This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Objectives Students should understand how fossils are thought to have formed. Students should be able to present the supporting and contradictory evidence for origins based on fossil evidence. Students should know what transitional fossils are and understand their implications and importance for models of origins. Students should be able to explain the difference between uniformitarianism and catastrophism. Lesson 14 Fossil Formation is an introduction explaining what fossils are and how they are believed to form. Creation and evolution predictions regarding fossils will be contrasted. We will also explain how evolutionists use fossils to â€œdateâ€ﾝ strata. Sudden appearance of organisms especially in the Cambrian explosion will be considered. Background The fossil record is one of the most significant areas in the creation/ evolution controversy Mistakes or vesteges of evolution Tounels Similarities- limbs, heads Fossil record is different Insist on the large scale changes Fossiles are proof that organisims lived in the past Types Preserved body parts Casts or molds Imprints Amber Petrification Formation of Fossils Requires Rapid barrial Rapid burial deposition of sediments Rapid burial is required because organisms must escaple destruction and decomposition Fossils are found in sedimentary rocks Laid down under water 1. Erosion and deposition in Layers 2. Lithification: sediment changed into rock Record Predictions for evolution - gradual sequence from simple to complex organisms - trasitional forms should be abundant - living species signigicantly different than fossil ancestors
He thought God supernaturally repopulated the earth after each catastrophe .first theory to suggest that the earth was very old .different combinations of fossil species in different strata indicate exological zones not evolutionary history History of geology Until mid to late 1700’s common belief was that sedimentary rocks and fossils were all deposited in Noah’s flood Catastrophism.Williams Smith: Biologic Succession o Fossils increase in complexity with time and fossils could be used to identify date strata around the globe - .some fossils exist through more than one strata .the present is the key to the past .modern species should not be found in rocks older than rocks containing supposed ancestors Record Predictions for Creation .Did not take a straightforward approach to scripture Uniformitarianism.Viewed earth and universe as continuously changing with no beginning and no end Unbiblical views were challenged by the Scriptural Geologist .proposed by James Hutton popularized by Charles Lyell .sudden appearance of complex organisms with few transitional forms .rapid vilent major events could radically shape the planet very quickly .organism remain essentially the same to present or become extinct .fossilized modern species could be found in rock containing extinct species .Geological objections o Deposition of sediments was rapid o Polystrate fossils o Some fossil humans remains were found with extinct animals of supposed earlier geological age o Geology was really in its infancy .Cuvier and other believes a series of catastrophes was supposedly responsible for geoligica formation .group who objected to both those views .some strata are very tightly folded Difficulties with old earth geology Polystrate Fossil . come had compromised with day or gap age .only processes observed today can be used to describe past events .Theological jobjections o Old earth Geologist ignored Gen 6-9 o Old earth postulates long ages of violence and death .fossilized or petrified tree Other players .
we will focus on alleged evolution of whales Fossil record and evolution What is the evidence for evolution? .often claimed as overwhelming .reptile to mammal o no fossil amphibian seems clearly ancestoral to the lineage of fully terrestrial vertebrates (retiles birds and mammals) by stephen Gould sinapsents appear at the same time.vestiges and mistakes Watch Gould evolution clip Overwhelming evidence? . can not be evoled from them o Anapsids and alleged evolutionary descendants (synapsids) appear at the same time .fossil record . In particular.Macroevolution: large changes o Only observed in fossil record Mammals to reptiles Evolution of Whales • Beautifully documented Human evolution Beautifully documented Beginning with Australopithecines What is the evidence? .three main lines of evidence o microevolution Similarities .only scienticfic evidence can be used .- - - o Chalres Darwin: Theory of natural selection Biological Succession o Different types of prganisms are found in different types of strata o Inceasing complexity occus more recently in geologic time Not really Fossil Predicitons Gradual or Sudden? o Oldest rocks containing abundant fossils are from the Cambrian period (5million years ago) o Evolutions Big Bang o Suddent appearance of a wide variety of living things with no apparent ancestors Cambrian Fossil 543-510 Mya o Marella Anomalocaris Eldonia Halucagenia horseshoe crabs Where are the ancestors? o almost as if fossils were planted Lesson 15 Fossil Record looks at the fossil record and the overall lack of expected transitional intermediate fossils.
Record of Mammals o Many different types of mammals throughout the rock record o More modern groups first appear in ricks of cenozic age o May represent post flood recolonization .extinct armored fish o Chondrichthys.on any local area a species does not arise gradually by the steady transformation of its ancestors.some are based on very fragmentary evidence .Tetrapods – fourlimbed o Amphibians are supposed to have evolved from fish o What do the fossils show? .Fish o Placoderms. They appear to stake the same o Sudden appearance.o Some specimens are known only by teeth and jaw fragments .Pacacedus.livening fossils o organisms remain the same crocdiles sharks coelocath ginko biloba . most modern fish .no fossil evidence for origin of mdern mammals: montresmes Marsupials placentals Evolution of whales .archaeopteryc.sharks o Osteichthys.many alleged iuntermediates only appear as contemporaries .History of most fossil species includes two features particularly inconsistent with Gradualism o Stasis – most species exhibit no directional change durning their tenure on earth.Pakicetus 7 years later o Clearly a terrestrial mammal More Problems Human Evolution Bad chart .part of lower jaw and part of skull.bony fish. it appears all at once .then drew conclusion of missing linkby phil Gingerich .Evolution of Verebrates o Amohibians present in lower layers o Transitional forms? .between reptiles and birds o supposed intermediate between dinosaurs and birds o this is a bird o many others have teeth and many modern birds have claws o We see a mosaic – not a transition .
An animal can be intermediate in form between two organisms without being a genealogical transition between them – must be linked by ancestor o Duck billed platypus (reptiles and mammals) Are there any? There are within each kind but not between No transition between Dogs and cats Most of their first appearance in the fossil record suddenly with no clear ancestral group The Trunk of the Trees are missing Answer Puncutated equilibrium Long periods of stasis (no change) short periods of rapid change Proposed by Gould and Eldridge Lesson 16 Tale of the Trilobite (online video/DVD) This video was produced by the Geosciences Research Institute. It presents a very balanced view of the fossil record weighing both the strengths and weaknesses of the creation and evolution views.Evolutionary history is missing Are there transitional forms? . Assigned readings: Beginnings Chapter 8 Fossil Record .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.