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Feline Focus

Hepatozoon infection genesis, we present the results of immunological monitoring
Baneth G, Aroch I, et al (1998) Hepatozoon species infection in during the chronic phase of experimental FIV infection in
domestic cats: A retrospective study Veterinary Parasitology two cats which subsequently developed lymphoma.
79(2): 123-133. Two cats in the chronic stage of experimentally-
induced FW infection subsequently developed lymphoma.
Hqafozoon sp. is a protozoan parasite of feline neutrophils.
Infection with Hepatozoon sp has been reported infrequently In one of these, cell-mediated immunity was depressed
in cats and little is known about its pathogenesis. A retro- throughout the monitoring period and especially from
spective study of hepatozoonosis in cats admitted during weeks 125-200 post-infection. During this time there was
1989-1995 to the Hebrew University School of Veterinary profoundly impaired lymphocyte blastogenesis and mark-
Medicine was conducted. During the 7-year study period edly increased interleukin-1 (IL-l) production compared to
a total of 1229 cats had a complete blood count with a uninfected control cats. In the second cat, lymphocyte
microscopical examination of a blood smear. Hepatozoon function was less affected. In both cats, there were altera-
gametocytes were identified in seven of these cats (0.57%). tions in IgM, IgA and IgG concentrations, and in CD4, CD8
Their ages ranged from 1 to 6 years, 6/7 were male and 5/7 and CD21-lymphocyte sub-sets. Using Southern blot analy-
were mixed breed. A variety of clinical signs were seen in the sis integrated FIV-provirus was found in tumour DNA
from the second, but not the first cat, indicating a possible
cats. Clinicopathological findings included increased serum
LDH in 5/6 and CK in 5/6, suggesting possible muscular direct role for the virus in this cat. This study demon-
strated a potential indirect mechanism of tumourigenesis
damage. 4/6 cats were found to be co-infected with either
FIV or FELV and 2/7 were co-infected with Haemobartonella (immune dysfunction) in at least one of the two cats
felis. The authors concluded that parasitaemia with studied.
Hepatozoon sp. was a rare finding in this study of cats from
Israel, and that there was a possible association between
immunosuppression (FeLV/FIV co-infection) and the PCR diagnosis of Haemobartonella felis
development of Hepatozoon infection. Berent LM, Messick JB, et al (1998) Detection of Haemo-
bartonella felis in cats with experimentally induced acute
and chronic infections, using a polymerase chain reaction
Primary hypoparathyroidism in a kitten assay. American Journal of Veterinay Research 59(10): 1215-
Bassett JR (1998) Hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia 1220.
due to primary hypoparathyroidism in a six-month-old Four FeLV and FIV-negative adult cats were infected with H
kitten. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association felis by IV administration of 1 ml of infected cat blood. Daily
34(6): 503-507. monitoring was undertaken for temperature and PCV, and
A six-month-old, intact female Himalayan kitten was pre- daily microscopic examination of blood smears was under-
sented with a history and clinical signs of chronic lethargy, taken for detection of organisms. At the peak of infection,
inappetance, muscle tremors, and seizures. The kitten was doxycycline treatment was started and given for 21 days. Six
markedly under-sized for her age and bilateral, incipient-to- months after treatment, two of the cats were given 14 mg/kg
immature cataracts were seen on ophthalmoscopy Severe methylprednisolone by IM injection, and then monitored
hypocalcaemia and concurrent hyperphosphataemia were closely for CBC, detection of organisms, and PCR evalu-
identified on serum biochemical screening and a diagnosis ation. Specific PCR primers were created for a 393-basepair
of primary hypoparathyroidism was made by demon- internal fragment of H felis based on the 16s rRNA gene
strating reduced concentrations of circulating parathyroid sequence. The assay was consistently positive using blood
hormone (PTH). The kitten responded well to treatment samples obtained during peak parasitemia, but not during
with a combination of calcium, vitamin D, and aluminum the last week of doxycycline therapy, nor immediately after-
hydroxide and was clinically normal 17 months after wards. Following treatment, the PCV returned to normal,
diagnosis. and organisms were not visible in blood smears. Never-
theless, the PCR assay was consistently positive. After
methylprednisolone administration, organisms were rarely
observed in blood smears but were again consistently de-
FIV-associated lymphoma tected by PCR analysis. Using PCR analysis, it was therefore
Beatty JA, Lawrence CE, et al (1998) Feline immuno- possible to detect H felis in blood from cats during the peak
deficiency virus @IV)-associated lymphoma: a potential parasitemia phase of infection, during most of the carrier
role for immune dysfunction in tumourigenesis. Veferkay phase, and after challenge with glucocorticoids at immuno-
Immunology and Immunopathology 65(24): 309-322. suppressive doses. During and immediately after doxy-
To determine the potential role of immune dysfunction in cycline therapy, the test may fail to detect the presence of
feline immunodeficiency virus @IV)-associated lymphoma- organisms.