid.'3 But Esmun was also a vegetation god who. The conclusion to be drawn from these and similar texts is that the associations of deities were cultic and not the result of metaphysical considerations. statues of crippled children were offered to the god of healing as pious ex-votos. CIS 6057. 105-109. The pendant and its archaeological context are studied in Peckham. Dunand. A gold pendant of around 700 B. Bulletin du MusFede Beyrouthi8 (1965) pp. from Sardinia. 1969) pp. when worshiped together. 15. 115. 1967) pp. 63 . however. 1969) pp. there is the text of no. III. Melqart. Bel. In his temple at Bostan eshSheikh. CIS Bibliography: 33. The faithful were not after a monotheistic conception of the divine. Acquaro et al. Pritchard (Princeton. i. Schr6der XVIII. Mukol. M. in 677 B. 16. I . 5 cm.2291. attendant of"the temple ofSid Tenit". 97-98. Tenit. Yarhibol." as is stated in the final clause of the treaty made between the Assyrian King Esarhaddon and Baal. An inscription from Carthage mentions a certain Himilcat. or in Melqart of Tyre. Atlas pi. M. 119-124. Rodiger xLIx g. to Pygmalion. The extant epigraphical material. had their personalities merged into one. King of Tyre.14 In the Cesnola inscriptions Esmun is always coupled with Melqart.51. 256). Hall 2. The simultaneous fidelity to both a supreme god and to specialized gods in charge of specific functions is evidence of the religious unity of the Phoenician world. does not support the conclusion that any two gods. Myres 1822. 249. 90 cm. Ricerche punichead Antas.c.Phoenicians as a healer. Studi semitici 30 (Rome. Aglibol. near Sidon. Fantar.

2271.. 5 cm.. H. Depth 6. 18. Atlas III. king of Citium and Idalium. pl. Hall 2. Cyprus pl. CIS 32. Similar cult objects have been found in Nabatean territory. ]m q' h t[ alephand hetare uncertain. . the term that follows must be a title or the name of a profession. p. [ytn w]ytn' rbd'l[m] bn [bn] rbdmlqrt [rbd] ] [r]f l'dny [ [ ] . Myres 1802. 25-26. . 7. Eight lines. This is the traditional reading of the two lines. for hnnb[rl] is an unusual spelling of the name hnbrl (Hannibal). The kraters presented in nos. W. which is confirmed by the examination of the stone. W. H. Myres I8oi. ]' ndrlb[ II. 20. I9. Atlas Bibliography: pl. only six of which can be read: [ .2290.5 cm. Hall I." Ifytn is the second element in a theophorous name. CIS 15. III. Atlas Bibliography: pl. On the other hand... . 9:2. Schr6der 2. 2.. 12. at Palmyra.. Myres 1821... Schr6der I.5. R6diger XLIX e. 7. monuments and inscriptions indicate that large bowls were used in the sacred repasts. Block of white marble: 74. lmlk pmyytn] of the reign of Pumiyaton king of Citium and [m]lkktyw[']dyl bn mlk [ml]kytn ktyw ['dy]l mnht2 'l '[s] 64 Idalium. Cyprus 9:6. L.2294.18. "which offered. However. I-i8 were most likely used in religious ceremonies. 123:I7. 122:1. III. 7.51. Block of white marble: 74." in the second line makes questionable the assumption thatytn here means "he gave. Hall 2.. Depth I4 cm. XVII.51. Fragment of rim: 74. Schroder Io. pp. pl. Bibliography: CIS 14." . 122:2. son of Milkyaton. the presence of the phrase 'J ndr. ]ytn hnnb[ rl . pl. RES 1529.51.. I must accept the reading of two nunsafter het with hesitation. Cyprus 9:4. these two offerings which Abdelim son of Abdmelqart son of [Abd]resef gave and dedicated to his Lord ..

between Lapethos and Idalium (RES I212). Peck.. Baalay was most probably the name of the owner of the amphora and its content.. n the Istyearin. . 89). .7. 246-248. and some of the stelae found at Idalium itself (CIS 88.45-52). of coarse white ware: b." the hypocoristicon of a theophorous name of Baal. for the Arab village of Artuf near Jaffa was known in Seleucid times as Apollonias. INSCRIPTIONS ON VASES 21. CIS io.. 68. the Phoenicians he was the Greek Apollo.' "tribute..). t i '?e ^ /' Relef Mukol while Hall thinks of EfmunMelqart.f : ." The restoration of the name of the deity cannot be but conjectural: the CIS restores the name . H. -~~ ? I7." indicate Redef's function as a god of plague. ' ' . pl. Les inscriptions (Paris. I found it at Ugarit with the meaning of. Date: end of seventh century RES 152 1. This is made explicit in the Cypriote-Phoenician inscriptions from Idalium. p.7 of the reign of Pumiyaton" (34 B..4 remaining as yet uncertain. '' / ':' :: 9. 0. 4."arrow. 65 . "Baalay. Cyprus 9:7. p. 56. vthe At Ugarit. Ward 4. have been familiar. pp. thus making him a sort of weather god.. Masson-Sznycer. for instance a stele from Tamassos. Pierides around 86o in the marina of Larnaca and today housed in the Louvre. Teixidor I970.. .~. 196) chypriotes syllabiques pp. KAI32. ' The sequence "gave and dedicated" is known from other Phoenician inscriptions. Hall 2. Masson. xii. Amphora 74.c A B.5 cm. ' S -^ .here in a plural form. . i8. xxvi. . . : A^ . ~~~ham.~ ~.1. Resef was identified with Nergal. pl.2298a. i9. tation of the element . pl. '. p. Bibliography: III.~ .. II. In the inscription the full cultic name of the goed interpreappears to be rSfe. Four letters below the shoulder: brly. C. In Palestine itself this identification must.51. from a dedication made by Bodo.~. A ten on an altar of white marble discovered by D. 123:26. the priest (khn)of the i i god "on the 6thday ofthem onth Bul. mnht. who inflicts disease by means of his arrows like Apollo hurling his darts on the Achaeans (Iliad 1. i6-I 7. The text is writ-. Myres i826..45) . S i^ . It is possible that hs.. 51.' but for :?'"'-":' ' . means an offering made to the gods.The '" existence of a cult of Resef at Kition can be inferred . The name is well attested in Phoenician and Punic inscriptions. I no longer accept that the title of Reef refers to lightning.Atlas .. '. . gift..

D. xmI. . p *. Of course the translation "Yaton inspected" is equally possible. Atlas II. I am inclined to interpret it as a sign or as an abbreviation. H.. Io:8.L.t. 16-17. Inscription of three lines.*UT u. p.5I. "Baalazor.:. but a closer examination of the characters proves that the text says brlrzr. -cr?r . H.-. Peckham.-' Cd . Hall 2. I048.:tl ?-r* F-' .. Peckham.4PCI L-i5 . ? - -?". 12:29. Cypruspl.c. Myres I828. I interpret this word as the personal name "Yaton" rather than as a verb. the others lower on the wall. KAI 62.? ??' s-? ?-?? J? 31. '-"i-" u ? ? ?"" Y - ?t . 12:25.r""a'_. The same term seems to appear on an amphora of 66 . Hall 2. 30. p.?tC:.-. Atlas II. discusses the date of this type of storage jar and places this one at the beginning of the seventh century B. 555). smr is very likely the title of Yaton. note. . Masson-Sznycer.22. III. ?-+. Ward 5. 58 cm.'. 123:25. Bibliography: RES 1523. pi. consists of the word kly and a sign that is usually read as "Ioo.*:.?u nikpltli af-'. Amphora of red earthenware: 74-. not Smcyas proposed by the authors cited above.=? . . 119. Myres 1825.?_a:. 24.-4-?llt r--4_. pp. 123:22.5.2295a. ..ljtF . Date: fourth century B. found in Malta. Thus the phrase "Yaton. The inscription.r*: ?." the name of the owner of the amphora.r-lr.'.".? "-' (see de Ridder no. p. The authors cited above read it as brly zt...51. H. the first below the shoulder. Amphora of coarse ware: 74. III. pl.C. :? . (3) I read smry.C. Hall and Myres refer to Cyprus pl. Alabastron: 74. The only questionable reading in the word is the finalyod. 69 cm." It appears in an inscription of the second century B. IT 'rir -?.3rht3 . Hall 2.2300. Date: fourth century B. ?.C. namely "overseer" or "inspector. pl.:ru?:. Bibliography: RES I526.. inspector" or "Yaton inspected" may be here to authenticate the merchantable quality of the content. The final resh is followed by a dot. but the Cyprusdrawing is to be read mnhm ?LI*rr-c ". Peckham. xxII. 17.?J?I??:. "Baalpilles. 17..n* ::y L *.. Cypruspl. . Myres 1827. incised below the rim.r:.?.2299. xxv. ?? ?7ii. 12 cm. (I) brlpls. below the shoulder." So far no explanation of the word klIy has been offered. Bibliography: RES 1520. ?-?. 3. The inscription. xxvII.r.C. 1049. (2) ytn. was painted before firing.r-3L" I? I . i ???'. ilJ ?-I"'j. ?rCi. note. .c'* ' .-?L t ..._ -rl' "4. ?: .I 23.?YY -:155CC-s? ?? cr :'VrF.." a well-known theophorous name of Baal. 1J Fl i? r? .-.

! Three undeciphered signs incised on the bottom. pls. pp. '. RES and Hall read . "Some Inscribed Iron-Age Vases from 6o Journal of Archaeology (1956) pp. Atlas II. III. pl. H. Ix5. 4 Transactions the Societyof Biblical Archaeology of (1876) p. pp.I 5. fig. 23. XV. S. vase was purchased in the bazaar at Nicosia. 442) that the . 129. xlx. . note. pl. i2 cm. 303). 7.5 1. 79-86. pl. xxvII. 67 . He dates the vase in the ninth or tenth century. p.5057a. Syria.p. 62-92. They place the vase in the eleventh century B. I 4. Masson-Sznycer. . I4I:Io52. Atlas II. pl. I5 cm. one with three crosslines and the other with two. note. du Plat Taylor. I2:26. III. 26. Myres does not give its measurements.. pp. 2. incised before firing. xxiv.51. xxII. Birch. pl. Masson-Sznycer consider the three signs as archaic and read hhh. and RES 1527. On the other hand. I28- . but the vessel is not in the Museum." The personal name is unknown in both Phoenician and Greek. Atlas III pl." Iraq21 (1959) pp. I23:24. esp. Hall 2. "The Cypriot and Syrian Pottery from Al Mina. 351-354.hy.C. Cyprus. Karageorghis. Bibliography: I Hall 2. xxIII. "belonging to 'nts. is very unlikely. reads l'nts. pl. Peckham. V. Jug of red-slip ware: 74. _r RES I525. . Myres 1829. 25. hardly exhibit known forms. Peckham. Vase of steatite: 74. I7. and the presence of two hets. Masson-Sznycer. Date: eighth century B. Cesnola wrote (Cyprus. I05. I 40 I. Cyprus I2:27.I The inscription. 19. Myres I540. and confesses that the inscribed jar "is no longer recognizable" (p. Myres 479. I9 RES 1524. 41:I050. H. The inscription does not appear in Rodiger or Schroder.C." American J. pp. 123:28. Cyprus Bibliography: pl. however. The signs. earthenware mentioned by Hall 2. Hall possibly repeated wrong in- formation received from Cesnola without his seeing the amphora. but Myres rightly thought that the characters probably were not Phoenician. I23:23.

? :?: . pl..t* : I% . Peckham. MassonSznycer. 2. note. 112-I 13.27.-:.sl. Teixidor 1973. 132.100I.r. i .?*. I23:21. ri ?-?.a . 233-234.5 . 68 . The reading seems to be d/r g m n. 33 cm..*. 28. pl.. I. The letter shin appears on the foot end of the lid.C. . Date: 450-400 B. 141:1047. Sarcophagus of white marble: 74. p. ?L?. Cyprus p.2452. Found at Amathus. III. Myres.. ?''.??? :? '? IT 1. r'b" :. Ward 6. Date: seventh century B. xiv. 68.' . ISi it. Myres 775. o1:9.. yh:liB a p? i. The term is unknown in Phoenician. Atlas II.L -*r t. Vase of painted white ware: 74. Bibliography: RES 1522.C. pl. r" ?. 2 m. ??. . pl. . pp. ?": :. 17. 25 cm..?." 3? -*: sp !i : d -.51. L. r I :? : .i %'ii. :. Four letters painted in black below a brownish band. H. xxI. pp.. Hall 2.

pl. Tombs. Howe. 2 Isaac H. In 1872 they entered the de Clercq Collection. and maybe yod. for granting me permission to publish this material. 92. 1928) p. no. 2. Kanaandische und aramiische Atlas ColAtlas of theCesnola Louis P. Friedrich and W." Hebraica (i885-86) pp." For the text. 555 is an amphora 46 cm. di Cesnola. 2 .Four more inscriptions that were originally in the Cesnola Collection but did not enter the Metropolitan Museum may be mentioned. 301-303.21 Near one of the handles there are remains of a Phoenician inscription painted in black. and were published by de Ridder in I908. for her efforts in making the material available to me. (Wiesbaden.5 cm. 11:24. pls. 1913) KAI H. 340. 7-8 (nos. Robinson. E. xn. Myres. Rollig. I. A Descriptive Museum in the Metropolitan of lectionof Cypriote Antiquities Art."Sitzungsberichte 20. III ( 964) Masson-Sznycer a sur 0. "Some Phoenician Inscrip2 tions in New York. 7I. 521-524 uitiesfrom Peckham of J. het. I88 ) Cyprus Its Cities. di Cesnola. 441. The second and third inscriptions were painted on amphorae found at Kition. 98. no. Handbook theCesnola Cyprus (New York. Cyprus: Ancient 1877) p. pl. 555 and 556. 1966). RES 1518. of Catalogue Greek. I-xx) Vol. Pars Prima. (Rome. Boston. 303. II. Recherches lesPheniciens Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes. Rollig. Myres mentioned this inscription (pp. 240-243 (nos. "Epigraphische zu der Akademie WissenschaftenBerlin(i885) p. I519. 1914) pp.129. 1903) CIS I Corpus inscriptionum semiticarum. A. Hall i. Height. Euting published it in I885. Euting. 3:22. bearing the personal name mnhm. of Catalogue Greek Etruscan is 236. I970) matik. Tomus (Paris. Preussischen koniglich 688. 69 . Inschriften. 9-12 (London. Vol. Donner and W. 18 (the inscription not visible). pl. No. I read mem.Museum FineArts. Brian Peckham. 237. 65. III (New York. It was in the home of D. high.and Louis P. They were in the Cesnola Collection until i869. Etudes orientales. 2nd ed. The fourth inscription is on a jar of coarse red clay owned by the Museum of Fine Arts. Hall. The first is believed to be a fragment of a krater similar to nos. may be due to Schr6der's lack of precision. Cyprus. A History theMetropolitan of Art (New York. EarlyVases." Hebraica pp. no. pl. Assistant Curator.20 The inscription (RES 389) reads ]ytn bn rbd[. 2nd ed. York. The Development the LatePhoenician Scripts(Harvard University Press."Menahem. Hautes Chypre." I Hebraica (1884) pp. For a possible interpretation. 556 is an amphora 42 cm. of and Etruscan RomanVases(1893) pp. II. Phoinizisch-Punische 2nd ed. ( 968). and I am greatly indebted to Joan R. namely the position of the inscription and the size of the handles. 524) and numbered it 1830 with the remark that the jar was "no longer recognizable. Vols. SOURCES ABBREVIATED Howe Museum of Winifred E. II. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. I968) der Miscellen. J." The two inscriptions of the de Clercq Collection (now dispersed) were published without photographs. 1894. 3 (Paris. The two discrepancies that seem to be against the identification. ian Black-Figured AthenL Preceding and Vases.Boston. Mertens. i-18. Temples Grammatik GramJ. Pierides when J. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I should like to expressmy gratitude to Dietrich von Bothmer. No. nos. Vol. high. number 72. "More Phoenician Inscriptions in New xxi-xxvmI). p. 45. Chairman. 25-26. Department of Greek and Roman Art. Masson and M. This jar belonged to the Cesnola Collection until 1872 when it was purchased by subscription for the Museum of Fine Arts. "A Phoenician Inscription in New York. Ware(Harvard University Press. The inscription consists of four lines of which there is only a poor drawing in RES Cyprus. 1972) Myres Collection Antiqof of John L. Fairbanks. pl. 12:24. It is possible that this is the one Schroder saw in I870 and described. Sznycer.

1917) semitique. H. 264-272 ton. Collection Clercq. I908) from I967 on." in Syria teschypriotes (Paris. de Ridder. R6diger. pp. Phil. pls. Ward. p. Proceedings Bosvom 9. 330-34I. pp. Phil. May 1874. The number after the year indicates the Rodiger paragraph E. I-3 Teixidor V: A. LXXXV 70 . Repertoire d'epigraphie de Ridder Schroder P. "Bulletin d'epigraphie semitique. LesantiquiJ. de Catalogue. Klasse vom 6.-hist. Klasse zu Society. Mai I870. Teixidor. Mai 1872. Monatsberichte koiniglichen Preussischen Ward der at der Oriental W.-hist. ibidem. Schroder.RES Vol. American Akademie Wissenschaften Berlin. inI (Paris.