Waste Not: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle

Waste is threathening to choke our planet. But it could help save megawatts of energy, tons of CO2, and valuable resources, if used properly.

Picture Gallery (click on the image to start)
See how recycling can turn waste into wealth

Picture Gallery (click on the image to start)
See how recycling can turn waste into wealth There is a new continent and it is bigger than the United States. Its a vast expanse of plastic debris floating on the Pacific Ocean. The sight of hundreds of kilometers of waste is disgusting, yet plastics aren’t even the worst consequence of a culture of excess and wastefulness. More than a billion people worldwide go hungry, while the average household in Europe and the United States throws away one third of all food bought. Food worth more than 48 billion dollars is thrown away in the U.S. every year. “If we can get people to consume less, buy less, then that is going to have environmental benefits all along the production chain,” says Mike Webster of Waste Watch, an NGO based in the UK. Wasting less food would cut down on the consumption of water, fertilizers, and pesticides. Less waste would also mean smaller landfills. In the U.S. and Europe, about half of all municipal waste is landfilled, in the developing world as much as 80 percent. Worldwide, the annual production of municipal solid waste had grown to a staggering 2.02 billion tons by 2006, according to the latest Global Waste Management Market Assessment report. In 2011, the authors expect to see a rise to 2.8 billion tons. And food makes up a big chunk of this. A criminal waste These leftovers would be more than enough to feed 1.5 billion undernourished people, calculates Tristram Stuart, author of the book Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal. “Since food supply has become a global phenomenon,” Stuart writes, “putting food in the bin really is equivalent to taking it off the world market and out of the mouths of the starving.”

Picture Gallery (click on the image to start)
See the world’s biggest garbage dump in the Pacific Ocean

Picture Gallery (click on the image to start)
See the world’s biggest garbage dump in the Pacific Ocean But it is not just a humanitarian problem. Our climate suffers as well. Properly composted, food waste could turn into fertile soil. Trapped in a landfill, however, it rots without oxygen, emitting methane, a greenhouse gas 21 times more powerful than CO2. Landfills worldwide release an estimated 20 to 60 million tons of methane per year, according to a report co-authored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. More and more landfills trap this gas to produce electricity. German landfills alone produce methane with an energy content of some 50 billion kilowatt hours, enough to replace two nuclear power plants. Using it as fuel would take care of the methane, although gas power plants still emit a lot of CO2. Waste prevention is the key, says Mike Webster. The tools have been around for centuries: composting waste, cooking with leftovers, planning meals. It’s a return to values once cherished by older generations. “We hope that we can get people to reassess their values in a broader sense,” he says. “Younger generations seem to be rediscovering this waste-not, want-not approach.” The biggest dent in waste, however, does not come from raised awareness, but from economic distress. After decades of steady growth, the recession reduced domestic waste arising in the UK by ten percent. Mike Webster fears that this could only be temporary relief. Electronic Waste One of the things that make Webster and other experts worry is the rapid growth of electronic waste. E-waste makes up 5 percent of all waste worldwide, nearly the same amount as all plastic packaging, estimates Greenpeace. E-waste, however, is a lot more dangerous than plastics. In the United States, an estimated 70 percent of all heavy metals in landfills come from discarded e-waste, according to figures from the Silicon Valley Toxics Coalition. And with up to 80 percent of old computers being exported to places like China or Vietnam, the problem is even worse in the developing world.

we can even get rid of that new continent.” de Jong explains. is expensive but profitable because it allows extracting valuable materials like copper. In Europe or the U. African recyclers simply set the cables on fire to burn the plastic sleeve.” Copper. “The glass and the plastic are often just dumped somewhere. director of the Dutch Ewaste Foundation.” says de Jong. Consumerism has spawned a whole range of products with “inbuilt obsolescence”.“ editor: Thilo Kunzemann . “but the plastic has been treated with chemicals to make it inflammable and the CRT glass contains phosphor on the inside. which is not very healthy. The best way would be to process it in a controlled environment with the right machinery and a smelter. The lifespan of computers in developed countries.” says Paul de Jong. This reduces the amount of copper extracted and produces toxic fumes. or even the scarce Beryllium. however. has dropped from six years in 1997 to just two years in 2005. The key change. Related Articles • • • Waste Watch: A New View of Junk House Cleaning: How Allianz Cuts Waste Rag Pickers: Saving India from Waste If we move away from this throw-away society. he adds. must be values based. as Mike Webster puts it. gold. also attracts unhealthy practices. ponders Captain Charles Moore. Consumer Culture Shock Much of the hazardous e-waste is exported to developing countries illegally. E-Waste Animation by Ian Lynam for goodmagazin. The process. but many countries in Africa and Asia lack the necessary facilities.. electronic parts are often the only piece of interest for recyclers.com In poor countries things work differently.“There is a stream of illegal e-waste going to these countries. special machinery strips the plastic protecting sleeve from the copper core.S. the not-so-proud discoverer of the Pacific Garbage Patch. extended producer responsibility from production to disposal. for example. Dismantling electronic waste is fairly safe and efficient in Europe and North America. a valuable metal often used in cables. Solutions to illegal exports of waste exist: improved international regulations. using safer alternatives to hazardous materials. When dismantling old computer monitors. “Maybe if we could cut the plastic we put into the oceans to zero it could make sense to clean up what’s left.

and not contain abuse of any kind. • more Write a Comment Do you have something interesting to add? Write a comment and discuss this topic with other readers. Ms. non-commercial. Rating 3. Mrs. Comments should be on-topic.8 out of 5 poor outstanding Bottom of Form 6Share 0diggsdigg Comments SHREERAM KC 2010-08-28 13:48:32 waste reduce in zero by. 2009 Top of Form Please rate this Article.I will very thankful.Could forward any latest info regading this.could forward any recent updates to my mail • more latha annam 2010-04-17 03:16:59 e waste recycling management I am interested in starting up a e waste recycling unit in india. • more Ragu Ragu 2010-07-14 12:05:04 waste recycling i am working in waste recycling management sector. .publishing date: November 20.recycle. Regards. I am working in this field and i am new please help for ahead.latha. Comment Policy Top of Form comment Please fill in the code Can't read this? Salutation*: First Name*: Mr.compost fertilizer.

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Recycling it could help save energy. transport. The waste products means the various materials produced by human activity and is undertaken for reducing their effect on health. Another application of the waste management is to recover the various resources from it. and also for industrial or residential producers.Waste is threathening to choke our planet. and monitoring of waste products. There are various methods of waste disposal including integrated waste . liquid. It is the responsibility of local government authorities to manage non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metro areas. CO2. and resources. In fact. • more Monthly Newsletter Receive the latest global warming news • • Copenhagen Climate Summit Global Cooling vs. It involves the management of solid. recycling. environment or aesthetics. Here is how we could do it. The practices of waste management differ from developed and developing nations. processing. and gaseous wastes. there is difference in methods used in the urban and rural areas. Warming Green Travel • • • • • • • • • Hope or Illusion? Travel Galapagos Ecotourism & Conservation Business Travel Interview: Tourist Trap Carbon Offsets Take Action Efficient Aviation Alternative Fuels Hot Topics carbon change china climate comment emissions energy global greenhouse image people power warming water world Waste Management Waste Management is the term that refers to the collection. On other hand the management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is done by the generator. Each type of waste requires a different methods and fields of expertise.

Supercritical water decomposition and Incineration. The waste hierarchy is the cornerstone of majority of waste minimization strategies. A blue wheelie bin in Berkshire. reuse and recycle” that classify waste management strategies as per their effectiveness in regards to waste minimization. The Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy that is intended for the integration of all costs related with products across their life cycles into the market price of the product.management. The waste hierarchy points to the “reduce. Extended producer responsibility and Polluter pays principle. Some of the widely used concepts include Waste hierarchy. the polluting party is held responsible and it needs to pays for it. Waste management From Wikipedia. search For other uses. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. see Waste management (disambiguation). Comments are closed. The Polluter Pays Principle suggests that in case of waste leading to any impact on the environment. Landfill. There are lots of concepts about waste management which differ in their usage as per the varying regions or countries. The waste management refers to the need for a waste producer to pay for proper waste disposal. It focuses on taking out the maximum practical advantages from products and generating least amount of waste. England . Plasma gasification.

Contents [hide] • 1 Methods of disposal ○ ○ ○ ○ • • • • • • • • • 1.2 Plasma gasification 1. recycling or disposal. the environment or aesthetics. transport. with different methods and fields of expertise for each.3 Landfill 1. Non-metallic waste resources are not destroyed as with incineration. gaseous or radioactive substances. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations. . and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health. and monitoring of waste materials. then source separation and collection followed by reuse and recycling of the non-organic fraction and energy and compost/fertilizer production of the organic waste fraction via anaerobic digestion to be the favoured path.[1] The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity. Waste management can involve solid.1 Biological reprocessing 4 Waste handling and transport 5 Technologies 6 Waste management concepts 7 Education and awareness 8 See also 9 References 10 External links [edit] Methods of disposal [edit] Integrated waste management Integrated waste management using LCA (life cycle analysis) attempts to offer the most benign options for waste management. for urban and rural areas.Waste management in Kathmandu (Nepal) Waste management is the collection.4 Incineration 2 Recycling 3 Sustainability ○ 3.1 Integrated waste management 1. and can be reused/ recycled in a future resource depleted society. processing. while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. For mixed MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) a number of broad studies have indicated that waste administration. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities. and for residential and industrial producers. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. liquid.

000. Environmental Protection Agency. capable of producing temperatures exceeding 12.500 acres (1.980 °C). [3] [edit] Landfill Main article: Landfill Landfill operation in Hawaii. mining voids or borrow pits. and more importantly for renewable power generation in an environmentally sustainable manner. The process results in elemental destruction of waste and hazardous materials. landfilling is currently the number one method of waste disposal in the US. kill surface vegetation. Plasma gasification offers states new opportunities for waste disposal. poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter. In fact. attraction of vermin. When municipal solid waste is subjected to this intense heat within the vessel. the waste’s molecular bonds break down into elemental components. Older. which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. and is a greenhouse gas. An example in nature is lightning. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials.540 °C) (the surface temperature of the Sun) in order to create a gasification zone of up to 3.000 °F (1. . Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide). generated 250 million tons of waste in 2008 alone.650 °C) to convert solid or liquid wastes into a syngas. This gas can create odour problems.S.[edit] Plasma gasification Main article: Plasma arc waste disposal Plasma is a highly ionized or electrically charged gas.000 t)) ends up in landfills and is consuming land at a rate of nearly 3. A gasifier vessel utilizes proprietary plasma torches operating at +10.000. the U. and this number continues to rise. Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste.600 °F (6.000 °F (5.000 short tons (122.[2] According to the U. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries.400 ha) per year. and this remains a common practice in most countries. and generation of liquid leachate.S. Some states no longer have capacity at permitted landfills and export their waste to other states. About 54% of this trash (135.

Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. PAHs. Incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. steam and ash. which may be created within the incinerator and afterwards in the incinerator plume which may have serious environmental consequences in the area immediately around the incinerator. Particular concern has focused on some very persistent organics such as dioxins. due to issues such as emission of gaseous [[pollutants. furans. [edit] Incineration Main article: Incineration Spittelau incineration plant in Vienna. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry.. It is used to dispose of solid. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability. liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste).A landfill compaction vehicle in action. [edit] Recycling Main article: Recycling . Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal. On the other hand this method or the more benign anaerobic digestion produces heat that can be used as energy.. gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.. and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Incineration and other hot temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment".

steel food and aerosol cans. Home composting. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles. (such as recycling: glass. plastic bottles etc. One way to do this is by improving a company’s waste management with a new recycling service. PP. or sorted directly from mixed waste streams. LDPE. Companies are encouraged to improve their environmental efficiencies each year.) [edit] Biological reprocessing Main articles: Composting. and Anaerobic digestion . and corrugated fiberboard boxes. These are collected and sorted into common types so that the raw materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. due to the additional dismantling and separation required. The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum beverage cans. HDPE and PET bottles. magazines. although these are not commonly collected. paper and cardboard. food waste. paperboard cartons.Steel scrap. and PS (see resin identification code) are also recyclable. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most developed countries refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials such as empty beverage containers. newspapers. [edit] Sustainability The management of waste is a key component in a business' ability to maintaining ISO14001 accreditations. glass bottles and jars. These items are usually composed of a single type of material. sorted and baled for recycling. PVC. making them relatively easy to recycle into new products.

see the help page and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example. industrialscale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixedifferentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods. food scraps. Domestic waste collection services are often provided by local government authorities. Waste materials that are organic in nature. to small town scale batch digesters. There are a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps. In addition. lightweighting of beverage cans). and paper products. such as plant material. [edit] Waste handling and transport Main articles: Waste collection vehicle and Dustbin A front-loading garbage truck in North America. though hybrids of the two methods also exist. Anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of MSW Municipal Solid Waste has been found to be in a number of LCA analysis studies[4]Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag. can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter.An active compost heap. or by private companies . Waste collection methods vary widely among different countries and regions. waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration) maximising efficiencies. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.

To encourage recycling. which are larger than general waste bins. In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common method of disposal. 45% of commercial and industrial waste and 57% of construction and demolition waste' was recycled. the United Kingdom and in Israel. Australia. Of the total waste produced in 2002–03. In Taipei. For example. and hydromechanical shredding. The system is capable of sorting huge volumes of solid waste. construction and demolition waste is dumped at landfills and some is recycled. and turning the rest into biogas and rich agricultural compost. whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis. and general waste is dumped in landfill areas. Households and industries are not charged for the volume of waste they produce. a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as Envac. According to the ABS. many households have compost bins. municipalities provide large recycle bins. Mexico. salvaging recyclables. do not have a formal waste-collection system. the city government charges its households and industries for the volume of rubbish they produce. Some areas. Waste will only be collected by the city council if waste is disposed in government issued rubbish bags. '30% of municipal waste. Household waste is segregated: recyclables sorted and made into new products. the recycling rate is high and is 'increasing. and processes up to 150 tons of garbage a day. Also. an ArrowBio plant that has been operational at the Hiriya landfill site since December 2003 serves the Tel Aviv area. up from 85% in 1992'. In rural areas people often dispose of their waste by hauling it to a transfer station. which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum system. especially those in less developed countries. Municipal. curbside collection is the method of disposal of waste. another for general waste and another for garden materials . This suggests that Australians are in favour of reduced or no landfilling and the recycling of waste. which takes trash directly from collection trucks and separates organic and inorganic materials through gravitational settling. screening. the Arrow Ecology company has developed the ArrowBio system. In Europe and a few other places around the world. Other vacuum-based solutions include the MetroTaifun single-line and ring-line systems. Energy is produced from waste as well: some landfill gas is captured for fuel or electricity generation. commercial and industrial.[5] • • • • [edit] Technologies . Every urban domestic household is provided with three bins: one for recyclables. Greece. Examples of waste handling systems include: • In Australia. This policy has successfully reduced the amount of waste the city produces and increased the recycling rate. The system is used in California.this bin is provided by the municipality if requested. with 99% of households reporting that they had recycled or reused some of their waste within the past year (2003 survey). In Israel. Waste collected is then transported to a regional landfill. but this is not provided by the municipality.in the industry.

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. • Waste hierarchy . Extended producer responsibility . Integrated software packages are useful in aggregating this data for use in optimisation of operations for waste collection operations. Some of the most general. GPS and integrated software packages which enable better quality data to be collected without the use of estimation or manual data entry. Rear vision cameras are commonly used for OH&S reasons and video recording devices are becoming more widely used. With respect to waste management. • Technologies like RFID tags are now being used to collect data on presentation rates for curb-side pick-ups which is useful when examining the usage of recycling bins or similar. reuse and recycle. • • [edit] Education and awareness . widely used concepts include: Diagram of the waste hierarchy. which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization.the Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the environment. particularly concerning residential services and contaminations of the waste stream. Benefits of GPS tracking is particularly evident when considering the efficiency of ad hoc pick-ups (like skip bins or dumpsters) where the collection is done on a consumer request basis. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste. This means that firms which manufacture.Traditionally the waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags. import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market.The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce. • • • [edit] Waste management concepts There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Polluter pays principle .

soil. and water. e. e. regional. and global air pollution. accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes. ^ Sorting through garbage for gold. ^ "What is Waste Management?".'. University and vocational education are promoted by various organizations. and the heritage of future generations.g. what happens to it when it's "thrown away". ^ Alliance Federated Energy | Why Plasma Gasification 4. ^ Television review: 'Trash Inc. In 2010. and the depletion of natural resources. http://www.g. Brands that manufacture such machines include Tomra and Envipco. depletion of the ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the survival of humans and thousands of other living species. Several universities have implemented the Talloires Declaration by establishing environmental management and waste management programs. the waste management university project. Los Angeles Times.[6] [edit] See also • • • • • • • • • • • List of waste disposal incidents List of waste management acronyms History of waste management Biomedical waste Food waste Recycling Rubberecycle Recycling and Waste Management Exhibition (in the UK) Environmental waste controls Industrial symbiosis ISSOWAMA [edit] References 1. 2009. ^ Life Cycle Environmental Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy Technologies 5. and its impact on the world. 29 September 2010 [edit] External links .com.wanless.au/what_is_waste_management. Susan Carpenter. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation. ^ Alliance Federated Energy | What Is Plasma Gasification 3.Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. Many supermarkets encourage customers to use their reverse vending machines to deposit used purchased containers and receive a refund from the recycling fees. the security of nations. destruction and depletion of forests. WAMITAB and Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. the integrity of the earth and its biodiversity. 2. Local. retrieved 2009-11-24 6. CNBC aired the documentary Trash Inc: The Secret Life of Garbage about waste.html.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Waste • • • • • • • • Waste = Food Documentary . Envirowise UK Portal "American dumpster: Builders deep-six too much material" Analysis of existing methods for refuse processing Clean Pyrolysis an alternative approach from Intervate What is Waste Management? Gasoline from Vinegar | MIT Technology Review Waste management recycling site .A documentary on the Cradle to Cradle design concept of Michael Braungart and William McDonough.

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