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**Chapter Six (Irrational and Complex Numbers)
**

CONTENTS Roots and Radicals 6-1 Roots of Real Numbers 6-2 Properties of Radicals 6-3 Sums of Radicals 6-4 Binomials Containing Radicals 6-5 Equations Containing Radicals Real Numbers and Complex Numbers 6-6 Rational and Irrational Numbers 6-7 The Imaginary Number i 6-8 The Complex Numbers Chapter Six, Section One (Roots of Real Numbers) A square root of a number b is a solution of the equation x2 = b. Every positive number b has two square roots, denoted √b and -√b. The positive square root, √b is called the principal square root of b. A cube root of a number b is a solution of the equation x3 = b. Every number b, whether positive, negative, or zero, has exactly one real cube root, denoted 3√b. The fourth, fifth, and higher roots of a number b are not defined separately. 1. An nth root of b is a solution of the equation xn = b. 2. a. If n is even and b > 0, there are two real nth roots of b. The principal (or positive nth root of b is denoted n√b. The other nth root of b is denoted -n√b. b. If n is even and b = 0, there is one nth root: n√0 = 0. c. If n is even and b < 0, there is no real nth root of b. 3. If n is odd, there is exactly one real nth root of b, whether b is positive, negative, or zero. The symbol n√b is called a radical Each part of a radical is given a name. radical. radical sign index

This particular set of notes is from Algebra and Trigonometry Structure and Method - Book 2. All credit is to be given to the authors and publishers of said book. The study guide made from the book contains definitions, diagrams, and notes taken directly from the book.

n

√b

radicand

**ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Six Properties of Radicals 1. (n√b)n = b, because n√b satisfies the equation xn = b. 2. 3.
**

n

2

√bn = b if n is odd.

**√bn = | b | if n is even, because the principal nth root is always nonnegative for even values of n.
**

n

Chapter Six, Section Two (Properties of Radicals) Properties of Order If n√a and n√b are real numbers:

1. n√ab = n√a • n√b 2. n√a/b = n√a/ n√b

Rationalizing the denominator is a process in which a perfect square, cube, or other power is created in the denominator so that the rational expression can be written without a fraction in the radicand or a radical in the denominator. An expression containing nth roots is in simplest radical form if: 1. no radicand contains a factor (other than 1) that is a perfect nth power, and 2. every denominator has been rationalized, so that no radicand is a fraction and no radical is in a denominator. Theorem 1. If each radical represents a real number, then nq√b = n√q√b. Theorem 2. If n√b represents a real number, then n√bm = (n√b) m.

Chapter Six, Section Three (Sums of Radicals) Two radicals with the same index and radicand are called like radicals. You can apply the distributive property to add or subtract like radicals in the same way as like terms. Chapter Six, Section Four (Binomials Containing Radicals) Expressions of the form a√b + c√d and a√b - c√d are called conjugates Since conjugates. 2 (a√b + c√d)(a√b - c√d) = (a√b) – (c√d)2 = a2b - c2d, the products of conjugates is always an integer when a, b, c, and d are integers.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Six

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Chapter Six, Section Five (Equations Containing Radicals) Equations such as 40 = √22d, which contain a radical with a variable in the radicand, is called a radical equation To solve a radical equation involving square roots, isolate equation. the radical term on one side of the equation and then square both sides of the equation. When you square both sides of a radical equation, the resulting equation may have a solution that is not a solution of the original equation, called an extraneous root root. Chapter Six, Section Six (Rational and Irrational Numbers) Completeness Property of Real Numbers Every real number has a decimal representation, and every decimal represents a real number. A rational number is any number that can be expressed as the ratio, or quotient, of two integers. To find the decimal representation of a rational number, you can use the division process. The representation for 37/16 is a terminating decimal while the representation for decimal, 19/22 is a nonterminating repeating decimal Terminating decimals are also called decimal. finite decimals. Nonterminating decimals are called infinite decimals. 1. The decimal representation of any rational number is either terminating or repeating. 2. Every terminating or repeating decimal represents a rational number. (In other words, every terminating or repeating decimal can be written in the form p/q, where p and q are integers and q ≠ 0. An irrational number is a real number that is not rational. Therefore, the decimal representation of an irrational number is neither terminating nor repeating. 1. The decimal representation of any irrational number is infinite and nonrepeating. 2. Every infinite and nonrepeating decimal represents an irrational number. A set S of real numbers is dense if between any two numbers in the set there is a member of S. Both the set of rational numbers and the set of irrational numbers are dense.

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Six Chapter Six, Section Seven (The Imaginary Number i) Definition of i i = √-1

4

and i2 = -1

If r is a positive real number, then √-r = ii√r. √ Numbers like i√5 and 5i, which have the form bi (where b is a nonzero real number), are called pure imaginary numbers numbers. Chapter Six, Section Eight (The Complex Numbers) When pure imaginary and real numbers are combined, imaginary numbers of the form imaginary a + bi (b ≠ 0) are the result. The real numbers and the imaginary numbers together form the set of complex numbers. A complex number is a number of the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers. Complex numbers: a + bi

Real numbers, a + bi, b = 0

Imaginary numbers: a + bi, b ≠ 0

Rational Numbers

Irrational Numbers

Pure Imaginary Numbers

The number a is called the real part of the complex number a + bi, and b (not bi) is called the imaginary part part. Equality of Complex Numbers a + bi = c + di if and only if a = c and b = d.

Sum of Complex Numbers (a + bi) + (c + di) = (a + c) + (b + d)i Product of Complex Numbers (a + bi)(c + di) = (ac – bd) + (ad + bc)i

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Six The complex numbers a + bi and a – bi are complex conjugates and their product is conjugates, 2 the real number a + b2. Absolute Extra (Conjugates and Absolute Value) Where complex numbers are being discussed, they are often represented by single letters. For example, let z = x +yi. The complex conjugate of z is denoted z (read “z bar”). That is, z = x – yi. Theorem 1 Let w and z be complex numbers. a. w + z = w + z c. w • z = w • z b. w – z = w - z d. (w/z) = w/z (z ≠ 0)

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To measure the “size” of the complex number z = x + yi, you can use its absolute value value, defined by | z | = √x2 + y2 Theorem 2 If z is a complex number, then |z|2 = z • z.

Theorem 3 Let w and z be complex numbers. a. | w • z | = | w | • | z | c. | w + z | ≤ | w | + | z | b. | w/z | = | w |/| z | (z ≠ 0)

ALGEBRA II BIBLE – Chapter Six

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Chapter Summary

1. A solution of the equation xn = b is called an nth root of b. The radical n√b denotes the principal nth root of b. b if n is odd n n (n√b)n = b √b = | b | if n is even 2. In working with radicals you can use the following properties when the radicals involved represent real numbers.

n

√ab = n√a • n√b √b = n√q√b

n n

√a/b = n√a/n√b √bm = (n√b)m

nq

3. An expression containing nth roots is in simplest radical form if: (a) no radicand contains a factor (other than 1) that is in a perfect nth power, and (b) every denominator has been rationalized, so that no radicand is a fraction and no radical is in a denominator. 4. Radical expressions with the same index and radicand can be added or subtracted in the same way as like terms. 5. To solve a radical equation involving square roots, first isolate the radical term and then square both sides of the equation. Repeat this process if necessary. Be sure to check all possible solutions in the original equation to determine if any extraneous roots were introduced. 6. A real number that can be expressed as a quotient of two integers is rational. Otherwise it is irrational. 7. (a) Every terminating or repeating decimal represents a rational number, and any rational number can be expressed as a terminating or repeating decimal. (b) Every infinite nonrepeating decimal represents an irrational number, and any irrational number can be expressed as a nonrepeating decimal. 8. A complex number is a number of the form a + bi, where a and b are real numbers and i = √-1. The number a is called the real part of the complex number, and b is called the imaginary part. The complex conjugate of a + bi is a – bi. The product of these complex conjugates is the real number a2 + b2. 9. To simplify an expression containing square roots of negative numbers, first rewrite each radical using i. 10. Complex numbers can be added or subtracted by combining their real parts and their imaginary parts separately. Multiply two complex numbers as you would multiply two binomials, and use the fact that i2 = -1. To simplify a quotient, multiply both the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.

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