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View Mode BookSlideshowScroll Readcast Add a Comment Embed & Share <#> Reading should be social! Post a message on your social networks to let others know what you're reading. Select the sites below and start sharing. Readcast this DocumentTransparent <#> <#> Login <> to Add a Comment <#> Share & Embed < 75%2F4G-technology%23source%3Afacebook>< m&status=Reading%20%224G%20technology%22%20on%20Scribd%20http%3A%2F%2Fwww.scribd .com%2Fdoc%2F21751575%20%23Readcast>< orrt> <#> Add to Collections Download this Document for Free Auto-hide: on <#> <javascript:void(0);> Quantcast 2009 – 2010. UTTAR PRADESH TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION MR. ROHIT TRIPATHI Gaurav Bajaj 4G Technology2009 Page 1 A SEMINAR REPORT ON 4G TECHNOLOGY Given By Under The Guidance Of Submitted To This is to certify th at have delivered a semin ar on the topic, This is to certify th at as a partial fulfillm ent of

(Dr. Mrs. Geeta S. Lathkar) 4G Tech nology C ERTIFICATE C ERTIFICATE C ERTIFICATE C ERTIFICATE CERTIFICATE CERTIFICATE CERTIFICATE CERTIFICATE “4G Technology” as a partial fulfillm ent of 4G Techn ology2009 Page 2 have de l ivered a semin ar on the topic, for the year (LECTURE, EC DEPTT) MR. ROHIT TRIPATHI 2009-2010. Final Year of Electronics & Communication Gaurav Bajaj Gaurav Bajaj wardsmyseminar guide and Lecture crete step in study of this seminar of EC Department Mr. ROHIT TRIPATHI who at very dis 4G Technology2009 Page 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENT I feel great pleasure in submitting this seminar report on “4 44 4G Technology”. I wish to express true sense of gratitude to contributed his valuable guidance and help to solve every problem that arose and opening the doors of the department towards the realization of the seminar report. Most likely I would like to express my sincere gratitude towards my family for always being there when I needed them the most. With all respect and gratitude, I would like to thank all the people, who have helped us directly or indirectly, I owe my all success to them. 4G Technology2009 Page 4 ABSTRACT The fourth generation of mobile networks will truly turn the current mobile phone networks, in to end to end IP based networks, couple this with the arrival of IPv6, every device in the world will have a unique IP address, which will allow full IP based communications from a mobile device, right to the core of the internet, and back out again. If 4G is

and transparent end user performance on every mobile communications device in the world..... 44 48 13.. Next Generation Networks (NGNs) are becoming fast and very cost-effective solutions for those wanting an IP built high-speed data capacities in the mobile network..50 43 42 ...... 21 Architecture in prospects………………………………………………………....30 8... 4G is set to deliver 100mbps to a roaming mobile device globally..…………………………………………. With this in mind.………………………………………………… 17.... 53 51 14. it will truly harmonize global roaming.... 34 . Currently 3G networks still send their data digitally over a single channel....……………………………………………………………..38 41 ............21 20 .. thus increasing the amount of information that can be sent at a time over traditional CDMA networks.... 37 .. . TDD UMTS.................………………. 07 15. HSDPA...... streaming picture perfect video and much more.... should take off rather quickly............. both of which will be used in 3G networks and enhance rates when used in with OFDM............ Some possible standards for the 4G system are 802. Security…………………………………………………………………………..54 16.. 4G networks i.Basic model for 4G…………………………………………………………… Transmission.………………………………………….. The design is that 4G will be based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing)..………………………….. and up to 1gbps to a stationary device. Other technological aspects of 4G are adaptive processing and smart antennas..26 4 7... which is the key enabler of 4G technology... Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….……………………..Quality of service…………. References……………………………………………………………………….....……. Mobile Management.10 History of 4G…………………………………………………………………..14 What is 4G……………………………………………………………………. 33 31 Wireless Technologies Used in 4G.implemented correctly......... 08 Introduction to 4G……………………………………………………………....e....………………………………………….16)... it is estimated that it will be implemented by 2012.. Applications……………………………………………………………………..20.. with faster backbones and oceanic links requiring major upgrade. 10.... and if done correctly..It won’t be just the phone networks that need to evolve..... the increased traffic load on the internet as a whole (imagine having 1 billion 100mb nodes attached to a network over night) will need to expand. 2 ... 4G won’t happen overnight...... UMTS and future versions of UMTS. OFDM is designed to send data over hundreds of parallel streams.. WiMAX (802............……….20 17 15 Features of 4G….. 47 Issues..........4 Overlay network…..... super high speed connectivity......7Adaptive Modulation and Power Control.………………………………………….. 12.28 ….. it allows for video conferencing.......

.4 Smart Antenna...27 6...............2 Middleware architecture……………….. Implementatian daigram of 4G… ……………………………………………............................1 6.... ......... 7... 10.. 10............... 1.........5Long term Power Prediction.. 10...... 9..2Ultra Wide Band.11...... 4......... 10.......... 10.....1...........1End to end architecture………………….9 2....19 3...…………………………. OFDM Modulation.. 4G Technology2009 Page 6 FIGURE INDEX Figure Page No......………………............1Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing..6Scheduling Among User.. 4G Technology2009 Page 5 CONTENT Chapter Page No...………………………………........ .............40 9..………………………………………………………….......... Overlay networks……………………………………………………………….... History of mobile networks…………………………………………………….. 10........29 Basic model of 4G…………………………………………………………….....………………………………………………………….....………………................ 1..... 2.......……………………………….... 7.... INTRODUCTION 4G (also known as Beyond 3G).…………………………....13 4G Technology2009 Page 7 1.23 5............. 7...... 4........... 10..………………………………....... 7..........…………………………………................... an abbreviation for Fourth-Generation............. OFDM Multiplexing...................3 Millimeter wireless.…………………………………………………………......... 4G mobile communication……………………………………………………..25 Multihop architecture…………………………………………………………..... .........………………………………..... is a term used to describe the next complete evolution inwireless ....... 10. MIMO. What is needed to build 4G network?....………………..3Relay network architecture…………………………....…………………………...…………………… 7.32 8.Implementation Using 4G. Error Correcting.. 5.. 3.......

“Improved Mobile Telephone Service". and was designed to users in cars to the public land-line based telephone network. with high speed movement. The systems were called "cellular" because large coverage areas were split into smaller areas or "cells". a system launched by Bell Systems. Then. it allows . each cell is served by a low power transmitter and receiver. the first radio telephone service was introduced. i. and was developed in the seventies. or. data and streamed multimedia can be given to users on an "Anytime. from a cellular network to a satellite-based network to a high-bandwidth wireless LAN. increased coverage. that is. in the sixties. anytime anywhere. in a vehicle. from high-quality voice to high-definition video to high-data-rate wireless channels. not only cellular telephone systems. and customized personal service. 4G Technology2009 Page 8 3G. 4G networks will also feature IP interoperability for seamless mobile Internet access and bit rates of 50 Mbps or more. and more reliable wireless access even with the failure or loss of one or more networks. multimedia entertainment. and upto 2Mbps for fixed stations. The term 4G is used broadly to include several types of broadband wireless access communication systems. HISTORY At the end of the 1940’s. ITU’s IMT-2000 is a global standard for 3G and has opened new doors to enabling innovative services and application for instance. integrated wireless solution. Anywhere" basis. called IMTS. as well as a whole lot more. The 4G systems not only will support the next generation of mobile service.communications. users will have access to different services. With this feature. and the digital transform of the control link between the phone and the cell site. entailing voice.e. i. In 2001. The approaching 4G (fourth generation) mobile communication systems are projected to solve still-remaining problems of 3G (third generation) systems and to provide a wide variety of new services. in a building.e. or Third Generation 3G systems promise faster communications services. Global mobility support. 2. Based on FDMA. this was the invention of the microprocessor. but also will support the fixed wireless networks. A 4G system will be able to provide a comprehensive IP solution where voice. brought quite a few improvements such as direct dialing and more bandwidth.Advance mobile phone system (AMPS) was first launched by the US and is a 1G mobile system. with seamless roaming between standards. and location-based services. 384Kbps locally. anywhere throughout the globe. 1G had two major improvements. 4G systems. one bill with reduced total access cost. The very first analog systems were based upon IMTS and were created in the late 60s and early 70s. 3G technology supports around 144 Kbps. Researchers and vendors are expressing a growing interest in 4G wireless networks that support global roaming across multiple wireless and mobile networks—for example. fax and Internet data transfer capabilities. Japan saw the first 3G network launched. As a promise for the future. and at higher data rates than previous generations. the convenience of a single device. the aim of 3G are to provide these services anytime. The 1G or First Generation was an analog system. One of the terms used to describe 4G is MAGIC-Mobile multimedia. cellular broadband wireless access systems have been attracting much interest in the mobile communication arena.

And there is also the 80/20 . An all IP network makes sense because consumers will want to use the same data applications they are used to in wired networks. the first commercial network for use by the public was the Global system for mobile communication (GSM). service likewise improves for all users. the same organization that developed the wired Internet. As people congregate and create pockets of high demand. A peer-to-peer network. and peer-to-peer networking. handsets.e.” 4G technology is significant because users joining the network add mobile routers to the network infrastructure.users to make voice calls in 1 country. or Second Generation 2G first appeared around the end of the 1980’s. then. these devices are actually part of the network infrastructure. where every device is both a transceiver and a router/repeater for other devices in the network.g. two characteristics have emerged as all but certain components of 4G: end-to-end Internet Protocol (IP). Fig 1: . Although experts and policymakers have yet to agree on all the aspects of 4G wireless. Let’s define “4G” as “wirelessad hoc peer-to-peer networking. So instead of carriers subsidizing the cost of user devices (e. because the elimination of a single node does not disable the network. they also create additional routes for each other. What is 4G? Fourth generation (4G) wireless was originally conceived by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). thus enabling additional access to network capacity. Users will automatically hop away from congested routes to less congested routes. 2G. consumers actually subsidize and help deploy the network for the carrier. It is not surprising. as the service gains popularity and the number of user increases. The final definition of “4G” will have to include something as simple as this: if a consumer can do it at home or in the office while wired to the Internet. With a cellular infrastructure. eliminates this spoke-and-hub weakness of cellular architectures. that DARPA chose the same distributed architecture for the wireless Internet that had proven so successful in the wired Internet. users cooperate – rather than compete – for network resources.. They are just consumers competing for resources. Based on TDMA.History of Mobile Networks 4G Technology2009 Page 9 4G Technology2009 Page 10 3. network capacity and coverage is dynamically shifted to accommodate changing user patterns. PDAs. that consumer must be able to do it wirelessly in a fully mobile environment. What may not be obvious is that when user devices act as routers. Because users carry much of the network with them. more people could use their phones at the same time). This permits the network to dynamically and automatically self-balance capacity. users contribute nothing to the network. and increase network utilization. 4G Technology2009 Page 11 Thus. all at a lower cost to the end consumer. This new digital system gave a lot better quality and much more capacity (i. But in wirelessad hoc peer-to-peer networks. the 2G system digitized the voice signal. of laptop computers). as well as the control link.

high. The future 4G infrastructures will consist of a set of various networks using IP (Internet protocol) as a common protocol so that users are in control because they will be able to choose every application and environment. and smoother and quicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks. and laptop to seamlessly access the voice communication. public to private. 4G will have broader bandwidth. 4G systems will be fully IP-based wireless Internet. In addition. This all-encompassing integrated perspective shows the broad range of systems that the fourth generation intends to integrate. and receiving a large volume of information. all with IP as the integrating mechanism. Figure 1 illustrates elements and techniques to support the adaptability of the 4G domain. This new generation of wireless is intended to complement and replace the 3G systems. video.peer networking. 4G Technology2009   .speed information services. These services and models need to be further examined for their interface with the design of 4G systems. perhaps in 5 to 10 years. data. The devices will get cheaper. Accessing information anywhere. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. With 4G. The fourth generation will encompass all systems from various networks. These features mean services can be delivered and be available to the personal preference of different users and support the users traffic. With wireless peer-to. with a seamless connection to a wide range of information and services. about 80% of the cost is the technology and only 20% is the installation. about 80% of the cost is for site acquisition and installation. Because technology costs tend to decline over time. Based on the developing trends of mobile communication.rule. as well as with digital (broadband) broadcasting systems. which will further increase the rate of penetration. Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users. a current viable business model should only become more profitable over time. PDA. With traditional wireless networks. The 4G systems will interoperate with 2G and 4G Technology2009 Page 12 3G systems. higher data rate. subjecting the service providers’ business models to some challenging issues in the out years. a range of new services and models will be available. anytime. The dominant methods of access to this pool of information will be the mobile telephone. and service providers will reach economies of scale sooner because they will be able to pass on the infrastructure savings to consumers. and so on. radio environment. pictures. and entertainment broadcast services. Rising land and labor costs means installation costs tend to rise over time. Connection with the network applications can be transferred into various forms and levels correctly and efficiently. operator-driven broadband networks to personal areas. and ad hoc networks. however. are the keys of the 4G infrastructures. and quality of service. and just 20% is for the technology. from satellite broadband to high altitude platform to cellular 3G and 3G systems to WLL (wireless local loop) and FWA (fixed wireless access) to WLAN (wireless local area network) and PAN (personal area network). air interfaces.

and Hyper LAN). service portability. WCDMA. national security interest and economic interest (inter-industry a la TV versus Telecommunications) are at stake. industry builds its own self-regulation mechanisms. Page 15 5. spectrum standardization decisions. •An infrastructure to handle pre‐existing 3G systems along with other wireless technologies. What is needed to Build 4G Networks of Future? 4G Technology2009 A number of spectrum allocation decisions. high capacity.4G Mobile Communication 4.The business visionaries should do some economic modeling before they start 4G hype on the same lines as 3G hype.Page 13 Fig 2: . technological or business . component development. voice.Spectrum regulation bodies must get involved in guiding the researchers by indicating which frequency band might be used for 4G. FEATURES Page 14 4G Technology2009 •Support for interactive multimedia. and other broadband services •IP based mobile system •High speed. Bluetooth. * More Coordination Among Spectrum Regulators Around the World .11. We think that 3G experiences . FCC in USA must cooperate more actively with International bodies like ITU and perhaps modify its hands-off policy in guiding the industry.good or bad. When public interest. including 802. technology innovations. look for 4G systemsto be compatible with all common network technologies. and a variety of Quality of Service‐driven services •Betterscheduling and call‐admission‐control techniques •Ad‐hoc and multi‐hop networks (the strict delay requirements of voice make multi‐hop network service a difficult problem) •Better spectral efficiency •Seamless network of multiple protocols and air interfaces (since 4G will be all‐IP.will be useful in guiding the industry in this effort. We are bringing to the attention of professionals in telecommunications industry following issues and problems that must be analyzed and resolved: * Lower Price Points Only Slightly Higher than Alternatives . Internet. streaming video. and low cost‐per‐bit •Global access. spectrum availability decisions. leadership must come from regulators. signal processing and switching enhancements and inter-vendor cooperation have to take place before the vision of 4G will materialize. They should understand that 4G data applications like streaming video must compete with very low cost wireline applications. The users would pay only a delta premium (not a multiple) for most wireless applications. some of which are currently under development. At appropriate time. * . and scalable mobile services •Seamless switching.

IEEE 802. Bluetooth with fiber-based Internet backbone. Voice has a built-in demand limit . switching schemes and roaming is an absolute necessity for 4G. The objective is to offer seamless multimedia services to users accessing anall IP‐based infrastructure through heterogeneous access technologies.IP is assumed to act as an adhesive for providing global connectivityand mobility among networks. IEEE 802. * Non-disruptive Implementation: 4G must allow us to move from 3G to 4G.11a.More Academic Research: Universities must spend more effort in solving fundamental problems in radio communications (especially multiband and wideband radios.IMPLEMENTATION USING 4G Page 17 The 4G Technology2009 goal of 4G is to replace the current proliferation of core mobile networks with a single worldwide core network standard. 6.15 and IEEE 802. This is because SS7 signal transmission consumes a larger part of network bandwidth even when there is no signaling trafficfor the simple reason Page 18 4G Technology2009 that it uses a call setup mechanism to reserve bandwidth. Broadband wireless networks must be a part of this integrated network architecture. and voice. on the other hand. video. based on IP for control. packet data. wireless communications are heavily .11b. voice. based entirely on IP. Today. IEEE 802.11g. rather time/frequency slots in the radio waves.It is compatible applications do not. An all IP‐based 4G wireless network has inherent advantages over its predecessors. wireless LANS (IEEE 802. Hence there is optimum usage of the available bandwidth. * Standardization of wireless networks in terms of modulation techniques. and data services to the mobile host.16. intelligent antennas and signal processing. IP networks. are connectionless and use the slots only when they have data to send. * A Voice-independent Business Justification Thinking: Business development and technology executives should not bias their business models by using voice channels as economic determinant for data applications. An IP wireless network replaces the old Signaling System 7 (SS7) telecommunications protocol. This will provide uniform video. and independent of the underlying radio access technology. Page 16 4G Technology2009 * Integration Across Different Network Topologies: Network architects must base their architecture on hybrid network concepts that integrates wireless wide area networks. which is considered massively redundant.

it is ideally suited to meet this challenge. 4G systems will be organized not as monolithic structures deployed by a single business entity. even though studies indicate that growth in wireless data traffic is rising exponentially relative to demand for voice traffic. Architectures in Prospects • Trust management. based on trusted third party monitors. The user support layer has autonomous agent aspects that traditional service middleware lacks. This novel end-to-end service architecture is inseparable from an equally radical transformation of the role of the telecommunications network operator role in the new value chain of end service provision. ‘Community’ . • Collaborative service constellations.3 7. End-to-end service architectures should have the following desirable properties: • Open service and resource allocation model. but rather as a dynamic confederation of multiple— sometimes cooperating and sometimes competing—service providers. user support layer.e. and between service providers. Thus. the new rule for success in 4G telecommunications markets will be to provide one part of the puzzle and to cooperate with other suppliers to create the complete solutions that end customers require. The goal is a merged data/voice/multimedia network. This is primarily due to deterioration of vertical integration scalability with innovation speed up. ‘Adaptation’. IMPLEMENTATION DIAGRAM OF 4G Page 19 4G Technology2009 Page 20 7.2 4G Technology2009 Middleware Architecture:The service middleware is decomposed into three layers. Because an all IP core layer is easily scalable. Mechanisms for managing trust r 4G Technology2009 Systems:A characteristic of the transition towards 3G systems and beyond is that highly integrated telecommunications service suppliers fail to provide effective economies of scale.biased toward voice.1 End-to-end Service Architectures for 4G Mobile 7. • Open capability negotiation and pricing model.A direct consequence of these facts is that a radically new end-to-end service architecture will emerge during the deployment of 3G mobile networks and will became prominent as the operating model of choice for the Fourth Generation (4G) Mobile Telecommunications Networks. In fact. i. It consists of 4 sub-systems: ‘Personalization’. service support layer and network support layer. Page 21 7. elationships among clients and service providers. The criterion for using a layered approach is to reuse the existing subsystems in the traditional middleware. • Service fault tolerance.

‘Contract Notary’ and ‘Authentication & Authorization’. in the context of WLANs). In a Multihop network. • Multihop also could reduce costs in heterogeneous 3G networks. .or more hop. either the source or destination is a common point in the network Page 22 4G Technology2009 .base station (or. Introduction of this functional layer enables the reduction of unnecessary user interaction with the system and the provision of user-centric services realized by applying agent concepts. • Ad hoc-like characteristics: – Access points configure into access network. – Some access points may be moving (bus. but more importantly. and negotiation for service usage. The integration of “multihop” capability into the conventional wireless networks is perhaps the most promising architectural upgrade. to support analysis of the current context. therefore cost-effective high data rate coverage may be possible through the augmentation of the relaying capability in conventional cellular networks. it may extend the high data rate coverage range of a single BS. two. access point. the network layer supports connectivity for all-IP networks. contains most functionality of traditional middleware. train). – 802. which will enable effective distribution and collection of signals to and from wireless users. The dynamic service delivery pattern defines a powerful interaction model to negotiate the conditions of service delivery by using three subsystems: ‘Discovery & Advertisement’. – Backbone access through wireless. the service support layer. are sought. – Wired access through DSL at aggregation points. better-quality link whenever possible. a signal from a source may reach its destination in multiple hops (whenever necessary) through the use of “relays”. Relaying is not only efficient in eliminating black spots throughout the coverage region. Towards that end.11 to GPRS for example. in addition to advanced transmission techniques and antenna technologies. personalization depending on the user’s situation. to provide mechanisms for context awareness and support for communities and coordination. some major modifications in the wireless network architecture itself. The middle layer.and ‘Coordination’. Since we are here concerned with infrastructure-based networks. The bottom layer. The potential advantage of relaying is that it allows substituting a poor-quality (due to high path loss) single-hop wireless link with a composite. – Spreads infrastructure cost. Cellular Multihop Communications: Infrastructure-Based Relay Network Architecture:It is clear that more fundamental enhancements are necessary for the very ambitious throughput and coverage requirements of future networks. • Reduced network access operational cost. Advantages:• Property owners can install their own access points.

Because UAPs can keep track of the various resources a caller uses. and QoS negotiation-renegotiation on behalf of users. A UAP performs protocol and frequency translation. Patel Page 21 Fig 4: -Overlay Networks Page 26 8. a user accesses an overlay network consisting of several universal access points. A UAP stores user. and device information. namely the control plane and the data plane. scheduling and forwarding) for end. As we are mainly concerned with network elements effectively at the network layer. QoS signaling. network. however all nodes involving the controlling or the processing end-to-end flows between an MN and the CN. etc. while the data plane is responsible for data traffic behaviors (such as classification. this architecture supports single billing and subscription. These UAPs in turn select a wireless network based on availability. Some components located in the control plane interact. Authorization and Accounting). 4G Technology2009 Viral N. (b) An overlay network—consisting of several universal access points (UAPs) that store user. and user defined choices. and preferences. and device information—performs a handoff as the user moves from one UAP to another. MIP registration. The overlay network. QoS specifications.Page 23 4G Technology2009 Fig. performs handoffs as the user moves from one UAP to another. Possible 4G wireless network architectures. content adaptation. we do not show a whole end-to-end communication picture through a whole OSI or TCP/IP stack. network. (c) A device capable of automatically switching between networks is possible if wireless networks can support a common protocol to access a satellite-based network and another protocol for terrestrial networks. mobility. The control plane performs control related actions such as AAA. or network initiate handoff between networks without the need for network modification or interworking devices. rather than the user or device. different. are related to network of IP packets for in this section how we . 5 illustrates this method of flexible functional composition in 4G networks.3: .. device.4 Overlay network:In this traffic flows. I show view the 4G network infrastructure.Example of Heterogeneous Network Multihop Architecture Page 24 4G Technology2009 5. QoS and/or AAA – Authentication. security and mobility can be viewed as three indispensable aspects in 4G networks. installation/maintenance of traffic selectors and security associations. Two Planes: Functional Decomposition Noting that an IP network element (such as a router) comprises of numerous functional components that cooperate to provide such desired service (such as. capabilities.A Basic Model for 4G Networks 4G Technology2009 QoS. we identify these components in the SeaSoS architecture into two planes. (a) A multimode device lets the user. Figure1. Fig.

AAA server) are involved with data plane functionalities. this abstraction is recently being investigated in the IETF ForCES working group. The receiver circuit reconstructs the databy reversing this process. Fig.TRANSMISSION 4G Technology2009 An OFDM transmitter accepts data from an IP network. with the reasons as follows. Page 27 4G Technology2009 this separation concept is not new – routing protocols have the similar abstraction together used with the traditional IP packet delivery. while per-packet actions are part of critical forwarding behavior. With orthogonal sub‐carriers. I refer these cases as path-decoupled control and other cases as path coupled control. integrated into a unified framework and allowing more extensibility for 4G networks design. and also not all network elements (e. the receiver can separate and process each sub‐carrier without interference from other sub‐carriers. as well as other new emerging or replacement components might appear. More impervious to fading and multi‐path delays than other wireless transmission techniques.The decomposition of control plane and data plane functionalities Page 28 9.5: . We argue the separation and coordination of control plane and data plane is critical for seamless mobility with QoS and security support in 4G networks. QoS and security. we emphasize the three critical dimensions of future 4G networks: mobility. IntServ nodes or DiffServ edge routers. However. ODFM provides better link and communication quality. which involves very few control actions (which are typically simply to read and enforce according the install state during forwarding data). Page 29 4G Technology2009 IP NETWORK OFDM TRANSMITTER MODULATION IFFT making IF analog RF TRANSMITTER OFDM MODULATION Page 30 10. Actually. with data plane components in some network elements.g. converting and encoding the data prior to modulation. such as access routers (ARs). not all control plane components need to exist in all network elements.through installing and maintaining certain control states for data plane. Per-flow or per-user level actions occur much less frequent than per-packet actions. However. 4G Technology2009 Wireless TechnologiesUsed In 4G . which is sent to the RF transceiver.. An IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform) transforms the OFDM signal into an IF analog signal.

8 Page 32 F i g8:: O r t h o g o n a lF r e q u e n c yD i v i s i o nM u l t i p l e x i n g : 4G Technology2009 Page 33 10.1. FEC using concatenated coding allows a communications system to send larger block sizes while reducing bit‐error rates.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing: 4G Technology2009 OFDM. The advantages of concatenated coding (Viterbi/Reed‐Solomon) over convolutional coding (Viterbi) are enhanced system performance through the combining of two or more constituent codes (such as a Reed‐Solomon and a convolutional code) into one concatenated code. An IFFT (inverse fast Fourier transform) transforms the OFDM signal into an IF analog signal. ADAPTIVE MODULATION AND POWER CONTROL Page 31 10. N orthogonal sub‐carriers modulate the parallel bit streams. the receiver can separate and process each sub‐carrier without interference from other sub‐carriers. Each of the parallel bit streams has a much lower bit rate than the original bit stream.With orthogonal sub‐carriers. buttheir summation can provide very high data rates. 4. works by dividing the data stream for transmission at a bandwidth B into N multiple and parallel bit streams. The receiver circuit reconstructs the data by reversing this process. 2. Forward error‐correction (FEC) coding adds redundancy to a transmitted message through encoding prior to transmission.1Error Correcting: 4G Technology2009 4G s error‐correction will most likely use some type of concatenated coding and will provide multiple Quality of Service (QoS) levels. for implementing an Automatic Repeat Request if an error is found). The combination can improve error correction or combine errorcorrection with error detection (useful. 3. which is sent to the RF transceiver. More impervious to fading and multi‐path delays than other wireless transmission techniques. An OFDM transmitter accepts data from an IP network. ODFM provides better link and communicationquality. which are then summed prior to transmission. Page 34 10.1. converting and encoding the data prior to modulation. spaced B/N apart (Figure ). for example. SHEDULING AMONG USERS 7. a form of multi‐carrier modulation.LONG TERM POWER PREDICTION 6.2 Ultra Wide Band : 4G Technology2009 A UWB transmitter spreads its signal over a wide portion of the RF . OFDM UWB MILLIMETER WIRELESS SMART ANTENNAS 5.

furniture and walls in a house. due to its interference potential placed by power Page 35 4G Technology2009 with other RF signals. falls below the threshold detection of most RF receivers.4 GHz range of microwave ovens and modern cordless phones. Multi‐path propagation occurs when a transmitted signal takes different paths when propagating from source to destination.11a wireless Ethernet. The signal is relatively secure against interference and has the potential for very high‐rate wireless broadband access and speed. One distinct advantage ofUWB is its immunity to multi‐path distortion and interference. Multi‐path delay causes the information symbols in the signal to overlap. significantly limits the range of UWB equipment (but still makes it a viable LAN technology). The various paths are caused by the signal bouncing off objects between the transmitter and receiver—for example. moving the signal from a base band to the carrier frequency the transmitter uses. the low‐ constraints on UWB the FCC. on the order of tens of microwatts. confusing the receiver—this is known asinter‐symbol interference (ISI). above 3. The wide bandwidth of a UWB signal is a two‐edged sword. the signalalso has the potential to interfere with other wireless transmissions. One part of the signal may go directly the receiver will make mistakes when demodulating the information in the signal. On the other hand. generally 1 GHz wide or more. Because the signal s shape conveys transmitted information. The FCC has chosen UWB frequencies to minimize interference to other commonly used equipment. although of wide bandwidth. UWB is carrier‐free . deflected partwil l encounter delay and take longer to reach the receiver. since the technology works by modulating a pulse. Traditional RFequipment uses an RF carrier to transmit a modulated signal in the frequency domain. or trees and buildings in an outdoor environment. UWB equipment transmits very narrow RF pulses—low power and short pulse period means the signal. bit errors in the packet will occur since the receiver can t distinguish the symbols and correctly interpret the corresponding bits. such as televisions and radios. In addition. For long‐enough delays.1GHz. but below 802. This frequency range also puts UWB equipment above the2. to the receiver while another. resulting in a waveform occupying a very wide frequency domain. which operates at 5 GHz.spectrum. The short time‐span of UWB waveforms—typically hundreds of picoseconds to a few nanoseconds—means that delays caused by the transmitted signal bouncing off objects are much longer than the width of the original UWB .

One smart‐antenna variation in particular. with the 5 GHz band most likely dominant. minimizing S/N reduction and bit errors. millimeter wireless would constitute only one of several frequency bands. since you can transmit multiple data streams or signals over the channel simultaneously.This results in high spectral efficiencies in 9 Page 39 4G Technology2009 a rich scattering environment (high multi‐path). MIMO. Page 38 10. and beam‐forming technologies.4 Smart Antennas: 4G Technology2009 A smart antenna system comprises multiple antenna elements with signal processing to automatically optimize the antennas radiation (transmitter) and/or reception (receiver) patterns in response to the signal environment. Fig 8 :Multiple Input Multiple Output Page 40 4G Technology2009 Page 41 . due to the availability in this region of bandwidth resources committed by the governments of some countries to unlicensed cellular and other wireless applications. virtually eliminating ISI from overlapping signals. MIMO represents space‐division multiplexing (SDM)—information signals are multiplexed on spatially separated N multiple antennas and received on M antennas. can boost useful channel capacity by at least an order of magnitude.Figure shows a general block diagram of a MIMOsystem. shows promise in 4G systems. If deployed in a 4G system. combined with adaptive coding and modulation. Some systems may not employ the signal‐processing block on the transmitter side. Page 37 10. This makes UWB technology particularly useful for intra‐structure and mobile communications applications. MIMO (Multi‐Input Multi‐Output) is a smart antenna system where smartness is considered at both transmitter and the receiver. interference cancellation. Field experiments by several organizations have shown that a MIMO system.Page 36 4G Technology2009 pulse.3 Millimeter Wireless: 4G Technology2009 Using the millimeter‐wave band (above 20 GHz) for wireless service is particularly interesting. particularly since the antenna systems at both transmitter and receiverare usually a limiting factor when attempting to support increased data rates. Multiple antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver provide essentially multiple parallel channels that operate simultaneously on the same frequency band and at the same time.

Information on the traffic load is exchanged infrequently via an inquiry procedure. under specified QoS requirements and delay constraints. then it would be possible to distribute the transmission load among the users in an optimal way while fulfilling certain specified constraints on throughput and delays. These time‐frequency regions are then allocated to the different users by a scheduling algorithm according to some criterion. scheduling will be used on different levels: Among sectors:‐In order to cope with co‐channelinterference among neighboring sectors in adjacent cells.2 6. the involved base stations determine the allocation of slots to be used by each base station in each sector.5 Long Term Power Prediction: 4G Technology2009 Channels to different mobile users will fade independently. . Regardless of the choice of criterion. the user scheduler will distribute time‐frequency regions among the users of each sector based on their current channel predictions. Theinquiry process can also include synchronization information to align the transmission of packets at different base stations to further enhance performance. The channel time‐frequency pattern will depend on the scattering environment and on the velocity of the moving terminal. In order to take the advantage the channel variability. time slots are allocated according to the traffic load in each sector . Among users:‐Based on the time slot allocation obtained from inquiry process. 10. Page 42 6. After an inquiry to adjacent cells.1 10.6 Scheduling among Users: 4G Technology2009 To optimize the system throughput. the modulation format for the scheduled user is selected according to the predicted signal to noise andinterference ratio. Here different degrees of sophistication can be used to achieve different transmission goals.A time‐frequency grid constituting of regions of one time slot and several subcarriers is used such that the channel is fairly constant over each region.7 Adaptive modulation and power control: Page 43 4G Technology2009 In a fading environment and for a highly loaded system therewill almost exist users with good channel conditions. In this way the interference can be minimized and higher capacity be obtained. which could be either maximization of system throughput or equalization to user satisfaction. we use OFDM system with spacing between subcarrires such that no interchannel interface occurs for the worst case channel scenario (Lowcoherence bandwidth).10. If the channel properties of all users in a cell can be predicted a number of milliseconds ahead.

Ideally. For such channels the optimum rate and power allocation for maximizing the throughput can be calculated under a total average power constraint. This includes fast. The network selection strategy should take into consideration the type of application being run by the user at the time of handover. WLAN is best suited for high data rate indoor coverage. which contains the functionality to deal with mobility between access technologies. This ensures stability as well as optimal bandwidth for interactive and background services. are best suited for nation wide coverage and can be regarded aswide area networks. via the inquiry process among adjacent cells described above we may use an aggressive power control scheme. the handover algorithm would assure that the best overall wireless link is chosen. Mobility in IPv6 is not optimized to take advantage of specific mechanisms that may be deployed in different administrative domains. Thus a user of the mobile terminal or the network needs to make the optimal choice of radio access technology among all those available. Instead. on the other hand. For example. or how to be best connected. IPv6 provides mobility in a manner that resembles only simple portability. There are several network technologies available today. Given that a user may be offered connectivity from more than one technology at any one time. quality of service (QoS). We can thus use a flat fading AWGN channel assumption. seamless vertical (between heterogeneous technologies) handovers (IP micro‐mobility).By using sufficiently small time‐frequency bins the channel can be made approximately constant within bins. transmit in each of the parallel channels. For every timeslot. GPRS or UMTS. providing a 4G Technology2009 higher degree of mobility. The optimum strategy isto let one user. which can be viewed as complementary. security and accounting. To enhance Mobility in IPv6. while keeping the interference on an acceptable level. ‘micro‐mobility’ protocols (such as Hawaii[5]. Page 44 ISSUES: The first issue deals with optimal choice of access technology. Page 45 4G Technology2009 Thesecond issue regards the design of a mobility enabled IP networking architecture. Cellular IP[6]and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6[7]) have been developed . the time‐frequency bins in the grid represent separate channels. A handover algorithm should both determine which network to connect to as well as when to perform a handover between the different networks. one has to consider how the terminal and an overlay network choose the radio access technology suitablefor services the user is accessing. the one with best channel. Furthermore since we have already determined the time slot allocation. Real‐time applications in the future will require fast/seamless handovers for smooth operation.

Quality of Service (QoS):4G Technology2009 The Internet provides users with diverse and essential quality of service (QoS). depending on their inherent characteristics. Page 47 11. Avoiding this requires choosing an adaptive encoding framework for multimedia transmission. and changing radio access networks may in particular result in drastic changes in the network condition. This requires that the services are adaptive androbust against varying radio conditions. Among these technologies. In addition the radio environment has dynamics that renders it difficult to provide a guaranteed network service. fragmentation only at endpoints. require certain degrees of QoS guarantees. Thus the framework for multimedia transmission must be adaptive. differentiated services (DiffServ) and MPLS are paving the way for tomorrow’s QoS services portfolio. Page 48 13. particularly given the increasing demand for a wide spectrum of network services.MOBILITY MANAGEMENT 4G Technology2009 Features of mobility management in Ipv6: 128‐bit address space provides a sufficiently large number of addresses High quality support for real‐time audio and video transmission. The third issue concerns the adaptation of multimedia transmission across 4G networks. User interactions will help to ensure personalized adaptation of the multimedia presentation. Indeed multimedia will be a main service feature of 4G networks.for seamless handovers i. handovers that result in minimal handover delay. minimal packet loss. In cellular networks such as UMTS. Page 46 4G Technology2009 Variable bit rate services provide a way to ensure service provisioning at lower costs. Smooth handoff when the mobile host travels fromone subnet to another. The network should signal QoS variations to allowthe application to be aware in real time of the network conditions. short/burstyconnections of web applications. can now be provided on the Internet. etc. Many technologies are therefore being developed to enhance the QoS capability of IP networks. High variations in the network Quality of Service (QoS) leads to significant variations of the multimedia quality. previously only provided by traditional circuit-switched networks. and minimal loss of communication state. Faster packet delivery. DiffServ is based on a simple model where traffic entering a network is . peer‐to‐peer applications. These services.e. The result could sometimes be unacceptable to the users. decreased cost of processing – no header checksum at each relay. causing a change in its Care‐of Address. users compete for scarce and expensive bandwidth. Many services.

numerous traffic engineering functions have been effectively achieved by MPLS. Each behavior aggregate is identified by a single DS code point (DSCP). and established using a signaling protocol.classified. and possibly conditioned at the edges of the network. the DiffServ network provides different forwarding treatments and thus different levels of QoS. It depends primarily on a network’s ability to establish and maintain the end-to-end circuit. the QoS for such users will likely be the minimum level these networks support. •User-level QoS depends on user mobility and application type. Network resources such as buffer space and access protocol are likely influences. Supporting QoS in 4G networks will be a major challenge due to varying bit rates. circuit. By assigning traffic of different classes to different DSCPs. Security 4G Technology2009 Security in 4G networks mainly involves authentication. even with adaptive applications. COPS or Diameter [10]) provide a framework for such support especially for control plane functions . policed. At the core of the network. user. the MN needs to prove authorization and authenticate itself while roaming to a new provider’s network. channel characteristics. throughput. QoS support can occur at the packet. Page 50 14. confidentiality. fault-tolerance levels. packets are fast forwarded according to the per-hop behavior (PHB) associated with the DSCP. bandwidth allocation. ntegrity. Firstly. while others cannot tolerate any packet loss. they become powerful and complementary abstractions for QoS provisioning in IP backbone networks. Moreover. and network levels. and handoff support among heterogeneous wireless networks. and authorization for the access of network connectivity and QoS resources for the MN’s flows. Page 49 4G Technology2009 •Transaction-level QoS describes both the time it takes to complete a transaction and the packet loss rate. Because QoS will vary across different networks. In a complete wireless solution. and assigned to different behavior aggregates. •Packet-level QoS applies to jitter. The new location may not support the minimum QoS needed. called a label switched path (LSP). The labels can be assigned to represent routes of various granularities. A label in the packet header. ranging from as coarse as the destination network down to the level of each single flow. Routers that support MPLS are called label switched routers (LSRs). AAA protocols (such as Radius. First. MPLS integrates the label swapping forwarding paradigm with network layer routing. is then used for making forwarding decisions in the network. transaction. the end-to-end communication between two users will likely involve multiple wireless networks. When MPLS is combined with DiffServ and constraint-based routing. •Circuit-level QoS includes call blocking for new as well as existing calls. and error rate. rather than the IP destination address. Certain transactions may be time sensitive. Call routing and location management are two important circuit-level attributes. is determined. an explicit path.

e. but they are not well suited for mobility scenarios. a recently developed IETF protocol. Using a 4G network. connections (packet flows) do not require dedicated circuits for the entire duration of the connection. Police. scalable approach to address this.(including key establishment between the MN and AR. 4G networks can connect traffic control boxes to intelligent transportation management systems wirelessly. 2)4G in normal life:2. This would create a traffic grid that could change light cycle times on demand. authorization needs to be performed to avoid denial of service attacks. Ambulances and fire trucks facing congestion can query various cameras to choose an alternate route. In a packet network.demand “all green” routes for emergency vehicles responding to traffic accidents. and moreover. and installing security policies in the MN or ARs’ data plane such as encryption. The Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) [6].1 Traffic Control:Beijing is a challenging city for drivers. this enhanced flexibility makes it more difficult to effectively control the admission of connections into the network. Finally. 4G will have broader bandwidth. most security concerns in this paper lie in network layer functions: although security can also be provided by higher layers above the network layer. Application adaptability and being highly dynamic are the main features of 4G services of interest to users.. and filtering). keeping some lights green longer temporarily to improve traffic flow. authenticating the MN with AAA server(s). The growing middle class. Using fiber to backhaul cameras means that the intelligence collected flows one way: from the camera to the command center. QoS requests needs to be integrity-protected. Page 51 15. There needs to an efficient. It also could make vehicle-based on. Emerging wireless technologies such as 4G tend to be packet-switched rather than circuit-switched because the packet-based architecture allows for better sharing of limited wireless resources. Unfortunately. with or without an Olympics going on.g. provides a flexible framework for extensible network access authentication and potentially could be useful. when QoS is concerned. Secondly. higher data rate. before allocating QoS resources for an MN’s flow. is increasing the number of passenger vehicles on the road at a staggering annual rate of 30%. stuck in traffic on major . and their new-found ability to purchase automobiles. This requires a hop-by-hop way of dynamic key establishment between QoS-aware entities to be signaled on. Applications 4G Technology2009 1)Application to Admission Control in Cellular Packet Networks:Based on the developing trends of mobile communication. reducing the likelihood that those vehicles will themselves be involved in an accident en route. encryption. those images can also be sent from the command center back out to the streets. The key concept is integrating the 4G capabilities with all of the existing mobile technologies through advanced technologies. and smoother and quicker handoff and will focus on ensuring seamless service across a multitude of wireless systems and networks.

garbage collection.owned vehicle instantly creates a mobile fleet that is the equivalent of an army of highly trained dogs. The fourth generation promises to fulfill the goal of PCC (personal computing and communication)—a vision that affordably provides high data rates everywhere over a wireless network. no camera. And since 4G networks can include inherent geo-location without GPS. References 4G Technology2009 1. There must be a low complexity of implementation and an efficient means of negotiation between the end users and the wireless infrastructure. As these vehicles go about their daily duties of law enforcement. etc. sewage and water maintenance. i. The sensors on the vehicles can talk to fixed devices mounted on light poles throughout the area. using the other cameras as router/repeaters. The answer probably lies in the perceived demand for 3G and the ongoing improvement in 2G networks to meet user demands until 4G arrives. several issues require further research and development. This is generally done using fiber.2 Sensors on Public Vehicles:Putting a chemical-biological-nuclear (CBN) warning sensor on every government. Page 53 16. cities can backhaul every third or fifth or tenth camera. 3) Security:Beijing has already deployed cameras throughout the city and sends those images back to a central command center for the OLYMPIC games2008. And instead of having to backhaul every camera. Future wireless networks will need to support diverse IP multimedia applications to allow sharing of resources among multiple users. 2. Page 54 17.Page 52 4G Technology2009 thoroughfares. so positive detection can be reported in real time.e. first responders will know where the vehicle is when it detects a CBN agent. attempts have been made to reduce a number of technologies to a single global standard. Although 4G wireless technology offers higher bit rates and the ability to roam across multiple heterogeneous wireless networks. no fiber.. completely bypassing 3G. can look ahead and make a decision as to whether it would be faster to stay on the main roads or exit to the side roads. Conclusion 4G Technology2009 As the history of mobile communications shows. It is not clear if existing 1G and 2G providers would upgrade to 3G or wait for it to evolve into 4G.. Projected 4G systems offer this promise of a standard that can be embraced worldwide through its key concept of integration. which limits where the cameras can be hung. municipalities get the added benefit of early detection of CBN agents.”eMobility Technology Platform Whitepaper” edited by Didier Bourse (Motorola Labs) and . 4G networks allow Beijing to deploy cameras and backhaul them wirelessly.

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