Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka. 2008/2010

Internal Supervisors- Prof. K.K.D.S. Ranaweera Dr. I.Wicramasinghe

INTRODUCTION Wheat flour is the most commonly used type of flour in the bakery industry. This is mainly due to its high molding ability which is given by the high content of gluten. Although it contains these acceptable qualities, it also contains certain health hazards. Certain components in wheat flour tend to destroy ‘Beta cells’ that are responsible for the secretion of Insulin hormone which controls the sugar level of blood. This condition could eventually lead to diabetes which is now becoming common among children as well among infants. Also due to Gluten intolerance disease some people have to depend on gluten free diets. A gluten free diet means avoiding all products that contain wheat, rye and barley, or any of their derivatives. Since rice flour is free of components that destroy ‘Beta cells’ as well as gluten it becomes a healthy solution for both these conditions. Rice is rich in lysine which is the first limiting amino acid. It also contains a much higher content of protein compared to wheat flour. It is also richer in B vitamins and mineral content compared to wheat flour. Banana is a comparatively cheap and abundant fruit in Sri Lanka. Banana starch is easily digestible. This property makes it highly suitable as an ingredient in an infant food. Banana also adds pleasant flavour while providing the food product with useful minerals. Since this product is prepared by mainly using locally available cheap ingredients, it becomes a nutritious as well as a cost effective product. Aim of the product Development The intended purpose of the development of this product was to provide our people a healthy and cost effective infant food which is rich in nutrients gained by our own local material. Overall objectives of the new product development Development of an infant food which is free of health hazards produced by wheat flour.   Development of an infant food which is richer in proteins. Value addition to locally available ingredients

Development of a product which is affordable to a wide range of consumer classes. Determination of chemical composition of the product Determination of microbiological aspects regarding the shelf life of the product

Specific objectives  

MATERIALS AND METHODS Methodology for egg spread production Rice flour, Banana, eggs, sugar, Margarine, Vanilla Baking powder, Blender (Jaipan IS4250), Electric oven, Biscuit mould Procedure All ingredients were blended into a homogenous liquid batter and the batter was poured into a biscuit mould and baked at 180oC for 10 mins. And dried at 60 oC for two hours for a crispy texture. Proximate analysis Moisture Content (oven drying method), Ash Content, Crude fiber Content, Acid Detergent Fiber Content, Crude Proteins Content (kjeldhal method), Peroxide Value Content, Total Fat Content and Free fatty acid content, total sugar and reducing sugar content were determined using AOAC 2000 method. Furthermore the variations of parameters such as moisture, free fatty acid, and peroxide value with time was determined. Microbiological analysis Yeast and mold count (AOAC Official Method 997.02), MPN count (E-coli) (AOAC Official Method 991.14), Staphylococcus aureus count (FDA method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual Chapter 12), Aerobic plate count (AOAC Official Methods of Analysis, sec. 966.23,) was determined. Furthermore the variation of Aerobic plate count with time also determined.


Sensory Evaluation The sensory evaluation was done using a sensory ballot paper. By this ballot paper two products
1. short cake (522) 2. Crispy biscuit (465)

Were compared for characteristics given below according to a hedonic scale. 1. Colour 2. crispiness 3. Mouth feel 4. Taste 5. Overall acceptability The results which were obtained were statistically evaluated by Friedman Test and KruskalWallis Test using MiniTab statistical software. Selection of suitable packaging Biscuits were packed in BOPP film and normal Cellophane film and sealed well using a hand sealer.. Then one sample from each group was checked weekly for below parameters. 1. Moisture content 2. Aerobic plate count 3. Free fatty acid content 4. Peroxide value


RESULTS Proximate Analysis Parameter Moisture Content (acid sand method), Ash Content Acid Detergent Fiber Content, Crude Proteins Content (kjeldhal method), Peroxide Value Content Total Fat Content Free fatty acid content Crude fiber Content Total sugar Reducing sugar Moisture Percentage Vs Time
Moisture percentage
0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01

Result 3.57% 1.24% ( on dry basis) 6.41% (on dry basis) 13.56% (on dry basis) 0.49% meq/kg 19.11% (on dry basis) 0.00% ppm 1.72 % (on dry basis) 20.2 % (on dry basis) 2.12%

Moisture percentage

g a n c p e r u t s i o M

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7



Peroxide value Vs time

Free fatty acid Vs time

Microbiological analysis Yeast and mould count Yeast and mold count = 00 CFU/g MPN/ E-Coli Count Yeast and mold count = 00 CFU/g Staphylococcus aureus count Staphylococcus aureaus count = 00 CFU/g

Aerobic plate count Aerobic plate count = 1700 CFU/g CFU/g Vs time

Sensory Evaluation Result of Kruskal-Wallis Test in Mini Tab statistical software package Parameter Colour crispiness Mouth feel Taste Overall acceptability Adjusted P value P= 0.537 P= 0.000 P= 0.865 P= 0.437 P= 0.107 465 31.8 38.6 30.9 32.2 34 Z Value of samples 522 29.2 22.4 30.1 28.9 27

Result of Friedman test Parameter Colour Crispiness Mouth feel Taste Overall acceptability P value adjusted for ties. P=0.819 P = 0.000 P = 0.847 P = 0.670 P = 0.414 465 45.5 55 45.5 46 47 44.5 44.5 -4.27 44 43 Sum of ranks 522


Results for selection of suitable packaging Moisture percentage vs time with packaging

Peroxide value variations with packaging


Free fatty acid content Vs time

Aerobic plate count with packaging

CONCLUSIONS Moisture level and peroxide value increases with time. Aerobic plate count increases with time. Sanitary conditions are in satisfactory level since E-coli count and staphylococcus count is zero.. BOPP packing is the suitable for baby rusk in comparison with cellophane packing. .

FURTHER DEVELOPMENT Further development of this product is possible in areas such as addition of vitamin formula to make it more nutritious. Addition of dehydrated food pieces( sesame seeds)to enhance the flavour. REFERENCE 1. H.-D. Belitz, W. Grosch, P. Schieberle ;Food Chemistry, 4th revised and extended ed. Published bySpringer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg2009
2. P. Fellows; Food Processing Technology Principles and Practicesecond edition published

by wood head publishing limited, Cambridge , England, 2000
3. Edited by Jan Pokorny, Nedyalka Yanishlieva, Michael Gordon;Antioxidants in food

Practical applications published by wood head publishing limited, Cambridge, England, 2001




8. Dr. William Horwitz; Official Method of AOAC international 17th Edition 2000 pulished

by AOAC international, MD, Gaithersburg, USA