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Chapter Two (Inequalities and Proof)
CONTENTS Working with Inequalities 2-1 Solving Inequalities in One Variable 2-2 Solving Combined Inequalities 2-3 Problem Solving Using Inequalities Working with Absolute Value 2-4 Absolute Value in Open Sentences 2-5 Solving Absolute Value Sentences Graphically Proving Theorems 2-6 Theorems and Proofs 2-7 Theorems about Order and Absolute Value
This particular set of notes is from Algebra and Trigonometry Structure and Method - Book 2. All credit is to be given to the authors and publishers of said book. The study guide made from the book contains definitions, diagrams, and notes taken directly from the book.
Chapter Two, Section One (Solving Inequalities in One Variable) The inequality x ≤ -2 is satisfied by every real number less than or equal to -2. The graph of this inequality is shown in pink on the number line below. The use of the closed circle shows that -2 is a solution. When an open circle is used, the number is not part of the solution.
-6 -4 -2 0 2 4 6 Properties of Order Let a, b, and c be any real numbers. Comparison Property Exactly one of the following statements is true: a < b, a = b, or a > b Transitive Property If a < b, and b < c, then a < c. Addition Property If a < b, then a + c < b + c. Multiplication Property 1. If a < b, and c is positive, then ac < bc. positive negative ative, 2. If a < b, and c is negative then ac > bc.
ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Two
When you multiply or divide both sides of an inequality by a negative number, you must reverse the direction of the inequality. For example: 5 < 8, but (-2) > (-2) 2)5 (-2)8 1 > 4, but 1/-2 < -4/-2 / / (that is, -10 > -16) (that is, -1/2 < 2)
You solve an inequality Produce Equivalent Inequalities Transformations That by transforming it into an inequality whose solution set is easy to see. Transformations thean inequality. inequalities, 1. Simplifying either side of produce equivalent inequalities that is, inequalities with the Addingsolution set, are listed below. side of an inequality the same number or 2. same to (or subtracting from) each the same expression. 3. Multiplying (or dividing) each side of an equation by the same positive number. 4. Multiplying (or dividing) each side of an equation by the same negative number and reversing the direction of the inequality. Chapter Two, Section Two (Solving Combined Inequalities) A sentence formed by joining two sentences with the word and is called a conjunction conjunction. A conjunction is true when both sentences are true. A sentence formed by joining two sentences with the word or is called a disjunction A disjunction is true when at least disjunction. one of the sentences is true. To solve a conjunction, find the values of the variable for which both sentences are true. To solve a disjunction, find the values of the variable for which at least one of the sentences is true. Chapter Two, Section Three (Problem Solving Using Inequalities) Sometimes solving a word problem involves using an inequality. Certain phrases can be translated into mathematical terms using inequalities. Phrase Translation x is at least a. x≥a x is no less than a.
x is at most b. x is no greater than b. x is between a and b. x is between a and b, inclusive.
x≤b a<x<b a≤x≤b
ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Two Chapter Two, Section Four (Absolute Value in Open Sentences) Sentence |x|=1 Distance between x and 0 equals 1. |x|>1 Distance between x and 0 is greater than 1. |x|<1 Distance between x and 0 is less than 1. Equivalent Sentence
x = -1 or x = 1
x < -1 or x > 1
-2 -1 < x < 1 -2
Chapter Two, Section Five (Solving Absolute Value Sentences Graphically) You know that on a number line the distance between the graph of a real number x and the origin is | x |. The distance on the number line between the graphs of real numbers a and b is | a – b |, or equivalently, | b – a |. You can use this fact to solve many open sentences almost at sight. |a - b|
|b - a|
Chapter Two, Section Six (Theorems and Proofs) Statements that we assume to be true are called axioms (or postulates The postulates). axioms we accept include the substitution principle, the properties of equality, the field properties of real numbers, and the properties of order. You can reason from a hypothesis (a statement that is given or assumed to be true) to a conclusion (a statement that follows logically from the assumptions). A form of conclusion logical reasoning from hypothesis to conclusion is a proof A statement that can be proof. proved is called a theorem A theorem that can be proved easily from another is theorem. called a corollary corollary.
ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Two Cancellation Property of Addition For all real numbers a, b, and c: If a + c = b + c, then a = b. If c + a = c + b, then a = b.
Cancellation Property of Multiplication For all real numbers a and b and nonzero real numbers c: If ac = bc, then a = b. If ca = cb, then a = b.
ZeroZero-Product Property For all real numbers a and b:
ab = 0 if and only if a = 0 or b = 0.
Chapter Two, Section Seven (Theorems about Order and Absolute Value) Recall that the absolute value of a real number x is defined as follows: | x | = x if x ≥ 0 | x | = -x if x < 0
1. Inequalities can be solved by using the properties of order and transformations. 2. If an inequality is a conjunction, it can be solved by finding the values of the variable for which both sentences are true. If an inequality is a disjunction, it can be solved by finding the values of the variable for which at least one of the sentences is true. 3. Some word problems can be solved algebraically by translating the given information into an inequality and then solving the inequality. 4. Equations and inequalities that involve absolute value can be solved algebraically by writing an equivalent conjunction or disjunction. 5. Equations and inequalities that involve absolute value can be solved geometrically by using this fact: On a number line the distance between the graphs of two numbers is the absolute value of the difference between the numbers. 6. Axioms are statements assumed to be true. Using the axioms for real numbers, other properties of real numbers can be proved as theorems. Every step in the proof of a theorem can be justified by either an axiom, a definition, a given fact, or a theorem.
ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Two (Symbolic Boolean Extra (Symbolic Logic: Boolean Algebra) Another kind of algebra that is used in the design of electronic digital computers involves operations with logical statements. This “algebra of logic” is called Boolean algebra in honor of its originator, George Boole. Operation Conjunction Disjunction Conditional Equivalence Negation In words p and q p or q If p, then q p if and only if q not p In symbols p∧q p∨q p→q p↔q ~p
The conjunction p ∧ q is true whenever both p and q are true. Conjunction
The disjunction p ∨ q is true whenever at least one of the statements is true. Disjunction
T T F F
T F T F
T F F F
T T F F
T F T F
T T T F
The conditional p → q is false only when p is true and q is false. Conditional
The equivalence p ↔ q is true whenever p and q have the same truth value. Equivalence
T T F F
T F T F
T F T T
T T F F
T F T F
T F F T Negation
The negation ~p is the denial of p. Therefore, it is reasonable to agree that ~p is false when p is true, and true when p is false.