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Technology Evolution of the Proven


Gas Turbine Models
V94.2 and V84.2 for New UNITS and
Service Retrofits

Gerhard Bohrenkämper,
Dietmar Reiermann,
Gerald Höhne
Dr. Ulrich Lingner

Siemens AG, Power Generation,


Germany

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Contents:

Abstract...................................................................................................................................3
Introduction ............................................................................................................................4
1 The proven models V94.2 and V84.2, important performers in the Siemens Heavy
Duty Gas Turbine Product Line ............................................................................................5
2 Development Roadmap for V94.2 and V84.2 ................................................................6
Thermodynamic Performance and Design Evolution of V94.2 ..........................................7
Extension of Maintenance Intervals for V94.2 and V84.2 ...................................................7
3 Operating and Maintenance Results for V94.2 and V84.2 Fleet..................................8
4 Overview of V Gas Turbine Modernization Products ................................................10
5 Turbine Inlet Temperature Upgrade (TT1+) or Extended Maintenance Interval
(41MAC).................................................................................................................................10
6 Compressor Mass Flow Increase Upgrade (CMF+) ...................................................13
7 Performance Upgrade Matrix for V94.2 fleet .............................................................13
8 Dry Low-NOx (DLN) Upgrade Using HR3 Burner........................................................14
9 Performance Boost with Wet Compression (WetC)...................................................16
10 Summary, Conclusion and Future Prospects.........................................................18
Appendix: 31 Figures...........................................................................................................18
References ............................................................................................................................19

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Abstract

In the 1970s an increased demand arose for heavy-duty gas turbines. The Siemens
answer to this trend was the development of the 50-Hz V94.2 gas turbine, followed
by its 60-Hz sister model V84.2. Since market introduction of the first V94.2 gas
turbine at Walheim (Germany) in1981 and the first V84.2 at Hay Road (USA) in 1989,
the V94.2/V84.2 gas turbine fleet has accumulated over 10 million operating hours
with more than 240 units installed.

A continuous development process driven by both the new units market and the
service modernization market has resulted in two gas turbine models that have
demonstrated their outstanding capabilities in worldwide applications over the past
23 years. These applications include single- and multi-shaft combined cycle, simple
cycle, cogeneration and integrated coal gasification combined cycle. In the case of
the V94.2 gas turbine, incremental design improvements have increased output and
efficiency from initially 112 MW/31% to 163 MW/34.5%. The performance evolution of
the V84.2 is similar. During the last five years service modernization products have
also contributed to design advancements for the new units market.

Power augmentation measures such as classical water/steam injection or modern


wet compression provide additional gas turbine power output during peak periods for
both simple-cycle and combined-cycle operation. Unlike classical water/steam
injection into the combustion chamber, which results in a drop in efficiency, the
recently developed wet compression method has demonstrated significant efficiency
improvements for the V84.2/V94.2 in simple cycle.

Due to their specifically designed short startup times and fast responses to grid
demands, frequency stabilization can be realized.

Both gas turbine models are characterized by the same robust and mature design
and a capability to burn a variety of fuels – from low- to high-caloric gaseous and/or
liquid fuels to treated heavy oil – with extremely low emissions. For this purpose the
VX4.2 is equipped with the Siemens Hybrid Burner System for single- or dual-fuel
operation.

Highest possible availability and reliability and lowest possible specific operating cost
are major preconditions for economical plant operation. The moderate turbine inlet
temperatures of the V94.2/V84.2 models result in extended maintenance intervals of
up to 41,000 equivalent operating hours (EOH), increased availability and hence
reduced life cycle cost.

Numerous upgrades are available and this paper describes how and which of today’s
technologies can be applied to older VX4.2 installations in simple- or combined-cycle
applications to respond to a market that is growing more and more competitive.

New upgrade development are underway to further optimize customer and


environmental benefits.

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Introduction

Driven by market requirements Siemens develops V94.2 / V84.2 product upgrades


for both service and new units business. For this purpose, state-of-the-art methods of
analysis have been used in service engineering that have been calibrated and
optimized based on operating results, prototype testing, plant tests and findings from
minor and major inspections.
Products reflect market needs for improved reliability and availability, lower life cycle
cost, higher thermodynamic output and lower environmental impacts (nitrogen oxide
(NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions).

The efforts associated with modernizing and upgrading gas turbine power plants are
made by owners and operators for a single reason: the profitability of their power
plants. Profitability is improved in a number of ways. These can include more
favorable power purchase agreements, improved timing and accuracy of bidding for
power supply contracts on the open power supply market, decreasing operating
costs, selling NOx credits, increasing plant efficiency and output, improving reliability
and availability, employing best practices in plant operation and maintenance,
increasing operational flexibility and decreasing maintenance outage time.

Modernization products are designed to be implemented during the regular outage


time for routine maintenance inspections. Various occasions for retrofits occur in
practice:
• Minor inspections
• Hot-gas-path or major inspections
• Conversions to gaseous fuel
• Conversions to combined cycle
• Life time extension measures after 100,000 EOH when the hot-gas components
have reached the end of their service lives.

We have experienced, that the effects of upgrade technology can be maximized


when used also to recover the effects of long-term degradation during major
maintenance outages.

Early discussions on upgrade opportunities with OEM input in respect to


technologies available and electricity producer input in respect to specific market
requirements lead to optimised mutual benefits.

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1 The proven models V94.2 and V84.2, important performers in the Siemens
Heavy Duty Gas Turbine Product Line

Siemens' heavy-duty gas turbine product line covers the range from 67 MW to
278 MW for both the 50-Hz and 60-Hz markets (Figure 1); the industrial gas turbine
product line with ratings between 5 MW and 43 MW is not shown here. The mature
163-MW 50-Hz gas turbine model V94.2 and the scaled 110-MW 60-Hz gas turbine
V84.2 are highlighted in this paper. The gap between those frames and the largest
Siemens model, the V94.3A rated at 278 MW is closed by the advanced 188MW
V94.2A.

Due to their long market history and their proven maturity the V94.2 and V84.2 gas
turbines have been described in detail on several occasions in previous documents
[1;2]. Their salient features demonstrating their simple and robust design can be
summarized as follows (Figure 2):
• 17/16-stage compressor, adjustable inlet guide vanes (IGVs), optionally fast-
acting for grid frequency stabilization
• Two large external silo-type combustors carrying 2x8/2x6 burners for 50/60 Hz
• Hot casings weld-fabricated from Ni-based material, designed with single shell
for elbow-shaped mixing casings or double shell for inner casing
• 4-stage turbine with conventionally cast blading made of Ni-based material,
Stages 1 and 2 with conventional cooling providing fuel flexibility (including
ash-forming fuels, that cannot be burnt in connection with applying film-cooled
blading) and moderate maintenance costs
• Built-up disc rotor with radial Hirth serrations and one central tie rod for ease
of recoating the compressor blading and for ease of modernization
• Two bearings only, no intermediate bearing in the hot section
• Generator at cold end facilitating unfired combined-cycle (GUD) plant design
• Axial exhaust design for ease of simple cycle and especially GUD plant design
• Fast starting capability, a major advantage for peaking and black start
applications.

Focussing on the silo-type combustor (Figure 3) the design for robustness and
simplicity is evident:
When looking at the silo-type combustor design (Figure 3) its robustness and
simplicity become evident:
• Flame tubes are lined with easily replaceable ceramic tiles; for ash-forming
fuels a specific flame tube option is available as well as for low-Btu gas
• Walk-in combustion chamber design enables minor walkthrough inspection
without cover lift, only one manhole is opened
• Hybrid burners in premix mode for dry low NOx and low CO emissions (natural
gas & fuel oil)
• Diffusion burners for special fuels, e.g. ash-forming fuel oil or low-Btu gas such
as synthetic gas or coal gas used in V94.2 and V94.2K; these burners have
options for integrated water or steam injection
• The combustion chamber dome can easily be modified when required for
low-Btu gas diffusion burners
• Turbine blading benefits from highly uniform hot-gas temperature distribution
due to the considerable mixing distance and from non-exposure to flame
radiation.
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These features make the V94.2/V84.2 highly attractive for both continuous-duty
combined cycles as well as peaking applications. Five years ago requirements from
service modernization marketing as well as from new units marketing resulted in a
development roadmap for the V94.2 and V84.2 and in subsequently developed
upgrade products. These efforts have been rewarded by orders from both the service
modernization and new units markets. Consequently V94.2 as well as V84.2
represent essential members and important performers in Siemens' heavy-duty gas
turbine portfolio not only in 2004 but also in the future.

2 Development Roadmap for V94.2 and V84.2

A development roadmap also needs to be established in an iterative process. To


meet the requirements from both service modernization and new units marketing, first
design and market studies were performed regarding improvements in power output,
efficiency, emissions, and availability & reliability. In these studies we
• evaluated the latest gas turbine and power plant technologies in terms of their
feasibility for download to these mature frames (Figure 4)
• evaluated technological advances especially applicable for the V94.2 and
V84.2 such as welding and coating procedures for welded hot casings, refined
impingement cooling, upgraded maintenance procedures, etc.
• assessed related technical risks and managed those to be fairly low e.g. by
strict validation and testing planning
• ensured value generation for our customers' overall plants to improve their
profitability and competitiveness
• established viable commercial business cases for the OEM in view of the
considerable R&D funding that is necessary.

Secondly, the roadmap was set up based on the product development process,
beginning with the product requirement specification and ending with product
shipment. Furthermore this roadmap integrates modular upgrades into frame
strategies for both frames, a simplified format of which is shown in Figure 5. The
development roadmap was based on the V94.2(3) (read: V94.2 Version 3) in the year
1999. This version was supplied by the OEM from 1989 to 2001 with 1060°C
TT1-ISO as the most recent status. Modular upgrades that have meanwhile been
released are:
• Turbine Inlet Temperature Upgrade (TT1+) from 1060°C ISO to 1075°C ISO
achieved through hot-gas-path modernization measures; these measures can
alternatively be used for an extended MAintenance Interval (41MAC) when
operating at the base turbine inlet temperature of 1060°C; this product has
been available since 2001;
• Compressor Mass Flow Increase (CMF+) mainly produced by upgrading the
front four rows of the compressor; this product has been available since 2003;
• Wet compression which was developed and made available in 2003.

Because of market demands the 41MAC option is also available for the entire V94.2
roadmap, i.e. also for the CMF+ design. The upgrades introduced here are discussed
in greater detail below.

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Thermodynamic Performance and Design Evolution of V94.2

The evolution in thermodynamic performance is shown in Figures 6 and 7 to illustrate


the base-load performance gain indicated in the roadmap sketch. Although related to
relatively limited and moderate component upgrades, a specific nomenclature for the
different evolution steps of the VX4.2 family is used to facilitate understanding of the
individual design modifications, performance steps and progress in maintenance
interval extension:
• V94.0: forerunner of the V94.2, first frame designed at that time with a
compressor mass flow of approximately 485 kg/s;
• V94.2(1): manufactured from 1980 to 1985; TT1-ISO = 930°C to 1000°C;
salient hardware features: IGVs non-adjustable for the first units; welded hot
casings made of austenitic steel; vane #1 and blade #1 as well as vane #2
cooled; blade #3 and #4 made of forged material; blade #4 with damping bolts;
vane #4 segments with weld-in airfoils comparable to steam turbine design;
analog I&C;
• V94.2(2): manufactured from 1986 to 1989; TT1-ISO = 1000°C to 1050°C;
adjustable-pitch IGVs; welded hot casings made of Ni-based material; in
addition blade #2 is cooled now; free-standing blade #4 with short shank
design; single cast vane #4; digital I&C;
• V94.2(3): manufactured from 1990 to 2001; TT1-ISO = 1050°C to 1060°C; this
design represents the majority of the fleet; vane carrier designed to allow roll-
out disassembly and clearance adjustment from outside; since then entire
turbine blading has been conventionally (equiaxed) cast from Ni-based
material; cooling and sealing air system improved by adding an internal
extraction in the compressor to supply turbine Stages 2 to 4; diffusion-type
chromium coatings later replaced by MCrAlY-type overlay coatings for turbine
Stages 1 and 2;
• V94.2(4): V94.2(3) plus hot-gas-path upgrade TT1+, no longer in production
by OEM since it has been replaced by the V94.2(6);
• V94.2(5): V94.2(3) plus compressor upgrade CMF+ ;
• V94.2(6): V94.2(3) plus TT1+ plus CMF+.

The design evolution of the V84.2 was very similar to that of the V94.2.

The performance evolution for the historical frames and versions from the V94.0
through the V94.2(1) and V94.2(2) to the V94.2(3) shows an output increase from
90 MW to 163 MW and an improvement in gas-turbine simple-cycle efficiency from
30.3% to 34.6%
From the V94.2(3) to the V94.2(6) a remarkable power increase for both simple-cycle
and combined-cycle operation and an improvement of 0.3 percentage points in
combined-cycle efficiency have been gained.

Extension of Maintenance Intervals for V94.2 and V84.2

The roadmap discussed so far also includes an extension of the maintenance interval
for the V94.2/V84.2. The majority of the fleet operates on continuous or intermediate
duty in unfired combined-cycle power plants. Planned outages for maintenance of the
relatively small module “gas turbine” not only switch off the gas turbine power but
also necessitate shutdown of the heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) and the

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related steam production for the steam turbine. As the maintenance intervals of the
gas turbine are much shorter than those of the steam turbine, generator and other
major components of the overall plant, the mismatch in overall plant maintenance is
evident. Therefore, for our service customers, a potential availability gain is extremely
valuable since more megawatt-hours can then be sold to the market and turnover
increases.

Figure 8 shows the extension of the maintenance intervals in two steps. While the
turbine inlet temperature TT1-ISO remained constant at 1060°C, each evolutionary
step is combined with the associated hardware upgrade:
• Starting point is the 25 kEOH MAintenance Concept (MAC) before 1996. This
concept comprises hot-gas-path inspections every 25 kEOH and major
inspections every 50 kEOH. As a main activity, hot-gas components such as
inner casing, mixing casings and turbine Stages 1 and 2 need to be repaired
or recoated every 25 kEOH. Assuming a base-load unit operating about
8000 EOH per year, a hot-gas-path inspection is scheduled for every 3
calendar years.
• Introduced in 1996, 33MAC is based on improved hot components such as the
upgraded turbine blade row #1, MCrAlY-type overlay coatings instead of
diffusion-type chromium coatings for Stages 1 and 2 and welded inner casing
and mixing casings made of Ni-based material. With this concept hot-gas-path
inspections are carried out every 33 kEOH and major inspections every
66 kEOH. Considering again a base-load unit operating about 8000 EOH per
year, the hot-gas-path inspection is now planned for every 4 calendar years.
The availability factor improves by 0.9% and within an operating interval of
100 kEOH one complete hot-gas-path inspection (2 instead of 3) and the
associated maintenance and blade refurbishment costs can be eliminated.
• Based on the approach applied for the 33MAC upgrade and the experience
and inspection findings gained from the fleet leaders after 33 kEOH we
developed the 41MAC and released this in 2001. The 41MAC upgrade
measures are explained below in greater detail. Considering again a base-
load unit operating about 8000 EOH per year, the major inspection is now
scheduled for one year later – i.e. every 5 calendar years. The availability
factor improves by 0.9% allowing more megawatt-hours to be sold and
increasing turnover. With 2 major inspections after 41 kEOH and 82 kEOH the
operating interval can be stretched from 100 kEOH to 123 kEOH. Due to the
longer component service life and reduced repair effort, the average life cycle
cost also decreases. Both effects – availability and subsequent turnover
increase on the one hand and life cycle cost reduction on the other – help
generate more benefit for our customers.

3 Operating and Maintenance Results for V94.2 and V84.2 Fleet

The V94.2 fleet of gas turbines with more than 160 units installed has to date
accumulated 4.8 million operating hours (OH) and more than 7 million EOH. For the
installed 80 units of the V84.2 model, 1.4 million OH and 2.5 million EOH have been
logged. These fleets, together with V94.2 units from license projects, have
experienced more than 134,000 starts and clocked up more than 10 million EOH so
far (Figure 9).

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Taking a brief look at the fleet leaders (Figure 10) the results are as follows:
• With a world record in its class of 6900 starts at Freimann/Munich with the
original rotor, the robust rotor design of the V94 has clearly been
demonstrated.
• The slightly modified rotor of the V94.2(3) is now approaching 3000 starts
(Serdang/Malaysia).
• Many V94.2 units have already reached the 100 kEOH milestone and are now
undergoing life extension measures for another 100 kEOH or 123 kEOH
according to the 41MAC upgrade; in fact, 8 units have already passed
150 kEOH and 2 units have logged even more than 200 kEOH.

An important criterion in industry is always which reliability and availability figures are
related to these operating data. The V94.2 and V84.2 models – although operating
with a high service factor because they are mostly used for continuous-duty
applications – enjoy excellent figures. An analysis was performed of 29 Model V94.2
units over a five-year period from 01/1999 to 12/2003:
• The reliability factor V3 reached 99.7% (average value) for the 29 units, with 8
of these units even reaching 100.0%.
• The availability factor V7 reached 94.7% (average value) including hot gas
path and major inspections that are to be considered within the 5 years
evaluation period. Among these, 2 units at Pasir Gudang/Malaysia even
demonstrate an availability of 96.8% which for a continuous-duty GUD power
plant is a benchmark.

Diving deeper into the availability analysis we find that Pasir Gudang attained these
excellent figures because they are using the 33MAC maintenance concept that
provides for a hot-gas-path inspection every 4 years. In addition to this, a well-trained
Siemens field maintenance group located in South-East Asia has enabled outage
durations to be cut down to just 17 days ([3].
With more and more units using the 41MAC concept from now on, a further
improvement of the availability in the order of 0.9% seems realistic.

Although the majority of fleet operating hours originate from natural gas firing the
smaller number of units firing fuel oil also provide an important contribution to the
positive operation experience. Most applications use fuel oil no.2 quality and 3 units
are also firing Naphtha. Applications vary :
• using fuel oil as a backup
• using fuel oil as single fuel
• dual fuel applications using proportionate both fuel oil and fuel gas.

Being highly suitable for burning contaminated ash-forming fuels thanks to the VX4.2
combustor design and the conventional non-film-cooled hot gas path, the eight VX4.2
units considered here have accumulated around 300,000 fired hours with ash-
forming fuels (Figure 11). Vanadium contamination varies over a wide range from 14
to 300 ppm. By supporting operation and maintenance for this fuel variety, Siemens
has gained enormous know-how in this specialized field.

Another special fuel is syngas (“low-Btu gas”). Its caloric value can be one order of
magnitude lower compared to natural gas or pure methane. To date, three units have
accumulated more than 138,000 fired hours and have demonstrated a mature
technology (Figure 12). One of these units, Buggenum in the Netherlands, is a

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customized V94.2 gas turbine operating in an integrated coal gasification combined-


cycle (IGCC) power plant. “Integrated” means that a considerable amount of
compressed discharge air is extracted from the compressor in order to compensate
for the larger coal gas mass flow. This measure avoids an increase in pressure ratio
for the gas turbine. The extracted air mass flow is used in an air separation unit for
oxygen production for the coal gasification process. The N2-fraction is recompressed
and after mixing with the coal gas supplied to the syngas burners [4]. A dedicated
design has been developed for the gas turbine casing, the burners and the
combustor as well as for fuel supply and I&C.
The two other units are located in Italy. They operate in a non-integrated process at a
higher pressure ratio due to the larger syngas mass flow entering combustor and
turbine. This feature is covered by the V94.2K design. It is derived from the V94.2 but
has 17 compressor stages instead of 16 in order to improve compressor surge
stability, and features modified burners and combustors as well as an adapted fuel
supply and I&C.

Because of our earlier design efforts and good operation experience with the
relatively hazardous Naphtha fuel for V94.2 , we have already a basis available for
firing and handling comparable non-standard liquid fuels. Hence another special fuel,
methanol, is currently being investigated within an R&D project, the aim being able to
fire methanol as a liquid fuel in a liquid fuel burner as an equivalent or alternative to
LNG.

4 Overview of V Gas Turbine Modernization Products

A wide range of products which are either already available or currently under
development by modernization engineering is shown in Figure 13. The upgrade
packages can be grouped systematically in the following main categories:
• Efficiency -through increasing turbine inlet temperature, enhancing turbine
aerodynamics, advanced compressor cleaning system and wet compression /
Power –through larger compressor mass flow, water injection and wet
compression
• Combustion- reducing emissions and reducing fuel consumption,
diversification of fuels (by dry low NOx combustion, fuel conversion and water
injection)
• Increasing operational flexibility - through fuel diversification, grid frequency
stabilization, improved starting behavior
• Reliability and Availability - through I&C improvement, extended maintenance
intervals, reduced maintenance time.

In the following we focus on some of the significant modernization products for the
VX4.2 fleet highlighted in Figure 13.

5 Turbine Inlet Temperature Upgrade (TT1+) or Extended Maintenance


Interval (41MAC)

As already introduced above, this upgrade product features attractive alternatives


which increase either availability or turbine inlet temperature. These consist of
extending the inspection interval from 33 kEOH (most V94.2 units) or, where

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applicable, 25 kEOH (many V84.2 units) to 41 kEOH, or increasing the turbine inlet
temperatures from 1060°C to 1075°C for base-load operation (Figure 14). In the
following we explain our design approach and the upgrade package.

Regarding the hot gas path starting in the combustion chamber the flame tubes (see
Section 8), mixing casings and inner casing were improved. In the mixing casings
additional horizontal guides were installed (Figure 14), which require a modification of
the mixing casing as well as of the combustion chamber pressure shell. The
additional horizontal guides minimize wear at the mixing casing/inner casing
transitions and thus contribute to longer inspection intervals for the GT.

The inner casing of the VX4.2 GT has been specially redesigned in response to
inspection findings encountered in recent years. The hub, the part of this casing most
exposed to thermal fatigue, has been redesigned for higher thermo-elasticity and
better cooling (Figure 14); this feature and modifications made at other locations
have already been discussed in greater detail in [5].

An upgrade of the premix gas spider piping (see Section 8) is also necessary for the
41MAC maintenance approach; other recommended features are recaulking of the
inner compressor vane shrouds at two locations and an upgrade of the manhole
insert in the mixing casings.

A most important upgrade feature are enhanced protective coatings for the turbine
blading. The coating choice has been based on finite element structural analysis and
metallographic investigations of service-exposed blades. Representative McrAlY-
coated blades and vanes coming especially from fleet leader units after 33 kEOH
have been examined
• by visual inspection for cracks and oxidation
• by metallographic analysis for examining internal surfaces and distinctive
structural features (e.g. brittle phases)
• by metallographic investigation to estimate blade material temperatures by
means of the gamma-prime-coarsening criterion: the gamma-prime-coarsened
metal structure of the service blade is compared to a material structure catalog
containing reference structures for various temperatures.

The results have been a very useful tool for calibrating the heat transfer and
structural stress analysis. It should be emphasized that investigations for the upgrade
discussed here also require recalculation of the baseline blades and vanes using
state-of-the-art stress analysis tools. The original analyses performed many years
ago are no longer sufficient, the tools from that time have meanwhile been replaced
by state-of-the-art analysis tools. Over the past years Siemens has channeled
considerable R&D effort into validation and improvement of turbine blading. The
associated calculations for rotor blades include both static and dynamic component
loading (creep strength and low cycle fatigue (LCF)). It should also be mentioned at
this point that the LCF strength analysis is based on the latest insights gained (local
stress-strain approach, reported in [6]). Validation of the LCF strength analysis in
particular is based on a comparison of calculated component strength with crack
indications revealed during standard inspections and refurbishing of GT blades; in
this case a crack propagation analysis has to be included. The improved protective
coating systems chosen are listed in Figure 15.

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Raising the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) in the operating regime from 1060°C to
1075°C or using 41MAC requires specific protective thermal barrier coatings to
appropriately reduce the temperature gradients (hot gas side/cooling air side), thus
sufficiently reducing the static and dynamic loads on the blade to achieve
correspondingly long service lives. The protective coating systems must also ensure
optimum bonding between the less ductile thermal barrier coating (TBC) and the
base material [7; 8]. Specially developed bond coats are required for bonding the
TBC to the base material (Ni-based casting) because of the extreme differences in
the physical properties of these materials. These protective coatings (bond coats)
must also provide protection against high-temperature oxidation and corrosion.

Premature wall thinning due to internal oxidation in the cooling air channels is
prevented by aluminizing the cooling air side using a process developed by Siemens
that is known as Sicoat1411. We design our components in such a way that this
internal coating does not require renewal over the entire service life of the blades
used in our Vx4.2 fleet.

This applies for turbine airfoils in the first three rows. Internal aluminizing is not
necessary for blade row #2 due to lower thermal loading. Stage-3 turbine vanes are
protected against oxidation by an McrAlY-type coating applied using HVOF (High
Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray Process); refurbishment of this coating is not
necessary during the entire lifetime (Figure 16).
Refurbishment of the blading is planned for the other externally coated vanes #1 and
#2, and blades #1 to #3. These requirements together with those for the welded hot
casings are tabled in Figure 16.

The upgraded blading discussed here can be implemented according to the


customer’s needs to make the transfer to the operating and maintenance upgrade as
smoothly as possible:
• As a complete upgrade package of new parts to replace the original ones
• By using single upgraded rows of blades or vanes with the additional benefit of
longer component life and the option for transferring to the upgrade concept
(41MAC or TT1+) at a later point in time when the package has been
completed
• Upgrading the coating of original service-exposed blades and vanes through
refurbishment to meet the 41MAC or TT1+ requirements.

In the latter case the service life of the blades which has already been utilized must
be known in order to precisely determine the subsequent operating cycle following
advanced refurbishment. This is done based on the rule of linear damage
accumulation [9] and uses the results of the baseline calculation of the original
blading as well as the evaluation of the upgrade version.

It has been pointed out that the extended maintenance intervals were released to
increase availability and reduce life cycle cost (LCC). The LCC reduction is clearly
demonstrated in Figure 16:
• During a given operating interval measured in kEOH a smaller number of
major maintenance outages are required
• From that the cost for the outage itself as well as refurbishment cost following
the outage are reduced

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• A most important LCC reduction originates from the extended component life
from 100 kEOH to 123 kEOH or 41 kEOH to 82 kEOH for the relatively
expensive hot components.

6 Compressor Mass Flow Increase Upgrade (CMF+)

An output upgrade with a certain increase in efficiency can be achieved by increasing


compressor mass flow. As this was not feasible by simply higher loading of the
original compressor blading, this was accomplished by redesigning the airfoils of the
first four compressor blade rows (including inlet guide vanes!) with new controlled-
diffusion-type airfoils (CDAs). The CDAs produce a controlled deceleration in the
axial direction. Figure 17 shows the velocity profile on blade#2 and inlet guide vane
before and after optimization. The new profile exhibits higher axial velocities with a
uniform velocity distribution and thus reduced flow separation compared to the
original design.

The calculated simple-cycle output gain is approximately 3.5% with an efficiency


increase potential of up to 1%. An output increase of up to 2.8% can be anticipated in
combined-cycle operation.

7 Performance Upgrade Matrix for V94.2 fleet

Based on the design and performance evolution described in Section 2 we can


establish the matrix for performance upgrade for all versions of the V94.2 in the
service fleet (Figure 18). Many upgrade packages in this matrix are defined and can
easily be customized project-by-project with minor design efforts only and without
designing new parts. In one case, because of the various modifications in the core
engine covered by the design transition from V94.2(2) to V94.2(3), retrofitability was
not fully given. Therefore in a recent R&D program the required upgrade and
modification scope was worked out and adapter parts designed to allow for the
implementation of turbine Stages 3 and 4 of the V94.2(3) in the V94.2(2) combustion
turbine.

These R&D efforts have recently been rewarded by an order for two performance
upgrade packages especially for rotors and hot casings from Ambarli/Turkey. This
project was reported on at the POWER-GEN Europe conference in Düsseldorf last
year [10]. This projects combines a power increase by compressor upgrade with
extended maintenance intervals according to 41MAC and synchronizes these efforts
with life time extension measures after 100kEOH. In this way modular upgrades are
combined to a tailored solution.

Further performance upgrade orders have been received from various V94.2 sites,
integrated into very different projects:
• combined with lifetime extension after 100 kEOH
• within fuel and combined-cycle conversions
• together with hot-component harmonization at sites where different versions of
the V94.2 are installed
• aimed at outage time reduction by using spare rotors ready for implementation
etc.

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The performance upgrade products for the V94.2 and similarly for the V84.2 are
available, with a limited customer order engineering (COE) scope remaining. We are
well prepared for further orders. As not every cell in the matrix is sensible, an
upgrading path is shown in Figure 18 for the most interesting upgrade options.

The maximum customer’s benefit can be generated, when the site-specific needs are
evaluated in a joint project and exactly those upgrades are chosen and customized,
that fit the best.

8 Dry Low-NOx (DLN) Upgrade Using HR3 Burner

Since 1986 Siemens has supplied a hybrid burner for natural-gas dry low-NOx premix
firing producing NOx values below 25 ppm and CO values below 9 ppm in the load
range from 50% base load to 100% base load (Figure 19). Dry low-NOx fuel oil firing
became available in 1993 [11] and since 1995 the HR3 burner design is available
and used as the standard equipment in new plants since. The benefits, upgrade
scope and references for the HR3 burner retrofits are explained in Figure 20 in more
detail. Figure 21 shows the technical improvement of the HR3 burner which,
compared to the original H burner, achieves optimum mixing of gas and air and
hence more homogeneous combustion by injecting fuel through bores in the diagonal
swirler vanes. Lowered or even eliminated temperature peaks in the combustion
zone result in lower NOx emissions. The new diagonal swirlers generate a higher
outlet velocity with their optimized flow channel and thus provide maximum flashback
resistance.

On the market we find the following business cases for modernizations using the
HR3 fuel gas burner:
• Installed diffusion burner can no longer meet the stricter regulations for
emissions of combustion products: this was the market driver for a recent
retrofit order for HR3 burners won for a power plant with four V94.2 units in
Singapore;
• Hand in hand with a gas conversion, the latest technology represented by the
HR3 design: this was the case for a gas conversion carried out at two V94.2
units in Yang Pu/China;
• Retrofitting of existing H burners with HR3 burners to protect against
flashbacks resulting from higher hydrocarbons in the fuel gas: a current order
for a power plant with six V94.2 units in Egypt was driven by this;
• Compared to the H burner design, further NOx reduction provides benefits in
connection with a turbine inlet temperature increase especially for sites in the
USA with 9-ppm-NOx requirements.

The latter aspect will now be analyzed more closely. An increase in turbine inlet
temperature always involves an increase in NOx emissions. This is also the reason
why the majority of the V84.2 fleet in America is operated at derated turbine inlet
temperatures (TT1-ISO) at 1040°C to meet the emissions limits under all operating
conditions. For this fleet we have created a dedicated V84.2 HR3 burner upgrade
package.

One part of all HR3 burner retrofits is a flame tube upgrade. This is because the
increased flow velocity from the new diagonal swirlers resulted in an increased angle

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in the flame cone which in turn - compared to the H burner design - shifted the hotter
recirculation zone within the silo combustion chamber from the center more towards
the upper region of the combustion chamber. This shift was also evident from
increased oxidation findings on the metal tile holders in rows A1/A2 detected during
inspections after operation with HR3 burners. For H burners comparable findings
were already known but less distinctive. A subsequent computational fluid dynamics
(CFD) analysis of the new temperature distribution in the silo combustion chambers
also verified that the higher temperatures now occur in the upper region of the
combustion chamber. When installing the HR3 burners, the A1/A2 tile rows need to
be shifted from the upper position to the center position with lower temperatures
(Figure 22).

A gas premix spider-shaped pipe connects the diagonal swirler of each burner to the
central pear-shaped gas distributor. Originally welded from a ferritic steel though
located in the combustion chamber this part is subject to wet corrosion from the outer
surface because of condensing water on the cold fuel gas pipes. To date the ferritic
gas spider piping Is subject to maintenance activities during hot-gas-path inspection
and, depending on the remaining wall thickness, replacement of individual pipes can
be necessary. In one case this maintenance work was neglected during the hot-gas-
path inspection and caused internal fire damage in the area above the flame tube
bottom plates. A redesign has been released to make the gas premix spider
maintenance-free over an interval of 123 kEOH using a wet-corrosion-resistant
material instead of the original material. This spider upgrade is also a requirement for
the 41MAC upgrade (see Section 5).

NOx production and emissions depend on the combustion temperature which


increases due to a higher turbine inlet hot-gas temperature and increases when the
ambient temperature drops. To generate a customer benefit with our turbine inlet
temperature increase even in connection with strict environmental requirements, we
have developed a special GT NOx control concept. This concept enables adjustment
of the turbine inlet hot-gas temperature as a function of ambient temperature for a
specified constant NOx limit curve (e.g. 9 ppm in Figure 23). Looking at the low
ambient temperature of -8°C we find an allowable TT1-ISO = 1040°C. With
increasing ambient temperatures the turbine inlet temperature can be raised, thus
achieving higher power output and better efficiency. Doing so the diagram shows an
output gain of 3.6% at 15°C and increases of up to 6.4% at 30°C based on a turbine
inlet temperature of 1075°C. All these values are valid for constant NOx emissions of
9 ppm (@15% oxygen in the exhaust).

Another relevant parameter is humidity. The operating curves shown here hold for
optimized cooling air losses, optimized pilot gas flow and precisely adjusted radial
blade clearances. These conditions prevail after a major inspection performed by the
OEM Siemens AG. This open-loop control function thus enables adjustment of the
entire turbine inlet temperature operating range and hence output and efficiency of
the plant based on the specified NOx values.

Always an option for a new unit configuration is the HR3 burner with the DLN fuel oil
premix firing feature. It was introduced in 1993 and since then has been implemented
in nine V94.2 unit. To date, these units have accumulated more than 30,000
operating hours in the field and have demonstrated reliable operation (Figure 24).
This unique feature of fuel oil premix operation, which is very interesting especially

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where water for NOx reduction is an extremely valuable resource, is also available for
retrofit purposes.

9 Performance Boost with Wet Compression (WetC)

The different locations in a GT application where water can be used for performance
improvements are shown in Figure 25:
• evaporative cooling with water in the air filter house,
• fogging makeup water in the air intake
• wet compression with makeup water in the air intake
• makeup water injection (PAG operation) into the combustor

Also included in this picture is the absorption chiller that uses exhaust heat from gas
turbines operating in a simple cycle. The following focuses on the particularly
effective wet compression upgrade; the other methods are described fairly well in the
literature [12].

After Siemens and Westinghouse became one company, we were able to develop
wet compression in an R&D program for the Vx4.2 frames for both the 50-Hz and 60-
Hz fleet based on applications and operating experience with Westinghouse W501
engines [13;14].

In wet compression, atomized water is injected through a nozzle rack into the
compressor air intake (Figure 26). Part of the injected water evaporates in the air
intake; the remaining water enters the compressor in liquid form (droplets of approx.
20µm diameter at 90% probability). This achieves an intercooling effect. The injected
water evaporates in the compressor stages. The energy required for evaporation is
taken from the compressed air mass flow, which is thus continuously cooled. This
cooling, coupled with the mass flow increase of the working fluid drawn in, results in a
significant performance gain in both output and efficiency. In the baseline wet
compression the performance gain is independent from ambient conditions.

During the development of this upgrade, the design criteria assembled in Figure 27
were analyzed and met, and validation tasks for first-time application were defined.
For example, we needed to ensure that water injection is homogeneous to prevent
casing deformation due to non-uniform temperature fields. The spray pattern in the
intake duct was therefore specified in advance on the basis of 3-CFD analyses and
temperature field of the casings measured during the validation run.

The amount of water is controlled by a mass flow control loop comprising the
injection pump, a variable-frequency drive (VFD) and a controller. In order to maintain
a desired mass flow the controller activates the VFD to set the appropriate speed at
the pump motor. The pump directly feeds the desired amount of water into the
feeding line. Thus an additional return line is no longer necessary. The entire
equipment is arranged on the high-pressure wet-compression skid.

As for thermodynamic performance a typical increase in the efficiency of the overall


gas turbine in an open GT cycle is up to 5%, with an output increase of up to 20%. In
Figures 28 and 29 the measured results after first-time implementation of a wet
compression system in a V84.2 in America are also shown.

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Before wet compression implementation, the GT was operated with power


augmentation (PAG), i.e. water injection in the combustion chamber, achieving an
output increase at a NOx limit of 9 ppm and a turbine inlet temperature of 1040°C.

When using just the wet compression system without simultaneous power
augmentation, the result was an efficiency increase of 6%, compared to an efficiency
loss of 5% in the case of water injection into the combustion chamber.

The measured output increase for a relative ambient humidity of approximately 90%
was around 13% at 17.5°C ambient temperature. Further calculated outputs as a
function of relative humidity are given in the diagram in Figure 29.

In contrast to wet compression, inlet cooling systems such as evaporative cooling or


fogging coolers yield only a negligible increase or no increase whatsoever in output
or efficiency under ambient conditions with high humidity or cold temperatures.

As for combustion performance at a turbine inlet temperature of 1040°C, NOx


emissions were reduced from 9 ppm to 6 ppm, making it legitimate to conclude that a
level of 9 ppm will not be exceeded at a turbine inlet temperature of 1060°C.

All required validation tasks (e.g. casing temperature measurements and vibration
measurements of blade row #1) were performed during initial wet compression
operation at the V84.2 unit in the USA.

Any potential corrosion occurring on the compressor blades and vanes can be limited
by coating the compressor parts.

The first compressor stages must be monitored for erosion and corrosion during
inspections performed at the standard intervals. Vibration measurements of blade
row #1 of the first unit will be repeated after a sufficient number of wet compression
operating hours and compared to the initial testing in order to evaluate erosion
effects on the vibration behavior of the compressor rotor blading. This will be done at
the fleet leader in wet compression operation.

In addition an R&D program was started this year to provide new corrosion-resistant
compressor blade materials and protective measures against erosion in the near
future.

Experience gathered at a specific Siemens Westinghouse GT W501D5A after some


25,000 operating hours with wet compression demonstrated that GT maintenance
follows the standard inspection intervals. As is also the case for the implementation
of power augmentation, the water factor must be included in the calculation of
equivalent operating hours.

Figures 30 and 31 give information about the upgrade scope and how the wet
compression basic design, auxiliaries and I&C provide for proper plant integration.

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10 Summary, Conclusion and Future Prospects

Our upgrade development follows the roadmap established for both the new sales
units market as well as the service retrofit market. Therefore we have presented
modular products that can be combined with each other for tailored solutions for
specific plant needs. Particularly important features are that:
• The validation process for each upgrade is established according to the
product development process in our company
• Upgrade packages have been designed to provide maximum benefit with
minimum scope and to be easily retrofitable during routine inspections
• Joint overall plant analysis and upgrade projects by power producers and the
OEM have proven to be highly beneficial and are therefore strongly
recommended
• Total OEM plant competence ensures turnkey upgrades.

During the past 5 years the modernization product portfolio has grown significantly.
As customers have rewarded us with orders for these products, the modernization
business has grown rapidly.
In the new units market, fourteen V94.2(6) units ordered in 2003 will be installed from
now on (6 units for Muara Tawar/Indonesia and 8 units for Az Zour/Kuwait). Version 6
is the one that includes the CMF+ upgrade plus the TT1+/41MAC upgrade. Recently
another two V94.2(6) units were ordered for a peaking application in Australia and
three V84.2(6) units for two sites in Saudi Arabia. As only one part of the service
business, three orders for 3 CMF+ upgrades for the V94.2 have been booked.
The success in both markets justifies our R&D activities.

In closing, we predict that the end of the roadmap in Figure 5 has not yet been
reached; also the product portfolio (Figure 13) has not been completely filled and
therefore R&D efforts continue.

We have shown the availability increase that can be obtained through the 41MAC
interval extension. Several component upgrades designed in various programs have
increased component life and now during minor inspections we expect reduced
component wear. This indicates that there is further R&D potential for extending the
minor inspection interval from 8 kEOH to 12 kEOH in the future to obtain a further
gain in availability.

As a second example, a hydraulic clearance optimization (HCO) system is currently


being developed for the V94.2 to improve turbine efficiency. The HCO has already
been successfully installed in a V94.3A in Germany [15]. The HCO involves an axial
thrust compressor bearing with hydraulic pistons that shift the rotor axially towards
the compressor, thus decreasing the radial clearances at the tips of the turbine rotor
blading and improving turbine efficiency.

Appendix: 31 Figures

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References

[1] Maghon, H.; Die Gasturbine im Grundlasteinsatz


VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 62, Heft 4, April 1982

[2] Maghon, H.; The V84 Gas Turbine Designed for Base Load and
Kreutzer, A.; Peaking Duty
Termühlen, H.; American Power Conference
Chicago, Illinois, April 18 – 20, 1988.

[3] Burchardt, H. E.; Paka and Pasir Gudang Almost Continuously


Feeding the Grid – Eight Years Success Story
Using the Siemens Gas Turbine V94.2
Power-Gen Conference Asia, Singapore 2002

[4] Becker, B.; Gas Turbines above 150 MW for Integrated


Schetter, B.; Coal Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC)
ASME Paper 91-GT-256, 1991.

[5] Reiermann, D.; Modernization of 60-Hz SIEMENS Gas Turbines


Höhne, G.; with Primary Focus on the V84.2 Frame and
Bohrenkämper, G.; Upgrade Applications
Power-Gen Conference America, Las Vegas 2003

[6] Dankert, M.; Internal Report


Ermüdungsfestigkeit gekerbter / inhomogen
beanspruchter Strukturen
Siemens AG PG, Juli 2003.

[7] Stamm, W. et al; Oxide Layer Phase Structure of MCrAlY Coatings


Surface Engineering 1997 Vol. 13 No. 5.

[8] Stamm, W. et al: Fortschrittliche Schutzschichten für Gasturbinen


VGB Kraftwerkstechnik 77 (1997).

[9] Gross, H. J.; Internal Report


Calculation of Damage Accumulation
Siemens AG PG, July 2003.

[10] Basaran, M.; Making Ambarli Combined Cycle Power Plant fit for
Preiß,U.; Europe
Power-Gen Conference Europe, Düsseldorf 2003

[11] Schetter, B.; A fuel oil premix burner for gas turbines –
Schabbehard, H. W.; Development and initial operating experience
et al ; ASME Paper 94-GT-463, 1994.

[12] Flower,T.; Maes, D.; A comprehensive review of power augmentation


Zachary, J.: options for simple and combined cycle applications
in hot climates. Power-Gen Asia Conf., Singapore
Sept. 9.-11. 1997.

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[13] Nuding, J.-R.,and Increasing GT Power and Efficiency Through


Johnke, T. Wet Compression
Power-Gen Conference Europe 2002, Milano, Italy

[14] Rising, B.; Nuding, J. R.; Wet compression Upgrade Technology - Operating
Experience. Power-Gen Europe Conf. 2001,
Brussels, Belgium

[15] Becker, B. ; Upgrade of the Siemens Gas Turbine V94.3A


Power-Gen Europe 2004, Barcelona, Spain

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