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# Reliability

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 1

Reliability
• Generally defined as the ability of a
product to perform as expected over
time
• Formally defined as the probability that
a product, piece of equipment, or
system performs its intended function
for a stated period of time under
specified operating conditions
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Maintainability
• The probability that a system or product
can be retained in, or one that has
failed can be restored to, operating
condition in a specified amount of time.

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 3

Types of Failures
• Functional failure – failure that occurs
at the start of product life due to
manufacturing or material detects
• Reliability failure – failure after some
period of use

## These relate to the “bathtub curve”.

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Types of Reliability
• Inherent reliability – predicted by
product design
• Achieved reliability – observed during
use; based on observed failure data

## • Failure rate (λ) – number of failures

per unit time
• Alternative measures
– Mean time to failure
– Mean time between failures (MTBF)

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Failure Rate Curve

“Infant
mortality
period”

Curve

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Average Failure Rate = 0.02

## Typical Forms of Failure

 Early failure
due to design faults,
poor quality components,
manufacturing faults,
Failure Rate

installation errors,
operator & maintenance errors

 Useful life
Early Wear-out has a low, constant failure rate
Failure Useful Failure
Life
 Wear-out failure
Time parts approach the end of life

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Measuring Reliability

 Reliability R(t):
The probability of operating to an
agreed level of performance
 Unreliability F(t):
The probability of failing to operate
to an agreed level of performance

R(t ) + F (t ) = 1

## • Probability density function of failure time

is exponential: f(t) = λe-λt for t > 0
• Probability of failure from (0, T)
F(t) = 1 – e-λT
• Failure rate = λ
• Reliability function
R(T) = 1 – F(T) = e-λT
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In general, Failure Times fit
Weibull Distribution
In probability theory and statistics, the Weibull distribution is a
continuous probability distribution with the probability density function

## for and f(x; k, λ) = 0 for x < 0, where k > 0 is the shape

parameter and λ > 0 is the scale parameter of the distribution.
The Weibull distribution is often used in the field of life data analysis due
to its flexibility—it can mimic the behavior of other statistical distributions
such as the normal and the exponential. If the failure rate decreases over
time, then k < 1. If the failure rate is constant over time, then k = 1. If the
failure rate increases over time, then k > 1.

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The Weibull Distribution
expressions

## Life Testing Data

r(t) =
Observed Reliability
No. of Cumulative No. f(t)= n(t)/
R(t)=
Failure of n(t)/ avg S(t)/20
Time t s n(t) Failures Surviving S(t) 2000 S 00 F(t) = 1 - R(t)

## 0 0 2000 1.000 0.000

650 0.325 0.388
1 650 1350 0.675 0.325
350 0.175 0.298
2 1000 1000 0.500 0.500
210 0.105 0.235
3 1210 790 0.395 0.605
166 0.083 0.235
4 1376 624 0.312 0.688
131 0.066 0.235
5 1507 493 0.247 0.754
103 0.052 0.233
6 1610 390 0.195 0.805
82 0.041 0.235
7 1692 308 0.154 0.846
65 0.033 0.236
8 1757 243 0.122 0.879
120 0.060 0.656
9 1877 123 0.062 0.939
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0.062 2.000 16
10 2000 0 0.000 1.000

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r(t) and R(t) Calculations displayed

2.500

2.000

## 1.500 r(t) Faiure Rate

1.000 Reliability R(t)

0.500

0.000
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Time

T1 T2 T3
Td1 Td2 Td3

##  Mean Time To Fail (MTTF)

ratio of total up time to number
of failures.

inverse to MTTF.

##  Mean Down Time (MDT)

ratio of total down time to
number of failures.
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Reliability of Repairable Items
Tup1 Tup2 Tup3
Td1 Td2 Td3
T

##  Total Up Time (Tup)

total time minus total down time

##  Mean Time Between Failures

(MTBF)
ratio of total up time to number
of failures.

##  Mean Failure Rate (λ)

inverse to MTBF.
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Availability
• Operational availability
MTBF MTBM = mean time between
AO =
MTBM + MDT maintenance
MDT = mean down time
• Inherent availability
MTBF = mean time between
MTBF failures
A=
MTBF + MTTR MTTR = mean time to repair

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Design for Reliability
 Element selection
elements with well-established failure rate data
 Environment
elements can withstand normal working environment
 Minimum complexity
fewer elements (series systems)
 Redundancy
several identical elements in parallel
 Diversity
a give function is carried out by two parallel systems

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 21

Series Systems

1 2 n

RS = R1 R2 ... Rn

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Reliability of Series System

Reliability of a series
I O system is the product of
R1 R2 Rn individual element
reliabilities.

## Rsystem = R1 ⋅ R2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Rn System reliability is

lower than the lowest
= e −λ1t ⋅ e −λ2t ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ e −λnt element reliability

= e −( λ1 + λ2 +⋅⋅⋅+ λn ) t
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Parallel Systems

## RS = 1 - (1 - R1) (1 - R2)... (1 - Rn)

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Reliability of Parallel System

R1 Reliability of a parallel
system is determined by
I R2 O
the product of individual

Rn
element unreliabilities.

System reliability is
Rsystem = 1 − F1 ⋅ F2 ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ Fn
greater than the
= 1 − (1 − e−λ1t ) ⋅ (1 − e−λ2t ) ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ (1 − e−λnt )
greatest element
reliability

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 25

Series-Parallel Systems
C
RA RB RD
RC
A B D
C
RC
• Convert to equivalent series system
RA RB RD
A B C’ D
RC’ = 1 – (1-
(1-RC)(1-
)(1-RC)
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Reliability Management
• Define customer performance requirements
• Determine important economic factors and
relationship with reliability requirements
• Define the environment and conditions of
product use
• Select components, designs, and vendors
that meet reliability and cost criteria
• Determine reliability requirements for
machines and equipment
• Analyze field reliability for improvement
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Configuration Management
1. Establish approved baseline
configurations (designs)
2. Maintain control over all changes in the
baseline programs (change control)
3. Provide traceability of baselines and
changes (configuration accounting)

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Design Issues
• Access of parts for repair
• Modular construction and
standardization
• Diagnostic repair procedures and
expert systems

Maintainability

## • Maintainability is the totality of design

factors that allows maintenance to be
accomplished easily
• Preventive maintenance reduces the
risk of failure
• Corrective maintenance is the
response to failures
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Reliability Engineering
• Standardization
• Redundancy
• Physics of failure
• Reliability testing
• Burn-in
• Failure mode and effects analysis
(FMEA)
• Fault tree analysis (FTA)
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FTA

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability

http://www.weibull.com/basics/fault-tree/index.htm 32

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Fault Tree Analysis (FTA)
Bulb
Fails
Example:

## No Glass Filament Vacuum

electricity Broken Broken Leak

## Power Plant Power Line Connector

Impurities Vibrations
Fails Fails Corroded

## Wind Breaks Tree Breaks

Line Line
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Draw the FTA:

## Hint: Draw an FTA diagram

for the total system first.

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Faults/Pathways Magnified N-fold for a
Simple Manufacturing Process!

FMEA

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 36

http://www.npd-solutions.com/fmea.html

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High-Level Combinations of
Severity and Probability
Increasing Probability of

High Risk
Occurrence

Medium
Risk

Low
Risk

## Increasing Severity of Harm/Consequence

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FMEA – Why?

• Why FMEA’s?
FM • Definition, Purpose,
EA
Types, Benefits
• Team Approach
Introduction

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FMEA – Definition

which...

## • Identify potential failure modes

• Prioritize actions
• Document the process.

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 39

FMEA – Purpose
Failures

FMEA

Crisis Time
(Production start)

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FMEA – Purpose

## • Rate severity of failure modes

• Identify actions to reduce occurence

## Failure Mode Type Example

No function Not operational
Partial function Not all of function operating

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Severity (Weightfactor)

## What is the severity of

each effect identified?

## Rating criteria for Severity

(Weightfactor)
Effect Criteria: Severity of effect Class
Non-conforming
Safety failure
with safety
S

## Unacceptable Correction is nescessary

risk A
Correction is recommended
Relative big
risk
B

## risico Correctie isisnuttig

Correction usefull
Minimum risk C
C

None AcceptedTapan
failure
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Potential Cause of Failure

as effect.
(see next slide)

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 45

Manufacturing misbuilds

+ +
- -

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Manufacturing misbuilds

+ +
- -

## Use Fishbone Diagram:

Text in wrong location

“Text

## Ink of poor quality

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## Ink doesn’t stick

Surface roughness
level 1
not ok.
WHY?
level 2
Design requirement
WHY?
level 3
Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability WHY? 49

Sentencing Technique: Is it an
effect or a cause?

Failure
Mode Due to
Cause

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Sentencing Technique -
Example

Dissatisfied
Could result in customer
“Text
Due to Surface
roughness
(designreq.)

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 51

Product-FMEA – Occurrence

## What is the probability that

the failure will occur?

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Rating criteria
of occurrence

## Probability of failure Possible Failure Rates Ranking

Very high ≥ 1 of 3 5
> 1 of 20 4

> 1 of 15000 2

## Tapan Bagchi TQM IEM Reliability 53

Product-FMEA – Actions/Solutions

## What are the possible actions to:

- eliminate the failure
- reduce effect
- reduce occurrence

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Do the Bicycle exercise again—by
FMEA

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