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A Guideline for the Students of Mudra Institute of Communication, Ahmedabad Rural Research Project
Mudra Institute of Communications, Ahmedabad –380 058
We may try to contact you in the village. Write ethnography of the village with emphasis on mass-media and consumer behaviour including media behaviour.BRAND CONSUMPTION Second part of the guideline on page 13 gives you some tips on how to conduct Communication Needs Assessment (CNA) in the village.CABLE CONNECTION . 2 . 1. The ethnographic study will be completed with help of guidelines given under the following sub heads: VILLAGE PROFILE VILLAGE RESOURCES SOCIAL STRUCTURE VILLAGE CULTURE MEDIA CONSUMPTION . You must leave complete address and also about how to reach your study village. Your exercise on CNA would be useful in understanding the village scenario and will help you in preparing a communication strategy to meet the communication needs of the village in order to improve the situation. A separate qualitative note will be required on these two areas. and Conduct a Communication Needs Assessment in any one of the areas you find striking in the village where you think the village needs communication intervention. you among yourselves decide who will collect what part of data. Since you are camping in the village in group of two to three students. Suggest a communication strategy to help the situation 2.PLEASE REMEMBER While in the field for Rural Research. 3. your assignment is three fold.RADIO and TELEVISION .NEWSPAPER . You should write detailed account on the media consumption and brand consumption by the rural people.
3 .Each team should contact Programme Office or me (#9825712621) by phone the day they reach the village.
and safety reasons. Avoid jewellery. diarrhoea. You are carrying a medical kit with you. 4. and even malaria. ENSURE 1. fever. The Block Development Officer (BDO) and village functionaries some times insist on ‘orders’ from above. cold. and batteries to record typical scenes from the village. Do not carry too much cash. which should be part of the rural report. This is important both for protocol. 6. You should seek permission before clicking. medicine for such common ailments as cough. You may need to meet the local authority before you reach the village. This should include. in case a need arises and we should be able to give them complete detail. extra photo rolls. etc. Also carry mosquito repellents. 4 . name of local contact. telephone number. 2. among other things.BEFORE YOU PROCEED. You have collected a letter – TO WHOM IT MAY CONCERN – from the programme office. Inform to your parents and to us at MICA about your complete village address (along with PINCODE). 3. You are carrying your MICA identity card. Each team should carry a camera. administrative. Remember you are going as MICA students and the local authorities would also want to contact us. 5.
ENSURE 1. Respect local culture. 7.WHEN IN VILLAGE. caste. and factions in the village. They are the elite. identify informants. Analyse the situation from Villagers’ point of view. MUST GET as much as secondary data you can. We have a general tendency to miss many observations. But faithfully report what they say and then see if there is any difference from what the common man says. They will be helpful in getting you secondary information. contact village level NGO workers and also visit nearby villages. Village Level Worker (VLW). we know. Observe every phenomenon minutely and record it. Do not try to ‘educate’ the villagers. Be sensitive. 5 . 2. 26 to October 08. DO NOT GIVE YOUR INTERPRETATION TO DATA. And find out their views on the topic you have in mind. 6. Do not let this feeling dominate. 3. You need them more than they need you. This shall make you plan your communication strategies better in the future. These people may not represent reality. You must interview all the key persons from different religion. Do not forget you have invited yourself to the village. Avoid the tendency of just moving around. 4. Try and understand the information network in the village. Mix up with local people. Patwari and the schoolteachers in the village. You may also have to interview the local authorities like Janpad (Mandal) member. Conform to dress code. which we usually think. health workers. A total of 13 days (from Sept. You are required to live in the villages for not less than seven days. 2010) have been allotted for the Rural Research. You should start by interviewing the Panchayat Officials. In the village there will be people who will be more willing to reveal. Identify and be friendly with such people. 5. Block Development Officer (BDO). customs throughout your stay. Kotwar. You may be going to study your own culture.
village traders. ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE VILLAGE VILLAGE PROFILE The following areas will be the focus of the study Demographic composition (All possible secondary data) Number of households ♦ Family. Method of data collection ♦ Depth interviews of teachers. Sarpanch. If NO. are they operational? Healthcare facility Animal Husbandry centre Educational Institutions . ♦ In depth interviews with two educated youths on their attitude towards farming and farming techniques. how far are these institutions from the Village? If YES.School etc. 6 . VILLAGE RESOURCES The following areas will be the focus of the study ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Distance from the nearest town in kms. and the approach . and health workers etc. (primary and high school) Post office and PCO Bank ♦ Existence of any NGO. Bus station/stop in the village Main occupations of the Villagers – different levels Type of crops grown in the area Whether following amenities exist in the village.time spent in travelling.RURAL RESEARCH PROJECT GUIDELINES I 1.Patwari. Impact should be evaluated from the villagers’ point of view – felt as well perceived. Sarpanch and VLW Methods of Data Collection ♦ Data on Structured Formats 2. nature of works undertaken and its impact on the village life. type of family prevalent in different segments Total Population By caste / religion / gender / age By primary occupation By land holding Source of Data ♦ Village functionaries .
This would provide you data for the focus area . and Political Dominance of individuals depending upon the social positions occupied by them. dominant caste faction formation and political power Caste and consumption pattern – food/ drinks Caste based clothes and clothing Notion of food among different caste/groups Method of data collection ♦ Observation of intra and inter caste differences in the village based on sharing food/water .Are there other criteria of friendship formation? . factors of dominance Caste. Resource Mobilisation. Here we aim to understand: ♦ Social structure Caste and religious groups in the village Dominant caste of the village. caste or religion. This hierarchy can be arranged on the basis of gender. You must jot down yourself in the language they narrate. can be understood as belonging to same class. The form of conversation would be what was before and what is now.Transition in Village THESE GUIDELINES ARE FOR THE IN-DEPTH INTERVIEW.3. which are at the similar levels of hierarchy. SOCIAL STRUCTURE Social structure can be understood as hierarchical arrangement of different social positions. IT SHOULD BE ADDED BY YOUR OBSERVATION ON THE INTRA-CASTE AND INTER-CASTE INTERACTIONS 7 . Positions. These determine the Social Status. Village structure was based on principles on birth.What is the mode of relationship between different castes? ♦ In-depth interview with key informant of each major caste ♦ In-depth interview with the temple or village priest 3-4 page detailed anecdotal note of an experience undergone by a caste member Identify at least two village elders (‘wise men’) who can narrate their own experiences. or achievement principles. which has slowly been changing to achievement principles. Power.
love marriages.4. pomp and decorations. Attitude towards the birth of male and female children. Perceptions of Media 4. distance of bride’s village. etc)? What have caused these changes? Do they like it? Number of temples in the village. Media behaviour (reading/listening/viewing) 3. VILLAGE CULTURE A guide on questions to be asked to get relevant answers on Culture To what extent the values and aspirations of the villagers are influenced by mass media exposure? Have values changed over time? What values are perceived as having changed? In what ways has it changed? What factors would have caused the values to change? How have marriages changed over time (ceremonies. Media penetration in the village Newspaper Radio Television Cable TV / Satellite channel 2. Number of children a family should have and the ratio of girl and boy 5 MEDIA CONSUMPTION The following areas will be the focus of the study: 1. Who visits the temples? In whose locality are they located? Are lower castes allowed into the temple? What religious festivals are celebrated with gaiety? What roles are assigned to different castes and communities in them? Any changes in celebration? What necessitated the change? Are people happy with changes? Describe beliefs and rituals associated with birth and death. Impact of Media 8 . Deities installed. Consumption of information 5. bride / bridegroom behaviour. duration.
film songs. film songs. drama.5. sponsored programmes etc.2 RADIO Areas of Investigation ♦ Find out approximately how many households own radio or transistors.1 NEWSPAPER Areas of Investigation ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ How many households receive daily news paper Names of newspapers that come to the village? Who delivers the newspaper to the village? Who reads the newspaper first? Do women read newspaper? If yes. What programmes do they watch? Which TV channel is watched most? 9 . drama. 5. ♦ Radio listening habits of males. ♦ Radio listening habits of females. when? What pages? Who are they? Do people discuss news items? Describe these situations in detail. What kind of programme genre is more popular among females: news. unmarried and married female viewers. sponsored programmes etc. What kind of programme genre is more popular among males: news.3 TELEVISION Areas of Investigation ♦ Number of TV sets in the village? ♦ Who all have access to the TV and at what time? ♦ TV viewing habits of males. Method of data collection ♦ 2 interviews with people who subscribe the newspaper ♦ 2 interviews with people who don’t subscribe but read the newspaper 5. film songs. drama. 25 and above. What programmes do they listen to? ♦ Is listening a radio a community activity? Is it played at shops in the village? ♦ How has television affected radio listening? Method of data collection You can combine questions on television and radio in focus groups for male viewers of age group 15-25. What kind of programme genre is more popular among males: news. sponsored programmes etc.
hoarding. wall painting etc. where does he get it? 3. number and kind of outlets where available 2. 4. Agro inputs. TRUST ON THE COMPANY ETC. Some of them are from national companies having names like Lux.. ─ A Group discussion with male viewers in the age group of 15-25. What programmes do they watch regularly view? Which TV channel is watched most? ♦ What programmes’ are watched by children? Why? ♦ For how many hours in a day do the villagers get power supply? ♦ When there is no power. anther with 25+. and FMCGs. anther with 25+. Outdoor. FOR EACH OF THE REASONS CITED PLEASE ASK) Demand Creation Activities Distribution: 1. drama. sponsored programmes etc. which are utilized by people in village. Fairs and exhibitions and promotions at haats 5. What kind of programme genre is more popular among females: news. source of supply of the retailer. (RESPONDENT MAY GIVE REASONS LIKE GOOD QUALITY.♦ TV viewing habits of females. Unconventional communication Method of data collection 10 . the reasons for such behaviour? Are these reasons different for different products like Durables. 6 BRAND CONSUMPTION This section aims to find out the reasons for brand consumption and Barriers to brand consumption in a village * Durables * Agro inputs * FMCGs A guide on questions to be asked to get relevant answers on Brand Consumption There are various types of goods and products. and then there are some from local companies like ____. What we are interested in finding out is why people purchase things from the national reputed companies.. film songs. ─ Interview at length the cable operator in the village (if they have). the male member of the research team should conduct focus group among male and female member of the research team conduct focus group with female members. how do they run TV? Method of data collection ─ A Group discussion with male viewers in the age group of 15-25. As far as possible. Operational guidelines for groups: Almost all the participants of the focus group must have a television set.
You may ask these questions while conducting focus group on TV consumption. If you want to conduct separate FGDs for these questions –feel free to do so! 11 .
fully aware Awareness about solution of problem – unaware. 12 . study the needs in holistic way 1. partly aware.II - COMMUNICATION NEEDS ASSESSMENT Some of the possible areas of Communication Needs Assessment could be: • • • • • • • • • Women empowerment Child rearing and cognitive development Education . 2. Girl’s education. What is the problem Why is the problem How many in the village have been affected by the problem Attitude of the rest of the population about the problem How do the affected population presently tackle the problem Which are media in use for feeding information in the concerned area Awareness about the problem – unaware. 8. 13. 6. 15. 11. 10. 5. 9.Children’s education. This exercise on Communication Needs Assessment would be useful in understanding the strength and limitation of present communication system (in specific area identified by you) and will help you in preparing a communication strategy to meet the communication needs of the village in order to improve the situation. fully aware Credibility of different media used to inform about the problem and its solution Which of the present media is having better penetration Which of the present media is having better credibility Which of the media reaching to them presently is preferred most What medium/media will be preferred by them How the new communication strategy would help them Financial / infra-structural supports required to convert the information into action 12. partly aware. 4. 7. 3. 14. Adult education Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Healthcare and Reproductive and Child Health Family values and Family norms Sanitation and public Hygiene Consumer behaviour Consumer education House structure and ventilation • Whatever area you have selected for the study.
Simple that cab be used at local level –district and bellow M . S . AND ENJOY THE MOST 13 . and creativity in presentation. access and penetration of the medium/media and the preference of the target group for specific medium/media.Replicable by simple need based modification.Time bound – can be completed in few months While suggesting the communication strategy please keep in mind the characteristics and composition of your target group. and T .Affordable by the local authority/people R . You plan should be SMART plan. ability of data analysis. We hope that it will be memorable and meaningful exercise for all of you and your report will be full of insights for many of us at MICA.Measurable for its effectiveness A . WORK HARD. you are required to prepare a ‘Communication Strategy’ with a suggested action plan to help the situation through effective communication. quality of data.III - COMMUNICATION STRATEGY As students of Communications Management. LEARN A LOT. Your report should show your rigour of field work.