1.

Transcription involves the transfer of information from
a. DNA to RNA.
b. RNA to DNA.
c. mRNA to an amino acid sequence.
d. DNA to an amino acid sequence.
e. the nucleus to the cytoplasm. (Widau)

2. Which enzyme synthesizes tRNA?
a. RNA replicase
b. RNA polymerase
c. animoacyl·tRNA synthetase
d. ribosomal enzymes
e. ribozymes (Widau)

3. All of the following are transcribed from DNA except
a. exons.
b. introns.
c. tRNA.
d. rRNA.
e. promoter. (Widau)

4. Which of the following is not involved in the formation of a eukaryotic transcription initiation complex?
a. TATA box
b. transcription factors
c. snRNA
d. RNA polymerase !!
e. promoter (Widau)

S. Translocation involves
a. the hydrolysis of a CTP molecule.
b. the movement of the tRNA in the A site to the P site.
c. the movement of the mRNA strand one triplet length in the A site.
d. the release of the unattached tRNA from the E site.
e. all of the above. (Neredith)

6. Place the following events in the synthesis of a protein in the proper order.
1. A peptide bond forms.
2. A tRNA matches its anticodon to the codon in the A site.
3. A tRNA translocates from the A to the P site, and an unattached tRNA leaves the ribosome from the
E site.
4. The large subunit attaches to the small subunit and the initiator tRNA fits in the P site.
S. A small subunit binds to an mRNA and an initiator tRNA.

a. 4·S·3·2·1
b. 4·S·2·1·3
c. S·4·3·2·1
d. S·4·1·2·3
e. S·4·2·1·3 (Neredith)

7. !f the S' ·> 3' nucleotide sequence on the complementary (noncoding) DNA strand is CAT, what is the
corresponding codon on mRNA?
a. UAC
b. CAU
c. CUA
d. CTA
e. CAT (Wilkerson)

8. Which of the following is true of RNA processing?
a. exons are exercised before the mRNA is translated
b. the RNA transcript that leaves the nucleus may be much longer than the original transcript
c. assemblies oI protein and snRNPs, called spliceosomes, may catalyze splicing
d. large quantities oI rRNA are assembled into ribosomes
e. signal peptides are added to the 5' end oI the transcript (Wilkerson)

9. A ribozyme is
a. an exception to the one gene-one RNA molecule axion
b. an enzyme that adds the 5' cap and a poly-A tail to mRNA
c. an example oI rearrangement oI protein domains caused by RNA splicing
d. an RNA molecule that Iunctions as an enzyme
e. an enzyme that produces both small and large ribosomal units (Wilkerson)

10. All oI the Iollowing would be Iound in a prokaryotic cell except
a. mRNA
b. rRNA
c. simultaneous transcription and translation
d. snRNA
e. RNA polymerase (Wilkerson)

11. Which oI the Iollowing is transcribed and then translated to Iorm a protein product?
a. gene Ior tRNA
b. intron
c. gene Ior a transcription Iactor
d. 5' and 3' UTRs
e. gene Ior rRNA (Wilkerson)

12. Which oI the Iollowing type oI molecule catalyzes the Iormation oI a peptide bond?
a. RNA polymerase
b. rRNA
c. mRNA
d. aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase
e. protein ribosomal enzyme (Wilkerson)

13. Which oI the Iollowing is not true oI an anticodon?
a. it consists oI three nucleotides
b. it lines up in the 5' -~ 3' direction along the 5' -~ 3' mRNA strand
c. it extends Irom one loop oI a tRNA molecule
d. it may pair with more than one codon
e. its base uracil base-pairs with adenine (Wilkerson)

14. A base deletion early in the coding sequence oI a gene may result in
a. a nonsense mutation
b. a IrameshiIt mutation
c. multiple missense mutations
d. a nonIunctional protein
e. all oI the above (Wilkerson)













Answers
1. a.
2 b.
3. e.
4. c.
S. e.
6. e.
7. b.
8. c.
3. d.
10. d.
11. c.
12. b.
13. b.
14. e.
Practice Exam 1


1. Homologous pairs or sets oI chromosomes separate Irom each other
during:
a. mitosis
b. meiosis 1
c. meiosis 2
d. both a and b
e. all oI the above

2. Bacteria can reproduce by:
a. mitosis
b. binary Iission
c. meiosis
d. both a and b
e. all oI the above

3. Among the eukaryotic protists asexual reproduction can occur as a
result oI:
a. mitosis
b. binary Iission
c. meiosis
d. both a and b
e. all oI the above

4. Most oI the normal metabolically Iunctioning somatic cells oI your
body are in what stage or phase oI the cell cycle?
a. M phase
b. G
2
phase
c. G
1
phase
d. S phase
e. Interkinesis

5. New and extra organelles would be produced Ior preparation oI cell
division primarily during which phase oI the cell cycle?
a. M phase
b. G
2
phase
c. G
1
phase
d. S phase
e. cytokinesis

6. During which phase oI the cell cycle would you expect the greatest
amounts oI retinoblastoma protein to be bound to transcription
Iactors?
a. M phase
b. G
2
phase
c. G
1
phase
d. S phase
e. cytokinesis

7. The cleavage Iurrow is a Ieature observed in animal cells during
which phase oI the cell cycle or mitosis?
a. anaphase
b. cytokinesis
c. prophase
d. G
1
phase
e. S phase

8. Which oI the Iollowing describes a diIIerence between genophores
and eukaryotic chromosomes?
a. one is composed oI DNA and the other is composed oI RNA
b. only eukaryotic chromosomes contain genes
c. one is a circular molecule, while the other is linear
d. one is single stranded DNA, while the other is double stranded
e. none oI the above

9. Just prior to cell division the chromatin compacts/condenses. Which
process is most likely to be inhibited by this?
a. the orderly distribution oI genetic material into two nuclei
b. translation
c. transcription
d. Iormation oI the spindle
e. Iormation oI kinetochores

10. The mitotic organizing center is most synomous to which oI the
Iollowing?
a. centrosomes
b. centromeres
c. kinetochores
d. cell plate
e. chiasmata

11. Which oI the Iollowing would not be observed in both mitosis
prophase and prophase 1 oI meiosis?
a. centrosomes
b. centromeres
c. spindle apparatus
d. chiasmata
e. sister chromatids

12. In meiosis:
a. chromosome complement is still diploid at the completion oI
meiosis I
b. centromeres separate at the beginning oI anaphase I
c. a single nucleus gives rise to two identical daughter nuclei.
d. DNA replicates between meiosis I and meiosis II.
e. sister chromatids separate during meiosis II

13. During telophase oI mitosis:
a. spindle apparatus Iorms
b. chromatin is beginning to reappear
c. independent assortment occurs
d. the nuclear envelope Iragments
e. sister chromatids separate

14. Which oI the Iollowing cell cycle stages does not necessarily occur
in cells that have divided by mitosis or meiosis?
a. M phase
b. S phase
c. G
2
phase
d. cytokinesis
e. all oI the above

15. During meiosis tetrads can be observed during:
a. telophase 2
b. anaphase 2
c. anaphase 1
d. prophase 1
e. metaphase 2

16. The actual collection oI diIIerent genes or alleles in a person would
be reIerred to as their:
a. autosomes
b. phenotype
c. diploid chromosome number
d. genotype
e. haploid chromosome number

17. All oI the Iollowing are known to contribute to genetic variation in
eukaryotic organisms EXCEPT:
a. crossing over
b. random assortment oI homologous chromosomes
c. transIormation
d. random Iertilization oI gametes
e. mutation

18. What was the most signiIicant conclusion that Gregor Mendel drew
Irom his research?
a. Meiosis underlies sexual reproduction
b. DNA was most likely the genetic material oI inheritance
c. Dominant alleles occur more Irequently than recessive alleles
d. Chromosome behavior during mitosis is the basis Ior the law oI
segregation
e. Traits are inherited in discrete units, one Irom each parent

19. Geneticist now know that Mendel`s law oI independent assortment is
a mechanism oI:
a. meiosis 1
b. meiosis 2
c. mitosis
d. both a and b
e. all the above

20. II a tall (T) pea plant is crossed with a dwarI (t) pea plant and all the
F1 generation plants at tall, then what are the chances (probability)
oI dwarI pea plants showing up in the F2 generation?
a. 0
b. 25°
c. 50°
d. 75°
e. 100°

21. An animal is Iound to have the correct genotype Ior producing
brown Iur pigment, but its Iur appears white. This is most likely the
result oI:
a. epistasis
b. incomplete dominance
c. co-dominant alleles
d. the presence oI multiple alleles Ior that gene locus
e. pleiotropy

22. II the oIIspring oI two organisms displays a phenotype that appears
as a blend oI the two parental types then it is probably an example
oI:
a. epistasis
b. incomplete dominance
c. co-dominant alleles
d. the presence oI multiple alleles Ior that gene locus
e. pleiotropy

Perform a dihybrid cross. with the following information. to
answer questions 23-24. In black bears. black color (B) is
dominant over blond (b). and long hair (L) is dominant over
short hair (l). Cross the following individuals: BbLl X BbLl.
Assume the genes are unlinked.

23. What is the probability oI the oIIspring Irom the above cross being
black and short-haired?
a. 0
b. 1/16
c. 3/16
d. 5/16
e. 9/16

24. How many diIIerent phenotypes could result Irom the above cross?
a. one
b. two
c. three
d. Iour
e. Iive

25. Compactodactyly (bent, immobile little Iingers) is an autosomal
dominant trait in humans. However, it has penetrance oI 88 percent.
This means that:
a. not all the individuals with this disorder have the dominant allele.
b. not everyone with the dominant allele shows symptoms in their
phenotype.
c. the phenotype is the same in 88 percent oI individuals with this
condition.
d. homozygous dominant individuals show the symptoms, but
heterozygotes do not.
e. only homozygous recessives lack symptoms oI this condition.

26. A trait expressed only in Iemales, but not males would be:
a. sex-linked
b. sex-limited
c. sex-inIluenced
d. pleiotropic
e. incomplete dominance

27. Color blindness is a sex (X chromosome)-linked recessive trait. A
color-blind man marries a normal vision woman heterozygous Ior
this trait. What is the probability that a daughter born to them would
be color-blind?
a. 0°
b. 25°
c. 50°
d. 75°
e. 100°

28. As a result oI replication what are the sister chromatids composed
oI?
a. one sister chromatid is the original double helix and the other is
newly synthesized.
b. both sister chromatids have one original DNA strand and one
newly synthesized strand.
c. each strand oI DNA in the sister chromatids is a mixture oI
original and new DNA segments
d. all the above are possible
e. none oI the above

29. All oI the Iollowing are required Ior DNA synthesis EXCEPT:
a. aminoacyl transIerase
b. Helicase
c. DNA polymerase
d. DNA ligase
e. single-strand binding proteins

30. What enzyme is primarily responsible Ior adding nucleotides to the
growing DNA strand during chromosome replication?
a. DNA helicase
b. RNA primase
c. DNA polymerase
d. DNA ligase
e. RNA polymerase

31. The primers necessary Ior the initiation oI DNA replication are
eventually replaced with the proper nucleotides by which oI the
Iollowing enzymes?
a. RNA primase
b. Helicase
c. DNA polymerase
d. DNA ligase
e. single-strand binding proteins

32. DNA replication is a very accurate process in part due to the
prooIreading and repair activities oI which oI the Iollowing
enzymes?
a. DNA nucleases
b. DNA ligase
c. DNA polymerase
d. both a and b
e. all the above

33. Which oI the Iollowing is the Iirst to attach or bind to the promoter
region oI a gene Ior the initiation oI transcription?
a. RNA primase
b. RNA polymerase
c. DNA polymerase
d. transcription Iactors
e. DNA ligase

34. Which oI the Iollowing represents the Ilow oI inIormation according
to the central dogma oI molecular biology?
a. DNA transcription RNA translation protein
b. RNA transcription DNA translation protein
c. DNA replication RNA transcription protein translation
d. protein replication DNA transcription RNA
e. none oI the above

35. All oI the Iollowing are directly involved in translation EXCEPT:
a. mRNA
b. tRNA
c. ribosomes
d. rRNA
e. introns

36. Which oI the Iollowing is primarily a series oI codons?
a. mRNA
b. tRNA
c. exon
d. rRNA
e. intron

37. Splicesomes are involved in the conversion oI:
a. DNA to RNA
b. RNA to protein
c. hnRNA to mRNA
d. tRNA to polypeptide
e. rRNA to protein

38. A nonsense mutation usually results Irom a:
a. a nucleotide base addition
b. a nucleotide base deletion
c. a nucleotide base substitution
d. a deletion oI two consecutive bases
e. all oI the above

Answers to exam 1: 1. b, 2. b, 3. d, 4. c, 5. b, 6. c, 7. b, 8. c, 9. c, 10. a,
11. d, 12. e, 13. b, 14. d, 15. d, 16. d, 17. c, 18. e, 19. a, 20. b, 21. a, 22. b
or c possible, 23. c, 24. d, 25. b, 26. b, 27. c, 28. b, 29. a, 30. c, 31. c, 32, e,
33. d, 34. a, 35. e, 36. a, 37. c, 38. c.



Practice Exam 2


1. Small circular extra-chromosomal DNA molecules, usually carrying
iust a Iew genes, are called:
a. plasmids
b. histones
c. viroids
d. transposable elements
e. prions

2. An existing virus that acquires the ability to inIect a new host species
(like Ebola and Hanta virus), sometimes causing lethal symptoms, is
reIerred to by epidemiologists as a(n):
a. virion
b. episome
c. emergent virus
d. retrovirus
e. transposon

3. Which oI the Iollowing best describes an enhancer?
a. a regulatory stretch oI DNA located upstream Irom a gene
b. The DNA sequence where RNA polymerase can attach to begin
transcription
c. a non-coding gene
d. a cluster or sequence oI genes Ior enzymes involved in the same
metabolic pathway
e. a regulatory protein Ior transcription

4. The protein compartment that Iorms around or encloses the viral
genetic material is called a(n):
a. prion
b. capsid
c. envelope
d. episome
e. prophage

5. In bacterial transduction:
a. a virus transIers genetic material between bacteria
b. a bacteria picks up or absorbs DNA Irom the environment
c. the bacteria clones itselI
d. one oI the bacteria must have an F¹ plasmid or episome
e. none oI the above

6. Which oI the Iollowing occurs during the lysogenic cycle oI viruses
but not the lytic cycle?
a. viral genome becomes incorporated into a host chromosome
b. immediate reproduction oI the virus
c. the Iormation oI an envelope
d. the genetic material is converted into RNA molecules
e. the lysis oI the host cell

7. The pilus is a necessary Ieature Ior which oI the Iollowing
processes?
a. transduction
b. coniugation
c. transposons
d. transIormation
e. no exceptions - all the above

8. Which oI the Iollowing Ieatures oI the structure or expression oI
genomes is unique to prokaryotes?
a. operon
b. transcription Iactors
c. silencer
d. promoter region
e. euchromatin

9. In a repressible operon Ior the production oI a particular amino acid:
a. the amino acid product can act as a corepressor
b. the enzymes produced are called inducible enzymes
c. the repressor binds to the operator in the absence oI the amino
acid product
d. the amino acid product inactivates the repressor
e. the amino acid product induces operon transcription

10. Which oI the Iollowing is a transcription Iactor?
a. operon
b. repressor
c. enhancer
d. promoter
e. operator

11. A viral envelope is:
a. made oI capsids
b. entirely composed oI proteins
c. derived Irom the host membrane
d. produced Irom the transcripts oI viral DNA
e. the saIest way to mail viruses

12. All oI the Iollowing are involved at the chromatin level oI the
control oI gene expression EXCEPT:
a. methylation
b. ubiquitin
c. gene ampliIication
d. promoter
e. histones

13. Which oI the Iollowing enzymes can cut or digest DNA at speciIic
locations into smaller Iragments or strands?
a. RNA polymerase
b. DNA ligase
c. reverse transcriptase
d. restriction enzymes
e. DNA polymerase

14. The Sanger method uses dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) Ior:
a. gene cloning
b. DNA hybridization
c. RNA hybridization
d. DNA sequencing
e. polymerase chain reaction

15. Which oI the Iollowing methods would you use radioactive probes to
identiIy or Iind speciIic mRNA molecules?
a. Sanger method
b. Southern blotting
c. Northern blotting
d. polymerase chain reaction
e. Chromosome walking

16. Bacterial DNA replication enzymes capable oI Iunctioning at high
temperatures have speciIically revolutionized which oI the Iollowing
methods?
a. Sanger method
b. Southern blotting
c. Northern blotting
d. polymerase chain reaction
e. gel electrophoresis

17. Complementary DNA (cDNA) is transcripted Irom mRNA and
thereIore diIIers Irom the original gene Irom which it was derived
because it lacks or is missing:
a. introns
b. codons
c. exons
d. pitons
e. anticodons

18. Restriction Iragment length polymorphisms, or RFLPs, can be
separated according to their length or size by which oI the Iollowing
methods?
a. Sanger method
b. Southern blotting
c. Northern blotting
d. polymerase chain reaction
e. gel electrophoresis

19. True or False. Lethal dominant genes are more common than lethal
recessive genes in human populations.

20. Which oI the Iollowing is responsible Ior the most signiIicant
number oI cases oI mental retardation in the U.S. and the world?
a. Cri du Chat
b. progeria
c. Patau`s syndrome
d. Edward`s syndrome
e. Fragile X syndrome

21. Which oI the Iollowing would not be the result oI a point mutation?
a. autosomal dominant disorder
b. autosomal recessive disorder
c. x-linked recessive disorder
d. x-linked dominant disorder
e. aneuploidy

22. Which autosomal recessive disorder aIIects the ability oI a person to
produce or make the amino acid tyrosine:
a. phenylketonuria
b. Tay-Sachs disease
c. cystic Iibrosis
d. galactosemia
e. progeria

23. Which autosomal recessive allele is clearly selected Ior in some
tropical regions when it is in the heterozygous genotype?
a. Huntingtons
b. sickle-cell anemia
c. cystic Iibrosis
d. galactosemia
e. progeria

Answers to exam 2ť 1Ŧ aţ 2Ŧ cţ 3Ŧ aŦ 4Ŧ bţ 3Ŧ aţ 6Ŧ aţ 7Ŧ bţ 8Ŧ aţ 9Ŧ aţ 10Ŧ bţ 11Ŧ cţ 12Ŧ bţ 13Ŧ dţ 14Ŧ dţ 13Ŧ cţ 16Ŧ
dţ 17Ŧ aţ 18Ŧ eţ 19Ŧ bţ 20Ŧ eţ 21Ŧ eţ 22Ŧ aţ 23Ŧ 8
17.E The ioining oI nucleotides in the polymerization oI DNA requires energy Irom:
a. DNApolymerase; b. the hydrolysis oI the terminal phosphate group oI ATP; c. RNA
nucleotides; d. the hydrolysis oI GTP; e. the hydrolysis oI the two terminal phosphates Irom
nucleoside triphosphates.
ReIer to the diagram below to answer questions 18-20.
18.A Which letter indicates the 5' end oI this single DNA strand?
a. b. c. d. e.
19.DAt which letter would the next nucleotide be added?
a. b. c. d. e.
20.BWhich letter indicates a phosphodiester bond Iormed by DNA polymerase?
a. b. c. d. e.
21.B In Beadle and Tatum's study oI Neurospora, they were able to identiIy three
classes oI arginine auxotrophs, mutants that needed arginine added to minimal media in
order to grow. The pathway in the production oI arginine includes the Iollowing steps:
precursor ? ornithine ? citrulline ? arginine. What nutrient(s) had to be added to the
minimal medium in order Ior the class oI mutant with a deIective enzyme Ior the
precursor ? ornithine step to grow?
a. precursor only; b. ornithine only; c. citrulline only; d. ornithine or citrulline;
e. precursor, ornithine, and citrulline.
22.E Translocation involves:
a. the hydrolysis oI a GTP molecule; b. the movement oI the tRNA in the A site to the P
site; c. the movement oI the mRNA strand one triplet length in the A site; d. the release \
oI the unattached tRNA Irom the E site; e. all oI the above.
23.c Which oI the Iollowing is transcribed and then translated to Iorm a protein
product?
a. gene Ior tRNA; b. intron; c. gene Ior a transcription Iactor; d. leader and
trailer; e. gene Ior rRNA.
24.B Once transcribed, eukaryotic hnRNA typically undergoes substantial alteration that
includes:
a. Iusion into circular Iorms known as plasmids; b. linkage to histone molecules;
c. excision oI introns; d. union with ribosomes; e. Iusion with other newly transcribed mRNA.
25.DWhich oI the Iollowing is TRUE Ior both prokaryotic and eukaryotic gene
expression?
a. mRNA is synthesized in the 3' rightarrow 5' direction; b. Iter transcription, a 3' poly (A) tail
and a 5' cap are added to mRNA; c. Translation oI mRNA can begin beIore transcription is
complete; d. RNA polymerase may recognize a promoter region upstream Irom the gene; e. The
mRNA transcript is the exact complement oI the gene Irom which it was copied.
26.BA particular triplet oI bases in the coding sequence oI DNA is AGT. The
corresponding codon Ior the mRNA transcribed is:
a. Either UCA or TCA, depending on wobble in the Iirst base; b. UCA;
c. TCA; d. AGU.
27.B When a ribosome Iirst attaches to an mRNA molecule, one tRNA binds to the
ribosome. The tRNA that recognizes the initiation codon binds to the
a. amino acid site (A site) oI the ribosome only; b. peptide site (P site) oI the ribosome only; c.
large ribosomal subunit only; d. second tRNA beIore attaching to the ribosome;
e. Both A and C are correct.
28.A Which oI the Iollowing is NOT related to ribosomal activity?
a. spliceosome; b. codon recognition; c. P site; d. peptide bond Iormation;
e. A site.
29.A What type oI bonding is responsible Ior maintaining the shape oI the tRNA
molecule?
a. hydrogen bonding between base pairs; b. peptide bonding between amino acids;
c. ionic bonding between phosphates; d. covalent bonding between sulIur atoms;
e. van der Waals interactions between hydrogen atoms.
30.B Which oI the Iollowing helps to stabilize mRNA by inhibiting its degradation?
a. spliceosomes; b. poly(A) tail; c. snRNPs; d. introns; e. TATA box.
4) WhIch of the followIng Is not true of
FNA processIng:
A) Exons are cut out before
mFNA leaves the nucleus.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J) The antIcodon of a partIcular tFNA
molecule Is
A) complementary to the
correspondIng mFNA codon.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

2) WhIch of the followIng Is not true of a
codon:
0) Ìt extends from one end
of a tFNA molecule.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

1) Ìn eukaryotIc cells, transcrIptIon
cannot begIn untIl
8) several transcrIptIon
factors have bound to the
promoter.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,

2010
76) Df the followIng, whIch Is the most
current descrIptIon of a gene:
C) a 0NA sequence that Is
expressed to form a
functIonal product: eIther
FNA or polypeptIde
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

75) Cene expressIon In Archaea dIffers
from that In other prokaryotes. Ìt shares
features wIth whIch of the followIng:
E) bacterIa and eukaryotes 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

74) WhIch of the followIng statements
are true about proteIn synthesIs In
prokaryotes:
8) TranslatIon can begIn
whIle transcrIptIon Is stIll In
progress.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

7J) WhIch poInt mutatIon would be most
lIkely to have a catastrophIc effect on
the functIonIng of a proteIn:
8) a base deletIon near the
start of a gene
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

72) WhIch of the followIng 0NA
mutatIons Is the most lIkely to be
damagIng to the proteIn It specIfIes:
A) a base·paIr deletIon 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

71) A frameshIft mutatIon could result
from
E) eIther an InsertIon or a
deletIon of a base.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

70) SIckle·cell dIsease Is probably the
result of whIch kInd of mutatIon:
A) poInt 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

69) Each of the followIng optIons Is a
modIfIcatIon of the sentence
THECATATETHEFAT. WhIch of the
followIng Is analogous to a sIngle
substItutIon mutatIon:
C) THECATAFETHEFAT 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

68) Each of the followIng optIons Is a
modIfIcatIon of the sentence
THECATATETHEFAT. WhIch of the
followIng Is analogous to a frameshIft
mutatIon:
0) THECATATTHEFAT 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

67) What Is the effect of a nonsense
mutatIon In a gene:
C) Ìt Introduces a
premature stop codon Into
the mFNA.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

66) WhIch of the followIng types of
mutatIon, resultIng In an error In the
mFNA just after the AUC start of
8) a deletIon of 2
nucleotIdes
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,

translatIon, Is lIkely to have the most
serIous effect on the polypeptIde
product:
2010
65) Ìn the 1920s |uller dIscovered that
X·rays caused mutatIon In 0rosophIla. Ìn
a related serIes of experIments, In the
1940s, Charlotte Auerbach dIscovered
that chemIcals¤she used nItrogen
mustards¤have a sImIlar effect. A new
chemIcal food addItIve Is developed by a
cereal manufacturer. Why do we test for
Its abIlIty to Induce mutatIon:
0) We want to prevent any
Increase In mutatIon
frequency.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

64) Why mIght a poInt mutatIon In 0NA
make a dIfference In the level of
proteIn's actIvIty:
0) Ìt mIght substItute an
amIno acId In the actIve
sIte.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

6J) When the rIbosome reaches a stop
codon on the mFNA, no correspondIng
tFNA enters the A sIte. Ìf the translatIon
reactIon were to be experImentally
stopped at thIs poInt, whIch of the
followIng would you be able to Isolate:
A) an assembled rIbosome
wIth a polypeptIde
attached to the tFNA In the
P sIte
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

62) The process of translatIon, whether
In prokaryotes or eukaryotes, requIres
tFNAs, amIno acIds, rIbosomal subunIts,
and whIch of the followIng:
8) polypeptIde factors plus
CTP
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

61) WhIch component of the complex
descrIbed enters the exIt tunnel through
the large subunIt of the rIbosome:
0) newly formed
polypeptIde
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

60) Where does tFNA #2 move to after
thIs bondIng of lysIne to the polypeptIde:
0) ExIt tunnel 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

59) WhIch enzyme causes a covalent
bond to attach lysIne to the polypeptIde:
E) peptIdyl transferase 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

58) An experImenter has altered the J'
end of the tFNA correspondIng to the
amIno acId methIonIne In such a way as
to remove the J' AC. WhIch of the
followIng hypotheses descrIbes the most
lIkely result:
C) The amIno acId
methIonIne wIll not bInd.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

57) When a tFNA molecule Is shown
twIsted Into an L shape, the form
represented Is
C) Its J·dImensIonal shape. 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,

2010
56) When does translatIon begIn In
prokaryotIc cells:
8) as soon as transcrIptIon
has begun
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

55) When translatIng secretory or
membrane proteIns, rIbosomes are
dIrected to the EF membrane by
8) a sIgnal·recognItIon
partIcle that brIngs
rIbosomes to a receptor
proteIn In the EF
membrane.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

54) WhIch of the followIng Is a functIon
of a sIgnal peptIde:
0) to translocate
polypeptIdes across the EF
membrane
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

5J) What are polyrIbosomes:
A) groups of rIbosomes
readIng a sIngle mFNA
sImultaneously
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

52) As a rIbosome translocates along an
mFNA molecule by one codon, whIch of
the followIng occurs:
A) The tFNA that was In the
A sIte moves Into the P sIte.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

51) Choose the answer that has these
events of proteIn synthesIs In the proper
sequence.
1. An amInoacyl·tFNA bInds to the A sIte.
2. A peptIde bond forms between the
new amIno acId and a polypeptIde chaIn.
J. tFNA leaves the P sIte, and the P sIte
remaIns vacant.
4. A small rIbosomal subunIt bInds wIth
mFNA.
5. tFNA translocates to the P sIte.
8) 4, 1, 2, 5, J 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

50) From the followIng lIst, whIch Is the
fIrst event In translatIon In eukaryotes:
E) the small subunIt of the
rIbosome recognIzes and
attaches to the 5' cap of
mFNA
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

49) What Is the most abundant type of
FNA:
C) rFNA 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

48) There are 61 mFNA codons that
specIfy an amIno acId, but only 45 tFNAs.
ThIs Is best explaIned by the fact that
8) the rules for base paIrIng
between the thIrd base of a
codon and tFNA are
flexIble.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

47) A mutant bacterIal cell has a 8) proteIns In the cell wIll 0 rgIzaw on

defectIve amInoacyl synthetase that
attaches a lysIne to tFNAs wIth the
antIcodon AAA Instead of a
phenylalanIne. The consequence of thIs
for the cell wIll be that
Include lysIne Instead of
phenylalanIne at amIno acId
posItIons specIfIed by the
codon UUU.
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010
42) Accuracy In the translatIon of mFNA
Into the prImary structure of a
polypeptIde depends on specIfIcIty In the
E) both C and 0 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

41) A partIcular trIplet of bases In the
codIng sequence of 0NA Is AAA. The
antIcodon on the tFNA that bInds the
mFNA codon Is
C) UUU. 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

40) Ìn an experImental sItuatIon, a
student researcher Inserts an mFNA
molecule Into a eukaryotIc cell after he
has removed Its 5' cap and poly(A) taIl.
WhIch of the followIng would you expect
hIm to fInd:
0) The molecule Is dIgested
by exonucleases sInce It Is
no longer protected at the
5' end.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J9) Each eukaryotIc mFNA, even after
post·transcrIptIonal modIfIcatIon,
Includes 5' and J' UTFs. WhIch are these:
8) the untranslated regIons
at eIther end of the codIng
sequence
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J8) Ìn the structural organIzatIon of
many eukaryotIc genes, IndIvIdual exons
may be related to whIch of the
followIng:
C) the varIous domaIns of
the polypeptIde product
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J7) AlternatIve FNA splIcIng
8) can allow the productIon
of proteIns of dIfferent
sIzes from a sIngle mFNA.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J6) 0urIng splIcIng, whIch molecular
component of the splIceosome catalyzes
the excIsIon reactIon:
C) FNA 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J5) WhIch of the followIng Is (are) true
of snFNPs:
C) They joIn together to
form a large structure
called the splIceosome.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J4) A mutatIon In whIch of the followIng
parts of a gene Is lIkely to be most
damagIng to a cell:
8) exon 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

JJ) Ìntrons are sIgnIfIcant to bIologIcal
evolutIon because
A) theIr presence allows
exons to be shuffled.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,

2010
J2) Dnce transcrIbed, eukaryotIc mFNA
typIcally undergoes substantIal alteratIon
that Includes
0) excIsIon of Introns. 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J1) A transcrIptIon unIt that Is 8,000
nucleotIdes long may use 1,200
nucleotIdes to make a proteIn consIstIng
of approxImately 400 amIno acIds. ThIs Is
best explaIned by the fact that
A) many noncodIng
stretches of nucleotIdes are
present In mFNA.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J0) What are the codIng segments of a
stretch of eukaryotIc 0NA called:
8) exons 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

29) What Is a rIbozyme:
8) an FNA wIth enzymatIc
actIvIty
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

28) WhIch of the followIng help(s) to
stabIlIze mFNA by InhIbItIng Its
degradatIon:
C) 5' cap and poly (A) taIl 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

27) The TATA sequence Is found only
several nucleotIdes away from the start
sIte of transcrIptIon. ThIs most probably
relates to whIch of the followIng:
A) the number of hydrogen
bonds between A and T In
0NA
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

26) A part of the promoter, called the
TATA box, Is saId to be hIghly conserved
In evolutIon. WhIch mIght thIs Illustrate:
C) Any mutatIon In the
sequence Is selected
agaInst.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

25) TranscrIptIon In eukaryotes requIres
whIch of the followIng In addItIon to FNA
polymerase:
0) several transcrIptIon
factors (TFs)
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

24) Ìn eukaryotes there are several
dIfferent types of FNA polymerase.
WhIch type Is Involved In transcrIptIon of
mFNA for a globIn proteIn:
C) FNA polymerase ÌÌ 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

2J) WhIch of these Is the functIon of a
poly (A) sIgnal sequence:
8) Ìt codes for a sequence
In eukaryotIc transcrIpts
that sIgnals enzymatIc
cleavage -10-J5
nucleotIdes away.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

22) FNA polymerase In a prokaryote Is
composed of several subunIts. |ost of
these subunIts are the same for the
8) Ìt mIght allow the
polymerase to recognIze
dIfferent promoters under
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,

transcrIptIon of any gene, but one,
known as sIgma, varIes consIderably.
WhIch of the followIng Is the most
probable advantage for the organIsm of
such sIgma swItchIng:
certaIn envIronmental
condItIons.
2010
21) FNA polymerase moves In whIch
dIrectIon along the 0NA:
A) J' 5' along the
template strand
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

20) WhIch of the followIng statements
best descrIbes the termInatIon of
transcrIptIon In prokaryotes:
8) FNA polymerase
transcrIbes through the
termInator sequence,
causIng the polymerase to
fall off the 0NA and release
the transcrIpt.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

19) Ìn whIch of the followIng actIons does
FNA polymerase dIffer from 0NA
polymerase:
0) FNA polymerase can
InItIate FNA synthesIs, but
0NA polymerase requIres a
prImer to InItIate 0NA
synthesIs.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

18) WhIch of the followIng Is true for
both prokaryotIc and eukaryotIc gene
expressIon:
C) FNA polymerase bInds to
the promoter regIon to
begIn transcrIptIon.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

17) WhIch of the followIng nucleotIde
trIplets best represents a codon:
0) a trIplet In the same
readIng frame as an
upstream AUC
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

16) The ¨unIversal¨ genetIc code Is now
known to have exceptIons. EvIdence for
thIs could be found If whIch of the
followIng Is true:
A) Ìf UCA, usually a stop
codon, Is found to code for
an amIno acId such as
tryptophan (usually coded
for by UCC only).
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

15) The genetIc code Is essentIally the
same for all organIsms. From thIs, one
can logIcally assume all of the followIng
except
C) 0NA was the fIrst genetIc
materIal.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

10) A partIcular trIplet of bases In the
template strand of 0NA Is 5' ACT J'. The
correspondIng codon for the mFNA
transcrIbed Is
A) J' UCA 5'. 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

9) The enzyme polynucleotIde
phosphorylase randomly assembles
nucleotIdes Into a polynucleotIde
polymer. You add polynucleotIde
phosphorylase to a solutIon of adenosIne
trIphosphate and guanosIne
C) 8 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

trIphosphate. How many artIfIcIal mFNA
J nucleotIde codons would be possIble:
8) Ìf proteIns were composed of only 12
dIfferent kInds of amIno acIds, what
would be the smallest possIble codon
sIze In a genetIc system wIth four
dIfferent nucleotIdes:
8) 2 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

7) UsIng FNA as a template for proteIn
synthesIs Instead of translatIng proteIns
dIrectly from the 0NA Is advantageous
for the cell because
8) FNA acts as an
expendable copy of the
genetIc materIal.
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

6) The nItrogenous base adenIne Is found
In all members of whIch group:
C) ATP, FNA, and 0NA 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

5) Ìf A, 8, and C are all requIred for
growth, a straIn mutant for the gene
encodIng enzyme 8 would be capable of
growIng on whIch of the followIng medIa:
0) mInImal medIum
supplemented wIth ¨C¨ only
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

4) Ìf A, 8, and C are all requIred for
growth, a straIn that Is mutant for the
gene encodIng enzyme
C) mInImal medIum
supplemented wIth nutrIent
¨8¨ only
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

J) A mutatIon results In a defectIve
enzyme A. WhIch of the followIng would
be a consequence of that mutatIon:
A) an accumulatIon of A
and no productIon of 8 and
C
0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

2) AccordIng to 8eadle and Tatum's
hypothesIs, how many genes are
necessary for thIs pathway:
C) 2 0
rgIzaw on
Saturday,
AprIl 10,
2010

1) Carrod hypothesIzed that ¨Inborn
errors of metabolIsm¨ such as
alkaptonurIa occur because
A) genes dIctate the
productIon of specIfIc
enzymes, and affected
IndIvIduals have genetIc
defects that cause them to
lack certaIn enzymes.

;%!:5;;.: 

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7.08414:7 -4/.:7.80  0  39073088    0..0475.0..3/-  0  .80  /  $5.804190.843572.943088    :73.0  .804190..4190.742484208805.0.5749898.75943 1.80  -  5.30084:/-0574/:.2     42444:85.943.703..-4.  29488  -  20488  .0    243900:.24:3984170934-..3/-  0  .804190..9433842. 708:941  .718843  ...  20488  /  -49.907..  5.0    .7847809841.9478  ..8942.-4.9089 .  29488  -  -3.-4..0.749.  5.  20488  /  -49.0    48941903472.80  ..70574/:.  5.80  /  $5.57490394-0-4:3/9497.!7.80 .80  .0 /.3/-  0  .9.  29488  -  -3.1:3.7/:73.0  .4190.38.80  -  5.7.0.8.80  0  ..3/097.94341..  5.  5.9.370574/:.5.0/1475705..4190..  20488  /  -49.0-  .5.718843  .99070.34.989.9017420.04:/4:050.80:.-4.47.209.4907 /:73  .

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