127 views

Uploaded by Shailesh Gupta

- Ford APQPGuideline
- Day 1- Part 1- Understanding Maintenance (Short) - Updated 10-10-2014.pdf
- 1-2b Introduction to Probability Theory
- zz Definitions of reliability.ppt
- QRMEC-Elsayed May 28 2013
- bbm%3A978-94-011-1928-3%2F1
- Reliability
- ts401_2
- Reliability
- maintenance
- ME2037 Maintenance Engineering
- SM6_AMTED398078EN_0918.pdf
- L6 PRM student handout.pdf
- 4 Reliability
- SPE-187452-MS.pdf
- 2SC3324_datasheet_en_20140301
- High Availability Process
- JACK NIFE
- FBr12 - Production Availability Analysis for Oil and Gas Facilities - Concepts and Procedure
- Maintenance Redce Human Error

You are on page 1of 28

Reliability

• Generally defined as the ability of a

product to perform as expected over

time

• Formally defined as the probability that

a product, piece of equipment, or

system performs its intended function

for a stated period of time under

specified operating conditions

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 2

a1

Maintainability

• The probability that a system or product

can be retained in, or one that has

failed can be restored to, operating

condition in a specified amount of time.

Types of Failures

• Functional failure – failure that occurs

at the start of product life due to

manufacturing or material detects

• Reliability failure – failure after some

period of use

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 4

a2

Types of Reliability

• Inherent reliability – predicted by

product design

• Achieved reliability – observed during

use; based on observed failure data

per unit time

• Alternative measures

– Mean time to failure

– Mean time between failures (MTBF)

a3

Failure Rate Curve

“Infant

mortality

period”

Curve

a4

Average Failure Rate = 0.02

Early failure

due to design faults,

poor quality components,

manufacturing faults,

Failure Rate

installation errors,

operator & maintenance errors

Useful life

Early Wear-out has a low, constant failure rate

Failure Useful Failure

Life

Wear-out failure

Time parts approach the end of life

a5

Measuring Reliability

Reliability R(t):

The probability of operating to an

agreed level of performance

Unreliability F(t):

The probability of failing to operate

to an agreed level of performance

R(t ) + F (t ) = 1

is exponential: f(t) = λe-λt for t > 0

• Probability of failure from (0, T)

F(t) = 1 – e-λT

• Failure rate = λ

• Reliability function

R(T) = 1 – F(T) = e-λT

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 12

a6

In general, Failure Times fit

Weibull Distribution

In probability theory and statistics, the Weibull distribution is a

continuous probability distribution with the probability density function

parameter and λ > 0 is the scale parameter of the distribution.

The Weibull distribution is often used in the field of life data analysis due

to its flexibility—it can mimic the behavior of other statistical distributions

such as the normal and the exponential. If the failure rate decreases over

time, then k < 1. If the failure rate is constant over time, then k = 1. If the

failure rate increases over time, then k > 1.

a7

The Weibull Distribution

expressions

r(t) =

Observed Reliability

No. of Cumulative No. f(t)= n(t)/

R(t)=

Failure of n(t)/ avg S(t)/20

Time t s n(t) Failures Surviving S(t) 2000 S 00 F(t) = 1 - R(t)

650 0.325 0.388

1 650 1350 0.675 0.325

350 0.175 0.298

2 1000 1000 0.500 0.500

210 0.105 0.235

3 1210 790 0.395 0.605

166 0.083 0.235

4 1376 624 0.312 0.688

131 0.066 0.235

5 1507 493 0.247 0.754

103 0.052 0.233

6 1610 390 0.195 0.805

82 0.041 0.235

7 1692 308 0.154 0.846

65 0.033 0.236

8 1757 243 0.122 0.879

120 0.060 0.656

9 1877 123 0.062 0.939

123 Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability

0.062 2.000 16

10 2000 0 0.000 1.000

a8

r(t) and R(t) Calculations displayed

2.500

2.000

1.000 Reliability R(t)

0.500

0.000

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time

T1 T2 T3

Td1 Td2 Td3

ratio of total up time to number

of failures.

inverse to MTTF.

ratio of total down time to

number of failures.

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 18

a9

Reliability of Repairable Items

Tup1 Tup2 Tup3

Td1 Td2 Td3

T

total time minus total down time

(MTBF)

ratio of total up time to number

of failures.

inverse to MTBF.

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 19

Availability

• Operational availability

MTBF MTBM = mean time between

AO =

MTBM + MDT maintenance

MDT = mean down time

• Inherent availability

MTBF = mean time between

MTBF failures

A=

MTBF + MTTR MTTR = mean time to repair

a10

Design for Reliability

Element selection

elements with well-established failure rate data

Environment

elements can withstand normal working environment

Minimum complexity

fewer elements (series systems)

Redundancy

several identical elements in parallel

Diversity

a give function is carried out by two parallel systems

Series Systems

1 2 n

RS = R1 R2 ... Rn

a11

Reliability of Series System

Reliability of a series

I O system is the product of

R1 R2 Rn individual element

reliabilities.

lower than the lowest

= e −λ1t ⋅ e −λ2t ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ e −λnt element reliability

= e −( λ1 + λ2 +⋅⋅⋅+ λn ) t

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 23

Parallel Systems

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 24

a12

Reliability of Parallel System

R1 Reliability of a parallel

system is determined by

I R2 O

the product of individual

Rn

element unreliabilities.

System reliability is

Rsystem = 1 − F1 ⋅ F2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Fn

greater than the

= 1 − (1 − e−λ1t ) ⋅ (1 − e−λ2t ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ (1 − e−λnt )

greatest element

reliability

Series-Parallel Systems

C

RA RB RD

RC

A B D

C

RC

• Convert to equivalent series system

RA RB RD

A B C’ D

RC’ = 1 – (1-

(1-RC)(1-

)(1-RC)

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 26

a13

Reliability Management

• Define customer performance requirements

• Determine important economic factors and

relationship with reliability requirements

• Define the environment and conditions of

product use

• Select components, designs, and vendors

that meet reliability and cost criteria

• Determine reliability requirements for

machines and equipment

• Analyze field reliability for improvement

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 27

Configuration Management

1. Establish approved baseline

configurations (designs)

2. Maintain control over all changes in the

baseline programs (change control)

3. Provide traceability of baselines and

changes (configuration accounting)

a14

Design Issues

• Access of parts for repair

• Modular construction and

standardization

• Diagnostic repair procedures and

expert systems

Maintainability

factors that allows maintenance to be

accomplished easily

• Preventive maintenance reduces the

risk of failure

• Corrective maintenance is the

response to failures

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 30

a15

Reliability Engineering

• Standardization

• Redundancy

• Physics of failure

• Reliability testing

• Burn-in

• Failure mode and effects analysis

(FMEA)

• Fault tree analysis (FTA)

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 31

FTA

http://www.weibull.com/basics/fault-tree/index.htm 32

a16

Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)

Bulb

Fails

Example:

electricity Broken Broken Leak

Impurities Vibrations

Fails Fails Corroded

Line Line

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 33

Draw the FTA:

for the total system first.

a17

Faults/Pathways Magnified N-fold for a

Simple Manufacturing Process!

FMEA

http://www.npd-solutions.com/fmea.html

a18

High-Level Combinations of

Severity and Probability

Increasing Probability of

High Risk

Occurrence

Medium

Risk

Low

Risk

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 37

FMEA – Why?

• Why FMEA’s?

FM • Definition, Purpose,

EA

Types, Benefits

• Team Approach

Introduction

a19

FMEA – Definition

which...

• Prioritize actions

• Document the process.

FMEA – Purpose

Failures

FMEA

Crisis Time

(Production start)

a20

FMEA – Purpose

• Identify actions to reduce occurence

• Test adequacy of controls

No function Not operational

Partial function Not all of function operating

a21

Severity (Weightfactor)

each effect identified?

(Weightfactor)

Effect Criteria: Severity of effect Class

Non-conforming

Safety failure

with safety

S

risk A

Correction is recommended

Relative big

risk

B

Correction usefull

Minimum risk C

C

None AcceptedTapan

failure

Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability D 44

a22

Potential Cause of Failure

as effect.

(see next slide)

Manufacturing misbuilds

+ +

- -

a23

Manufacturing misbuilds

+ +

- -

Text in wrong location

“Text

unreadable”

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 48

a24

Cause of failure – “Why”-ladder

“Text unreadable”

Surface roughness

level 1

not ok.

WHY?

level 2

Design requirement

WHY?

level 3

Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability WHY? 49

Sentencing Technique: Is it an

effect or a cause?

Failure

Mode Due to

Cause

a25

Sentencing Technique -

Example

Dissatisfied

Could result in customer

“Text

Unreadable”

Due to Surface

roughness

(designreq.)

Product-FMEA – Occurrence

the failure will occur?

a26

Rating criteria

of occurrence

Very high ≥ 1 of 3 5

> 1 of 20 4

> 1 of 15000 2

Product-FMEA – Actions/Solutions

- eliminate the failure

- reduce effect

- reduce occurrence

a27

Do the Bicycle exercise again—by

FMEA

a28

- Ford APQPGuidelineUploaded byIndra Guntank
- Day 1- Part 1- Understanding Maintenance (Short) - Updated 10-10-2014.pdfUploaded byguswerino24
- 1-2b Introduction to Probability TheoryUploaded byDwi Mulyanti Dwimulyantishop
- zz Definitions of reliability.pptUploaded bysnamprog
- QRMEC-Elsayed May 28 2013Uploaded byAparna K Nayak
- bbm%3A978-94-011-1928-3%2F1Uploaded byhareesh.makesu
- ReliabilityUploaded byTriana Yusman
- ts401_2Uploaded byMohamed Salem
- ReliabilityUploaded bynikitanath23
- maintenanceUploaded bySK NAGOOR VALI
- ME2037 Maintenance EngineeringUploaded byVicky Vignesh
- SM6_AMTED398078EN_0918.pdfUploaded byManh Dat Bui
- L6 PRM student handout.pdfUploaded byPlamen Kangalov
- 4 ReliabilityUploaded byHendrik Voice Sihombing
- SPE-187452-MS.pdfUploaded bytiarnanc8053
- 2SC3324_datasheet_en_20140301Uploaded bykale
- High Availability ProcessUploaded byasotozuazua
- JACK NIFEUploaded bymglillo
- FBr12 - Production Availability Analysis for Oil and Gas Facilities - Concepts and ProcedureUploaded bythlim19078656
- Maintenance Redce Human ErrorUploaded byradzeery
- (SED 5) Schneider, Jörg-Structural Engineering Documents - Introduction to Safety and Reliability of Structures-IABSE (1997)Uploaded byBruno Fernandes
- KPIsUploaded byJozsef Czirjek
- CQEproblem1Uploaded byPeter Seo
- Silabus-S2-MMT 2009-20141-MIUploaded byAdityaRahadianFachrur
- 2SA1015Uploaded bybravesoldier
- Oil and Gas Compressor RAMUploaded bydonprofaghatise
- Guidelines for Certification of WTGUploaded bylecongdinh
- A Simulation Model for Machine Efficiency Improvement Using Reliability Centered Maintenance Case Study of Semiconductor FactoryUploaded byHugoCabanillas
- 00 1 CoverUploaded byThats MyName
- Upfront Fluor Operational Readiness and Start-Up SupportUploaded bypiolinwalls

- TQM IEM Lecture Reliability FMEA TPMUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- NPTEL Taguchi MethodsUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- 3 Acceptance SamplingUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- NPTEL Last Lecture on Problem Solving by Six SigmaUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- Info Session - International OpportunitiesUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- NPTEL_Acceptance Sampling (1)Uploaded byShailesh Gupta
- Automotive Stirling EngineUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- GDS - Introductory SessionUploaded byShailesh Gupta
- Global Tobacco Consumption MapUploaded bytanmaypurohit
- Global Tobacco Consumption MapUploaded bytanmaypurohit

- JavaUploaded bydangerone18
- Docfoc.com-Air Pressure science form 2 chapter 6.pptxUploaded byThiba Krishnan
- CMDh-084-2008-Rev3.2-Clean_2011_11Uploaded bymadhupharma9623
- Training Brochure Patsway ConsultingUploaded byPatsway Consulting
- Ureaplasma urealiticumUploaded byChristianGB
- 2778A_00Uploaded byRodrigo Peña
- Nano FluidsUploaded bystonexcold
- Pso TutorialUploaded byideamonk
- FFT in MatlabUploaded byrettyraja
- After Effects Reference (Dragged)Uploaded byJambala Rfdfd
- [International Series on Microprocessor-Based and Intelligent Systems Engineering 23] John Harris (Auth.) - An Introduction to Fuzzy Logic Applications (2000, Springer Netherlands)Uploaded bysrikaanth3811
- An Extended Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) with Maximizing Deviation Method Based on Integrated Weight Measure for Single-Valued Neutrosophic SetsUploaded byAnonymous 0U9j6BLllB
- Automated Car Parking SystemUploaded byRima Kanekar
- CPM & PERTUploaded byVinaySingh
- MFold OverviewUploaded byAshutosh Kumar
- Shut Off Calculation for Centrifugal PumpUploaded bysubratoraj
- Borg teachers' conceptions of research.pdfUploaded byCamilla
- ICT Hub Think Tank - New Media Case StudiesUploaded byBlackpool Community News at Scribd
- When Onshore BPO Makes SenseUploaded byAlan Veeck
- Shared Services Multiplying SuccessUploaded byCorina Neagu
- QRPA - Simkovic, Faessler, Muenther, Rodin, StaufUploaded byzcapg17
- spu-lexicographyUploaded byBalazs Cs.
- Syed@New CV[1]Uploaded bysyed _mehdi
- A Guide to Conducting a Systematic Literature Review OfUploaded byDarryl Wallace
- 2002-2004%20fsc600%20silverwing.pdfUploaded byvembos
- Bar Coding to Reduce WasteUploaded byComrade Comrade Limbe
- CCPSAnnual_2007FINALUploaded bypramadakasturi
- Final ReportUploaded bySparsh Geraa
- Biophys 2011-10-20Uploaded byOwen Brazil
- IRB460Uploaded byLucas Vinícius Costa