Tropical Design Module 4: Passive Cooling

Passive Cooling A cooling system using a building·s design and construction to maintain a comfortable temperature within the building. Passive design is essentially low-energy design achieved by the building·s particular morphological organization rather than electro-mechanical means. Passive Cooling Techniques 1. BUILDING CONFIGURATION, SITE LAYOUT and SITE PLANNING Example : A building can be protected from direct sunlight by placing it on a location within the site that utilizes existing features such as trees, terrain etc. 2. BUILDING ORIENTATION Example : In tropical countries such as the Philippines, it is best toplace service areas in the west and east facing sides of the building because these sides are exposed to direct sunlight. 3. FACADE DESIGN Use of Double-layered façade Use Low-emissivity glass (Low-E glass) Use of Insulation 4. CROSS VENTILATION The circulation of fresh air through open windows, doors or other openings on opposite sides of a room STACK EFFECT / CHIMNEY EFFECT The tendency of air or gas in a shaft or other vertical space to rise when heated, creating a draft that draws in cooler air or gas from below 5. SUNSHADING DEVICES VERTICAL TYPES Vertical Sun Shades are generally used on the East-Facing and West- Facing Sides of a building EGGCRATE TYPES Combination of Horizontal and Vertical Shades WIND ANALYSIS Wind direction: Desirable and undesirable winds in each of the climatic zones depend largely on local conditions. Any breeze in the lower latitude (tropical and

For the tropical zone. Research has shown that the preferred length of the sides of the building. Orientation: Orientation as well as directional emphasis changes with latitude in response to solar angle. Use of atrium In the tropical zone the atrium should be located so as to provide ventilation within the built form. Generally. utility spaces. the cores are located on the east and west sides of the building form. An atrium can also be used a transitional space. . Building's main orientation for tropical countries would have a directional emphasis on an axis 5deg north of east 3. for the tropical zones as much ventilation as possible is desired.1:3 Analysis of these ratios shows that an elongated form to minimize east and west exposure is needed at the lower latitudes. Vertical cores and structure The arrangement of primary mass can be used as a factor in climatic design as its position can help to shade or retain heat within the building form. Cross ventilation: Cross ventilation is far more important in the tropics than in temperate zones. Influences on Built Form 1. so as to help shade the building from the low angles of the sun during the major part of the day. Form: Optimum building form for each climatic zone. the transitional spaces are located on the north and south sides of the building where the sun's penetration is not as great. stairs. balconies and any other areas where movement take place. circulation. where the sides are of length x:y. For the tropical and arid zones. are: tropical zone . In the arid zone the atrium should be located at the centre of the building for cooling and shading purposes. These areas do not require total climatic control and natural ventilation is sufficient. Zoning for transitional spaces -the traditional spaces used for lobbies.arid climates) is beneficial for most of the year. Influences on Built Form 1. 2. The theoretical strategy for blocking or inducing wind flow into a building is based on local prevailing wind conditions. 2.

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