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Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. 2008/2010
Internal Supervisors- Prof. K.K.D.S. Ranaweera Dr. I.Wicramasinghe
INTRODUCTION There are different types of fat spreads available in local market including margarine, butter and Mayonnaise. With busy life style of modern society fat spreads have become a very popular item in morning diets of people. Fat spread is based on an emulsion of water dispersed in oil. A standard fat spread such as margarine contains not less than 80% of fat not more than 16% water .In such a way that the texture is soft and easily spreadable. Other than in butter most of the fat spreads contain vegetable oil as the main ingredient. These vegetable oils include fatty acids such as palmatic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, Linoic acid linolenic acid. Some may contain added omega 3 and omega 6 from plant or fish origin as well. Different varieties of margarine butter and other fat spreads differ widely in their flavour aspects. Therefore according to the flavour people use them for different purposes such as direct spreads on bread, toast as well as accompaniments and dressings in salads, hot dogs, burgers. Some of them such as margarine are used in cooking processors including baking and frying. Due to inflation of Sri Lanka the prices of these fat spreads remain high making these available for wealthy people. The high prices of fat spreads are mainly due to the usage of imported ingredients rather than locally available ones. In addition presently available spreads in the market contain a very high percentage of fat and much less percentages of other essential nutrients such as proteins, vitamins and minerals. Therefore using these as your breakfast meal deprives you of a well-balanced diet while leading to certain health hazards such as high blood cholesterol levels and carcinomas due to the high fat content. Also value added fat spreads such as mayonnaise that are frequently used in fast food industry contain high amount of preservatives due to usage of raw eggs. Considering the above factors the aim of this project was to develop a spread which could be used basically as a sandwich spread which is higher in proteins and rich in locally available
ingredients to offer consumers a more nutritious breakfast alternative which is also not heavy on their budget. Aim of the product Development The development of this product was done to achieve several goals. The main aim was to formulate a product for the people of our country with a ready to eat spread which is a convenient breakfast alternative rich in protein and Sri Lankan flavour. Also usage of locally available ingredients as the main ingredients in order to add value to those as well as to produce a product which could be purchased by consumers at an affordable price was another aim of this development. Overall objectives of the new product development Development of a spread which is rich in proteins Development of a spread with Sri Lankan flavour using locally available ingredients mainly. Value addition to locally available ingredients Development of a product which is affordable to a wide range of consumer classes.
Determination of chemical composition of the product Determination of microbiological aspects regarding the shelf life of the product
MATERIALS AND METHODS Methodology for egg spread production Eggs, Mustard, Pineapple, Dates, Onions, spices (chille powder, pepper, curry powder, garlic, cardamom, clove), sugar, salt, Margarine ,Vinegar, α –Tocopherol, Blender ( Jaipan IS4250) ,Thermometer,Gas cooker,Normal kitchen utensils Procedure Eggs were washed and boiled for 10 minutes. Then eggs were de-shelled. Mustard was washed and dried. Dates were washed and deseeded. Pineapple was peeled and sliced. Then all the ingredients were blended to get a smooth paste. Above paste was pasteurized at 70 oC for 5 mins. Then α- Tocopherol was added and Hot filling was done to bottles and lug capped. Proximate analysis Moisture Content (acid sand method), Ash Content, Crude fiber Content, Acid Detergent Fiber Content, Crude Proteins Content (kjeldhal method), Peroxide Value Content, Total Fat Content and Free fatty acid content were determined using AOAC 2000 method. Furthermore the variations of parameters such as moisture, free fatty acid, and peroxide value with time was determined. Microbiological analysis Yeast and mold count (AOAC Official Method 997.02), MPN count ( E-coli) ( AOAC Official Method 991.14) ,Staphylococcus aureus count ( FDA method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual Chapter 12), Aerobic plate count (AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, sec. 966.23,) was determined. Furthermore the variation of Aerobic plate count with time also determined.
Sensory Evaluation The sensory evaluation was done using a sensory ballot paper. By this ballot paper two products
1. Herman Mayonnaise manufactured by GULF Processing industries P.O.BOX 576
Dubai UAE (466)
2. Ready Eat Egg spread (523)
Were compared for characteristics given below according to a hedonic scale. 1. Colour 2. aroma 3. Mouth feel 4. Taste 5. Overall acceptability The results which were obtained were statistically evaluated by Friedman Test and KruskalWallis Test using MiniTab statistical software. Selection of suitable packaging Egg spread was filled to glass bottles and lug capped. Plastic bottles were filled with egg paste and bottles were closed well with lid. Then one sample from each group was checked weekly for below parameters. 1. Moisture content 2. Aerobic plate count 3. Free fatty acid content 4. Peroxide value
RESULTS Proximate Analysis Parameter Moisture Content (acid sand method), Ash Content Acid Detergent Fiber Content, Crude Proteins Content (kjeldhal method), Peroxide Value Content Total Fat Content Free fatty acid content Crude fiber Content Carbohydrate Moisture Percentage Vs Time Result 62.81% 2.40% ( on dry basis) 14.67% (on dry basis) 16.39% (on dry basis) 2.17% meq/kg 18.67% (on dry basis) 0.00% ppm 7.70 % (on dry basis) 53.64 % (on dry basis)
Peroxide value Vs time
Free fatty acid Vs time
Microbiological analysis Yeast and mould count Yeast and mold count = 00 CFU/g MPN/ E-Coli Count Yeast and mold count = 00 CFU/g Staphylococcus aureus count Staphylococcus aureaus count = 00 CFU/g Aerobic plate count
Aerobic plate count = 1750 CFU/g CFU/g Vs time
Sensory Evaluation Result of Kruskal-Wallis Test in Mini Tab statistical software package Parameter Colour Aroma Mouth feel Taste Overall acceptability Adjusted P value P= 0.070 P= 0.000 P= 0.000 P= 0.000 P= 0.000 Z Value of samples 523 1.74 4.47 4.27 5.06 4.85 466 -1.74 - 4.47 -4.27 -5.06 -4.85
Result of Friedman test Parameter Colour Aroma Mouth feel Taste Overall acceptability P value adjusted Sum of ranks for ties. 523 P=0.033 1.74 P = 0.000 P = 0.000 P = 0.000 P = 0.000 4.47 4.27 5.06 4.85 466 -1.74 - 4.47 -4.27 -5.06 -4.85
Results for selection of suitable packaging Moisture percentage vs time with packaging
Peroxide value variations with packaging
Free fatty acid content Vs time
Aerobic plate count with packaging
CONCLUSIONS Moisture level decreases with time and peroxide value increases with time. Aerobic plate count increases with time. Sanitary conditions are in satisfactory level since E-coli count and staphylococcus count is zero. Consumer acceptance is higher for ready to eat egg spread than Herman Mayonnaise. Lug capped glass bottle is the suitable packaging for ready to eat egg spread in comparison with Plastic capped plastic bottle.
FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Further development of this product is possible in areas such as flavour variations such as making it spicy, minty etc., making it non-refrigerated by addition of suitable preservatives, and making it healthier by addition of healthy foods such as pumpkin. REFERENCE 1. H.-D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle ;Food Chemistry, 4th revised and extended ed. Published bySpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg2009
2. P. Fellows; Food Processing Technology Principles and Practicesecond edition published
by wood head publishing limited, Cambridge , England, 2000
3. Edited by Jan Pokorny, Nedyalka Yanishlieva, Michael Gordon;Antioxidants in food
Practical applications published by wood head publishing limited, Cambridge, England, 2001 4. Edited by K. V. Peter; Handbook of herbs and spices, first edition. Published by wood head publishing limited, Cambridge, England, 2001
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pineapple 10. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenix_dactylifera
11. Dr. William Horwitz; Official Method of AOAC international 17th Edition 2000 pulished
by AOAC international, MD, Gaithersburg, USA
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