1

Fifth Edition Reinforced Concrete Design
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Introduction
a
STEEL.com
SYLLABUS, MAJOR
TOPICS & COMPUTERS
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
ENCE 355 – Introduction to Structural
Design (3 credit)
MWF 9:00 am – 9:50 am, EGR 2112
2
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
INSTRUCTOR:
Name: Dr. Ibrahim A. Assakkaf
Office Hours: MWF 10:00 am - 12:00 am and by appointment
Room: 0305, Engineering Classroom Building (EGR)
Center for Technology and Systems
Management (CTSM)
Telephone: (W) 301-405-3279
Email: assakkaf@eng.umd.edu
URL: http://ctsm.umd.edu/assakkaf
http://www.cee.umd.edu/assakkaf
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
TEACHING ASSISTANT:
Name: Dr. Maged Sidki Morcos
Office Hours: MWF 12:00 pm – 1:00 pm
Room: TBA
Telephone: (301) 276-1000, Rm. 253
Email: m_sidki@hotmail.com
3
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
TEXTBOOKS:
1. “Reinforced Concrete Design,” 5
th
Edition, Spiegel,
L. and Limbrunner, G. F., 2003, Prentice Hall.
2. “Structural Steel Design,” 3
rd
Edition, McCormac, J.
and Nelson, J., Jr., 2003, Prentice Hall.
3. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
(318-02) and Commentary (318-02),” American
Concrete Institute (ACI).
4. “LRFD Manual of Steel Construction,” 3
rd
Edition,
American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC).
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
REFERENCES:
1. “Design of Concrete Structures,” 12
th
Edition, Nilson, A. H., 1997, McGraw
Hill.
2. “ Steel Structures,” 3
rd
Edition, Salmon,
C., G. and Johnson, 1990, Harper and
Raw.
4
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
GRADING:
Homework 20%
Exam I 25%
Exam II 25%
Final Exam 30%
Quizzes & Attendance (±).
100%
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
PREREQUISITES:
• ENCE 300
• Permission of the Department
GENERAL COURSE DESCRIPTION (UM
SCHEDULE OF CLASSES, FALL 2002):
Structural design of members for buildings and
bridges subjected to tensions, compression, shear and
bending. Materials: structural steel and reinforced
concrete. Design of welded and bolted connections.
Placement of reinforcing bars in concrete members.
5
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS:
Professional presentation of homework assignments is
required. Professional presentation consists of neat
and organized solution of problems on one side of
8.5"x11" papers. Any homework not complying with
professional standards will not be graded and will be
assigned zero credit. The homework assignments are
due one week after they are assigned. Homework will
be assigned as the material is covered and will be
collected every Monday at the beginning of the lecture
period, starting on Monday 9/9. Assignments turned
in late will be docked 10% for each day it is late past
the original due date.
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS (cont’d):
Solutions will be available from the TA and on the
class website after the problems are returned. No
assignment will be accepted after the answers have
been posted. Students are encouraged to discuss and
formulate solutions to the problems by working in
teams. However, assignments must be completed and
submitted individually. Simply copying the answers
from another student or from a solutions manual is not
acceptable and will not be tolerated.
6
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS (cont’d):
Guidelines for homework are given below:
1. Use good quality paper, such as engineering graph paper or
college-ruled paper, any color, with no spiral edges
2. Write on only one side of the paper
3. Either pen or pencil is acceptable
4. Include your name, section, and page number (e.g. 1/3 means 1
of 3) on each sheet
5. Staple all pages together in the upper left corner
6. Neatly box all answers, and include appropriate units for
numerical answers
7. Show all work (e.g. no work means no credit will be given)
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENTS (cont’d):
If the above guidelines are not followed, the TA will
either reject the assignment outright, for extreme
cases, or deduct points for items that do not
conform to the specifications.
7
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
EXAMS AND QUIZZES:
All students must take all exams and quizzes including
the final exam. Only extenuating circumstances will be
accepted as an excuse for missing an exam. The
student must notify the instructor of the reason for
absence as soon as possible. Health related excuses
require medical reports and the signature of a
physician that provided treatment. You are
encouraged to go over Chapter 4 of the Undergraduate
Catalogue for the University policies, or visit
http://www.inform.umd.edu/ugradcat/chapter4/attenda
nce.html
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
COURSE WEBSITE: Students are encourage to access
course web site at http://www.ajconline.umd.edu to
download course materials such as homework sets and
solutions. Timely information will also be posted on
the web site. At initial login, use your wam account
name as the username, and your SID as the password.
You are advised to change your password after your
first login. Report any problem with the course web
site to the instructor. For technical problems of the
web site, contact the Instructional Technologies staffs
at 0123 Martin Hall.
8
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
Schedule for Lectures
Week Lec. Date Section Topic Homework
1 1 W, 9/4 Handout Introduction to the Course
2 F, 9/6 Handout Structural Design and Analysis, Code Specifications Handout
2


3



M, 9/9



1.1 – 1.4
1.5
PART I – REINFORCED CONCRETE
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
SL
*
Chapter 1 – Materials & Mechanics of Bending
Concrete, ACI Building Code, Cement and Water, Aggregates
Concrete in Compression



1-1
1-2
4 W, 9/11 1.6 – 1.8 Concrete in Tension, Reinforcing Steel, and Beams 1-3 1-5 1-10


5


F, 9/13


2.1 – 2.2
2.3 – 2.4
SL
*
Chapter 2 – Rectangular Reinforced Concrete
Beams and Slabs: Tension Steel Only
Introduction, Methods of Analysis and Design
Behavior Under Load, Strength Design Methods Assumption



3 6 M, 9/16 2.5 – 2-6
2.7
2.8
Flexural Strength of Rectangular Beams, Equivalent Stress
Balanced, Overreinforced, and Underreinforced Beams
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations and Guidelines
2-1a 2-2

2-5
7 W, 9/18 2.9
2.10
2.13
Strength Requirements
Rectangular Beam Analysis for Moment (Tension Only)
One-Way Slabs

2-7
2-11
8 F, 9/20 2.14 –2.16 Rectangular Beam Design for Moment (Tension Only) 2-14 2-28

INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
Schedule for Lecture (cont’d)
Week Lec. Date Section Topic Homework
4

9


M, 9/23


3.1 – 3.2
SL
*
Chapter 3 – Reinforced Concrete Beams: T-Beams
and Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction, T-Beams Analysis


3-1 3-5
10 W, 9/25 3.3, 3.5, 3.6 Development of T-Beam As, max, T-Beam Design for moment 3-6 3-12
11 F, 9/27 3.6 – 3.7 Summary of T-Beams Analysis and Design
5 12 M, 9/30
3.8 – 3.11 Doubly Reinforced Beams, Doubly RB Analysis 3-16
13 W, 10/2
3.12 – 3.14 Doubly Reinforced Beam Design for Moment 3-22

14

F, 10/4

4.1 – 4.2
SL
*
Chapter 4 – Shear in Beams
Introduction, Shear Reinforcement Design Requirements

4-1 4-4
6 15 M, 10/7
4.3 – 4.4 Shear Analysis Procedure, Stirrups Design Procedure
4-5 4-12



16


W, 10/9


5-1 – 5.2
SL
*
Chapter 5 – Development, Splices, and Simple-
Span Bar Cutoffs
Development Length, Tension Bars


5-1 5-2
17 F, 10/11 5.3 – 5.4 Development Length, Compression Bars, Standard Hooks 5-7
7 18 M, 10/14 5.9 Simple-Span Cutoffs and Bends 5-12


19

W, 10/16

9.1 –9.3
SL
*
Chapter 9 – Columns
Introduction, Strength (small eccentricity), Code Requirements

20 F, 10/18 9.4 – 9.5 Analysis of Short Columns, Design of Small Columns 9-3 9-9

9
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
Schedule for Lecture (cont’d)
Week Lec. Date Section Topic Homework
8 21 M, 10/21 9.7 – 9.11 The Load-Moment Relationship, Analysis (large eccentricity) 9-11




22



W, 10/23


1.1 – 1.7
1.8 – 1.21
PART II – STRUCTURAL STEEL
ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
MN
*
Chapter 1 – Introduction to Structural Steel Design
Advantages and Disadvantages, Early uses, Steel Sections
Modern Structural Steels, Uses, Failure, and Computers







23


F, 10/25 2.1 – 2.4
2.5 – 2.6
MN
*
Chapter 2 – Specifications, Loads, and
Methods of Design
Specifications and Building Codes, Loads, Dead & Live Loads
Environmental Loads, Load & Resistance Factor Design



2-1
9 24 M, 10/28

*** EXAM I ***

25 W, 10/30
2.7 – 2.10
2.11 – 2.12
Load and Resistance Factors, Reliability and LRFD
Advantages of LRFD, Computer Example
2-2
2-4 2-10


26

F, 10/1

3.1 – 3.3
MN
*
Chapter 3 – Analysis of Tension Members
Introduction, Design Strength, Net Areas

3-2 3-8
10 27 M, 11/4
3.4 – 3.5 Effect of Staggered Holes, Effective Net Areas
3-10 3-14 3-20 3-24
28 W, 11/6 3.6 – 3.7 Connecting Elements for Tension Members, Block Shear 3-27 3-30 3-34


29

F, 11/8

4.1 – 4.3
4.4 – 4.5
MN
*
Chapter 4 – Design of Tension Members
Selection of Sections, Built-up Tension Members Rods and
Bars Pin-connected Members, Design for Fatigue Loads

4-3 4-23

INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
Schedule for Lecture (cont’d)
Week Lec. Date Section Topic Homework
11


30


M, 11/11


5.1 – 5.3
MN
*
Chapter 5 – Introduction to Axially Loaded
Compression Members
General, Residual Stress, Sections Used for Columns


31 W, 11/13 5.4 – 5.5 Development of Column Formulas, Euler Formula
5-2 5-4

32 F, 11/15 5.6
5.7
End Restraints and Effective Lengths of Columns
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
5-6 5-10
12
33 M, 11/18 5.8 – 5.9
5.10 – 5.11
Long, Short, and Intermediate Columns, Column Formulas
Maximum Slenderness Ratios, Example Problems
5-15 5-17

34 W, 11/20

6.1 – 6.4
MN
*
Chapter 6 – Design of Axially Loaded
Compression Members
Introduction, LRFD Design Tables, Built-up Columns


6-2 6-8

35 F, 11/22 6.5
6.7
Built-up Columns w/ components in contact with each other
Built-up Columns w/ components not in contact with each other
6-22
13

36

M, 11/25

8.1 – 8.4
MN
*
Chapter 8 – Introduction to Beams
Types of Beams, Sections, Stresses, Plastic Hinges

8-2

37 W, 11/27 8.5 – 8.7 Elastic Design, Plastic Modulus, Theory of Plastic Analysis 8-4 8-11
38 F, 11/29 ********* NO CLASS, Thanksgiving Recess *********


10
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Syllabus
Schedule for Lecture (cont’d)
Week Lec. Date Section Topic Homework
14
39 M, 12/2 8.8 – 8.9
8.10
The Collapse Mechanism, Virtual-Work Method
Location of Plastic Hinge for Uniform Loading
8-22 8-28
8-31

40 W, 12/4 8.11 – 8.12

9.1 – 9.3
Continuous Beams, Building Frames
MN
*
Chapter 9 – Design of Beams for Moments
Introduction, Yielding Behavior, Design of Beams (Zone 1)
8-37

9-1 9-4 9-10
41 F, 12/6 *** EXAM II ***
15
42 M, 12/9 9.4 – 9.5
9.6
Lateral Support of Beams, Inelastic Buckling (Zone 2)
Moment Capacities
9-12 9-16

43 W, 12/11 9.7 – 9.9 Elastic Buckling (Zone 3), Design Charts, Noncompact
Sections
9-24

44 F, 12/13 Review
16
T, 12/19 All material *** FINAL EXAM - 8-10 AM, EGR 2112 ***

INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Course Objective
– Introduce the concept of Design of
structural members for building and
bridges subjected to tensions,
compression, shear and bending.
– Materials: structural steel and reinforced
concrete.
Course Syllabus
11
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
PART I
Concrete Design and Analysis
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine
and coarse aggregates, and water.
Water is the key ingredient for chemical
reaction for curing.
Cement + Aggregates = Concrete
Add Water
12
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Materials and Mechanics of Bending
– Concrete Strength
(a)
(b) (c)
b
d
b
x
x
2
1
N.A.
F
x
d - x
n A
s
σ
·
·
C
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Reinforcing Steel
13
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Pure Bending: Prismatic members
subjected to equal and opposite couples
acting in the same longitudinal plane
Mechanics of Bending
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
RECTANGULAR R/C CONCRETE
BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
24-mm diameter
500 mm
225 mm
Dead and Live Loads
M
Dead and Live Loads
M
14
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Reinforced Concrete Beams: T-Beams
and Doubly Reinforced Beams
24-mm diameter
500 mm
225 mm
T-Beam Doubly Reinforced
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Shear in Beams
– Design Requirements
A
B
C D
12 ft 4 ft 8 ft
8000 lb
2000 lb/ft
x
11,000 lb
21,000 lb
11,000
8,000 lb
13,000 lb
V (lb)
5.5 ft
M(ft -lb)
30,250
12,000
64,000
(+)
(-)
(+)
(-)
(-)
15
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Development Length, Splices, and
Simple Span Bar Cutoffs
Cutoff
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Reinforced Concrete Columns
16
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
PART II
Steel Design and Analysis
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Introduction to Structural Steel Design
Specifications, Loads, and Methods of
Design
ASIC ASIC A American merican I Institute of nstitute of S Steel teel C Construction onstruction
17
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Analysis and Design of Tension
Members
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Introduction to the Design of Axially
Loaded Compression Members
18
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Introduction to the Analysis and Design
of Beams for Moments
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Introduction to the Analysis and Design
of Beams for Moments
Dead and Live Loads
M
19
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computers and Software
Computers Evolution Era (Chapra &
Canale 1988)
– Zero Generation - Manual & Mechanical
(pre 1951)
– First Generation – Vacuum tubes (1951 –
1958)
– Second Generation – Transistors (1958 –
1964)
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computers Evolution Era (Chapra &
Canale 1988)
– Third Generation – Integrated circuits
(1964 – 1971)
– Fourth Generation – Very large scale
integration (1971 – present)
• Mainframes, Supercomputers
• Personal Computers, Microcomputers, and
Minicomputers
Computers and Software
20
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computers and Software
Computers Evolution Era (Chapra &
Canale 1988)
– Fifth Generation (1990?)
• Parallel Processing
• Artificial intelligence
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computers and Software
High-level Languages
– FORTRAN (introduced by IBM in 1957)
• FORTRAN = FORmula TRANslation
• Developed for the IBM 704 Computer
• Developed by John Backus and a team of 13
other programmers
– BASIC
– Pascal
– Others
21
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computers and Software
Software Packages
– MATLAB
– MathCad
– Spreadsheet
• MS Excel
• Quattro Pro
– Specialized Structural Packages
• GTSTRUDLE
• ETABS
• SAP & INSTEP32 Design Software
• etc
INTRODUCTION a. SYLLABUS, MAJOR TOPICS, & COMPUTERS
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Major Topics
Be Proud To Be An
Be Proud To Be An
Engineer
Engineer
1
Fifth Edition Reinforced Concrete Design
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Introduction
b
STEEL.com
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
Structural Design and Analysis,
and Code Specifications
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Structural Design
“Structural design can be defined as a “Structural design can be defined as a
mixture of art and Science, combining mixture of art and Science, combining
the engineer’s feeling for the behavior the engineer’s feeling for the behavior
of a structure with a sound knowledge of a structure with a sound knowledge
of the principles of of the principles of statics statics, dynamics, , dynamics,
mechanics of materials, and structural mechanics of materials, and structural
analysis, to produce a safe economical analysis, to produce a safe economical
structure that will serve its intended structure that will serve its intended
purpose.” purpose.” (Salmon and Johnson 1990)
2
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Engineering structural systems are of
variety that they defy any attempt to
enumerate them.
The many problems which arise in their
design have prompted engineers to
specialize in the design of particular
structure or groups of related structures.
A complete design requires the
coordinated efforts of several branches
of engineering.
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Civil Engineering Structures
– Among the structures that are design by
civil engineers are
• Buildings
• Bridges
• Transmission Towers
• Dams
• Highway Pavements
• Aircraft Landing Runways (strips)
• Retaining Walls
3
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Eiffel Tower Eiffel Tower
Paris Paris – – 1899 1899
984 ft. high 984 ft. high
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Sears Tower Sears Tower
Chicago Chicago - - 1974 1974
1450 ft.high 1450 ft.high
4
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
RHINE BRIDGE, COLOGNE RHINE BRIDGE, COLOGNE- -RODENKIRCHEN, (1946 RODENKIRCHEN, (1946- -47), SPAN 94.5 47), SPAN 94.5- -378 378- -94.5 m 94.5 m
Engineering Systems
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
5
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Hoover Dam Hoover Dam
Arizona Arizona- -Nevada Border Nevada Border
Near Las Vegas Near Las Vegas
Engineering Systems
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Transmission Towers Transmission Towers
Engineering Systems
6
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Highway & Aircraft Highway & Aircraft
Landing Strip Landing Strip
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Retaining Walls Retaining Walls
7
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
The design of the previous groups of
structures require the coordination of
various disciplines in engineering, and
is too large for convenient study as a
unit.
In this course, we will focus on the
design of the individual structural
elements or members that make up the
whole structural system.
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Such members or elements include the
following:
– Beams
– Columns
– Trusses
– Shear Structural Elements
– Steel Rods
– Connection Elements
8
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Structural Elements
– Bending Structures
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Structural Elements
– Compression Structures
9
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Structural Elements
– Trusses
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Structural Elements
– Tension Structures
10
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Systems
Structural Elements
– Shear Structures
11
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Structural Analysis:
– Structural Analysis is the prediction of the
performance of a given structure under
prescribed loads and/or other effects, such
as support movements and temperature
change.
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Structural Design:
– Structural design is the art of utilizing
principles of statics, dynamics, and
mechanics of materials to determine the
size and arrangement of structural
elements under prescribed loads and/or
other effects.
12
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Design Procedure
– Design procedure consists of two parts:
• Functional Design
• Structural Framework Design
– Functional design ensures that intended
results are achieved such as adequate
working area, elevators, stairways, etc.
– Structural framework design is the
selection of the arrangement and sizes of
structural elements so that service loads
may be carried.
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
13
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Example 1: Analysis
– Determine the maximum flexural stress
produced by a resisting moment M
r
of
+5000 ft⋅lb if the beam has the cross
section shown in the figure.
6′ ′
6′ ′
2′ ′
2′ ′
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Example 1: Analysis (cont’d)
First, we need to locate the neutral axis
from the bottom edge:
( )( ) ( )( )
x
r
C
I
y M
y y y
y
max
max com ten
Stress Max.
5 3 2 6 3
3
24
72
6 2 6 2
6 2 3 2 6 2 1
=
= ′ ′ = − + = ′ ′ =
′ ′ = =
× + ×
× + + ×
=
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
14
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Example 1: Analysis (cont’d)
Find the moment of inertia I
x
with respect
to the x axis using parallel axis-theorem:
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
4
2
3
2
3
in 136 48 36 48 4
1 3 6 2
12
6 2
2 2 6
12
2 6
= + + + =
− × + + × + =
x
I
( )
ksi 21 . 2
136
5 12) (5
(com) Stress Max. =
×
=
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Example 1: Analysis (cont’d)
– An alternative way for finding the moment
of inertia I
x
with respect to the x axis is as
follows:
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
( ) ( ) ( )
136
3
1 2
2
3
5 2
3
3 6
3 3 3
=






− + =
x
I
2′ ′
2′ ′
15
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Example 2: Design
A pair of channels fastened back-to-back
will be used as a beam to resist a bending
moment M
r
of 60 kN · m. If the maximum
flexural stress must not exceed 120 MPa,
select the most economical channel
section listed in Appendix B of the
textbook.
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis Versus Design
Example 2: Design (cont’d)
σ
σ
σ
2

2

hence channels, two have we However, ,
M
S
S
M
S
M
= ⇒ =
=
( )
3 3 3 6
6
3
mm 10 250 m 10 250
10 120 2
10 60
× = × =
×
×
=

S
channel 30 C254 Select
: le design tab a From
×
16
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2
(cont’d)
Select
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Loads
The objective of a structural engineer is
to design a structure that will be able to
withstand all the loads to which it is
subjected while serving its intended
purpose throughout its intended life
span.
17
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Loads
Types of Loads
1. Dead loads
2. Live loads
3. Impact
4. Wind loads
5. Snow loads
6. Earthquake loads
7. Hydrostatic and soil pressure
8. Thermal and other effects
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Decision Making in Engineering
Best Decision
– Full understanding of alternative solution
procedures
• Unbiased Solution
• Highly precise
• Cost effective
• Have minimal environmental consequences
18
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Decision Making in Engineering
Typical Approach to an Engineering
Solution
– Identify the problem
– State the objective
– Develop alternative solutions
– Evaluate the alternatives, and
– Use the best alternative
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Design
Design of Engineering Systems
– Design of engineering systems is usually a
trade-off between maximizing safety and
minimizing cost.
– A design procedure that can accomplish
both of these objective is highly desirable,
but also difficult.
19
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Engineering Design
– Deterministic design procedures (i.e., ASD
or WSD) do not provide adequate
information to achieve the optimal use of
the available resources to maximize safety
and minimize cost.
– On the other hand, probabilistic-based
design can provide the required
information for optimum design.
– Probability, statistics, and reliability tools
can help achieving the optimal design.
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Need for Reliability Evaluation
– The presence of uncertainty in engineering design
and analysis has always been recognized.
– Traditional approaches simplify the problem by
considering the uncertain parameters to be
deterministic.
– Traditional approaches account for the uncertainty
through the use of empirical safety factor.
– This factor is based on past experience but does
not absolutely guarantee safety or performance.
20
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Reliability-Based Design (RBD)
– RBD requires the consideration of:
• Loads
• Structural Strength
• Methods of Reliability Analysis (i.e., FORM)
– Two primary approaches for RBD:
• Direct Reliability-based Design
• Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Probability Based-design Approach Versus
Deterministic Approach
• According to ASD, one factor of safety (FS) is used that
accounts for the entire uncertainty in loads and strength.
• According to LRFD (probability-based), different partial
safety factors for the different load and strength types are
used.
ASD
FS
1

=

m
i
i
n
L
R
LRFD
1

=

m
i
i i n
L R γ φ
21
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Load and Resistance Factor Design
(LRFD)
– General Form

=

m
i
ni i n
L R
1
γ φ
Where
φ = strength reduction factor
γ
i
= load factor for the i
th
load component out of n components
R
n
= nominal or design strength (stress, moment, force, etc.)
L
ni
= nominal (or design) value for the i
th
load component out
of m components
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Partial Safety Factors
– Different building codes use different
partial safety factors for both the strength
and the load effects.
– For example the ACI building code uses
the following dead and live load factors
and the following strength factors:
0.90 for bending 0.85 for shear & torsion
0.7 bearing on concrete.
L D U R
n
7 . 1 4 . 1 + = = φ
22
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 42
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Partial Safety Factors
– On the other hand, the AISC LRFD Manual
of steel construction uses the following
dead and live load factors
and the following strength factors:
0.90 for bending 0.85 for columns
0.75 bolts in tension
L D U R
n
6 . 1 2 . 1 + = = φ
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 43
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Calculation of Partial Safety Factors
2 2 1 1
L L R γ γ φ + ≥
Given
Information
COV (R)
Dist. (R)
COV (L
1
)
Dist. (L
1
)
COV (L
2
)
Dist. (L
2
)
R
R
n
Selected
Values
β
L
L
2
1
FORM
FORM FORM
Output
Values
2
1
1
γ
γ
φ
L
R
23
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 44
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
LRFD Advantages
– Provides a more rational approach for new
designs and configurations.
– Provides consistency in reliability.
– Provides potentially a more economical
use of materials.
– Allows for future changes as a result of
gained information in prediction models,
and material and load characterization
– Code Calibration.
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 45
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
Several design codes have recently
been revised to incorporate probabilistic
design and analysis
– AISC LRFD (1994)
– ACI (318-02)
– AASHTO
– API
– ABS
– Other structural and marine codes
24
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 46
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
LRFD LRFD- -based Partial Safety Factors based Partial Safety Factors
Design Specifications and Building Design Specifications and Building
Codes Codes
ASIC ASIC A American merican I Institute of nstitute of S Steel teel C Construction onstruction
ACI ACI A American merican C Concrete oncrete I Institute nstitute
NFPA NFPA N National ational F Forest orest P Products roducts A Association ssociation
AASHTO AASHTO A American merican A Association of ssociation of S State tate H Highway ighway
O Officials fficials
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 47
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability-based Design and
Analysis of Engineering Systems
For the purpose of this course, the For the purpose of this course, the
following two codes will be used: following two codes will be used:
“Building Code Requirements for Structural “Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (318 Concrete (318- -02) and Commentary (318 02) and Commentary (318- -02),” 02),”
“ “LRFD LRFD Manual of Steel Construction,” 3rd Manual of Steel Construction,” 3rd
Edition Edition
ACI ACI A American merican C Concrete oncrete I Institute nstitute
ASIC ASIC A American merican I Institute of nstitute of S Steel teel C Construction onstruction
1
2
25
INTRODUCTION b. Structural Design & Analysis, & Code Specifications
Slide No. 48
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Building Codes
Building codes are usually revised, updated,
and reissued periodically.
The codes themselves have no legal status.
They have been incorporated into the
building codes of almost all states
throughout the United States.
However, when so incorporated, they have
official sanctions, become legal documents,
and considered part of the law controlling
design and construction in a particular area.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
1a
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
MATERIALS AND
MECHANICS OF BENDING
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine
and coarse aggregates, and water.
Water is the key ingredient for chemical
reaction for curing.
Cement + Aggregates = Concrete
Add Water
2
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete Ingredients
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Cement
– Cement is a material that has the adhesive
and cohesive properties necessary to bond
inert aggregates into a solid mass of
adequate strength and durability.
Aggregates
– The bulk of the concrete mix consists of
the fine and coarse aggregates.
3
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete Strength
– The resulting concrete strength and
durability are a function of the proportions
of the mix as well as other factors, such as
the the concrete placing, finishing, and
curing history.
– Compressive strength of concrete is
relatively high.
– However, its tensile strength is small as
compared with its compressive strength.
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete Strength (cont’d)
– Hence, steel reinforcing rods, which have
high tensile strength and compressive
strength, are used in combination with
concrete.
– The steel will resist the tension.
– While the concrete will resist the
compression.
4
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete Strength (cont’d)
– Reinforced Concrete Beam
Neutral Axis
Compressive Stess
Tensile Stress
x
y
M
Figure 1
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete Strength (cont’d)
– Reinforced Concrete Beam
Dead and Live Loads
M
Figure 2
5
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete Strength (cont’d)
– Reinforced Concrete Beam
6 in.
6 in.
6 in.
6 in.
5 in.
4 in.
M = 35 kip ⋅ in
5 in.
12 in.
4 in.
Figure 3
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
(a)
(b) (c)
Figure 4
b
d
b
x
x
2
1
N.A.
F
x
d - x
n A
s
σ
·
·
C
Concrete Strength (cont’d)
– Reinforced Concrete Beam
6
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete
Concrete Strength (cont’d)
– Reinforced Concrete Beam
–Concrete is very weak in tension, so
it will crack below the neutral surface
and the steel rods will carry the entire
tensile load.
–The upper part of the concrete beam
will carry the compressive load.
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The ACI Building Code
ACI = American Concrete Institute
– The design and construction of concrete
buildings is controlled by
– The code itself has no legal status,
however, it has been incorporated into the
building code of almost all states.
– When incorporated, it has official sanction.
“ Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete (ACI 318-02) and
Commentary (318R-02)”
7
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Cement and Water
Hydraulic Cement:
– Water is added to hydraulic cement for the
chemical reaction of hydration to take
place.
– In the process of hydration, the cement
sets and bonds the fresh concrete into one
mass.
– Portland Cement
Calcium and Aluminum Silicates
Limestone materials provide Calcium Dioxide, CaO
Clays provides Silicon dioxide, SiO
2
, and Aluminum
Oxide, AL
2
O
3
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Cement and Water
Cement is marketed in bulk or in 94-lb
(1-ft
3
) bags
Water Cement Ratio:
– The ratio of the amount of water to the
amount of cement by weight
8
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Cement and Water
– The ratio can be expressed in terms of
gallons of water per bag of cement.
Requirements
– For complete hydration of cement in a
mix, a water/cement ratio of
• 0.35 to 0.40, or
• 4 to 4.5 gal.bag
is required.
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Aggregates
Aggregates occupy approximately 70%
to 75% of the volume of the hardened
mass.
The more densely the aggregate can
packed, the better are the strength and
durability.
Types of Aggregates:
– Fine: sand (pass No. 4 sieve)
– Coarse: particles (retained in No. 4 Sieve)
9
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
As was mentioned earlier, compressive
strength of concrete is relatively high.
The compressive strength of concrete is
denoted by .
Units commonly used for :
– Pounds per square inch (psi)
– Kips per square inch (ksi)
'
c
f
'
c
f
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Compression Tests and Stress-Strain
Diagram
Ave. Axial Stress
Compressive
Tensile
Ave. Axial Strain
Compression
Figure 5
10
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Concrete Compressive Strength
Figure 6
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Concrete Compressive Strength
– The curves of Fig. 6 represent the result of
compression tests on 28-day standard
cylinders for varying design mix.
– is not the stress that exists in the
specimen at failure but rather which occurs
at a strain of 0.002 in/in.
– 28-day concrete strength range from
2500 to 9000 psi, with 3000 to 4000 psi
being common for reinforced structures,
and 5000 to 6000 psi for pre-stressed
concrete members.
'
c
f
'
c
f
11
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Concrete Compressive Strength
– Concrete strength varies with time, and the
specified concrete strength is usually that
strength that occurs 28 days after the
placing of concrete.
– A typical strength-time curve for normal
stone concrete is shown in Fig. 7.
– Generally, concrete attains approximately
70% of its 28-day strength in 7 days, and
approximately 85% to 90% in 14 days.
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Concrete Compressive Strength
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
Time
C
o
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
v
e

S
t
r
e
n
g
t
h

(
p
s
i
)
'
c
f
28 days
6 months
5 years
Figure 7
12
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Modulus of Elasticity
– In review of Fig. 8a, the initial slope of the
curve varies, unlike that of steel (Fig 8b),
and only approximates a straight line.
– For steel, where stresses are below the
yield point and the material behaves
elastically, the stress-strain plot will be a
straight line.
– The slope of the straight line for steel is the
modulus of elasticity.
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Modulus of Elasticity
Strain (in/in)
S
t
r
e
s
s
F
y
Elastic
region
ε
y
Figure 8
(a) Concrete
(b) Steel
13
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Modulus of Elasticity
– For concrete, however, the straight-line
portion of the curve is very short, if it exists
at all.
– Therefore, there exists no constant value
of the modulus of elasticity for a given
concrete since the stress-strain ratio is not
constant.
– Even, if a straight line is assumed, the
modulus of elasticity would be different for
concrete of different strengths.
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Modulus of Elasticity
At low and moderate stresses, up
to about 0.5 , concrete is
commonly assumed to behave
elastically.
'
c
f
14
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Empirical Expressions for the Modulus of
Elasticity (by ACI Code)
For a unit weight w
c
of concrete between 90
and 155 lb/ft
3
:
c c c
f w E

= 33
5 . 1
where
E
c
= modulus of elasticity of concrete in compression (psi)
w
c
= unit weight of concrete (lb/ft
3
)
= compressive strength of concrete (psi)
'
c
f
(1)
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Empirical Expressions for the Modulus of
Elasticity (by ACI Code)
For a unit weight w
c
taken as 144 lb/ft
3
:
c c
f E

= 000 , 57
where
E
c
= modulus of elasticity of concrete in compression (psi)
w
c
= unit weight of concrete (lb/ft
3
)
= compressive strength of concrete (psi)
'
c
f
(2)
15
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Example 1
What the modulus of elasticity E
c
for
concrete having a unit weight of 150 pcf
and a compressive strength of 5 ksi?
Using Eq. 1,
( ) psi 826 , 286 , 4 5000 33 (150)
33
1.5
5 . 1
= =
′ =
c c c
f w E
CHAPTER 1a. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Compression
Creep
– Concrete under load, exhibits a
phenomenon called creep.
– This a property by which concrete
continues to deform over long periods of
time while under a constant load.
– Creep occurs at a decreasing rate over a
period of time and may cease after several
years.
– Higher strength concrete exhibits less
creep.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
1b
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
MATERIALS AND
MECHANICS OF BENDING
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
Concrete tensile stresses occur as a
result of shear, torsion, and other
actions, and in most cases member
behavior changes upon cracking.
It is therefore important to be able to
predict, with reasonable accuracy, the
tensile strength of concrete.
The tensile and compressive strengths
of concrete are not proportional, and an
increase in compressive strength is
accompanied by smaller percentage
increase in tensile strength.
2
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
The tensile strength of normal-weight
concrete in flexure is about 10% to 15%
of the compressive strength.
There are considerable experimental
difficulties in determining the true tensile
strength of concrete.
The true tensile strength of concrete is
difficult to determine.
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
One common approach is to use the
modulus of rupture f
r
.
The modulus of rupture is the maximum
tensile bending stress in a plain
concrete test beam at failure.
Neutral Axis
Max. Tensile
Stress
3
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
ACI Code Recommendation
For normal-weight concrete, the ACI Code
recommends that the modulus of rupture f
r
be taken as
where f
r
in psi.
c r
f f

= 5 . 7
(1)
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
Cracking Moment, M
cr
– The moment that produces a tensile stress
just equal to the modulus of rupture is
called cracking moment M
cr
.
The Split-Cylinder Test
– The split-cylinder test has also been used
to determine the tensile strength of
lightweight aggregate concrete.
– It has been accepted as a good measure
of the true tensile strength.
4
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
The Split-Cylinder Test (cont’d)
– This test uses a standard 6-in.-diameter,
12 in.-long cylinder placed on its in a
testing machine (see Fig. 1).
– A compressive line load is applied
uniformly along the length of the cylinder.
– The compressive load produces a
transverse tensile stress, and the cylinder
will split in half along the diameter when it
tensile strength is reached.
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
Schematic for Split-
Cylinder Test
Figure 1
5
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete in Tension
Splitting Tensile Strength, f
ct
The tensile splitting stress can be
calculated from the following formula:
LD
P
f
ct
π
2
=
where
f
cr
= splitting tensile strength of concrete (psi)
P = applied load at splitting (lb)
L = length of cylinder (in.)
D = diameter of cylinder (in.)
(2)
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
Steel is a high-cost material compared
with concrete.
It follows that the two materials are best
used in combination if the concrete is
made to resist the compressive stresses
and the steel the tensile stresses.
Concrete cannot withstand very much
tensile stress without cracking.
6
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
(a)
(b) (c)
Figure 2
b
d
b
x
x
2
1
N.A.
F
y
d - x
n A
s
σ
·
·
C
Reinforced Concrete Beam
Compression.
Tension
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
It follows that tensile reinforcement must
be embedded in the concrete to
overcome the deficiency.
Forms of Steel Reinforcement
– Steel Reinforcing Bars
– Welded wire fabric composed of steel wire.
– Structural Steel Shapes
– Steel Pipes.
7
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
Reinforcing Bars (rebars)
– The specifications for steel reinforcement
published by the American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM) are
generally accepted for steel used in
reinforced concrete construction in the
United States and are identified in the ACI
Code.
8
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
Reinforcing Bars (rebars)
– These bars are readily available in straight
length of 60 ft.
– The bars vary in designation from
– With additional bars:
No. 3 through No. 11
No. 14 and No. 18
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 1. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
9
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel

Bar Designation
Diameter
mm
Area
mm
2

Mass
kg/m
#10 [#3] 9.5 71 0.560
#13 [#4] 12.7 129 0.994
#16 [#5] 15.9 199 1.552
#19 [#6] 19.1 284 2.235
#22 [#7] 22.2 387 3.042
#25 [#8] 25.4 510 3.973
#29 [#9] 28.7 645 5.060
#32 [#10] 32.3 819 6.404
#36 [#11] 35.8 1006 7.907
#43 [#14] 43.0 1452 11.38
#57 [#18] 57.3 2581 20.24
Table 2. ASTM Standard - Metric Reinforcing Bars
Note: English designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
Yield Stress for Steel
– Probably the most useful property of
reinforced concrete design calculations is
the yield stress for steel, f
y
.
– A typical stress-strain diagram for
reinforcing steel is shown in Fig. 3a.
– An idealized stress-strain diagram for
reinforcing steel is shown in Fig. 3b.
10
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
F
y
Elastic
region
ε
y
Figure 3
(b) Idealized
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
F
y
Elastic
region
ε
y
(a) As Determined by Tensile Test
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcing Steel
Modulus of Elasticity for Steel
– The modulus of elasticity for reinforcing
steel varies over small range, and has
been adopted by the ACI Code as
ksi 29,000 psi 000 , 000 , 29 = = E
11
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Introduction
– The most common type of structural
member is a beam.
– In actual structures beams can be found in
an infinite variety of
• Sizes
• Shapes, and
• Orientations
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Introduction
Definition
A beam may be defined as a member whose
length is relatively large in comparison with
its thickness and depth, and which is loaded
with transverse loads that produce significant
bending effects as oppose to twisting or axial
effects
12
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Pure Bending: Prismatic members
subjected to equal and opposite couples
acting in the same longitudinal plane
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Flexural Normal Stress
For flexural loading and linearly
elastic action, the neutral axis passes
through the centroid of the cross section
of the beam
13
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
The elastic flexural formula for normal
stress is given by
I
Mc
f
b
=
(3)
where
f
b
= calculated bending stress at outer fiber of the cross section
M = the applied moment
c = distance from the neutral axis to the outside tension or
compression fiber of the beam
I = moment of inertia of the cross section about neutral axis
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
By rearranging the flexure formula, the
maximum moment that may be applied
to the beam cross section, called the
resisting moment, M
R
, is given by
c
I F
M
b
R
=
(4)
Where F
b
= the allowable bending stress
14
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Example 1
Determine the maximum flexural stress
produced by a resisting moment M of
+5000 ft-lb if the beam has the cross
section shown in the figure.
6′ ′
6′ ′
2′ ′
2′ ′
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Example 1 (cont’d)
First, we need to locate the neutral axis
from the bottom edge:
( )( ) ( )( )
I
Mc
f
c y y y
y
b
C
Stress Max.
5 3 2 6 3
3
24
72
6 2 6 2
6 2 3 2 6 2 1
max com ten
= =
= = ′ ′ = − + = ′ ′ =
′ ′ = =
× + ×
× + + ×
=
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
y
x
15
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Example 1 (cont’d)
Find the moment of inertia I with respect to
the x axis using parallel axis-theorem:
( )
( )( )
( )
( )( )
4
2
3
2
3
in 136 48 36 48 4
1 3 6 2
12
6 2
2 2 6
12
2 6
= + + + =
− × + + × + = I
( )
ksi 21 . 2
136
5 12) (5
(com) Stress Max. =
×
=
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
y
x
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Internal Couple Method (cont’d)
– The procedure of the flexure formula is
easy and straightforward for a beam of
known cross section for which the moment
of inertia I can be found.
– However, for a reinforced concrete beam,
the use of the flexure formula can be
somewhat complicated.
– The beam in this case is not homogeneous
and concrete does not behave elastically.
16
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Internal Couple Method (cont’d)
– In this method, the couple represents an
internal resisting moment and is composed
of a compressive force C and a parallel
internal tensile force T as shown in Fig. 4.
– These two parallel forces C and T are
separated by a distance Z, called the the
moment arm. (Fig. 4)
– Because that all forces are in equilibrium,
therefore, C must equal T.
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Internal Couple Method (cont’d)
x
y
P
w
R
C
T
c
y
dy
y
C
dA
Neutral axis
Centroidal axis
c c
Z
Figure 4
17
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Internal Couple Method (cont’d)
– The internal couple method of determining
beam stresses is more general than the
flexure formula because it can be applied
to homogeneous or non-homogeneous
beams having linear or nonlinear stress
distributions.
– For reinforced concrete beam, it has the
advantage of using the basic resistance
pattern that is found in a beam.
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Example 2
Repeat Example 1 using the internal
couple method.
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
y
x
N.A
C
T
Z
18
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Because of the irregular area for the
tension zone, the tensile force T will be
broken up into components T
1
, T
2
, and T
3
.
– Likewise, the moment arm distance Z will
be broken up into components Z
1
, Z
2
, and
Z
3
, and calculated for each component
tensile force to the compressive force C as
shown in Fig. 5.
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beams: Mechanics of Bending
Review
Example 2 (cont’d)
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
f
bott
C
T
1
T
2
T
3
f
top
Z
3
Z
1
Z
2
f
mid
Figure 5
19
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
( )( ) [ ]
( )( ) [ ]
( )( ) [ ]
( )( ) [ ]
mid bott
mid bott
avg 3
bott mid mid avg 2
bott mid mid avg 1
top top avg
6 6 6 2
2
area
4 12 6 2 area
3
1
2 1
2
1
area
5 2 5
2
1
area
f f
f f
f T
f f f f T
f f f f T
f f f C
− = 




 −
= × =
= = = × =
= = = × =
= = × =
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
f
bott
C
T
1
T
2
T
3
f
top
Z
3
Z
1
Z
2
f
mid
1′ ′
From similar triangles:
bott mid
bott
mid
3
1
3
1
f f
f
f
= ∴
=
Example 2
(cont’d)
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
bott bott bott bott bott top
mid bott bott bott top
3 2 1
3
25
2 6 4
3
1
5
6 6 4
3
1
5
f f f f f f
f f f f f
T T T T C
= − + + =
− + + =
+ + = =
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
f
bott
C
T
1
T
2
T
3
f
top
Z
3
Z
1
Z
2
f
mid
1′ ′
Example 2
(cont’d)
bott top
3
5
f f =
20
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) in.
3
17
2
3
2
1 5
3
2
in.
3
16
2 5
3
2
in. 4 1
3
2
5
3
2
3
2
1
= + + =
= + =
= + =
Z
Z
Z
5′ ′
6′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2′ ′
2′ ′
f
bott
C
T
1
T
2
T
3
f
top
Z
3
Z
1
Z
2
f
mid
1′ ′
Example 2
(cont’d)
( )
3 3 2 2 1 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
ext
000 , 60
12 5000
T Z T Z T Z
T Z T Z T Z
M M
R
+ + =
+ + =
=
CHAPTER 1b. MATERIALS AND MECHANICS OF BENDING
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
5 ′ ′
6 ′ ′
3′ ′
·
C
2 ′ ′
2 ′ ′
f
bott
C
T
1
T
2
T
3
f
top
Z
3
Z
1
Z
2
f
mid
1′ ′
Example 2
(cont’d)
( ) ( )
( ) (Com) ksi 2.21 psi 88 . 205 , 2 53 . 323 , 1
3
5
3
5

: stress e compressiv is Stress maximum The
(Tension) psi 53 . 323 , 1
Therefore,
3
136
4
3
17
4
3
16
3
1
4 000 , 60
bott top max
bott
bott bott bott bott
= = = = =
=
= + + 





=
f f f
f
f f f f
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
2a
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
RECTANGULAR R/C
CONCRETE BEAMS:
TENSION STEEL ONLY
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Bending moment produces bending
strains on a beam, and consequently
compressive and tensile stresses.
Under positive moment (as normally the
case), compressive stresses are
produced in the top of the beam and
tensile stresses are produced in the
bottom.
Bending members must resist both
compressive and tensile stresses.
2
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Stresses in Beam
x
y
b
b
a
a
P
x
y
P
h
w
∆x
R
M
R
V
O
dA
σ
τ
+y
Figure 1
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Sign Convention
M
V
M
V
V V
M
M
(a) Positive Shear & Moment
(b) Positive Shear (clockwise)
(c) Positive Moment
(concave upward)
Figure 2
L.H.F R.H.F
3
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Concrete Flexural Members
– Types:
• Beam
• Wall
• Slab
• Etc.
– These concrete members must resist both
tensile and compressive stresses.
– Because concrete is weak in tension,
embedded steel bars are placed in the
tension zone.
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
6 in.
6 in.
6 in.
6 in.
5 in.
4 in.
M
R
5 in.
12 in.
4 in.
Figure 3
4
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Methods of Analysis and Design
Elastic Design
– Elastic design is considered valid for the
homogeneous plain concrete beam as long
as the tensile stress does not exceed the
modulus of rupture f
r
.
– Elastic design can also be applied to a
reinforced concrete beam using the
working stress design (WSD) approach.
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Methods of Analysis and Design
WSD Assumptions
1. A plain section before bending remains
plane after bending.
2. Stress is proportional to strain (Hooke’s
Law).
3. Tensile stress for concrete is considered
zero and reinforcing steel carries all the
tension.
4. The bond between the concrete and steel
is perfect, so no slip occurs.
5
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Methods of Analysis and Design
Strength Design Method
– This method is the modern approach for
the analysis and design of reinforced
concrete.
– The assumption are similar to those
outlined for the WSD with one exception:
• Compressive concrete stress is approximately
proportional to strain up to moderate loads. As
the load increases, the approximate
proportionality ceases to exit, and the stress
diagram takes a shape similar to the concrete
stress-strain curve of the following figure.
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Methods of Analysis and Design
Concrete Compressive Strength
Figure 1
6
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Methods of Analysis and Design
Comparison between the Two Methods
Service loads are amplified
using partial safety factors.
A member is design so that its
strength is reduced by a
reduction safety factor.
The strength at failure is
commonly called the ultimate
strength
Formula:
Working (service) loads are
used and a member is designed
based on an allowable
compressive bending stress,
normally 0.45
Compressive stress pattern is
assumed to vary linearly from
zero at the neutral axis.
Formula:
USD WSD or ASD
ASD
FS
1

=

m
i
i
n
L
R
LRFD
1

=

m
i
i i n
L R γ φ
c
f ′
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
(1) At very small loads:
h
d
( ) comp.
c
ε
( ) tens.
c
ε
( ) tens.
s
ε
( ) comp.
c
f
( ) tens.
c
f
( ) tens.
s
f
Reinforced Concrete Beam
Stresses Elastic and
Section Uncracked
Stresses are below modulus of rupture.
N.A.
b
7
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 1
A rectangular beam, as shown
in Fig. 1, has the dimensions b
= 10 in.,h = 25 in., and d = 23
in., and is reinforced with three
No. 8 bars. The concrete
cylinder strength is 4000 psi,
and the tensile strength in
bending (modulus of rupture) is
475 psi. The yield point of the
steel f
y
is 60,000 psi.
Determine the stresses caused
by a bending moment M = 45
ft-kips. Assume the unit weight
for concrete is 144 lb/ft
3
.
c
f ′
h
d
b
3 No. 8 bars
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 1 (cont’d)
25 in
23 in
10 in
3 No. 8 bars
1) Table (see in 0.79 bar 8 No. for Area
2
=
( )
2
in 37 . 2 79 . 0 3 Therefore, = =
s
A
The modulus of elasticity for
Concrete can be calculated from
( ) ( ) psi 514 , 606 , 3 000 , 4 33 144
33
5 . 1
5 . 1
= =
′ =
c c c
f w E
8 04 . 8
514 , 606 , 3
000 , 000 , 29
Therefore,
≈ = = =
c
s
E
E
n
8
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 1. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Transformed Section
25 in
23 in
10 in
3 No. 8 bars
25 in
23 in
10 in
n A
s
(n –1) A
s
A
c
– A
s
= n A
s
– A
s
= (n – 1) A
s
= (8-1) (2.37) = 16.59 in
2
9
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Neutral axis location & moment of inertia
– Stresses
( )( ) ( )
( )( )
in 15 . 13
59 . 16 10 25
23 59 . 16
2
25
10 25
=
+
+
= y
( ) ( )
( )
4
2
3 3
in 1 . 736 , 14
2 15 . 13 25 59 . 16
3
15 . 13 25 10
3
15 . 13 10
=
− − +

+ = I
25 in
23 in
10 in
(n –1) A
s
y
N.A
( )( )
psi 9 . 481
1 . 736 , 14
15 . 13 1000 12 45
=
× ×
= =
I
Mc
f
c
( )( )
OK psi 475 psi 2 . 434
1 . 736 , 14
15 . 13 25 1000 12 45
< =
− × ×
= =
I
Mc
f
ct
( )( )
psi 6 . 887 , 2
1 . 736 , 14
2 15 . 13 25 1000 12 45
8 =
− − × ×
= =
I
Mc
n f
s
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
(2) At moderate loads:
Stresses Elastic and
Section Cracked
• Tensile stresses of concrete will be exceeded.
• Concrete will crack (hairline crack), and steel bars will resist tensile stresses.
• This will occur at approximately 0.5 .
Reinforced Concrete Beam
h
d
( ) comp.
c
ε
( ) tens.
s
ε
( ) comp.
c
f
( ) tens.
s
f
N.A.
b
c
f ′
10
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Reinforced Concrete Beam Formula
The neutral axis for a concrete beam is
found by solving the quadratic equation:
0
2
1
2
= − + d nA x nA bx
s s
(1)
b
d
b
x
x
2
1
d - x
n A
s
·
·
C
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 2
A concrete floor slab is reinforced by
diameter steel rods placed 1 in. above the
lower face of the slab and spaced 6 in. on
centers. The modulus of elasticity is 3×10
6
psi for concrete used and 30 ×10
6
psi for
steel. Knowing that a bending moment of
35 kip⋅in is applied to each 1-ft width of the
slab, determine (a) the maximum stress in
concrete and (b) the stress in the steel.
11
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 2 (cont’d)
6 in.
6 in.
6 in.
6 in.
5 in.
4 in.
M = 35 kip ⋅ in
5 in.
12 in.
4 in.
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Transformed Section
• Consider a portion of the slab 12 in. wide, in
which there are two diameter rods having a
total cross-sectional area
in -
8
5
2
2
in 614 . 0
4
8
5
2 =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
=
π
s
A
4 in.
4 - x
x
N.A.
·
C
( )
2
6
6
in 14 . 6 614 . 0 10
10
10 3
10 30
= =
=
×
×
= =
s
c
s
nA
E
E
n
12 in.
5 in.
12 in.
4 in.
12
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Neutral Axis
• The neutral axis of the slab passes through
the centroid of the transformed section. Using
Eq. 1:
( ) ( )
0 56 . 24 14 . 6 6
0 4 14 . 6 14 . 6 12
2
1
0
2
1
2
2
2
= − +
= − +
= − +
x x
x x
d nA x nA bx
s s
in 575 . 1 = x
a
ac b b
x
2
4
2
− ± −
=
Quadratic
Formula
599 . 2
take 575 . 1
2
1
− =
=
x
x
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Moment of Inertia
• The centroidal moment of inertia of the
transformed section is
4 in.
2.425
1.575
·
C
N.A.
6.14 in
2
( )
( )
4 2
3
in 7 . 51 425 . 2 14 . 6
3
575 . 1 12
= + = I
12 in.
13
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
Example 2 (cont’d)
Maximum stress in concrete:
Stress in steel:
( )
(C) ksi 066 . 1
7 . 51
575 . 1 35
− = − = − =
I
My
c
σ
( )
(T) ksi 42 . 16
7 . 51
425 . 2 35
) 10 ( + =

− = − =
I
My
n
s
σ
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Behavior Under Load
(3) With further load increase:
Flexural Strength
ACI Approach
• Stress curve above N.A. will be similar to the stress-strain curve of Fig. 1.
• Concrete has cracked, and the process is irreversible.
• Steel bar has yielded and will not return to its original length.
Reinforced Concrete Beam
h
d
( ) comp.
c
ε
( ) tens.
s
ε
( ) comp.
c
f
( ) tens.
s
f
N.A.
b
14
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Concrete Compressive Strength
Figure 1
Behavior Under Load
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Design Method
Assumptions
Strength Design
– If the distribution of concrete compression
stresses at or near ultimate load (Fig. 2),
had a well- defined and invariable shape-
parabolic – it would be possible to derive a
completely rational theory of ultimate
bending stress.
– This theory has been well established and
incorporated in the ACI Manual.
– The basic assumptions follows.
15
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Design Method
Assumptions
Flexural Strength
ACI Approach
Reinforced Concrete Beam
h
d
( ) comp.
c
ε
( ) tens.
s
ε
( ) comp.
c
f
( ) tens.
s
f
N.A.
b
Figure 2
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Design Method
Assumptions
Basic Assumption:
1. A plane section before bending remains
plane after bending.
2. Stresses and strain are approximately
proportional up to moderate loads
(concrete stress ≤ 0.5 ). When the
load is increased, the variation in the
concrete stress is no longer linear.
3. Tensile strength of concrete is neglected
in the design of reinforced concrete
beams.
c
f ′
16
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Design Method
Assumptions
Basic Assumption (cont’d):
4. The maximum usable concrete
compressive strain at the extreme fiber is
assumed equal to 0.003 (Fig. 3)
5. The steel is assumed to be uniformly
strained to the strain that exists at the
level of the centroid of the steel. Also if
the strain in the steel ε
s
is less than the
yield strain of the steel ε
y
, the stress in
the steel is E
s
ε
s
. If ε
s
≥ ε
y
, the stress in
steel will be equal to f
y
(Fig. 4)
CHAPTER 2a. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Design Method
Assumptions
Basic Assumption (cont’d):
6. The bond between the steel and concrete
is perfect and no lip occurs.
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
f
y
Elastic
region
ε
y
Idealized Stress-Strain Curve
0.003
ε
y
Figure 4
Figure 3
Strain
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
2b
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
RECTANGULAR R/C
CONCRETE BEAMS:
TENSION STEEL ONLY
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Ultimate Moment (Strength)
– The ultimate moment for a reinforced
concrete beam can be defined as the
moment that exists just prior to the failure
of the beam.
– In order to evaluate this moment, we have
to examine the strains, stresses, and
forces that exist in the beam.
– The beam of Fig. 1 has a width of b, an
effective depth d, and is reinforced with a
steel area A
s
.
2
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Ultimate Strength
Flexural Strength
ACI Approach
Reinforced Concrete Beam
h
d
( ) limit a as 0.003
c
ε
N.A.
b
y s
ε ε ≥
limit a as
y s
f f =
c
f ′
N
C
N
T
Figure 1
Strain Stress Force
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Possible Values for Concrete Strains
due to Loading (Modes of Failure)
1. Concrete compressive strain is less than
0.003 in./in. when the maximum tensile
steel unit equal its yield stress f
y
as a
limit.
2. Maximum compressive concrete strain
equals 0.003 in./in. and the tensile steel
unit stress is less than its yield stress f
y
.
3
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Notes on Concrete Compressive Stresses
– The ultimate compressive stress for
concrete does not occur at the outer fiber.
– The shape of the curve is not the same for
different-strength concretes.
– The shape of the curve will also depend on
the size and dimensions of the beam.
– The ultimate compressive stress of concrete
develops at some intermediate level near,
but not at, the extreme outer fiber.
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Nominal Moment Strength
– The forces N
C
and N
T
, and the distance Z
separated them constitute an internal
resisting couple whose maximum value is
termed nominal moment strength of the
bending member.
– As a limit, this nominal strength must be
capable of resisting the actual design
bending moment induced by the applied
loads.
4
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Nominal Moment Strength (cont’d)
– The determination of the moment strength
is complex because of
• The shape of the compressive stress diagram
above the neutral axis
• Not only is N
C
difficult to evaluate but also its
location relative to the tensile steel is difficult to
establish
limit a as
y s
f f =
c
f ′
Stress
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
How to Determine the Moment
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Beam?
– To determine the moment capacity, it is
necessary only to know
1. The total resultant compressive force N
C
in the concrete, and
2. Its location from the outer compressive
fiber, from which the distance Z may be
established.
5
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
How to Determine the Moment Strength
of Reinforced Concrete Beam? (cont’d)
– These two values may easily be
established by replacing the unknown
complex compressive stress distribution by
a fictitious (equivalent) one of simple
geometrical shape (e.g., rectangle).
– Provided that the fictitious distribution
results in the same total N
C
applied at the
same location as in the actual distribution
when it is at the point of failure.
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Mathematical Motivation
– Consider the function
– Plot of this function is shown in Fig. 2 for x
ranges from 0 to 4, and y from 0 to 4.
– The area under the curve will be
determined analytically.
– Note that in real situation this area will be
the equivalent,for example, to compressive
force N
C
for concrete per unit length.
( ) x y x f 2 = =
(1)
6
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Mathematical Motivation (cont’d)
Area under the Curve N
C
per unit length
f
c
c
4 in
4 in
N
C
y
x
4 in
4 in
Area
A
x
x′
x
x′
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Mathematical
Motivation (cont’d)
y
x
4 in
4 in
A
x′
( )
2
4
0
2
1 4
0
4
0
in 7 . 10 2 2 = = = =
∫ ∫ ∫
dx x dx x ydx A
dx
y 7 . 10
~ ~



= =
dA x
dA
dA x
x
( )
( ) 6 . 25 2 2
~
4
0
2
3 4
0
4
0
∫ ∫
∫ ∫
= = =
=
dx x dx x x
ydx x dA x
in. 4 . 2
7 . 10
6 . 25
Therefore, = = x
7
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Mathematical
Motivation (cont’d)
– Objective
• Our objective is to
find a fictitious or
equivalent curve
results in the same
total area A applied at
the same location as
the actual curve.
• Find x

and y

y
x
4 in
4 in Area = 10.7
A
x′ x
y
x
4 in
4 in
Area = 10.7
A
x′ x′
y′
Actual Curve
Equivalent Simple Curve
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Mathematical
Motivation (cont’d)
– Calculations of and
y
x
4 in
4 in Area = 10.7
A
x′ x
y
x
4 in
4 in
Area = 10.7
A
x′ x′
y′
Actual Curve
Equivalent Simple Curve
( )
in. 34 . 3
6 . 1 2
7 . 10
2
Area
2 Area
in. 6 . 1 4 . 2 4 4
= =

= ′
′ ′ =
= − = − = ′
x
y
y x
x x
x′ y′
8
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Flexural Strength of Rectangular
Beams
Mathematical Motivation
(cont’d)
– If we are dealing with a
concrete compressive
stress distribution and we
let ,then
and
c
c
Area = 10.7
N
C
per unit length
x′ x
y
c
c
Area = 10.7
N
C
per unit length
2
a y′
Actual Stress Distribution
Equivalent Stress Distribution
c
f
c
f ′
c
f ′
2
a
a
2 / a x = ′
c
f y ′ = ′ 84 . 0
( )
80 . 0
4
2 . 3

Then,
in. 2 . 3 6 . 1 2 2
1
1
= =
= = = ′ =
β
β c x a
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
As we saw in our previous mathematical
example, any complicated function can
be replaced with an equivalent or
fictitious one to make the calculations
simple and will give the same results.
For purposes of simplification and
practical application, a fictitious but
equivalent rectangular concrete stress
distribution was proposed.
9
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
This rectangular stress distribution was
proposed by Whiney (1942) and
subsequently adopted by the ACI Code
The ACI code also stipulates that other
compressive stress distribution shapes
may be used provided that they are in
agreement with test results.
Because of its simplicity, however, the
rectangular shape has become the
more widely stress distribution (Fig. 2).
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Whitney’s Rectangular Stress Distribution
c
f ′
y
f
d
N.A
y
f
c
f ′ 85 . 0
a
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
2
a
2
a
d Z − =
Actual Compressive
Stress Block
Rectangular
Equivalent Compressive
Stress Block
Internal Couple
Figure 2
y s C
f A N =
10
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Whitney’s Rectangular Stress
Distribution
– According to Fig. 2, the average stress
distribution is taken as
– It is assumed to act over the upper area on
the beam cross section defined by the
width b and a depth a as shown in Fig. 3.
c
f ′ = 0.85 Stress Average
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Whitney’s Rectangular Stress
Distribution
2
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
y s T
f A N =
Z
. .A N
s
A
b
a
c
Figure 3
11
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Whitney’s Rectangular Stress
Distribution
– The magnitude of a may determined by
c a
1
β =
Where
C = distance from the outer fiber to the neutral axis
β
1
= a factor dependent on concrete strength, and is given by
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ′
≤ ′ < ′ × −
≤ ′
=
psi 000 , 8 for 0.65
psi 000 , 8 psi 4,000 for 10 5 05 1
psi 000 , 4 for 85 . 0
c
c
5
c
1
f
f f .
f
c
-
β
(2)
(3)
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Example 1
Determine the nominal
moment M
n
for a beam
of cross section shown,
where = 4,000 psi.
Assume A615 grade 60
steel that has a yield
strength of 60 ksi and a
modulus of elasticity =
29 × 10
6
psi.
10 in.
25 in.
23 in.
N.A.
12
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
N.A
c
f ′ 85 . 0
a
0 1 ′ ′
3 2 ′ ′
3 #8 bars
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
2
a
y s C
f A N =
c
c
ε
s
ε
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Example 1 (cont’d)
2
a
d Z − =
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Example 1 (cont’d)
1) Table (see in 0.79 bar 8 No. for Area
2
=
( )
2
in 37 . 2 79 . 0 3 Therefore, = =
s
A
Assume that f
y
for steel exists subject later check.
( )
( )( )
in. 18 . 4
10 4 85 . 0
60 37 . 2
85 . 0
85 . 0
= =

=
= ′
=
b f
f A
a
f A ab f
N N
c
y s
y s c
S C
10 in.
25 in.
23 in.
N.A.
(Also see Table A-2 Text)
13
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 1. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Example 1 (cont’d)
Calculation of M
n
( )
kips - ft 8 . 247
12
4 . 973 , 2

kips - in. 4 . 973 , 2
2
18 . 4
23 60 37 . 2
: steel on Based
2 2
85 . 0
2 2

= =
= |
.
|

\
|
− =
|
.
|

\
|
− = |
.
|

\
|
− ′ =
|
.
|

\
|
− = |
.
|

\
|
− =
n
y s c n
T C n
M
a
d f A
a
d ab f M
a
d N
a
d N M
10 in.
25 in.
23 in.
N.A.
14
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Example 1 (cont’d)
Check if the steel reaches its yield point
before the concrete reaches its ultimate
strain of 0.003:
• Referring to the next figure (Fig. 4), the neutral
axis can be located as follows:
in. 92 . 4
85 . 0
18 . 4

Therefore,

0.85
: 3 and 2 Eqs. Using
1
1
1
= = =
=
=
β
β
β
a
c
c a
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Example 1 (cont’d)
N.A
c
f ′ 85 . 0
a
0 1 ′ ′
3 2 ′ ′
3 #8 bars
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
2
a
y s C
f A N =
c
003 . 0
s
ε
2
a
d Z − =
Figure 4
d
15
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Stress Distribution
Example 1 (cont’d)
By similar triangles in the strain diagram,
the strain in steel when the concrete strain
is 0.003 can be found as follows:
in./in. 011 . 0
92 . 4
92 . 4 23
003 . 0 003 . 0
003 . 0
=

=

=

=
c
c d
c d c
s
s
ε
ε
003 . 0
s
ε
3 2 ′ ′ = d
c
The strain at which the steel yields is
in./in. 00207 . 0
10 29
000 , 60
6
=
×
= =
s
y
y
E
f
ε
Since ε
s
(= 0.011) > ε
y
(= 0.00207) OK
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Balanced, Overreinforced, and
Underreinforced Beams
Strain Distribution
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
f
y
Elastic
region
ε
y
Idealized Stress-Strain Curve
0.003
ε
y
Figure 6
Figure 5
Strain
16
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Balanced, Overreinforced, and
Underreinforced Beams
Strain Distribution
0.003
ε
y
Balanced N.A.
Overreinforced N.A.
Underreinforced N.A.
E
f
y
y
= ε
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Balanced, Overreinforced, and
Underreinforced Beams
Balanced Condition:
ε
s
= ε
y
and ε
c
= 0.003
Overreinforced Beam
ε
s
< ε
y
, and ε
c
= 0.003. The beam will have more steel
than required to create the balanced condition. This is
not preferable since will cause the concrete to crush
suddenly before that steel reaches its yield point.
Underreinforced Beam
ε
s
> ε
y
, and ε
c
= 0.003. The beam will have less steel
than required to create the balanced condition. This is
preferable and is ensured by the ACI Specifications.
17
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Although failure due yielding of the steel
is gradual with adequate warning of
collapse, failure due to crushing of the
concrete is sudden and without warning.
The first type (Underreinforced beam) is
preferred and ensured by the
specifications of the ACI.
The ACI code stipulates that
sb s
A A 75 . 0 ≤ (4)
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Steel Ratio
– The steel ratio (sometimes called
reinforcement ratio) is given by
bd
A
s
= ρ
b
h
d
N.A.
A
s
(5)
ACI stipulates that
sb s
b
A A 75 . 0
75 . 0
max
max
=
= ρ ρ
(6)
or
18
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Example 2
Determine the amount of
steel required to create a
balanced condition for the
beam shown, where = 4,000
psi. Assume A615 grade 60
steel that has a yield strength
of 60 ksi and a modulus of
elasticity = 29 × 10
6
psi. Also
check the code requirement
for ductile-type beam.
10 in.
25 in.
23 in.
N.A.
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Example 2 (cont’d)
1) Table (see in 0.79 bar 8 No. for Area
2
=
( )
2
in 37 . 2 79 . 0 3 Therefore, = =
s
A
The strain at which the steel yields is
in./in. 00207 . 0
10 29
000 , 60
6
=
×
= =
s
y
y
E
f
ε
10 in.
25 in.
23 in.
N.A.
In reference to the strain diagram of Fig. 7,
and from similar triangles,
00207 . 0 003 . 0
b b
c d c −
=
19
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 1. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
N.A
c
f ′ 85 . 0
a
0 1 ′ ′
3 2 ′ ′
3 #8 bars
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
2
a
y s C
f A N =
b
c
003 . 0
00207 . 0
Example 2 (cont’d)
2
a
d Z − =
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
b
c d −
Figure 7
Strain
20
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Example 2 (cont’d)
10 in.
25 in.
23 in.
N.A.
From which,
00207 . 0
23
003 . 0
b b
c c −
=
in. 6 . 13 =
b
c
( ) in. 6 . 11 6 . 13 85 . 0
psi 4,000 bbcause 0.85
: 3 and 2 Eqs. Using
1
1
= = =
= ′ =
c a
f
c
β
β
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Example 2 (cont’d)
10 in.
25 in.
23 in.
N.A.
Therefore,
( )( )( ) kips 4 . 394 10 6 . 11 4 85 . 0 85 . 0 = = ′ = b a f N
b c Cb
y sb Tb Cb
f A N N = =
2
in 57 . 6
60
4 . 394
= = =
y
Cb
sb
f
N
A
Hence, required steel for balanced
condition = 6.57 in
2
From Eq. 6,
( ) OK in 37 . 2 in 93 . 4 57 . 6 74 . 0 75 . 0
2 2
max
= > = = =
s sb s
A A A
21
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Steel Ratio Formula for Balanced Beam
Instead of using laborious techniques for
determining the balanced steel of beam,
the following formula can be used to
determine the steel ratio ρ
b
at the balance
condition:
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
000 , 87
000 , 87 85 . 0
1
y y
c
b
f f
f β
ρ
(7)
where
= compressive strength of concrete (psi)
f
y
= yield strength of steel (psi)
β
1
= factor that depends on as given by Eq. 3
c
f ′
c
f ′
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Lower Limit for Steel Reinforcement
– The ACI Code establishes a lower limit on
the amount of tension reinforcement. The
code states that where tensile
reinforcement is required , the steel area
A
s
shall not be less than that given by
d b
f
d b
f
f
A
w
y
w
y
c
s
200
3
min ,


=
(8)
Note that for rectangular beam b
w
= b
22
CHAPTER 2b. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 42
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reinforcement Ratio Limitations
and Guidelines
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 1.
Design Constants
(Table A-5 Text)
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
2c
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
RECTANGULAR R/C
CONCRETE BEAMS:
TENSION STEEL ONLY
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
The basic criterion for strength design
may be expressed as
All members and all sections of
members must be proportioned to meet
this criterion.
Eq. 1 can be thought of as a supply and
a demand.
Strength furnished ≥ Strength required (1)
2
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
The supply is considered as the
strength furnished, while the demand as
the strength required.
The required strength may be
expressed in the forms of design loads
or their related moments, shears, and
forces.
Design loads may be defined as service
loads multiplied by their appropriate
factors.
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
Eq. 1 can be expressed in a more
compact general form as

=

m
i
ni i n
L R
1
γ φ
Where
φ = strength reduction factor
γ
i
= load factor for the i
th
load component out of n components
R
n
= nominal or design strength (stress, moment, force, etc.)
L
ni
= nominal (or design) value for the i
th
load component out
of m components
(2)
3
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
Eq. 2 is the basis for Load and
Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) for
Structural Members.
This equation uses different partial
safety factors for the strength and the
load effects.
The load factors are usually amplifying
factors (>1), while the strength factors
are called reduction factors (<1).
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
Strength Factor
– The strength reduction factor φ provide for
the possibility that small adverse variation
in material strength, workmanship, and
dimensions may combine to result in
undercapacity.
Load Factors
– The load factors γ’s attempt to assess the
possibility that prescribed service loads
may be exceeded. Obviously, a live load is
more apt to be exceeded than a dead load,
which is largely fixed by the weight.
4
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
ACI Code Provisions
– In assigning strength reduction factors, the
degree of ductility and the importance of
the member as well as the degree of
accuracy with which the strength of the
member can be established are
considered.
– The ACI Code provides for these variables
by using the following φ factors as provided
in Table 1.
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
0.70 Bearing on Concrete
0.70 Compression Members (tied)
0.75 Compression members (spirally reinforced)
0.85 Shear and Torsion
0.90 Bending
φ Type of Loading
Table 1. Strength Reduction Factors
5
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
ACI Code Provisions
– When word design is used throughout the
ACI Code, it indicates that the load factors
are included.
– The subscript u is used to indicate design
loads, moments, shears, and forces.
– For example, the design load
and the required or design moment
strength for dead and live loads is
where 1.4 and 1.7 are the load factors.
LL DL u
w w w 7 . 1 4 . 1 + =
LL DL u
M M M 7 . 1 4 . 1 + =
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
ACI Requirements for Dead and Live
Loads
– For dead and live loads, the ACI Code
specifies design loads, design shears, and
design moments be obtained from service
loads by the using the relation
L D U 7 . 1 4 . 1 + =
(3)
6
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength Requirements
ACI Requirements for Strength
– The ACI Code stipulates that the strength
(moment, shear, force) furnished shall
meet the following requirements
L D R
n
7 . 1 4 . 1 + ≥ φ
(4)
Where
φ = strength reduction factor as provided in Table 1
R
n
= nominal or design strength (stress, moment, force, etc.)
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
c
f ′
The analysis of a reinforced concrete
beam implies that we know precisely
what comprises the section of the
beam.
The following data are known:
1. Tension bar size or number (or A
s
).
2. Beam width (b).
3. Effective depth (d) or total depth (h).
4. Compressive strength of concrete ( ).
5. Yield strength of steel (f
y
).
7
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Variables that need to be found or
answered include the following:
1. Find the strength φ M
n
.
2. Check the adequacy of a given beam, or
3. Find an allowable load that the beam can
carry.
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1
Determine if the simply supported beam
shown in Fig. 1 is adequate as governed
by the ACI Code. The prescribed loads are
as follows:
w
D
= 0.80 kip/ft (excludes beam weight)
w
L
= 0.80 kip/ft
Assume that the compressive strength of
concrete is 4,000 psi, while the yield
strength of steel is 60,000 psi.
8
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
12 in.
20 in.
17.5 in.
4-#9
bars
w
D
+ w
L
12 kips
10 ft 10 ft
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
Text) 2 - A Table or 2 Table (see in 1.00 bar 9 No. for Area
2
=
( )
2
in 00 . 4 00 . 1 4 Therefore, = =
s
A
Next we need to find the maximum and minimum
Reinforcement for this beam as specified by the ACI .
sb s
b
A A 75 . 0
75 . 0
max
max
=
= ρ ρ
( )( )
02851 . 0
87 60
87
60
85 . 0 4 85 . 0
000 , 87
000 , 87 85 . 0
1
= |
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+

=
y y
c
b
f f
f β
ρ
( ) 0214 . 0 02851 . 0 75 . 0 75 . 0 Therefore,
max
= = =
b
ρ ρ
ACI Code
9
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 2. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
Calculate the steel ratio ρfor this beam:
( )
0191 . 0
5 . 17 12
4
= = =
bd
A
s
ρ
12 in.
20 in.
17.5 in.
4-#9
bars
d b
f
d b
f
f
A
w
y
w
y
c
s
200 3
min ,


= ACI
( )( ) ( )( )
2
min ,
min ,
min ,
in 70 . 0 take Therefore,
700 . 0 664 . 0
5 . 17 12
000 , 60
200
5 . 17 12
000 , 60
000 , 4 3
=
≥ =
≥ =
s
s
s
A
A
A
10
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
Since ρ= 0.0191 < ρ
max
= 0.0214, failure
by yielding is assured.
Also, A
s
= 4.00 in
2
> 0.70 in
2
OK
12 in.
20 in.
17.5 in.
4-#9
bars
Note that ρ
max
= 0.75 ρ
b
= 0.0214 can be obtained directly
from from Table 3 (Table A-5 Text).
Also note that A
s,min
can be obtained from Table 3 (Table
A-5 Text) as follows
A
s,min
= 0.0033 b d = 0.0033 (12)(17.5) = 0.693 ≈.70 in
2
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 3
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Values used in
the example.
11
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
Therefore,
12 in.
20 in.
17.5 in.
4-#9
bars
( )
( )( )
in. 6 . 14
2
88 . 5
5 . 17
2
in. 88 . 5
12 4 85 . 0
60 4
85 . 0
85 . 0
= − = − =
= =

=
= ′
=
a
d Z
b f
f A
a
f A ba f
N N
c
y s
y s c
T C
Steel) on based ( kips - ft 292 Hence,
kips - ft
12
3,504
kips - in 504 , 3 ) 6 . 14 )( 60 ( 4
85 . 0
=
= = =
′ = =
n
n
c y s n
M
M
baZ f Z f A M
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Service Loads:
w
D
+ w
L
12 kips
10 ft 10 ft
The beam weight is to be calculated:
Beam weight = Volume × 0.150 kip/ft
/ft kip 25 . 0
ft
kip
0.15 ft 1 ft
12
12
ft
12
20
Weight = |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
× × =
Total uniform dead load, w
D
= 0.25 + 0.80 =1.05 kips/ft
Total uniform dead load, w
L
= 0.80 = kips/ft
Code ACI 7 . 1 4 . 1 L D U + =
Using Eq. 3
12
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
Check ACI Code Requirement:
( ) ( ) kips/ft 83 . 2 0.80 7 . 1 1.05 1.4
7 . 1 4 . 1
= + =
+ =
L D u
w w w
( ) kips 4 . 20 12 7 . 1 7 . 1 = = =
L u
P P
( ) ( )
kips - ft 5 . 243
4
20 12
8
20 83 . 2
4 8
2 2
= + = + =
L P L w
M
u u
u
L D R
n
7 . 1 4 . 1
Code ACI
+ ≥ φ
( )
| | | | kips - ft 5 . 243 kips - ft 8 . 262 ) 292 ( 9 . 0 9 . 0
7 . 1 4 . 1
= > = =
= + ≥
u n
u L D n
M M
M M M R φ
OK
Therefore the beam is adequate
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Analysis for
Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Alternative way for finding M
u
w
u
= 2.83 kips/ft
P
u
= 12 (1.7) = 20.4 kips
10 ft 10 ft
( ) ( ) kips/ft 83 . 2 0.80 7 . 1 1.05 1.4
7 . 1 4 . 1
= + =
+ =
L D u
w w w
38.5 k 38.5 k
38.5 k 10.2 k
10.2 k
38.5 k
Shear V
Moment M
243.5 ft-k
The factored maximum moment
can be obtained from the
moment diagram directly:
kips - ft 5 . 243 =
u
M
13
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
Slabs are considered specialized type
of bending members.
They are used both in structural steel
and reinforced concrete construction.
Types of Slabs:
– One-way Slab
– Two-way Slab
• Flat Slab
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
Typical Structure (1)
14
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
Typical Structure (2)
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
Floor-Column Systems
15
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
Floor-Column Systems
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
One-Way Slab
– A one-way slab can be defined as a
structural reinforced concrete slab
supported on two opposite sides so that
the bending occurs in one direction only,
that is, perpendicular to the supported
edges.
16
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
One-Way Slab
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
Two-Way Slab
– A two-way slab can be defined as a
structural reinforced concrete slab
supported along four edges so that the
bending occurs in two directions
perpendicular to each other.
– However, If the ratio of the lengths of the
two perpendicular sides is in excess of 2,
the slab may be assumed to act as a one-
way slab with bending primarily occurring
in the short direction.
17
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Slabs
Flat Slab
– A specific type of two-
way slab is categorized
as a flat slab. A flat
slab may be defined as
a concrete slab
reinforced in two or
more directions,
generally without
beams or girders to
transfer the loads to the
supporting members.
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
In this course, we are concerned
primarily with one-way slab that is
assumed to be a rectangular beam with
width b = 12 in. as shown in Fig. 1.
When loaded with uniformly distributed
load, the slabs deflects so that it has
curvature, and therefore bending
moment, in only one direction (Fig. 1).
18
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
One-Way Slab Design
2 1 ′ ′
Figure 1
The procedure for finding φM
n
for one-way slab is almost identical to
that of a beam.
Analyze this strip
as a beam
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
ACI Code Requirements for Slabs
– Minimum Steel Area, A
s
,
min
:
• For grade 40 or 50 steel:
• For grade 60 steel:
– Concrete protection:
• Concrete protection for reinforcement in slabs
must be not less than 0.75 in.
• For surfaces exposed to weather and ground,
min. protection is 2 in (#6 to #18) and 1.5 in (#5)
bh A
s
0020 . 0 =
bh A
s
0018 . 0 =
(5a)
(5b)
19
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
Example 2
– The one-way slab shown spans 12 ft from
center of the support to the center of
support. Calculate φM
n
and determine the
service live load (psf) that the slab may
carry. Use = 3,000 psi and f
y
= 40,000
psi.
c
f ′
A
A
Section A-A
clear
4
3

#8 @ 6” o.c
8′ ′
12 ft
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Analyze a 12-in wide strip of slab:
– For = 3,000 psi and f
y
= 40,000 psi
c
f ′
2
min ,
max
in 19 . 0 ) 8 )( 12 ( 0020 . 0
Text) 5 - A (Table 3 Table from 0278 . 0
= =
=
s
A
ρ
( )
OK 0278 . 0 0195 . 0
75 . 6 12
58 . 1
< = = =
bd
A
s
ρ
in. 75 . 6 5 . 0 75 . 0 8 = − − = d
( ) OK in 19 . 0 in 58 . 1 79 . 0 2
2 2
> = =
s
A
( )
( )( )
in. 07 . 2
12 3 85 . 0
40 58 . 1
85 . 0
= =

=
b f
f A
a
c
y s
clear
3

#8 @ 6” o.c
8
b = 12 in.
20
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 2. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 3
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Values used in
the example.
21
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
Example 2 (cont’d)
( )( )
( ) kips - ft 1 . 27 13 . 30 9 . 0
Therefore,
kips - ft 13 . 30
12
72 . 5 40 58 . 1
in. 5.72
2
07 . 2
75 . 6
2
= =
= = =
= − = − =
n
y s n
M
Z f A M
a
d Z
φ
( ) ( )
( )
k/ft 51 . 1
12
8 1 . 27 8 1 . 27
8
1 . 27
2 2
2
= = =
= = =
L
w
L w
M M
u
u
n u
φ
CHAPTER 2c. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
One-Way Slab: Analysis for
Moment
Example 2 (cont’d)
L D R
n
7 . 1 4 . 1
Code ACI
+ ≥ φ
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
psf 806 k/ft 806 . 0
7 . 1
1 . 0 4 . 1 51 . 1
Hence,
10 . 0 4 . 1 51 . 1 7 . 1
7 . 1 10 . 0 4 . 1 51 . 1
k/ft 10 . 0 150 . 0
144
12 8
slab of weight
7 . 1 4 . 1
= =

=
− =
+ =
= = =
+ =
L
L
L
D
L D u
w
w
w
w
w w w
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
2d
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
RECTANGULAR R/C
CONCRETE BEAMS:
TENSION STEEL ONLY
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
In a general sense, the design
procedure for a rectangular cross
section of a reinforced beam basically
requires the determination of three
quantities.
The compressive strength of concrete
and the yield strength f
y
of steel are
usually prescribed.
c
f ′
2
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
The three quantities that need to be
determined in a design problem for
rectangular reinforced concrete beam
are:
– Beam Width, b
– Beam Depth, d
– Steel Area, A
s
.
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Theoretically, a wide shallow beam may
have the same φM
n
as a narrow deep
beam.
However, practical considerations and
code requirements will affect the final
selection of these three quantities.
There is no easy way to determine the
best cross section, since economy
depends on much more than simply the
volume of concrete and amount of steel.
3
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Simplified Design Formulas
– Using the internal couple method
previously developed for beam analysis,
modifications may be made whereby the
design process may be simplified.
– The resistance moment is given by
Z N Z N M
T c n
φ φ φ = =
(1)
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Simplified Design Formulas
( )
( )b f
f A
a
a
d ba f M
c
y s
c n

=
|
.
|

\
|
− ′ =
85 . 0
where
2
85 . 0 φ φ
(2)
(3)
The use of these formulas will now be simplified
through the development of design constants,
Which will eventually be tabulated.
4
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Simplified Design Formulas
bd A
bd
A
s
s
ρ ρ = = fore there (4)
Substituting Eq. 4 into Eq. 3, yields
( ) ( ) f
df
b f
bdf
b f
f A
a
y
c
y
c
y s

=

=

=
85 . 0 85 . 0 85 . 0
ρ ρ
(5)
Let’s define the variable ω (omega) as
c
y
f
f

= ρ ω (6)
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Simplified Design Formulas
Substituting ω of Eq. 6 into Eq. 5, yields
85 . 0 85 . 0
d
f
df
a
y
ω
ρ
=

= (7)
Substituting for a of Eq. 7 into Eq. 2, gives
( ) ( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− ′ =
|
.
|

\
|
− ′ =
85 . 0 2 85 . 0
85 . 0
2
85 . 0
d
d
d
b f
a
d ba f M
c c n
ω ω
φ φ φ
(8)
5
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Simplified Design Formulas
Eq. 8 can be simplified and rearranged to give
( ) ω ω φ φ 59 . 0 1
2
− ′ =
c n
f bd M
(9)
Let’s define the coefficient of resistance as
( ) ω ω 59 . 0 1− ′ =
c
f k
k
(10)
Tables A-7 through A-11 of the Textbook give the
value of in ksi for values of ρ (i.e., 0.75ρ
b
) and
various combinations of and f
y
.
k
c
f ′
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Sample Coefficient of Resistance Vs.
Steel Ratio
ρ
0.0010 0.0397
0.0011 0.0436
0.0012 0.0475
0.0013 0.0515
0.0014 0.0554
0.0015 0.0593
0.0016 0.0632
0.0017 0.0671
0.0018 0.0710
0.0019 0.0749
0.0020 0.0787
0.0021 0.0826
k
ρ
0.0010 0.0595
0.0011 0.0654
0.0012 0.0712
0.0013 0.0771
0.0014 0.0830
0.0015 0.0888
0.0016 0.0946
0.0017 0.1005
0.0018 0.1063
0.0019 0.1121
0.0020 0.1179
0.0021 0.1237
k
ksi 40 ksi 3 = = ′
y c
f f
ksi 60 ksi 4 = = ′
y c
f f
6
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Simplified Design Formulas
– The general analysis expression for φM
n
may be written as
kips) - (ft
12
or
kips) - (in.
2
2
k bd
M M
k bd M M
u n
u n
φ
φ
φ φ
= =
= =
(11a)
(11b)
NOTE: Values of are tabulated in ksi k
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Note that Eq. 11 can also be used to
simplify the analysis of a reinforced
beam having a rectangular cross
section.
The following example was presented in
Chapter 2c of the lecture notes (Ex. 1)
and the beam was analyzed based on a
lengthy procedure. However, now this
beam will be analyzed based on Eq. 11.
7
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Example 1
Find the nominal flexural strength and
design strength of the beam shown.
12 in.
20 in.
17.5 in.
4-#9
bars
psi 000 , 60
psi 000 , 4
=
= ′
y
c
f
f
Four No. 9 bars provide A
s
= 4.00 in
2
( )
0190 . 0
5 . 17 12
00 . 4
= = =
bd
A
s
ρ
( ) ( ) ( ) 0214 . 0 0190 . 0 0033 . 0
max min
= < = < = ρ ρ ρ OK
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 1
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Values used in
the example.
8
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Example 1 (cont’d)
– From Table 2 (Table A-10 , Text), with f
y
=
60,000 psi, = 4,000 psi, and ρ = 0.0190,
the value of = 0.9489 ksi is found .
– Using Eq. 11b, the nominal and design
strengths are respectively
k
c
f ′
( ) ( )
( ) kips - ft 262 291 9 . 0
kips - ft 291
12
9489 . 0 5 . 17 12
12
2 2
= =
= = =
n
n
M
k bd
M
φ
Which are the same values obtained in the example of Ch.2c notes.
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ρ
0.0185 0.9283
0.0186 0.9323
0.0187 0.9363
0.0188 0.9403
0.0189 0.9443
0.0190 0.9489
0.0191 0.9523
0.0192 0.9563
0.0193 0.9602
0.0194 0.9642
0.0195 0.9681
0.0196 0.9720
k
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Example 1 (cont’d)
Table 2
Part of Table A-10
of Textbook
9
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
ACI Code Requirements for Concrete
Protection for Reinforcement
– For beams, girders, and columns not
exposed to weather or in contact with the
ground, the minimum concrete cover on
any steel is 1.5 in.
– For slabs, it is 0.75 in.
– Clear space between bars in a single layer
shall not be less than the bar diameter, but
not less 1 in.
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rectangular Beam Design for
Moment (Tension Only)
Stirrups
– Stirrups are special form of reinforcement
that primarily resist shear forces that will be
discussed later.
h
3-#9 bars
Tie steel
#3 stirrup
(typical) clear
2
1
1

d
b
10
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
A. Cross Section (b and h) Known;
Find the Required A
s
:
1. Convert the service loads or moments to
design M
u
(including the beam weight).
2. Based on knowing h, estimate d by using the
relationship d = h – 3 in. (conservative for
bars in a single layer). Calculate the required
from
k
2
bd
M
k
u
φ
=
(12)
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
3. From Tables A-7 through A-11 of your
textbook, find the required steel ratio ρ.
4. Compute the required A
s
:
Check A
s,min
by using Table A-5 of textbook.
5. Select the bars. Check to see if the bars can
fit into the beam in one layer (preferable).
Check the actual effective depth and compare
with the assumed effective depth. If the
actual effective depth is slightly in excess of
bd A
s
ρ =
(13)
11
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
the assumed effective depth, the design
will be slightly conservative (on the safe
side). If the actual effective depth is less
than the assumed effective depth, the
design is on the unconservative side and
should be revised.
6. Sketch the design showing the details of
the cross section and the reinforcement
exact location, and the stirrups, including
the tie bars.
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
B. Design for Cross Section and
Required A
s
:
1. Convert the service loads or moments to
design M
u
. An estimated beam weight may
be included in the dead load if desired. Make
sure to apply the load factor to this additional
dead load.
2. Select the desired steel ratio ρ. (see Table A-5
of textbook for recommended values. Use the
ρ values from Table A-5 unless a small cross
section or decreased steel is desired).
12
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
3. From Table A-5 of your textbook (or from
Tables A-7 through A-11), find .
4. Assume b and compute the required d:
If the d/b ratio is reasonable (1.5 to 2.2), use
these values for the beam. If the d/b ratio is
not reasonable, increase or decrease b and
compute the new required d
k
k b
M
d
u
φ
=
(14)
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
5. Estimate h and compute the beam weight.
Compare this with the estimated beam weight
if an estimated beam weight was included.
6. Revise the design M
u
to include the moment
due to the beam’s own weight using the latest
weight determined. Note that at this point,
one could revert to step 2 in the previous
design procedure, where the cross section is
known.
7. Using b and previously determined along
with the new total design M
u
, find the new
k
13
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
Required d from
Check to see if the d/b ratio is reasonable.
8. Find the required A
s
:
Check A
s,min
using Table A-5 of textbook.
9. Select the bars and check to see if the bars
can fit into a beam of width b in one layer
(preferable).
k b
M
d
u
φ
= (14)
bd A
s
ρ = (15)
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Rectangular RC
Beam Design for Moment
10. Establish the final h, rounding this upward to
the next 0.5 in. This will make the actual
effective depth greater than the design
effective depth, and the design will be
slightly conservative (on the safe side).
11. Sketch the design showing the details of
the cross section and the exact locations
of the reinforcement and the stirrups,
including the tie bars.
14
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2
Design a rectangular reinforced concrete
beam to carry a service dead load moment
of 50 ft-kips (which includes the moment
due to the weight of the beam) and a
service live load moment of 100 ft-kips.
Architectural considerations require the
beam width to be 10 in. and the total depth
h to be 25 in. Use = 3,000 psi and f
y
=
60,000 psi.
c
f ′
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
Following procedure A outlined earlier,
1. The total design moment is
2. Estimate d:
( ) ( ) kips - ft 240 100 7 . 1 50 4 . 1
7 . 1 4 . 1
= + =
+ =
L D u
M M M
in. 22 3 25 3 = − = − = h d
( )
( )( )
ksi 6612 . 0
22 10 9 . 0
12 240
required
2 2
= = =
bd
M
k
u
φ
15
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
3. From Table 3 (Table A-8 Textbook), for =
0.6612 and by interpolation,
From Table 1 (Table A-5 Textbook),
4. Required A
s
= ρbd = 0.01301(10) (22) = 2.86 in
2
Check A
s, min
. From Table 1 (Table A-5 Text),
k
01301 . 0 = ρ
0161 . 0
max
= ρ
2
min ,
in 73 . 0 ) 22 )( 10 ( 0033 . 0 0033 . 0 = = = d b A
w s
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
– By interpolation:
ρ
0.0124 0.6355
0.0125 0.6398
0.0126 0.6440
0.0127 0.6482
0.0128 0.6524
0.0129 0.6566
0.013 0.6608
0.0131 0.6649
0.0132 0.6691
0.0133 0.6732
0.0134 0.6773
0.0135 0.6814
k
Table 3 (Table A-8 Textbook)
0131 . 0 6649 . 0
6612 . 0
0130 . 0 6608 . 0
ρ
01301 . 0
0130 . 0 0131 . 0
0130 . 0
0.6608 - 0.6649
0.6608 - 0.6612
Therefore,
0131 . 0 6649 . 0
6612 . 0
0130 . 0 6608 . 0
=


=
ρ
ρ
ρ
16
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 1
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Values used in
the example.
Beam Design Examples
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
5. Select the bars;
In essence, the the bar or combination od
bars that provide 2.86 in
2
of steel area
will be satisfactory. From Table 4
2 No. 11 bars: A
s
= 3.12 in
2
3 No. 9 bars: A
s
= 3.00 in
2
4 No. 8 bars: A
s
= 3.16 in
2
5 No. 7 bars: A
s
= 3.00 in
2
17
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 4. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
The width of beam required for 3 No. 9
bars is 9.5 in. (see Table 5), which is
satisfactory. Note that beam width b = 10
in.
Check the actual effective depth d:
Actual d = h – cover – stirrup – d
b
/2
in. 6 . 22
2
128 . 1
38 . 0 5 . 1 25 = − − −
The actual effective depth is slightly higher than
the estimated one (22 in.). This will put the beam on
The safe side (conservative).
#3 bar for stirrup.
See Table A-1 for
Diameter of bar.
#9 bar.
See Table A-1
18
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
# 3 and #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
2 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.0
3 7.5 8.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.5 11.0
4 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
5 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.5 13.0 14.0 15.5 16.5
6 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5
7 13.5 14.5 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.5 20.5 22.5
8 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0
9 16.5 17.5 18.5 20.0 21.0 23.0 25.5 28.0
10 18.0 19.0 20.5 21.5 23.0 25.5 28.0 31.0
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 5. Minimum Required Beam Width, b (in.)
Table A-3 Textbook
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 2 (cont’d)
6. Final Sketch
Bar number 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18
Unit weight
per foot (lb)
0.376 0.668 1.043 1.502 2.044 2.670 3.400 4.303 5.313 7.650 13.60
Diameter (in.) 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.128 1.270 1.410 1.693 2.257
Area (in
2
) 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56 2.25 4.00
Table 6. Reinforced Steel Properties
3-#9 bars
Tie steel
#3 stirrup
(typical) clear
2
1
1

5 2 ′ ′
0 1 ′ ′
Table A-1 Textbook
19
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 3
Design a simply supported rectangular
reinforced beam with tension steel only to
carry a service load of 0.9 kip/ft and
service live load of 2.0 kips/ft. (the dead
load does not include the weight of the
beam.) The span is 18 ft. Assume No. 3
stirrups. Use = 4,000 psi and f
y
=
60,000 psi
c
f ′
CHAPTER 2d. RECTANGULAR R/C BEAMS: TENSION STEEL ONLY
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Beam Design Examples
Example 3 (cont’d)
h = ?
b = ?
A
s
= ?
A
A
In this problem we have to determine
h, b, and A
s
. This is called “free design”.
This problem can solved according to
The outlines of Procedure B presented
earlier. For complete solution for this
problem, please see Example 2-8 of your
Textbook.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
3a
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND
DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
Reinforced concrete structural systems
such as floors, roofs, decks, etc., are
almost monolithic, except for precast
systems.
Forms are built for beam sides the
underside of slabs, and the entire
construction is poured at once, from the
bottom of the deepest beam to the top
of the slab.
2
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
Floor-Column Systems
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
Beam and Girder System
– This system is composed of slab on
supporting reinforced concrete beams and
girder..
– The beam and girder framework is, in turn,
supported by columns.
– In such a system, the beams and girders
are placed monolithically with the slab.
– The typical monolithic structural system is
shown in Fig. 1.
3
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
Beam and Girder Floor System
Slab
Beam
Spandrel beam
Girder
Column
Figure 1
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
Common Beam and Girder Layout
Column
Beam
Girder
Column
Girder
Beam
Figure 2
4
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
Positive Bending Moment
– In the analysis and design of floor and roof
systems, it is common practice to assume
that the monolithically placed slab and
supporting beam interact as a unit in
resisting the positive bending moment.
– As shown in Fig. 3, the slab becomes the
compression flange, while the supporting
beam becomes the web or stem.
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
T-Beam as Part of a Floor System
Effective Flange Width b
d
A
s
Web or Stem
Flange
Supporting Beam
for Slab
Slab
Beam Spacing
b
w
h
f
Figure 3
5
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to T-Beams
T-Beam
– The interacting flange and web produce
the cross section having the typical T-
shape, thus the T-Beam gets its name.
Negative Bending Moment
– It should be noted that when the the T-
Beam is subjected to negative moment, the
slab at the top of the stem (web) will be in
tension while the bottom of the stem is in
compression. This usually occurs at
interior support of continuous beam.
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
ACI Code Provisions for T-Beams
1. The effective flange width must not
exceed
a. One-fourth the span length
b. b
w
+ 16h
f
c. Center-to-center spacing of the beam
2. For beam having a flange on one side only,
the effective overhanging flange width must
The smallest of the three values will control
6
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
ACI Code Provisions for T-Beams
Not exceed one-twelfth of the span
length of the beam, nor six times the
slab thickness, nor one-half of the clear
distance to the next beam.
3. For isolated beam in which the T-shape is
used only for the purpose of providing
additional compressive area, the flange
thickness must not be less than one-half
of the width of the web, and the total
flange width must not be more than four
times the web width.
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
T-Beam Versus Rectangular Beam
– The ductility requirements for T-beams are
similar to those for rectangular beams.
– The maximum steel ratio ρ shall not
exceed 0.75ρ
b
.
– However, this steel ratio is not the same
value as that tabulated for rectangular
beams because of the T-shaped
compressive area.
7
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Formulas for Balanced T-Beam
These formulas can be used to find A
sb
. It
will be illustrated in Example 1:
( ) [ ]
f b w f c Cb
b b
y
b
h a b bh f N
c a
d
f
c
− + ′ =
=
+
=
85 . 0
000 , 87
000 , 87
1
β
See Fig. 4 for definitions of variables
(1)
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
b
d
b
w
N
T
N
C
ε
c
ε
s
N.A.
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
h
f
c
Figure 4
8
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Minimum Steel Ratio for T-Beams
– The T-beam is subjected to positive
moment:
• The steel area shall not be less than that given
by
d b
f
d b
f
f
A
w
y
w
y
c
s
200
3
min ,


=
Note that the first expression controls if
> 4440 psi c
f ′
(2)
ACI Code
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Minimum Steel Ratio for T-Beams
– The T-beam is subjected to negative
moment:
• The steel area A
s
shall equal the smallest of the
following expression:
d b
f
f
d b
f
f
A
w
y
c
w
y
c
s
′ ′
=
3
or
6
of smallest
min ,
(3)
ACI Code
9
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Notes on the Analysis of T-Beams
– Because of the large compressive in the
flange of the T-beam, the moment strength
is usually limited by the yielding of the
tensile steel.
– Therefore, it safe to assume that the
tensile steel will yield before the concrete
reaches its ultimate strain.
– The ultimate tensile force may be found
from
y s T
f A N =
(4)
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Notes on the Analysis of T-Beams
– In analyzing a T-beam, there might exist
two conditions:
1. The stress block may be completely within
the flange.
2. The stress block may cover the flange and
extend into the web.
– These two conditions will result in what
are termed: a rectangular T-beam and a
true T-beam, respectively.
10
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Stress Block Completely within the
Flange (Rectangular T-Beam)
b
d
b
w
N
T
N
C
ε
c
ε
s
N.A.
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
h
f
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Stress Block Cover Flange and Extends
into Web (True T-Beam)
b
d
b
w
N
T
N
C
ε
c
ε
s
N.A.
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
h
f
11
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1
The T-beam shown
in the figure is part
of a floor system.
Determine the
practical moment
strength φM
n
if f
y
=
60,000 psi (A615
grade 60) and =
3,000 psi.
c
f ′
2 3 ′ ′ = b
2 1 ′ ′ = d
0 1 ′ ′ =
w
b
2′ ′ =
f
h
3 #9
(A
s
= 3 in
2
)
Beams 32 in. o.c.
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
Since the span length is not given, we
determine the flange width in terms of the
flange thickness and beam spacing:
( )
two) the of (smallest in. 32 Use
Therefore,
o.c. in. 32 spacing Beam
in. 42 2 16 10 16
=
=
= + = +
b
h b
f w
12
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
Find N
T
assuming that the steel has
yielded:
If the flange alone is stressed to 0.85 ,
then the total compressive force would be
Since 180 > 163, the beam should be
analyzed as true T-beam, and the stress
block will extend into the web (Fig. 5)
( ) kips 180 60 3 = = =
y s T
f A N
c
f ′
( )( )( ) kips 2 . 163 32 2 3 85 . 0 85 . 0 = = ′ = b h f N
f c T
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
N
T
N
C
ε
c
ε
s
N.A.
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
2 3 ′ ′ = b
2 1 ′ ′ = d
0 1 ′ ′ =
w
b
3 #9
(A
s
= 3 in
2
)
Z
Figure 5
2′ ′ =
f
h
13
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
The remaining compression is therefore
( )
( )( )
in. 66 . 2 2
10 3 85 . 0
2 . 163 180
85 . 0
85 . 0
85 . 0
n Compressio Remaining
= +

= +


=


= −
− ′ = −
− =
f
w c
Cf T
w c
Cf T
f
f w c Cf T
Cf T
h
b f
N N
a
b f
N N
h a
h a b f N N
N N
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
Check A
s, min
using Eq. 3 or Table 1
– In order to find the internal couple, we have
to find the couple arm Z:
( )( )
( ) ( ) OK in 4 . 0 in 0 . 3
in 40 . 0 12 10 0033 . 0 0033 . 0
: Text) 5 - A Table (also 1 Table From
2
min ,
2
2
min ,
= > =
= = =
s s
w s
A A
d b A


=
A
Ay
y
14
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′










y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 1.
Design Constants
(Table A-5 Text)
T-Beam Analysis
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
Using a reference axis at the top:
( ) [ ]( ) ( ) [ ]( )
( ) ( )
in 12 . 1
66 . 0 10 2 32
33 . 0 2 66 . 0 10 1 2 32
=
+
+ +
= =


A
Ay
y
2 3 ′ ′
2 1 ′ ′
0 1 ′ ′
N
T
N
C
c
f ′ 85 . 0
Z
2′ ′
66 . 2 = a
A
1
A
2
y
15
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
Z can be computed as follows:
( )
( ) kips - ft 147 2 . 163 9 . 0
is moment paratical the Thus
kips - ft 2 . 163
12
88 . 1 180
Therefore,
in. 88 . 10 12 . 1 12
= =
= = =
= − = − =
n
T n
M
Z N M
y d Z
φ
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
Alternately, the nominal moment can be found as follows:
( ) ( )( ) [ ] kips - ft 1 . 163 8 . 16 33 . 0 2 12 2 . 163 1 - 12
12
1
= − − + =
+ =
Cw w Cf f n
N Z N Z M
2 3 ′ ′
2 1 ′ ′
0 1 ′ ′
N
T
N
Cf
c
f ′ 85 . 0
w
Z
2′ ′
A
1
A
2
N
Cw
f
Z
66 . 2 = a
Kips - ft 8 . 16 2 . 163 180
or ,
= − = − =
+ =
Cw T Cw
Cw Cf T
N N N
N N N
16
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
Check assumption for ductile failure:
From Eq. 1
( )
( ) in. 035 . 6 1 . 7 85 . 0
in. 10 . 7 12
87 60
87
000 , 87
000 , 87
1
= = =
=
+
=
+
=
b b
y
b
c a
d
f
c
β
( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
Tb
f b w f c Cb
N
h a b bh f N
kips 09 . 266
2 035 . 6 10 2 32 3 85 . 0
85 . 0
= =
− + =
− + ′ =
CHAPTER 3a. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Analysis
Example 1 (cont’d)
( )
( ) ( ) OK in 44 . 4 in 0 . 3
0.33
44 . 4 75 . 0
75 . 0
in 44 . 4
60
09 . 266
2
max ,
2
max ,
2
= < =
=
=
=
= = =
s s
sb s
y
Tb
sb
A A
A A
f
N
A
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
3b
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND
DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Basic Relationships
(a)
d
f
c
y
b
000 , 87
000 , 87
+
=
6
10 29
003 . 0 003 . 0
003 . 0 003 . 0
×
+
=
+
=
+
=
y
s
y
s
b
f
d
E
f
d d c
ε
d
f
d
f
c
y
y
b
+
=
×
+
=
000 , 87
000 , 87
10 29
003 . 0
003 . 0
6
(1)
From Fig. 1:
2
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Basic Relationships
N.A
c
f ′ 85 . 0
b
a
b
3 #8 bars
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
2
a
y s C
f A N =
b
c
003 . 0
s
ε
2
b
a
d Z − =
b
c d −
Strain
Figure 1
f
h
d
w
b
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Basic Relationships
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
) 85 . 0 (where 85 . 0
1
= = β
b b
c a
( ) | |
f b w f c Cb
h a b bh f N − +

= 85 . 0
y sb Tb Cb
f A N N = =
sb s
A A 75 . 0
max ,
=
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
3
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Basic Relationships
Combining Eqs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, and
solving for A
s, max
, the following expression
is obtained:
Substituting for various combinations of
and f
y
, A
s,max
expressions result as listed in
Table 1 (Table 3-1 Text)
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ ′ = 1
000 , 87
000 , 87 638 . 0
max ,
d
f h
b b h f
f
A
y f
b
w f c
y
s
β
(6)
c
f ′
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Table 1. Expressions for A
s,max
(T-Beams)
60,000
40,000
4,000
60,000
40,000
3,000
A
s,max
(in
2
) f
y
(psi)
(psi)
c
f ′
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
582 . 0
0478 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
503 . 0
0319 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
582 . 0
0638 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
503 . 0
0425 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
4
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Maximum Steel Reinforcement (ACI)
– The maximum steel reinforcement as
governed by the ACI Code can be
obtained using Table 1.
– If A
s
exceeds A
s,max
, then the beam should
be analyzed using A
s,max
as an effective
steel area.
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1
– Find the practical moment strength φM
n
for
the T-beam in the floor system shown.
The beam span is 31 ft-6 in. Use f
y
=
60,000 psi and = 4,000 psi. Check the
steel to ensure that it is within allowable
limits.
c
f ′
5
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
2 3 ′ ′
(typ.) 0 8 ′ ′ − ′
5 1 ′ ′

2
1
5
#3 stirrup
3-#9
3-#9
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
Determine b:
For A
s,min
, CHECK:
( )
( )
( )
in. 5 . 94 use Therefore,
in. 96 12 8 spacing Beam
in. 103 15 5 . 5 16 16
in. 5 . 94
4
12 5 . 31
4
span
=
= =
= + = +
= =
b
b h
w f
( )( ) ( )( )
2 2
min ,
in 0 . 6 in 58 . 1 32 15 0033 . 0 0033 . 0 < = = = d b A
w s
OK
2) Table See bars, 9 No. (6 in 0 . 6
2
=
s
A
See Table 3
6
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 2. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 3
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Value used in
the example.
7
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
Check beam ductility by comparing A
s,max
with actual A
s
:
From Table 1 (Table 3-1, Text)
( ) ( )
2
max ,
in 8 . 28 1 32
5 . 5
503 . 0
15 5 . 94 5 . 5 0425 . 0
1
503 . 0
0425 . 0
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
f
w f s
h
b b h A
Since (A
s
= 6 in
2
) < A
s,max
=28.8 in
2
OK
The beam meets the ductility requirements,
and the steel yields at the ultimate moment.
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
Determine if the beam can be analyzed as a
rectangular T-beam or true T-beam:
( )
( )( )( ) kips 2 . 767 , 1 5 . 5 5 . 94 4 85 . 0 85 . 0
kips 360 60 6
= = ′ =
= = =
f c Cf
y s T
bh f N
f A N
Since (N
Cf
= 1,767.2 k) > (N
T
= 360 k), the beam can be
analyzed as a rectangular T-beam (simple analysis).
For flexure:
( )
( )( )
in. 44 . 31
2
12 . 1
32
2
in. 12 . 1
5 . 94 4 85 . 0
60 6
85 . 0
= − = − =
= =

=
a
d Z
b f
f A
a
c
y s
8
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
( )( )( )( )
kips - ft 849
12
44 . 31 60 6 9 . 0
= = = Z f A M
y s n
φ φ
Alternative method for finding φM
n
:
( )
002 . 0
32 5 . 94
6
= = =
bd
A
s
ρ
For ρ= 0.002, go to Table 4 (Table A-10, Text) and find the
Required :
( )( ) ( )
kips - ft 856
12
1179 . 0 32 5 . 94 9 . 0
1179 . 0 required
2
2
= = =
=
k bd M
k
n
φ φ
k
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of T-Beam A
s,max
Example 1 (cont’d)
ρ
0.0010 0.0595
0.0011 0.0654
0.0012 0.0712
0.0013 0.0771
0.0014 0.0830
0.0015 0.0888
0.0016 0.0946
0.0017 0.1005
0.0018 0.1063
0.0019 0.1121
0.0020 0.1179
0.0021 0.1237
k
Table 4.
Coefficient of Resistance
Table A-10 Textbook
Value used in
the example.
9
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Quantities that need to be determined
in the design of a T-beam are:
1. Flange Dimensions:
– Effective Width, b
– Thickness, h
f
2. Web Dimensions:
– Width, b
w
– Height
3. Area of Tension Steel, A
s
b
Steel bars
f
h
d
w
b
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
In normal situations, the flange
thickness is determined by the design of
the slab, and the web size is determined
by the shear and moment requirements
at the end of the supports for
continuous beam.
Column size sometimes dictate web
width.
10
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
ACI code dictates permissible effective
flange width, b.
The flange itself generally provides
more than sufficient compression area;
therefore the stress block usually lies
completely in the flange.
Thus, most T-beam are only wide
rectangular beams with respect to
flexural behavior.
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Design Method
– The recommended design method
depends whether the beam behaves as a
rectangular T-beam or a true T-beam.
– For rectangular-T-Beam behavior, the
design procedure is the same as for the
tensile reinforced rectangular beam.
– For true-T-beam behavior, the design
proceeds by designing a flange component
and a web components and combining the
two.
11
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2
Design the T-beam for the floor system
shown in the figure. The floor has a 4-in.
slab supported by 22-ft-span-length beams
cast monolithically with the slab. Beams
are 8 ft-0 in. on center and have a web
width of 12 in. and a total depth = 22 in.; f
y
= 60,000 psi (A615 grade 60) and =3000
psi. Service loads are 0.125 ksf live load
and 0.2 ksf dead load. The given dead
load does not include the weight of the
floor system.
c
f ′
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
22
(typ.) 0 8 ′ ′ − ′
2 1 ′ ′
4′ ′
12
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
Determine the Design Moment M
u
:
( )( )
( )
( )( )
( )
k/ft 0.625 Total
k/ft 225 . 0 150 . 0
144
4 22 12
weight (or web) Stem
k/ft 4 . 0 150 . 0
144
4 12 8
weight slab
=
=

=
=
×
=
( )( )
( )( ) k/ft 0 . 1 125 . 0 8 LL service
k/ft 6 . 1 2 . 0 8 DL service
= =
= =
Code ACI 7 . 1 4 . 1 L D U + =
( ) ( ) k/ft 815 . 4 1 7 . 1 6 . 1 625 . 0 4 . 1 = + + =
u
w
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
( )
kips - ft 291
8
22 815 . 4
8
2 2
= = =
L w
M
u
u
S
p
a
n
o
f
B
e
a
m
=
2
2
i
n
.
w
u
22 in.
13
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
Assume an effective depth d = h – 3
Find the effective flange width, b:
in. 19 3 22 = − = d
( )
( )
(smallest) in. 66 use Therefore,
in. 96 12 8 spacing beam
in. 76 4 16 12 16
in. 66 12 22
4
1
length span
4
1
=
= × =
= + = +
= × =
b
h b
f w
Controls
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
Find out what type of beam to be used for
design analysis, i.e., Is it a rectangular T-
beam or a true T-beam?
( )
( )( )( )( )
kips - ft 858.3
2
4
19
12
4 66 3 85 . 0 9 . 0

2
85 . 0
= |
.
|

\
|
− =
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ′ =
f
f c nf
h
d bh f M φ φ
2 1 ′ ′
6 6 ′ ′ = b
6 6 ′ ′ =
f
h
9 1 ′ ′
2 2 ′ ′
Assumed
14
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
Design a rectangular beam:
Because (φM
nf
= 858.3 ft-k) > (M
u
= 291 ft-k), therefore
a < h
f
, and the total effective flange need not be
completely used in compression.
The beam can be analyzed as rectangular T-beam
( )( )
5 Table From 0.0028 required
ksi 1628 . 0
19 66 9 . 0
12 291
required
2 2
=
=
×
= =
ρ
φbd
M
k
u
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
ρ
0.0020 0.1172
0.0021 0.1229
0.0022 0.1286
0.0023 0.1343
0.0024 0.1399
0.0025 0.1456
0.0026 0.1512
0.0027 0.1569
0.0028 0.1625
0.0029 0.1681
0.0030 0.1736
0.0031 0.1792
k
Table 5.
Coefficient of Resistance
Table A-8 Textbook
Value used in
the example.
15
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Calculate the required steel area:
Select the steel bars:
Check the effective depth, d:
OK in. 66 in. 5 . 10 Minimum
2 Table From ) in 81 . 3 ( bars #10 3 Use
2
< =
=
w
s
b
A
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
( )( )
2
in 51 . 3 19 66 0028 . 0 required = = = bd A
s
ρ
in. 49 . 19
2
27 . 1
375 . 0 5 . 1 22 = − − − = d
OK in. 19 in. 49 . 19 >
Diameter of #3 Stirrup
See Table 7
Diameter of #10 bar
See Table 7
Table 6
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 2. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
16
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
# 3 and #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
2 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.0
3 7.5 8.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.5 11.0
4 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
5 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.5 13.0 14.0 15.5 16.5
6 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5
7 13.5 14.5 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.5 20.5 22.5
8 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0
9 16.5 17.5 18.5 20.0 21.0 23.0 25.5 28.0
10 18.0 19.0 20.5 21.5 23.0 25.5 28.0 31.0
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 6. Minimum Required Beam Width, b (in.)
Table A-3 Textbook
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 7. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
17
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
Alternative Method for finding required A
s
:
( )
( )( )
( )
2
2
in 52 . 3
which, From
Eq.) (Quadratic 0 3492 1026 9.6255
or,
2
3565 . 0
19 60 9 . 0 12 291
2
3565 . 0
19
2
3565 . 0
66 3 85 . 0
60
85 . 0
=
= + −
|
.
|

\
|
− = = × = =
− = − =
=

=
s
s s
s
s y s u n
s
s
s
c
y s
A
A A
A
A Z f A M M
A a
d Z
A
A
b f
f A
a
φ φ
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 2 (cont’d)
Check A
s,min
from Table 3 (Table A-5, Text):
Check A
s,min
from Table 1 (Table 3-1, Text):
( )( )
( ) ( ) OK in 75 . 0 in 81 . 3
in 75 . 0 19 12 0033 . 0
0033 . 0
2
min ,
2
2
min ,
= > =
= =
=
s s
w s
A A
d b A
( )
( )
( ) OK in 81 . 3 in 10.64
1
4
49 . 19 503 . 0
12 66 4 0319 . 0 1
503 . 0
0319 . 0
2 2
max ,
= > =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + =
s
f
w f s
A
d
h
b b h A
18
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 1 (cont’d)
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 3
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Value used in
the example.
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Table 1. Expressions for A
s,max
(T-Beams)
60,000
40,000
4,000
60,000
40,000
3,000
A
s,max
(in
2
) f
y
(psi)
(psi)
c
f ′
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
582 . 0
0478 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
503 . 0
0319 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
582 . 0
0638 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
503 . 0
0425 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
19
CHAPTER 3b. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
T-Beam Design (For Moment)
Example 1 (cont’d)
Final Detailed Sketch of the Design:
3-#10 bars
Tie steel bars
#3 stirrup
(typical) clear
2
1
1

2 2 ′ ′
2 1 ′ ′
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
3c
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND
DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
1. Establish the effective flange width, b
based on ACI criteria.
2. Check A
s,min
. Use Table 1 (Table A-5,
Textbook).
3. Check the ACI Code ductility
requirements using the proper
expression for A
s,max
from Eq. 1 or
Table 2 (Table 3-1, Textbook). A
s,max
must be larger than actual A
s.
2
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 1
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 2. Expressions for A
s,max
(T-Beams)
60,000
40,000
4,000
60,000
40,000
3,000
A
s,max
(in
2
) f
y
(psi) (psi)
c
f ′
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
582 . 0
0478 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
503 . 0
0319 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
582 . 0
0638 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸

− + 1
503 . 0
0425 . 0 d
h
b b h
f
w f
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
3
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The check the ductility of a T-beam, the
following equation can be used for
various combinations of and f
y
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+ ′ = 1
000 , 87
000 , 87 638 . 0
max ,
d
f h
b b h f
f
A
y f
b
w f c
y
s
β
(1)
c
f ′
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
4. Compute the total tension in the steel:
5. Compute the magnitude of the
compression that the flange its is
capable of furnishing:
6. If N
T
> N
Cf
, the beam will behave as a
true T-beam, and the remaining
compression, which equals N
T
- N
Cf
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
y s T
f A N =
f c Cf
bh f N ′ = 85 . 0
4
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
will be furnished by additional web
area. If N
T
< N
Cf
, the beam will behave
as a rectangular beam of width b.
7. Compute the actual steel ratio in order
to find :
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
Rectangular T-Beam
k
bd
A
s
= ρ
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
8. Consult the proper Table 3, (Tables A-
7 to A-11, Text) and find the required
for the ρvalue from step 7.
9. Compute the practical moment
capacity φM
n
of the beam cross
section:
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
k bd M
n
2
φ φ =
k
5
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ρ
0.0010 0.0595
0.0011 0.0654
0.0012 0.0712
0.0013 0.0771
0.0014 0.0830
0.0015 0.0888
0.0016 0.0946
0.0017 0.1005
0.0018 0.1063
0.0019 0.1121
0.0020 0.1179
0.0021 0.1237
k
Table 3.
Coefficient of Resistance
Table A-10 Textbook
Sample Values
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
7. Determine the depth of the
compressive stress block:
8. (a) Locate the centroid of the total
compressive area referenced to top of
the flange using the relationship
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
True T-Beam
f
w c
Cf T
h
b f
N N
a +


=
85 . 0
6
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
From which
Compute the practical moment
capacity φM
n
of the beam:
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments


=
A
Ay
y
y d Z − =
or Z N Z N M
T C n
φ φ φ =
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Or
(b) Calculate φM
n
using a summation
of internal couples contributed by the
flange and the web:
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

− − +
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2 2
f
f Cf T
f
Cf n
h a
h d N N
h
d N M φ φ
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
7
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1: T-Beam Analysis
Determine the practical moment capacity
φM
n
for the T-beam in the floor system
shown. The beam span is 24 in. Use f
y
=
60,000 psi and = 3,000 psi. Check the
steel to ensure that it is within allowable
limits according to the ACI Code.
c
f ′
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1: T-Beam Analysis (cont’d)
4 2 ′ ′
(typ.) 0 5 ′ ′ − ′
0 1 ′ ′
4′ ′
3-#9
3-#9
Procedure for Analysis of T-Beams
For Moments
8
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
1. Compute the design moment M
u
.
2. Assume that the effective depth d is
equal to h – 3 in.
3. Establish the effective flange width based
on ACI criteria.
4. Compute the practical moment strength
φM
nf
assuming that the total effective
flange is in compression:
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
− ′ =
2
85 . 0
f
f c nf
h
d bh f M φ φ
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
5. If φM
nf
> M
u
the beam will behave as
rectangular T-beam of width b.
Otherwise, the beam will behave as a
true T-beam.
6. Design as a rectangular beam with b
and d as known values. Compute the
required :
Rectangular T-Beam
k
2
required
bd
M
k
u
φ
=
9
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
7. From the tables in Appendix A of
textbook (see Table 3), determine the
required ρ for the required of step 6.
8. Compute the required A
s
:
9. Select bars and check the beam width.
Check the actual d and compare it with
the assumed d. If the actual d is
slightly in excess of the assumed d,
bd A
s
ρ = required
k
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
the design will be slightly conservative.
If the actual d is less than the
assumed d, the design may be on the
nonconservative side (depending on
the steel provided) and should be
more closely investigated for possible
revision.
10. Check A
s,min
. Use Table 1 (Table A-5,
Textbook).
10
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
11. Check the ACI ductility requirement
using the proper expression for A
s,max
from Table 2 (Table 3-1 Text) or Eq. 1.
Note that A
s,max
must be larger than
actual A
s
.
12. Sketch the design.
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
6. Using an estimated d
f
= h – 3 in. and
Z
f
= d
f
– h
f
/2, determine the steel area
A
s
required for the flange couple:
7. Design the web couple as a
rectangular reinforced concrete beam
True T-Beam
f y
nf
sf
Z f
M
A
φ
φ
= required
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
11
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
having a total depth h
w
= h – h
f
using
an estimated d
w
= h
w
– 3 in. and a
beam width of b
w
. Design for an
applied moment M
u
- φM
nf
.
Determine required , required ρ,
and required A
sw.
8. Total required A
sw
= A
sf
+ A
sw
.
9. Select the bars. Bars must fit into
beam width b
w
. Check d as in step 9
k
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
of the rectangular T-beam design.
10. Check A
s,min
. Use Table 1 (Table A-5,
Textbook).
11. Check A
s,max
. Use Table 2 (Table 3-1,
Textbook) or Eq. 1.
12. Sketch the design.
12
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
Example: T-Beam Design
Design a T-beam having a cross section
shown in the figure. Assume that the
effective flange width given is acceptable.
The T-beam will carry a total design
moment M
u
of 340 ft-kips. Use = 3,000
psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi. Use 1.5-in. cover
and No. 3 stirrups.
c
f ′
CHAPTER 3c. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of T-Beams
For Moments
Example: T-Beam Design (cont’d)
2 2 ′ ′
2 1 ′ ′
7 2 ′ ′

2
1
3
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
3d
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND
DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction
– If a beam cross section is limited because
of architectural or other considerations, it
may happen that concrete cannot develop
the compression force required to resist
the given bending moment.
– In this case, reinforcing steel bars are
added in the compression zone, resulting
in a so-called doubly reinforced beam,
that is one with compression as well as
tension reinforcement. (Fig. 1)
2
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction (cont’d)
d
b
h
d′
Figure 1. Doubly Reinforced Beam
s
A
s
A′
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction (cont’d)
– The use of compression reinforcement has
decreased markedly with the use of
strength design methods, which account
for the full strength potential of the
concrete on the compressive side of the
neutral axis.
– However, there are situations in which
compressive reinforcement is used for
reasons other than strength.
3
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction (cont’d)
– It has been found that the inclusion of
some compression steel has the following
advantages:
• It will reduce the long-term deflections of
members.
• It will set a minimum limit on bending loading
• It act as stirrup-support bars continuous
through out the beam span.
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction (cont’d)
– Another reason for placing reinforcement in
the compression zone is that when beams
span more than two supports (continuous
construction), both positive and negative
moments will exist as shown in Fig. 2.
– In Fig. 2, positive moments exist at A and
C; therefore, the main tensile
reinforcement would be placed in the
bottom of the beam.
4
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction (cont’d)
+
-
+ +
-
Moment
Diagram
Figure 2. Continuous Beam
w
A
B
C
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beams
Introduction (cont’d)
– At B, however, a negative moment exists
and the bottom of the beam is in
compression. The tensile reinforcement,
therefore, must be placed near the top of
the beam.
5
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress
– The basic assumption for the analysis of
doubly reinforced beams are similar to
those for tensile reinforced beams.
– The steel will behave elastically up to the
point where the strain exceeds the yield
strain ε
y
. As a limit = f
y
when the
compression strain ≥ ε
y
.
– If < ε
y
, the compression steel stress will
be = E
s
.
s
f ′
s
ε′
s
ε′
s
f ′
s
ε′
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– If, in a doubly reinforced beam, the tensile
steel ratio ρ is equal to or less than ρ
b
, the
strength of the beam may be approximated
within acceptable limits by disregarding the
compression bars.
– The strength of such a beam will be
controlled be tensile yielding, and the lever
arm of the resisting moment will be little
affected by the presence of comp. bars.
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
6
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– If the tensile steel ratio ρ is larger than ρ
b
, a
somewhat elaborate analysis is required.
– In Fig. 3a, a rectangular beam cross
section is shown with compression steel
placed at distance from the compression
face and with tensile steel A
s
at the
effective depth d.
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
s
A′
d′
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
Cross Section
(a)
Strain at Ultimate
Moment
(b)
Concrete-Steel
Couple
(c)
Steel-Steel
Couple
(d)
Figure 3
d
b
s
A
s
A′
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2
1
a
d Z
ε
c
= 0.003
ε
s
c
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
1
y s T
f A N
1 1
=
s s C
f A N ′ ′ =
2
y s T
f A N
2 2
=
s
ε′
d′
d d Z ′ − =
2
N.A
7
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– Notation for Doubly Reinforced Beam:
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
= total compression steel cross-sectional area
d = effective depth of tension steel
= depth to centroid of compressive steel from compression fiber
A
s1
= amount of tension steel used by the concrete-steel couple
A
s2
= amount of tension steel used by the steel-steel couple
A
s
= total tension steel cross-sectional area (A
s
= A
s1
+ A
s2
)
M
n1
= nominal moment strength of the concrete-steel couple
M
n2
= nominal moment strength of the steel-steel couple
M
n
= nominal moment strength of the beam
ε
s
= unit strain at the centroid of the tension steel
= unit strain at the centroid of the compressive steel
s
A′
d′
s
ε′
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– Method of Analysis:
• The total compression will now consist of two
forces
N
C1
, the compression resisted by the concrete
N
C2
, the compression resisted by the steel
• For analysis, the total resisting moment of the
beam will be assumed to consist of two parts or two
internal couples: The part due to the resistance of
the compressive concrete and tensile steel and the
part due to the compressive steel and additional
tensile steel.
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
8
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– The total nominal capacity may be derived
as the sum of the two internal couples,
neglecting the concrete that is displaced by
the compression steel.
– The strength of the steel-steel couple is
given by (see Fig. 3)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
2 2 2
Z N M
T n
=
(1)
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
Cross Section
(a)
Strain at Ultimate
Moment
(b)
Concrete-Steel
Couple
(c)
Steel-Steel
Couple
(d)
Figure 3
d
b
s
A
s
A′
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2
1
a
d Z
ε
c
= 0.003
ε
s
c
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
1
y s T
f A N
1 1
=
s s C
f A N ′ ′ =
2
y s T
f A N
2 2
=
s
ε′
d′
d d Z ′ − =
2
N.A
9
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– The strength of the concrete-steel couple is
given by
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( )
2 2 2 2
2 2
assuming
s s y s s s T C
y s y s n
A A f A f A N N
f f d d f A M
= ′ ⇒ = ′ ′ ⇒ =
= ′ − =
Therefore,
( ) d d f A M
y s n
′ − ′ =
2
(2)
1 1 1
Z N M
T n
= (3)
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( )
(
¸
(

¸

− ′ − =
′ − =
′ =
− = ⇒ + =
=
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2

Therefore

then , since
assuming
2
1
1
2
2 1 2 1
1 1
a
d f A A M
A A A
A A
A A A A A A
f f
a
d f A M
y s s n
s s s
s s
s s s s s s
y s y s n
(4)
10
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– Nominal Moment Capacity
From Eqs. 2 and 4, the nominal moment
capacity can be evaluated as
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( ) ( ) d d f A
a
d f A A
M M M
y s y s s
n n n
′ − ′ +
(
¸
(

¸

− ′ − =
+ =
2

2 1
(5)
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– Determination of the Location of Neutral
Axis:
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( )
( )
b f
f A
b f
f A A
a
f A ab f f A
N N N
a
c
c
y s
c
y s s
y s c y s
C C T

=

′ −
=
′ + ′ =
+ =
=
85 . 0 85 . 0
Therefore,
85 . 0
1
2 1
1
β
11
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– Location of Neutral Axis c
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
(6)
( )
( )
b f
f A A
a
c
b f
f A
b f
f A A
a
c
y s s
c
y s
c
y s s

′ −
= =

=

′ −
=
1 1
1
85 . 0
85 . 0 85 . 0
β β
(7)
NOTE: if 4,000 psi, then β
1
= 0.85, otherwise see next slide ≤ ′
c
f
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition I: Tension and Compression
Steel Both at Yield Stress (cont’d)
– The value of β
1
may determined by
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ′
≤ ′ < ′ × −
≤ ′
=
psi 000 , 8 for 0.65
psi 000 , 8 psi 4,000 for 10 5 05 1
psi 000 , 4 for 85 . 0
c
c
5
c
1
f
f f .
f
c
-
β
(8)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
12
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Ductility Requirements
– The ACI Code limitation on ρ applies to
doubly reinforced beams as well as to
singly reinforced beams.
– Steel ratio ρ can be determined from
– This value of ρ shall not exceed 0.75ρ
b
as
provided in Table 1 (Table A-5, Textbook)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
bd
A
s1
= ρ (9)
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 1.
Design Constants
(Table A-5 Text)
13
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
Compute the
practical moment
capacity φM
n
for
the beam having
a cross section
as shown in the
figure. Use =
3,000 psi and f
y
=
60,000 psi.
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
c
f ′

2
1
2
0 2 ′ ′
1 1 ′ ′
10 # 2−
stirrup 3 #
(typ) clear
2
1
1

9 # 3−
9 # 3−
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Determine the values for and A
s
:
We assume that all the steel yields:
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
s
A′
From Table 2 (A-2, Textbook),
2
in 54 . 2 #10 2 of area = = ′
s
A
2
in 0 . 6 #9 6 of area = =
s
A
2
2 1
2
2
in 46 . 3 54 . 2 0 . 6
in 54 . 2
Therefore,
and
= − = − =
= ′ =
= = ′
s s s
s s
y s y s
A A A
A A
f f f f
14
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 2. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
Example 1 (cont’d)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
Cross Section
(a)
Strain at Ultimate
Moment
(b)
Concrete-Steel
Couple
(c)
Steel-Steel
Couple
(d)
Figure 3
d
b
s
A
s
A′
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2
1
a
d Z
ε
c
= 0.003
ε
s
c
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
1
y s T
f A N
1 1
=
s s C
f A N ′ ′ =
2
y s T
f A N
2 2
=
s
ε′
d′
d d Z ′ − =
2
N.A
15
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
From Eq. 6 (concrete-steel couple):
From Eq. 7 (note that < 4,000 psi, thus β
1
=
0.85):
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( )
( )
( )( )
in. 40 . 7
11 3 85 . 0
60 46 . 3
85 . 0 85 . 0
1
= =

=

′ −
=
b f
f A
b f
f A A
a
c
y s
c
y s s
c
f ′
in. 71 . 8
85 . 0
40 . 7
1
= = =
β
a
c
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Check assumptions for yielding of both the
compressive and tensile steels:
From Fig. 3b:
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
00389 . 0
71 , 8
71 . 8 20 003 . 0 003 . 0 003 . 0
Also
00214 . 0
71 . 8
5 . 2 71 . 8 003 . 0 003 . 0 003 . 0
=

=

= ⇒ =

=

=
′ −
= ′ ⇒ =
′ −

c
c d
c c d
c
d c
c d c
s
s
s
s
ε
ε
ε
ε
| | OK 00389 . 0 and 00214 . 0 00207 . 0
10 29
000 , 60
s 6
= = ′ > =
×
= =
s
s
y
y
E
f
ε ε ε
Therefore, the assumptions are valid
16
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
From Eq. 8:
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( ) ( )
( ) ( )( ) k - in 9 . 050 , 6 5 . 2 20 60 54 . 2
2
4 . 7
20 60 46 . 3
2

2 1
= − +
(
¸
(

¸

− =
′ − ′ +
(
¸
(

¸

− ′ − =
+ =
d d f A
a
d f A A
M M M
y s y s s
n n n
kips - ft 504.2 kips - ft
12
9 . 050 , 6
= =
n
M
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
The practical moment capacity is evaluated
as follows:
Check ductility according to ACI Code:
( ) kips - ft 454 2 . 504 9 . 0 = =
u
M φ
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( )
( ) OK 0161 . 0 ) 0157 . 0 ( Since
0157 . 0
20 11
46 . 3
max
1
= < =
= = =
ρ ρ
ρ
bd
A
s
From Table 1
17
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition II: Compression Steel Below
Yield Stress
– The preceding equations are valid only if
the compression steel has yielded when
the beam reaches its ultimate strength.
– In many cases, however, such as for wide,
shallow beams reinforced with higher-
strength steels, the yielding of compression
steel may not occur when the beam
reaches its ultimate capacity.
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition II: Compression Steel Below
Yield Stress
– It is therefore necessary to to develop
more generally applicable equations to
account for the possibility that the
compression reinforcement has not yielded
when the doubly reinforced beam fails in
flexure.
– The development of these equations will
be based on
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
y s
ε ε <
′ (10)
18
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition II: Compression Steel Below
Yield Stress
– Development of the Equations for
Condition II
• Referring to Fig. 3,
• But
• and
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( )
s s c y s
C C T
A f ba f f A
N N N
′ ′ + ′ =
+ =
85 . 0
2 1
c a
1
β =
( )
s s s
E
c
d c
E f
s (
¸
(

¸

′ −
= ′ = ′
003 . 0
ε
(11)
(12)
(13)
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Cross Section
(a)
Strain at Ultimate
Moment
(b)
Concrete-Steel
Couple
(c)
Steel-Steel
Couple
(d)
Figure 3
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
Condition II: Compression Steel Below
Yield Stress
d
b
s
A
s
A′
|
.
|

\
|
− =
2
1
a
d Z
ε
c
= 0.003
ε
s
c
a
c
f ′ 85 . 0
ab f N
c C
′ = 85 . 0
1
y s T
f A N
1 1
=
s s C
f A N ′ ′ =
2
y s T
f A N
2 2
=
s
ε′
d′
d d Z ′ − =
2
N.A
19
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition II: Compression Steel Below
Yield Stress
• Substituting Eqs 12 and 13 into Eq. 11, yields
• Multiplying by c, expanding, and rearranging, yield
• If E
s
is taken as 29 × 10
3
ksi, Eq. 15 will take the
following form:
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
( )
( )
s s c y s
A E
c
d c
c b f f A ′
(
¸
(

¸

′ −
+ ′ =
003 . 0
85 . 0
1
β
( ) ( ) 0 003 . 0 003 . 0 85 . 0
2
1
= ′ ′ − − ′ + ′
s s y s s s c
A E d c f A A E c b f β
(14)
(15)
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Condition II: Compression Steel Below
Yield Stress
The following quadratic equation can be
used to find c when :
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
y s
ε ε < ′
( ) ( ) 0 87 87 85 . 0
2
1
= ′ ′ − − ′ + ′
s y s s c
A d c f A A c b f β
Analogous to:
a
ac b b
x
c bx ax
2
4
0
2
2
− ± −
=
= + +
a b c
(16)
20
CHAPTER 3d. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2
Compute the practical
moment φM
n
for a
beam having a cross
section shown in the
figure. Use = 5,000
psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi.
Doubly Reinforced Beam Analysis
c
f ′
0 2 ′ ′
1 1 ′ ′

2
1
2
stirrup 3 #
(typ) clear
2
1
1

8 # 2−
11 # 3− See Textbook for complete
solution for this example.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
3e
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
REINFORCED CONCRETE
BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND
DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
1. Assume that d = h – 4 in.
2. Establish the total design moment M
u
.
3. Check if a doubly reinforced beam is
necessary. From tables for coefficient
of resistance (Table 1, Tables A-7 to
A-11, Textbook), obtain the maximum
and compute maximum φM
n
for a
singly reinforced beam:
k bd M
n
2
maximum φ φ =
k
2
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ρ
0.0010 0.0595
0.0011 0.0654
0.0012 0.0712
0.0013 0.0771
0.0014 0.0830
0.0015 0.0888
0.0016 0.0946
0.0017 0.1005
0.0018 0.1063
0.0019 0.1121
0.0020 0.1179
0.0021 0.1237
k
Table 1.
Coefficient of Resistance
Table A-10 Textbook
Sample Values
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
4. If φM
n
< M
u
, design the beam as a
doubly reinforced beam. If φM
n
≥ M
u
,
the beam can be designed as a beam
reinforced with tension steel only.
5. Provide a concrete-steel couple
having the steel ratio
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
For a Doubly Reinforced Beam
( )
b
ρ ρ ρ 75 . 0 9 . 0 9 . 0
max
= =
3
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
with this value of ρ, enter the
appropriate table and determine .
6. Determine the moment capacity of the
concrete-steel couple:
Find the steel required for the
concrete-steel couple:
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
k
k bd M
n
2
1
φ φ =
bd A
s
ρ =
1
required
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
7. Find the remaining moment that must
be resisted by the steel-steel couple:
8. Considering the steel-steel couple,
find the required compressive force in
the steel (assume that = 3 in.):
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
1 2
required
n u n
M M M φ φ − =
d

( ) d d
M
N
n
C
′ −
=
φ
φ
2
2
4
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
9. Since N
C2
= , compute so that
may eventually be determined. This
can be accomplished by using the
neutral-axis location of the concrete-
steel couple and checking the strain
in the compression steel with ε
y
. Thus
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
s s
f A ′ ′
s
f ′
b f
f A
a
c
y s

=
85 . 0
1
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
If ≥ ε
y
, the compressive steel has
yielded at the ultimate moment and
= f
y
. If ≥ ε
y
, then calculate
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
( )
c
d c
f
E
f
a
c
s
y
s
y
y
′ −
= ′
×
= = =
003 . 0
10 29

6
1
ε
ε
β
s
ε

s
f ′
s
ε′
s s s
E f ε

=

5
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
10. Since N
C2
= ,
11. Determine the required A
s2
:
12. Find the total tension steel required:
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
s s
f A ′ ′
s
C
s
f
N
A

= ′
2
required
y
s s
s
f
A f
A
′ ′
=
2
2 1 s s s
A A A + =
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
13. Select the compressive steel, .
14. Select the tensile steel, A
s
. Check the
required beam width. Preferably,
place the bars in one layer.
15. Check the actual d and compare it with
the actual d. If the actual d is slightly
in excess of the assumed d, the
design will be slightly conservative (on
the safe side). If the actual d is less
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
s
A′
6
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
than the assumed d, the design may
be on the unconservative side and an
analysis and possibly revision should
be considered.
16. Sketch the detailed design.
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
Design a rectangular reinforced concrete
beam to resist a total design moment M
u
of
780 ft-kips (this includes the moment due
to the weight of the beam). The beam size
is limited to 15 in. maximum width and 30
in. maximum overall depth. Use = 3000
psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi. If compressive steel
is required, make = 2.5 in.
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
c
f ′
d′
7
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Assume that d = 30 – 4 = 26 in.
Given:
– For singly reinforced beam:
• Max ρ=0.0161 (Table 2, Table A-5, Text)
• Therefore, = 0.7831 ksi (Table 3, Table A-8,
Text)
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
kips - ft 780 and ksi, 60 ksi, 3 = = = ′
u y c
M f f
( )( ) ( )
kips - ft 6 . 595
12
7831 . 0 26 15 9 . 0
2
2
1
= = = k bd M
n
φ φ
k
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Recommended Design Values
( ) psi
c
f ′
(
(
¸
(

¸



y y
c
f f
f 200 3
ρmax = 0.75 ρb
ρb (ksi) k
Fy = 40,000 psi
3,000 0.0050 0.0278 0.0135 0.4828
4,000 0.0050 0.0372 0.0180 0.6438
5,000 0.0053 0.0436 0.0225 0.8047
6,000 0.0058 0.0490 0.0270 0.9657
Fy = 50,000 psi
3,000 0.0040 0.0206 0.0108 0.4828
4,000 0.0040 0.0275 0.0144 0.6438
5,000 0.0042 0.0324 0.0180 0.8047
6,000 0.0046 0.0364 0.0216 0.9657
Fy = 60,000 psi
3,000 0.0033 0.0161 0.0090 0.4828
4,000 0.0033 0.0214 0.0120 0.6438
5,000 0.0035 0.0252 0.0150 0.8047
6,000 0.0039 0.0283 0.0180 0.9657
Fy = 75,000 psi
3,000 0.0027 0.0116 0.0072 0.4828
4,000 0.0027 0.0155 0.0096 0.6438
5,000 0.0028 0.0182 0.0120 0.8047
6,000 0.0031 0.0206 0.0144 0.9657

Table 2
Design Constants
Table A-5 Textbook
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
Value used
in example
8
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
ρ


ρ


ρ


0.0082 0.4446 0.0118 0.6098 0.0154 0.7567
0.0083 0.4494 0.0119 0.6141 0.0155 0.7605
0.0084 0.4542 0.0120 0.6184 0.0156 0.7643
0.0085 0.4590 0.0121 0.6227 0.0157 0.7681
0.0086 0.4638 0.0122 0.6270 0.0158 0.7719
0.0087 0.4686 0.0123 0.6312 0.0159 0.7756
0.0088 0.4734 0.0124 0.6355 0.0160 0.7794
0.0089 0.4781 0.0125 0.6398 0.0161 0.7831
0.0090 0.4828 0.0126 0.6440 0.0162 0.7868
0.0091 0.4876 0.0127 0.6482 0.0163 0.7905

k k k
Table 3. Steel Ratio Versus Coefficient of Resistance
for = 3,000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi
c
f ′
Values used in example
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Since (φM
n
= 595.6 ft-k) < (M
u
= 780 ft-k)
Design the beam as doubly reinforced
For concrete-steel couple:
Use ρ= 0.9 (ρ
max
) = 0.9 (0.0161) = 0.0145
Therefore,
= 0.7216 ksi (from Table 4, Table A-8, Text)
and
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
k
( )( ) ( )
kips - ft 549
12
7216 . 0 26 15 9 . 0
2
2
1
= = = k bd M
n
φ φ
9
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
0.0104 0.5477 0.0140 0.7017 0.0176 0.8374
0.0105 0.5522 0.0141 0.7057 0.0177 0.8409
0.0106 0.5567 0.0142 0.7097 0.0178 0.8444
0.0107 0.5612 0.0143 0.7137 0.0179 0.8479
0.0108 0.5657 0.0144 0.7177 0.0180 0.8514
0.0109 0.5702 0.0145 0.7216 0.0181 0.8548
0.0110 0.5746 0.0146 0.7256 0.0182 0.8583
0.0111 0.5791 0.0147 0.7295 0.0183 0.8617
0.0112 0.5835 0.0148 0.7334 0.0184 0.8651
0.0113 0.5879 0.0149 0.7373 0.0185 0.8685

ρ


ρ


ρ



k k k
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
Table 4. Steel Ratio Versus Coefficient of Resistance
for = 3,000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi
Values used in example
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Therefore, the required force for the steel-
steel couple is
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
( )( )
2
1
in 66 . 5 26 15 0145 . 0 required = = = bd A
s
ρ
kips - ft 231 549 780 required
1 2
= − = − =
n u n
M M M φ φ
(given) in. 5 . 2 = ′ d
( ) ( )
kips 131
5 . 2 26 9 . 0
231 12
2
2
=

×
=
′ −
=
d d
M
N
n
C
φ
φ
10
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Check compression steel stress:
– Thus, c can be calculated as follows:
– and
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
( )
( )( )
in. 88 . 8
15 3 85 . 0
60 66 . 5
85 . 0
1
= =

=
b f
f A
a
c
y s
in. 45 . 10
85 . 0
88 . 8
1
1
= = = ⇒ =
β
β
a
c c a
( ) ( )
00228 . 0
45 . 10
5 . 2 45 . 10 003 . 0 003 . 0
=

=
′ −
= ′
c
d c
s
ε
See Eq. 1 (next slide)
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
– The value of β
1
may be determined from the
following equation:
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
> ′
≤ ′ < ′ × −
≤ ′
=
psi 000 , 8 for 0.65
psi 000 , 8 psi 4,000 for 10 5 05 1
psi 000 , 4 for 85 . 0
c
c
5
c
1
f
f f .
f
c
-
β (1)
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
11
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
– The yield strain of steel can be computed
as
– Since ( = 0.00228) > (ε
y
= 0.00207), the
compressive steel has yielded at the
ultimate moment and
= f
y
.
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
00207 . 0
10 29
000 , 60
6
=
×
= =
s
y
y
E
f
ε
s
ε′
s
f ′
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Since N
C2
= = f
y
,
– Select steel bars:
• Use 2 #10 ( = 2.54 in
2
) for compression
rebars.
• Use 8 #9 (A
s
= 8.00 in
2
) for tension rebars in
two layers.
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
2 2
in 18 . 2
60
131
required = = = ′
y
C
s
f
N
A
s s
f A ′ ′
s
A′
2
2 1
in 84 . 7 18 . 2 66 . 5 = + = + =
s s s
A A A
s
A′
12
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 5. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Check the ACI Code requirements for
minimum width of 4 #9 bars in one layer:
From Table 6, min b = 12.0 in < 15 in. OK
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
in. 5 . 26 5 . 0 128 . 1 375 . 0 5 . 1 30 Actual = − − − − = d
( ) ( ) OK 0 . 26 assumed 5 26. actual ′ ′ = > ′ ′ = d d
Dia. #3 stirrup
Dia. #9 bar Half spacing between layers
13
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
Example 1 (cont’d)
# 3 and #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
2 6.0 6.0 6.5 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.0
3 7.5 8.0 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.5 11.0
4 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5 11.0 12.0 13.0 14.0
5 10.5 11.0 11.5 12.5 13.0 14.0 15.5 16.5
6 12.0 12.5 13.5 14.0 15.0 16.5 18.0 19.5
7 13.5 14.5 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.5 20.5 22.5
8 15.0 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 21.0 23.0 25.0
9 16.5 17.5 18.5 20.0 21.0 23.0 25.5 28.0
10 18.0 19.0 20.5 21.5 23.0 25.5 28.0 31.0
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 6. Minimum Required Beam Width, b (in.)
Table A-3 Textbook
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 7. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
14
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Check steel ductility:
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
OK in. 51 . 2
2
27 . 1
375 . 0 5 . 1 Actual = − + = ′ d
( )
0137 . 0
5 . 26 15
54 . 2 00 . 8
1
=

=
bd
A
s
ρ
( ) ( ) OK 0161 . 0 0137 . 0
max
= < = ρ ρ
Dia. #3 stirrup
Half Dia. of #10 bar
CHAPTER 3e. R/C BEAMS: T-BEAMS AND DOUBLY REINFORCED BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Final Detailed Sketch:
b
0 3 ′ ′
CLR 1′ ′
bars 10 # 2−
bars 9 # 4−
bars 9 # 4−
(Typ.) CLR
2
1
1

stirrup 3 #
Procedure for Design of Doubly
Reinforced Beams for Moment
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
4a
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
SHEAR IN BEAMS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
The previous chapters dealt with the
flexural strength of beams.
Beams must also have an adequate
safety margin against other types of
failure such as shear, which may be
more dangerous than flexural failure.
The shear forces create additional
tensile stresses that must be
considered.
2
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure
– Shear failure of reinforced concrete beam,
more properly called “diagonal tension
failure”, is difficult to predict accurately.
– In spite of many years of experimental
research and the use of highly
sophisticated computational tools, it is not
fully understood.
– If a beam without properly designed for
shear reinforcement is overloaded to
failure, shear collapse is likely to occur
suddenly.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Figure 1. Shear Failure (Nilson, 1997)
(a) Overall view, (b) detail near right support.
3
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure (cont’d)
– Figure 1 shows a shear-critical beam
tested under point loading.
– With no shear reinforcement provided, the
member failed immediately upon formation
of the critical crack in the high-shear region
near the right support.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure (cont’d)
When are the shearing effects so large that
they cannot be ignored as a design
consideration?
– It is somehow difficult to answer this
question.
– Probably the best way to begin answering
this question is to try to approximate the
shear stresses on the cross section of the
beam.
4
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure (cont’d)
– Suppose that a beam is constructed by
stacking several slabs or planks on top of
another without fastening them together.
– Also suppose this beam is loaded in a
direction normal to the surface of these
slabs.
– When a bending load is applied, the stack
will deform as shown in Fig. 2a.
– Since the slabs were free to slide on one
one another, the ends do not remain even
but staggered.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure (cont’d)
P
Figure 2a
(a) Unloaded Stack of Slabs (b) Unglued Slabs loaded
5
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure (cont’d)
– Each of the slabs behaves as independent
beam, and the total resistance to bending of
n slabs is approximately n times the
resistance of one slab alone.
– If the slabs of Fig. 2b is fastened or glued,
then the staggering or relative longitudinal
movement of slabs would disappear under
the action of the force. However, shear
forces will develop between the slabs.
– In this case, the stack of slabs will act as a
solid beam.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure (cont’d)
P
Figure 2b
(c) Glued Slabs Unloaded (d) Glued Slabs loaded
6
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Shear Failure (cont’d)
– The fact that this solid beam does not
exhibit this relative movement of
longitudinal elements after the slabs are
glued indicates the presence of shearing
stresses on longitudinal planes.
– Evaluation of these shearing stresses will
be discussed in the next couple of
viewgraphs.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Theoretical Background
– The concept of stresses acting in
homogeneous beams are usually covered
in various textbooks of mechanics of
materials (strength of materials).
– It can be shown that when the material is
elastic, shear stresses can be computed
from
Ib
VQ
v =
v = shear stress Q = statical moment of area about N.A.
V = external shear force b = width of the cross section
I = moment of inertia about neutral axis
(1)
7
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Theoretical Background
– Also, when the material is elastic, bending
stresses can be computed from
I
Mc
f =
f = bending stress
M = external or applied moment
c = the distance from the neutral axis to out fiber of
the cross section
I = moment of inertia of the cross section about N.A.
(2)
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Theoretical Background
– All points in the length of the beam, where
the shear and bending moment are not
zero, and at locations other than the
extreme fiber or neutral axis, are subject to
both shearing stresses and bending
stresses.
– The combination of these stresses
produces maximum normal and shearing
stresses in a specific plane inclined with
respect to the axis of the beam.
8
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Theoretical Background
– The distributions of the bending and shear
stresses acting individually are shown in
Figs. 3, 4, 5, and 6.
x
y
P
w
R
F
C
F
T
V
r
c
y
dy
y
C
dA
Neutral axis
Centroidal axis
c c
Figure 3. Bending Stress
I
Mc
f =
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Theoretical Background
Figure 4. Bending Stress
I
Mc
f =
9
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Theoretical Background
Figure 5. Vertical Shearing Stress
N.A
V
Max Stress
Ib
VQ
v =
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Theoretical Background
Figure 6. Vertical Shearing Stress
Ib
VQ
v =
10
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Principal Planes
– The combination of bending moment and
shearing stresses is of such a nature that
maximum normal and shearing shearing
stresses at a point in a beam exist on
planes that are inclined with the axis of the
beam.
– These planes are commonly called
principal planes, and the stresses that act
on them are referred to as principal
stresses.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Principal Planes
– Plane State of Stress
yx
τ
y
σ
yz
τ
xy
τ
xz
τ
zx
τ
zy
τ
x
σ
z
σ
y
σ
xy
τ
x
σ
x
σ
y
σ
xy
τ
yx
τ
11
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Principal Planes
– Plane State of Stress
Components:
Normal Stress σ
x
Normal Stress σ
y
Shearing Stress τ
xy
Shearing Stress τ
yx
y
σ
yx
τ
xy
τ
x
σ x
σ
y
σ
xy
τ
yx
τ
yx xy
τ τ =
θ
A
A
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Principal Stresses
– The principal stresses in a beam subjected
to shear and bending may be computed
using the following equation:
2
2
4 2
v
f f
f
pr
+ ± = (3)
f
pr
= principal stress
f = bending stress computed from Eq. 2
v = shearing stress computed from Eq. 1
12
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Orientation Principal Planes
– The orientation of the principal planes may
be calculated using the following equation:
– Note that at the neutral axis of the beam,
the principal stresses will occur at a 45
0
angle.








=

f
v 2
tan
2
1
1
α
(4)
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
State of Stress at the Neutral Axis of a
Homogeneous Beam
N.A.
v
yx
v
xy
v
yx
v
xy
Figure 7. Shear Stress Relationship
(a) Beam under Uniform Loading
(b) Stresses on Unit Element
w
13
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
State of Stress at the Neutral Axis of a
Homogeneous Beam
– Diagonal Tension
v
yx
v
xy
v
yx
v
xy
v
yx
v
xy
v
yx
v
xy
A
B
C
D
Figure 8
This plane is subject
to compression
This plane is subject
to tension
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
State of Stress at the Neutral Axis of a
Homogeneous Beam
– Diagonal Tension
• Plane A-B is subjected to compression
• While Plane C-D is subjected to tension.
• The tension in Plane C-D is historically called
“diagonal tension”.
• Note that concrete is strong in compression but
weak in tension, and there is a tendency for
concrete to crack on the plane subject to
tension.
• When the tensile stresses are so high, it is
necessary to provide reinforcement.
14
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Diagonal Tension Failure
– In the beams with which we are concerned,
where the length over which a shear failure
could occur (the shear span) is in excess
of approximately three times the effective
depth, the diagonal tension failure would
be the mode of failure in shear.
– Such a failure is shown in Figs. 1 and 8.
– For longer shear spans in plain concrete
beams, cracks due to flexural tensile
stresses would occur long before cracks
due to diagonal tension.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Diagonal Tension Failure
Figure 8. Typical Diagonal Tension Failure
Shear Span
Portion of span in which
Shear stress is high
15
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Figure 1. Shear Failure (Nilson, 1997)
(a) Overall view, (b) detail near right support.
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Basis of ACI Design for Shear
– The ACI provides design guidelines for
shear reinforcement based on the vertical
shear force V
u
that develops at any given
cross section of a member.
– Although it is really the diagonal tension for
which shear reinforcing must be provided,
diagonal tensile forces (or stresses) are not
calculated.
– Traditionally, vertical shear force has been
taken to be good indicator of diagonal
tension present.
16
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
Web Reinforcement
– The basic rationale for the design of the
shear reinforcement, or web reinforcement
as it usually called in beams, is to provide
steel to cross the diagonal tension cracks
and subsequently keep them from opening.
– In reference to Fig. 8, it is seen that the
web reinforcement may take several forms
such as:
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Web Reinforcement (cont’d)
1. Vertical stirrups (see Fig. 9)
2. Inclined or diagonal stirrups
3. The main reinforcement bent at ends to
act as inclined stirrups (see Fig. 10).
– The most common form of web
reinforcement used is the vertical stirrup.
– This reinforcement appreciably increases
the ultimate shear capacity of a bending
member.
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
17
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
Figure 9. Types of Web Reinforcement
2
L
2
L
Vertical Stirrups
Web Reinforcement (cont’d)
– Vertical Stirrups
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Web Reinforcement (cont’d)
– Bent-up Longitudinal Bars
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
Figure 9. Type of Web Reinforcement
2
L
2
L
Bent-up bar
18
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear
Reinforcement
For member that are subject to shear and
flexure only, the amount of shear force that
the concrete (unreinforced for shear)can
resist is
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
d b f V
w c c

= 2
Note, for rectangular beam b
w
= b
(5)
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear
Reinforcement
– The design shear force V
u
results from the
application of factored loads.
– Values of V
u
are most conveniently
determined using a typical shear force
diagram.
– Theoretically, no web reinforcement is
required if
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
c u
V V φ ≤ (6)
19
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
0.70 Bearing on Concrete
0.70 Compression Members (tied)
0.75 Compression members (spirally reinforced)
0.85 Shear and Torsion
0.90 Bending
φ Type of Loading
Table 1. Strength Reduction Factors
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear
Reinforcement
– However, the code requires that a minimum
area of shear reinforcement be provided in
all reinforced concrete flexural members
when V
u
> ½ φV
c
, except as follows:
• In slabs and footings
• In concrete joist construction as defined in the code.
• In beams with a total depth of less than 10 in., 2 ½
times the flange thickness, or one-half the width of the
web, whichever is greater.
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
20
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear
Reinforcement
– In cases where shear reinforcement is
required for strength or because V
u
> ½
φV
c
, the minimum area of shear
reinforcement shall be computed from
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
y
w
v
f
s b
A
50
=
(7)
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear
Reinforcement
Where
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
A
v
= total cross-sectional area of web reinforcement within
a distance s, for single loop stirrups, A
v
= 2A
s
A
s
= cross-sectional area of the stirrup bar (in
2
)
b
w
= web width = b for rectangular section (in.)
s = center-to-center spacing of shear reinforcement in a
direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement (in.)
f
y
= yield strength of web reinforcement steel (psi)
21
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear
Reinforcement
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
Figure 10.
Isometric section
showing stirrups
partially exposed
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example
A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular
cross section shown in the figure is
reinforced for moment only (no shear
reinforcement). Beam width b = 18 in., d =
10.25 in., and the reinforcing is five No. 4
bars. Calculate the maximum factored
shear force V
u
permitted on the member by
the ACI Code. Use = 4,000 psi, and f
y
=
60,000 psi.
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
22
CHAPTER 4a. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 42
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example (cont’d)
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
5 2 . 10 ′ ′
8 1 ′ ′
4 # 5−
Since no shear reinforcement
Is provided, the ACI Code
Requires that
( )
( )( )( )( )( ) lb 9918 25 . 10 18 4000 2 85 . 0
2
1

2
2
1

2
1
maximum
= =
′ =
=
d b f
V V
w c
c u
φ
φ
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
4b
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
SHEAR IN BEAMS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Shear Analysis Procedure
The shear analysis procedure involves
the following:
– Checking the shear strength in an existing
member
– Verifying that the various ACI code
requirements have been satisfied and met.
Note that the member may reinforced or
plain.
2
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Shear Analysis Procedure
Example 1
A reinforced concrete beam of rectangular
cross section shown is reinforced with
seven No. 6 bars in a single layer. Beam
width b = 18 in., d = 33 in., single-loop No.
3 stirrups are placed 12 in. on center, and
typical cover is 1 ½ in. Find V
c
, V
s
, and the
maximum factored shear force permitted
on this member. Use = 4,000 psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi.
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Shear Analysis Procedure
Example 1 (cont’d)
3 3 ′ ′
bars 6 # 7−
COV.
2
1
1

stirrup 2 1 @ 3 # ′ ′
8 1 ′ ′
3
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Shear Analysis Procedure
Example 1 (cont’d)
– The force that can be resisted by concrete
alone is
– The nominal shear force provided by the
steel is
– The maximum factored shear force is
( )( )
kips 1 . 75
1000
33 18 000 , 4 2
2 = = ′ = d b f V
w c c
( )( )( )
kips 3 . 36
12
33 60 11 . 0 2
=
×
= =
s
d f A
V
y v
s
( )
kips 7 . 94
3 . 36 1 . 75 85 . 0 maximum
=
+ = + =
s c u
V V V φ φ
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– According to the ACI Code, the design of
beams for shear is based on the following
relation:
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
u n
V V ≥ φ
Where
φ = strength reduction factor (= 0.85 for shear)
V
n
= V
c
+ V
s
V
s
= nominal shear strength provided by reinforcement
stirrups inclined for
s
d f A
y v
=
(1)
(2)
4
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– Symbols
A
v
= total cross-sectional area of web reinforcement within
a distance s, for single loop stirrups, A
v
= 2A
s
A
s
= cross-sectional area of the stirrup bar (in
2
)
b
w
= web width = b for rectangular section (in.)
s = center-to-center spacing of shear reinforcement in a
direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement (in.)
f
y
= yield strength of web reinforcement steel (psi)
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– For inclined stirrups, the expression for
nominal shear strength provided by
reinforcement is
– For α = 45
0
, the expression takes the form
( )
s
d f A
V
y v
s
α α cos sin +
=
s
d f A
V
y v
s
414 . 1
=
(3)
(4)
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
5
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– The design for stirrup spacing can be
determined from
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
stirrups) 45 (for
414 . 1
required
and
stirrups) cal (for verti required
0
s
y v
s
y v
V
d f A
s
V
d f A
s
=
=
where
φ
φ
c u
s
V V
V

=
(5)
(6)
(7)
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– According to the ACI Code, the maximum
spacing of stirrups is the smallest value of
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
in. 24
2
50
max
max
max
=
=
=
s
d
s
b
f A
s
w
y v
(8)
If V
s
exceeds , the maximum spacing must
not exceed d/4 or 12 in.
d b f
w c
′ 4
6
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– It is not usually good practice to space
vertical stirrups closer than 4 in.
– It is generally economical and practical to
compute spacing required at several
sections and to place stirrups accordingly
in groups of varying spacing. Spacing
values should be made to not less than 1-
in. increments.
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– Critical Section
• The maximum shear usually occurs in this
section near the support.
• For stirrup design, the section located a
distance d from the face of the support is called
the “critical section”
• Sections located less than a distance d from
the face of the support may be designed for the
same V
u
as that of the critical section.
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
7
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– Critical Section
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
d
d
Critical Section
Figure 1
L
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Provisions for Shear Design
– Critical Section (cont’d)
• The stirrup spacing should be constant from the
critical section back to the face of the support
based on the spacing requirements at the
critical section.
• The first stirrup should be placed at a maximum
distance of s/2 from the face of the support,
where s equals the immediately adjacent
required spacing (a distance of 2 in. is
commonly used.
Shear Reinforcement Design
Requirements
8
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The design of stirrups for shear
reinforcement involves the
determination of stirrup size and
spacing pattern.
A general procedure is as follows:
1. Determine the shear values based on
clear span and draw a shear diagram for
V
u
.
2. Determine if stirrups are required.
Stirrup Design Procedure
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
3. Determine the length of span over which
stirrups are required.
4. On the V
u
diagram, determine the area
representing “required φV
s
.” This will
display the required strength of the
stirrups to be provided.
5. Select the size of the stirrups. Find the
spacing required at the critical section ( a
distance d from the face of the support.
Stirrup Design Procedure
9
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
6. Establish the ACI Code maximum
spacing requirements.
7. Determine the spacing requirements
based on shear strength to be furnished
by web reinforcing.
8. Establish the spacing pattern and show
detailed sketches.
Stirrup Design Procedure
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2
A continuous reinforced concrete beam
shown in the figure is 15 in. wide and has
an effective depth of 31 in. The factored
loads are shown, and the factored uniform
load includes the weight of the beam.
Design the web reinforcement if = 4000
psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi.
Stirrup Design Procedure
c
f ′
10
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Stirrup Design Procedure
5 1 ′ ′
1 3 ′ ′
A
s
span clear 0 5 1 ′ ′ − ′
100 k 100 k
0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′
w
u
= 1.0 k/ft A
A
Section A-A
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Establish the shear force diagram for V
u
:
Stirrup Design Procedure
100 k 100 k
0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′
w
u
= 1.0 k/ft
107.5 k 107.5 k
( ) ( )
k 5 . 107
2
15 1 100 2
2 1
=
+
= = R R
11
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
100 k 100 k
0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′
w
u
= 1.0 k/ft
107.5 k
107.5 k
107.5
102.5
V
u
(kips)
2.5
107.5
2.5
+
-
Example 2 (cont’d)
See Fig. 2 for enlargement
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
100 k 100 k
0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′ 0 - 5 ′ ′ ′
w
u
= 1.0 k/ft
107.5 k
107.5 k
Example 2 (cont’d)
M
V
107.5 k
5 0 for 5 . 107 ≤ ≤ − = x x V
u
M
V
100 k
10 5 for 100 5 . 107 ≤ ≤ − − = x x V
u
107.5 k
( ) k 9 . 104 58 . 2 5 . 107 58 . 2
8 5 . 2 1 3
*
= − = =
′ = ′ ′ =
u u
V V
d
x
x
12
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Because of the symmetry, we will focus on
the left half of the shear diagram as shown
in Fig. 2.
– Determine if stirrups required:
Stirrup Design Procedure
( ) ( )( )
( ) kips 25 50
2
1
2
1
kips 50
100
31 15 000 , 4 2 85 . 0
2
= =
= = ′ =
c
w c c
V
d b f V
φ
φ φ
Since ( =104.9 k) > (1/2 φV
c
= 25 k), stirrups are required.
*
u
V
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Stirrup Design Procedure
9 . 104
5 . 107
*
u
V
c
V φ
5 . 102
50
25 c
V φ
2
1
*
*
8 5 . 2 1 3 ′ = ′ ′ = d
0 . 5 ′ 5 . 2 ′
Sym.
C
L
s
V φ required
V
u
(kips)
0
Figure 2
13
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Stirrups are required to the point where
From Fig. 2, this point is located at the first
concentrated load and it is at distance 5 ft from
the face of the support.
– Determine the “required φV
s
” on the V
u
diagram:
Stirrup Design Procedure
kips 25
2
1
= =
c u
V V φ
5 2.58 for 5 . 57 required
50 5 . 107
max required
≤ ≤ − =
− − =
− − =
x x V
x
wx V V V
s
c u s
φ
φ φ
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Assume No. 3 vertical stirrups (A
v
= 0.22 in
2
):
– Establish ACI Code maximum spacing
requirements:
Stirrup Design Procedure
( )( )( )
in. 6 use
in. 3 . 6
50 9 . 104
31 60 22 . 0 85 . 0
required
required
*
*
=

= =
s
y y
V
d f A
s
φ
φ
( )( )
kips 6 . 64
85 . 0
50 9 . 104
kips 6 . 117
1000
31 15 4000 4
4
*
*
=

= =
= = ′
φ
φ
s
s
w c
V
V
d b f
14
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Since 64.6 kips < 117.6 kips, the maximum
spacing shall be the smallest of the
following values (see Eq. 8):
Stirrup Design Procedure
( )
( )
in. 24
in. 5 . 15
2
31
2
in. 6 . 17
15 50
000 , 60 22 . 0
50
max
max
max
=
= = =
= = =
s
d
s
b
f A
s
w
y v
Therefore, use a maximum spacing of 15 in.
controls
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Determine the spacing requirements
between the critical section and the first
concentrated load:
– The results of applying above equation for
values of x range from 3 to 5 are tabulated
as shown
Stirrup Design Procedure
( )( )( )
x V
d f A
s
s
y y

= =
5 . 57
31 60 22 . 0 85 . 0
required
required
φ
φ
6.6 5
6.5 4
6.4 3
Required s (in) x (ft)
15
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Since no stirrups are required in the
distance between the first concentrated
load , it is clear that the maximum spacing
of 15 in. need not be used in that distance.
– A spacing of 6 in. will be used between the
face of the support and the concentrated
load.
– The center part of the beam will be
reinforced with stirrups at a spacing slightly
less than the maximum spacing of 15 in.
Stirrup Design Procedure
CHAPTER 4b. SHEAR IN BEAMS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Final Sketch for Shear Reinforcement:
Stirrup Design Procedure
6 7 ′ ′ − ′
5 6 @ spaces 10 ′ = ′ ′
3′ ′

− ′
2
1
1 1

− ′
2
1
1 1
L
C
Sym.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
5a
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES,
AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR
CUTOFFS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
If the reinforced concrete beam shown
in Fig. 1 were constructed using plain
round reinforcing bars, and in addition, if
those bars were to be greased or
otherwise lubricated before the concrete
were poured, the beam would be as
strong as it was made of plain concrete,
without reinforcement.
2
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
P
End slip
(a)
(b) Unrestrained slip between concrete
and steel
Concrete
Figure. 1. Bond Stresses due to Flexure
Reinforcing bar (c) Bond forces acting on concrete
(d) Bond forces acting on steel
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
If a load is applied as shown Fig. 1b, the
bars would tend to maintain its original
length as the beam deflects.
The bars would slip longitudinally with
respect to adjacent concrete, which
would experience tensile strain due to
flexure.
The assumption that the strain in an
embedded reinforcing bar is the same
as that in surrounding concrete, would
3
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Not be valid.
In order for reinforced concrete to
behave as intended, it is essential that
“bond forces” be developed on the
interface between concrete and steel,
such as to prevent significant slip from
occurring at the interface.
It is through the action of these interface
bond forces that the slip of Fig. 5b is
prevented.
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
The assumptions for the design of
reinforced concrete include:
1. Perfect bonding between the concrete
and steel exist, and
2. No slippage occur.
Based on these assumptions, it
follows that some form of bond stress
exists at the contact surface between
the concrete and steel bars.
4
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
In beams, this bond stress is caused by
the change in bending moment along
the length of the beam and the
accompanying change in the tensile
stress in the bars (flexural bond).
The actual distribution of bond stresses
along the reinforcing steel is highly
complex, due mainly to the presence of
concrete cracks.
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Large local variations in bond stress are
caused by flexural and diagonal cracks.
High bond stresses have been
measured adjacent to these cracks.
The high bond stress may result in:
– Small local slips adjacent to the crack
– Increased deflection
In general, this is harmless as long as
failure does not propagate all along the
bar with complete loss of bond.
5
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Development Length
– End anchorage may be considered reliable
if the bar is embedded into concrete a
prescribed distance known as the
“development length” of the bar.
– In a beam, if the the actual extended length
of the bar is equal or greater than this
required development length, then no bond
failure will occur.
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Development Length
l
Figure 2. Development length
l should be at least equal to l
b
P
P
a
Max moment is at a
6
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
+
-
+ +
-
Moment
Diagram
Figure 3. Continuous Beam
w
A
B
C
Introduction
Need for Development Length
l ≥ l
d
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Anchorages Versus Development
Length
If the actual available length is inadequate
for full development, special anchorages
,such as hooks, must be provided to
ensure adequate strength.
7
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
ACI Code
– The provisions of the ACI Code are
directed toward providing adequate length
of embedment, past the location at which
the bar is fully stressed, which will ensure
development of the full strength of the bar.
– Therefore, the current method based on
ACI disregard high localized bond stress
even though it may result in localized slip
between steel and concrete adjacent to the
cracks.
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Tension Bars
Methods for Determining the Development
Length, l
d
– The ACI allows the determination of the
development length by two methods:
1. Tabular criteria (ACI Section 12.2.2)
2. General equation (ACI Section 12.2.3)
– In either case, l
d
shall not be less than 12 in.
– The general equation of the ACI Code offers
a simple approach that allows the user to see
the effect of all variables controlling the
development length.
8
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Methods for Determining the
Development Length, l
d
(cont’d)
This equation (ACI Eq. 12-1) is provided in
Section 12.2.3 of the ACI Code, and it is as
follows:
Development Length: Tension Bars
b
b
tr c
y
d
d
d
k c f
f
l
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
αβγλ
40
3
(1)
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Notations of Eq. 1:
(c + k
tr
)/d
b
: shall not be taken greater than 2.5
l
d
= development length (in.)
f
y
= yield strength of nonprestressed reinforcement (psi)
= compressive strength of concrete (psi); the value of
shall not exceed 100 psi (ACI Code, Section 12.1.2)
d
b
= nominal diameter of bar or wire (in.)
Development Length: Tension Bars
c
f ′
c
f ′
9
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Comments for Eq. 1:
1. α is a reinforcement location factor that accounts for
the position of the reinforcement in freshly place
concrete.
α = 1.3 (ACI Code, Section 12.2.4) where horizontal
reinforcement is so placed that more than 12 in. of
fresh concrete is cast in member below the
development length or splice.
α = 1.0 for other reinforcement.
2. β is a coating factor reflecting the effects of epoxy
coating.
For epoxy-coated reinforcement having cover less
than 3d
b
or clear spacing between bars less than 6d
b
,
use β = 1.5
Development Length: Tension Bars
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Tension Bars
Comments for Eq. 1 (cont’d):
For all other conditions, use β = 1.2
For uncoated reinforcement, use β = 1.0
The product of α and β need not be taken greater than
1.7 (ACI Code, Section 12.2.4)
3. γ is a reinforcement size factor.
Where No. 6 and smaller bars are used, γ = 0.8
Where No. 7 and larger bars used, γ = 0.1
4. λ is a lightweight-aggregate concrete factor.
For lightweight-aggregate concrete when the average
splitting tensile strength f
ct
is not specified, use λ = 1.3
10
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Comments for Eq. 1 (cont’d):
When f
ct
is specified, use
When normal-weight concrete is used, λ = 1.0 (ACI
Code, Section 12.2.4)
5. c represents a spacing or cover dimension (in.)
The value of c will be the smaller of either the distance
from the center of the bar to the nearest concrete cover
(surface) or one-half the center-to-center spacing of the
bars being developed (spacing).
Development Length: Tension Bars
0 . 1 7 . 6 ≥

=
ct
c
f
f
λ
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Comments for Eq. 1 (cont’d):
The bar spacing will be the actual center-to-center
spacing between the bars if adjacent bars are all being
developed at the same location. If, however, an
adjacent bar has been developed at another location,
the spacing to be used will be greater than the actual
spacing to the adjacent bar.
Note in Fig. 4 that the spacing for bars Y may be
taken the same as for bars X, since bars Y are
developed in length AB, whereas bars X are
developed at a location other than AB.
Development Length: Tension Bars
11
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Comments for Eq. 1 (cont’d):
Development Length: Tension Bars
A B
Bars X
Bars Y
Plan View
Bars X (continuous) Bars Y
l
d
Single Layer
A
A
Elevation View Section A-A
Bars Y
s
s
Figure. 4
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Comments for Eq. 1 (cont’d):
6. The transverse reinforcement index K
tr
is to be calculated
from
where
A
tr
= total cross-sectional area of all transverse
reinforcement that is within the spacing s and that
crosses the potential plane of splitting through the
reinforcement being developed (in
2
)
f
yt
= yield strength of transverse reinforcement (psi)
Development Length: Tension Bars
sn
f A
K
yt tr
tr
1500
=
12
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Comments for Eq. 1 (cont’d):
s = maximum center-to-center spacing of transverse
reinforcement within the development length l
d
(in.)
n = number of bars or wires being developed along the
plane of splitting.
Development Length: Tension Bars
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reduction in Development Length
– A reduction in the development length l
d
is
permitted where reinforcement is in excess
of that required by analysis (except where
anchorage or development for f
y
is
specifically required or where the design
includes provisions for seismic
considerations).
– The reduction factor K
ER
is given by
Development Length: Tension Bars
provided
required
s
s
ER
A
A
K =
(2)
13
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
1. Determine multiplying factors (use 1.0
unless otherwise determined).
a. Use α = 1.3 for top reinforcement, when
applicable.
b. Coating factor β applies to epoxy-coated bars.
Determine cover and clear spacing as
multiples of d
b
. Use β = 1.5 if cover < 3d
b
or
clear space < 6d
b
. Use β = 1.2 otherwise.
c. Use γ = 0.8 for No. 6 bars and smaller.
d. Use λ = 1.3 for lightweight concrete with f
ct
not
specified. Use
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
specified. if 0 . 1 7 . 6
ct
ct
c
f
f
f


= λ
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
2. Check αβ ≤ 1.7.
3. Determine c, the smaller of cover or
half-spacing (both referenced to the
center of the bar).
4. Calculate
5. Check
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
ive) (conservat 0 use or ,
1500
= =
tr
y tr
tr
K
sn
f A
K
5 . 2 ≤
+
b
tr
d
K c
14
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
6. Calculate K
ER
if applicable:
7. Calculate l
d
from Eq. 1 (ACI Code Eq.
12-1):
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
provided
required
s
s
ER
A
A
K =
b
b
tr c
y
d
d
d
k c f
f
l
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
αβγλ
40
3
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
Calculate the required development length
l
d
into the beam for the negative moment
steel shown so as to develop the tensile
strength of the steel at the face of the
column. Required A
s
= 2.75 in
2
, =4,000
psi, and f
y
= 60,000 psi. Assume normal-
weight concrete.
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
c
f ′
15
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
column 1 2 ′ ′
d
l
bars 3-#9
beam of length
full stirrups 4 #
4 1 ′ ′
1 2 ′ ′
3-#9
clear 5 1. ′ ′
stirrups #4
d
l length t developmen for
spacing o.c.
2
1
@4 stirrups 4 #

CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
8 12 . 1 : bars 9 # 3 ′ ′ =
b
d
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )( )
185 . 1
3 5 . 4 1500
000 , 60 4 . 0
1500
) 4 (
2 2 . 2
2 2
128 . 1 5 . 0 2 5 . 1 2 14
: spacing - Half
6 5 . 2
2
128 . 1
5 . 0 5 . 1 : cover (3)
OK 1.7 3 . 1 1 1.3 (2)
1.0 and 1.0, 1.0, , 3 . 1 ) 1 (
= = =
′ ′ =
− − −
=
′ ′ = + + =
< = =
= = = =
sn
f A
K
c
c
yt tr
tr
αβ
λ γ β α
From Table 1
Area of 2 #4 stirrups
Dia. #4 stirrup
Controls
16
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 1. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 2. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
17
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
: 1 Eq. using length t developmen the Calculate ) 7 (
917 . 0
00 . 3
75 . 2
provided
required
(6)
2.5 use Therefore, , 5 . 2 02 . 3
128 . 1
185 . 1 22 . 2
) 5 (
d
s
s
ER
b
tr
l
A
A
K
d
K c
= = =
> =
+
=
+
b
b
tr c
y
d
d
d
k c f
f
l
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
αβγλ
40
3
CHAPTER 5a. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Procedure for Calculation of l
d
( )( )( )
( ) 3 . 38 128 . 1
5 . 2
1 1 1 3 . 1
000 , 4
000 , 60
40
3
917 . 0
40
3
′ ′ =
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
× =
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|

× =
d
b
b
tr c
y
ER d
l
d
d
k c f
f
K l
αβγλ
38.3 in. > 12 in OK
Reduction factor
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
5b
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES,
AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR
CUTOFFS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length:
Compression Bars
Deformed Bars in Compression
– The method for determining the
development length in compression l
d
involves finding the the basic development
length l
db
and multiplying it by applicable
modification factors.
– The modification factors reflect special
conditions.
– Note: l
d
shall not be less than 8 in.
2
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Basic Development Length (compression)
The basic development length in
compression is given by
But it shouldn’t be less than 0.0003f
y
d
b
according to the ACI Code, Section 12.3.
Development Length:
Compression Bars
c
y
b db
f
f
d l

= 02 . 0
(1)
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Modification Factors (Compression)
– The following modification factors may be
applied to the basic development length for
compression bars:
1. Reinforcement in excess of that required:
2. Bars enclosed within a spiral that is not less than
¼ in. in diameter and not more than 4 in. in pitch
or within No. 4 ties and spaced at not more than
4 in. on center: USE 0.75
Development Length:
Compression Bars
provided
required
s
s
A
A
3
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Tables 1a through 1c gives values of
the basic development length l
db
for
compression bars in inches for the
following combinations of and f
y
:
: 3000, 4000, 5000, and 6000 psi
f
y
: 40,000, 50,000, and 60,000 psi
Development Length:
Compression Bars
c
f ′
c
f ′
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1a. Basic Development Length l
db
for
Compression Bars (in.) for f
y
= 40,000 psi
3000 4000 5000 6000
3 5.5 4.7 4.5 4.5
4 7.3 6.3 6.0 6.0
5 9.1 7.9 7.5 7.5
6 11.0 9.5 9.0 9.0
7 12.8 11.1 10.5 10.5
8 14.6 12.6 12.0 12.0
9 16.5 14.3 13.5 13.5
10 18.5 16.1 15.2 15.2
11 20.6 17.8 16.9 16.9
14 24.7 21.4 20.3 20.3
18 33.0 28.5 27.1 27.1
(normal-weight concrete), psi
Bar Size
c
f ′
Development Length:
Compression Bars
4
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1b. Basic Development Length l
db
for
Compression Bars (in.) for f
y
= 50,000 psi
Development Length:
Compression Bars
3000 4000 5000 6000
3 6.8 5.9 5.6 5.6
4 9.1 7.9 7.5 7.5
5 11.4 9.9 9.4 9.4
6 13.7 11.9 11.3 11.3
7 16.0 13.8 13.1 13.1
8 18.3 15.8 15.0 15.0
9 20.6 17.8 16.9 16.9
10 23.2 20.1 19.1 19.1
11 25.7 22.3 21.2 21.2
14 30.9 26.8 25.4 25.4
18 41.2 35.7 33.9 33.9
Bar Size
(normal-weight concrete), psi
c
f ′
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1c. Basic Development Length l
db
for
Compression Bars (in.) for f
y
= 60,000 psi
Development Length:
Compression Bars
3000 4000 5000 6000
3 8.2 7.1 6.8 6.8
4 11.0 9.5 9.0 9.0
5 13.7 11.9 11.3 11.3
6 16.4 14.2 13.5 13.5
7 19.2 16.6 15.8 15.8
8 21.9 19.0 18.0 18.0
9 24.7 21.4 20.3 20.3
10 27.8 24.1 22.9 22.9
11 30.9 26.8 25.4 25.4
14 37.1 32.1 30.5 30.5
18 49.4 42.8 40.6 40.6
Bar Size
(normal-weight concrete), psi
c
f ′
5
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Need for Hooks
–In the event that the desired
development length in tension
cannot be furnished, it will be
necessary to provide mechanical
anchorage at the end of the bars
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Need for Hooks
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Column
Beam
Hook
l
d
l
d
Figure 1. 180°-Hook
6
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Hooks
– Anchorage for main or primary
reinforcement is usually accomplished by
means of 90
°
or 180
°
hook.
– The dimensions and bend radii for these
hooks have been standardized by the ACI
Code.
– Standard reinforcement hooks are shown
in Fig. 2.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Types of Hooks
Figure 2a. Standard Hooks
7
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Hooks
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Figure 2b. Standard Hooks
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Types of Hooks
Figure 3. Standard Hooks
8
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Specifications
– The ACI Code specifies that the
development length l
dh
(see Fig. 2) for
deformed bars in tension, which terminate
in a standard hook, be computed as the
product of a basic development length l
hb
and any applicable modification factors.
– Mathematically, this may expressed as
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
MF × =
hb dh
l l
(2)
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Basic Development Length, l
hb
– For a hooked bar with f
y
= 60,000 psi,
– Table 1 (Table A-13, Textbook) provides
values for l
hb
.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
c
b
hb
f
d
l

=
1200
(3)
9
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Modification Factors (MF)
– Modification factors are to be used if
applicable:
1. Bars with f
y
other than 60,000 psi, USE
2. Concrete cover for No. 3 through No. 11: Side
cover (normal to the plane of the hook ) ≥ 2 ½ in.
and, for 90° hooks, cover on bar extension
beyond the bend ≥ 2 in.: USE 0.7 for MF
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
000 , 60
MF
y
f
= (4)
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Modification Factors, MF (cont’d)
3. Ties or stirrups: For No. 3 through No. 11 with
hook enclosed vertically of horizontally within
ties or stirrup ties spaced along the full
development length l
dh
not greater than 3d
b
:
USE MF = 0.8.
4. Reinforcement in excess of that required,
where anchorage or development for f
y
is not
specifically required:
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
provided
required
MF
s
s
A
A
=
(5)
10
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Modification Factors, MF (cont’d)
5. Lightweight aggregate concrete: USE
6. Epoxy-coated reinforcement: USE
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
3 . 1 MF =
2 . 1 MF =
(6)
(7)
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Modification Factors, MF (cont’d)
– The basic development length l
hb
must be
multiplied by the application factors
outlined in the previous viewgraphs.
– In no case may l
db
be less than 8d
b
or 6 in.,
whichever is greater.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
11
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
Determine the anchorage or development
length required for the conditions shown in
the figure. Use = 3,000 psi (normal-
weight concrete) and f
y
= 60,000 psi. The
No. 8 bars may be categorized as top bars.
Assume a side cover on the main bars of
2 ½ in. minimum. Bars are uncoated.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
c
f ′
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Example 1 (cont’d)
8 1 ′ ′
minimum) (
d
l
minimum) (
d
l
4 2 ′ ′
Stirrups
4 1 ′ ′
bars 3-#8
clear 2′ ′
o.c. 5 @
stirrups #4
′ ′
Beam
bars #8
clear 2′ ′
Column
12
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Anchorage into the exterior column:
1. Establish values for the multiplying
factors α, β, γ, and λ:
a. α = 1.3 (the bars are top bars).
b. β = 1.0 (the bars are uncoated).
c. γ = 1.0 (the bars are No. 8)
d. λ = 1.0 (normal-weight concrete used)
2. The product α ×β = 1.3 < 1.7 (OK)
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
3. Determine c. Based on cover (center of bar
to nearest concrete surface), consider the
clear cover, the No. 4 stirrups diameter, and
one-half the diameter of the No. 8 bar:
Based on bar spacing:
Therefore, use c = 2.0 in (smallest)
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
in. 0 . 3
2
0 . 1
5 . 0 0 . 2 = + + = c
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
in. 0 . 2
2 2
5 . 0 2 5 . 0 2 0 . 2 2 14
=
− − −
= c
Controls
13
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 2. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
4. The figure shows stirrups in the beam.
However, there are no stirrups in the
column, and K
tr
can be taken as zero for
the column anchorage.
5. Check (c + K
tr
)/d
b
≤ 2.5:
6. The access reinforcement can be ignored
and the factor applied can be omitted.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
2.0 USE 5 . 2 0 . 2
0 . 1
0 0 . 2
⇒ < =
+
=
+
b
tr
d
K c
14
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
7. Calculate l
d
:
Since 53.4 in > 24 in. (column width), use
a standard hook, either a 90° hook or a
180° hook.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
( )( )( )
( ) OK in. 12 in. 4 . 53 0 . 1
0 . 2
1 1 1 3 . 1
000 , 3
000 , 60
40
3
40
3
> =
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
d
b
b
tr c
y
d
l
d
d
k c f
f
l
αβγλ
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Anchorage using a standard 180° hook:
1. The basic development length l
hb
for the
standard hook shown in the figure can be
computed from
2. The only applicable MF is based on side
cover of 2 ½ in.
Therefore, USE MF = 0.7
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
( )
1c) Table check (also in. 9 . 21
3000
1 1200 1200
= =

=
c
b
hb
f
d
l
15
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1c. Basic Development Length l
db
for
Compression Bars (in.) for f
y
= 60,000 psi
3000 4000 5000 6000
3 8.2 7.1 6.8 6.8
4 11.0 9.5 9.0 9.0
5 13.7 11.9 11.3 11.3
6 16.4 14.2 13.5 13.5
7 19.2 16.6 15.8 15.8
8 21.9 19.0 18.0 18.0
9 24.7 21.4 20.3 20.3
10 27.8 24.1 22.9 22.9
11 30.9 26.8 25.4 25.4
14 37.1 32.1 30.5 30.5
18 49.4 42.8 40.6 40.6
Bar Size
(normal-weight concrete), psi
c
f ′
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
3. The required development length is then
calculated from
The minimum width of column required is
Therefore, the hook will fit into the column.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
( )
OK in. 15.3 in. 8 8
in. 6 8 minimum
: minimum Check
in. 3 . 15 7 . 0 9 . 21 MF
< =
≥ =
= = × =
b
b dh
hb dh
d
d l
l l
OK dth) (column wi in. 24 in. 8 . 17 5 . 2 3 . 15 < = +
16
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Anchorage into beam:
The development length required if bars
are straight can be taken as 53.4 in. as
determined previously. However, this
number is conservative (K
tr
= 0).
To determine a more accurate value, we
have to take into consideration the
transverse reinforcement index K
tr
because there are stirrups in the beam.
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
( )
( )( )
067 . 1
3 5 1500
000 , 60 4 . 0
1500
= = =
sn
f A
K
yt tr
tr
Area of 2 #4 stirrups
2.5 USE 5 . 2 07 . 3
0 . 1
067 . 1 0 . 2
⇒ < =
+
=
+
b
tr
d
K c
( )( )( )
( ) OK in. 12 in. 7 . 42 0 . 1
5 . 2
1 1 1 3 . 1
000 , 3
000 , 60
40
3
40
3
> =
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
| +
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
d
b
b
tr c
y
d
l
d
d
k c f
f
l
αβγλ
17
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 2. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Example 1 (cont’d)
Anchorage into beam (cont’d):
– The development length required if bars
are straight is 42.7 in.
– Therefore, the bars must extend at least
this distance into the span.
– Figure 4 shows the detailed sketch for the
development length.
18
CHAPTER 5b. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Column
Beam
180° Hook
db
l
4 2 ′ ′
8 1 ′ ′
cover
2
1
2

min. 3 15. Required ′ ′ =
bars #8
Development Length: Standard
Hooks in Tension
Figure 4. Detailed Sketch for Example 1
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
5c
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES,
AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR
CUTOFFS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
Determination of Bar Cutoffs
– Recall that the maximum required A
s
for a
beam is needed only where the moment is
maximum.
– This maximum steel may be needed at
points along a bending member where the
bending moment is smaller.
– This can be done by either stopping or
bending the bars in a manner consistent
with the theoretical requirements for the
strength of the member and the ACI Code.
2
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Determination of Bar Cutoffs
– In theory bars can be stopped or bent in
bending members whenever they are no
longer needed to resist the bending
moment.
– However, the ACI Code requires that each
bar be extended beyond the point at which
it is no longer needed for flexure a distance
equal to the effective depth d of the cross
section or 12d
b
, whichever is greater.
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
Determination of Bar Cutoffs
– The ACI code gives the following
exceptions to the previous rules:
1. At supports of simple spans, and
2. At free ends of cantilever beams.
• This in effect prohibits the cutting off of a
bar at the theoretical cutoff point, but can
be bent at the theoretical cutoff point.
• If bars are to be bent, it is common to start
the bend at a distance equal to one-half
the effective depth beyond the point.
3
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
General Procedure for Determining the
Theoretical Cutoff Point
1. Establish a bar cutoff scheme (i.e., select
the bars that will be cut off first).
2. Plot the complete M
u
diagram.
3. Superimpose on the M
u
diagram the values
of φ M
n
corresponding to the bars of Step 1
that will not be stopped.
4. The theoretical points are established
where the φ M
n
lines intersect the M
u
curve.
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point
For the simply supported beam shown in
the figure, determine the theoretical and
actual cutoff point for the center No. 10
bar. The beam is to carry a distributed
dead load of 0.54 kips/ft including its own
weight, and live service load of 1.08 kips/ft.
Material strengths specified are = 4,000
psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi.
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
c
f ′
4
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
w
D
= 0.54 k/ft
w
L
= 1.08 k/ft
2 1 ′ ′
9 1 ′ ′
6 1 ′ ′
10 # 3
9 4 2 ′ ′ − ′
L
C
?
cutoff
d
Top View
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
Determine factored distributed load:
1. Bar cutoff scheme has been established
for the center No. 10 bar.
2. Plot of the complete M
u
diagram:
In order to do that, we have to find an
expression for M
u
based on the loading
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
( ) ( ) kips/ft 592 . 2 08 . 1 7 . 1 54 . 0 4 . 1 = + =
u
w
5
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
kips/ft 592 . 2 =
u
w
5 7 . 24 ) 9 4 2 ( ′ = ′ ′ − ′
kips 1 . 32 kips 1 . 32
V
x
M
x
x
kips/ft 592 . 2
kips 1 . 32
2
2
296 . 1 1 . 32
2
592 . 2 1 . 32 x x
x
x M
x
− = − =
Note: M
x
= M
u
(x)
(1)
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
– Thus, the plot of M
u
will appear as follows:
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 5 10 15 20 25
x (ft)
M
u

(f
t
-k
i
kips/ft 592 . 2 =
u
w
5 7 . 24 ) 9 4 2 ( ′ = ′ ′ − ′
kips 1 . 32 kips 1 . 32
6
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 5 10 15 20 25
x (ft)
M
u

(f
t
-k
i
M
u
(
f
t
-
k
i
p
s
)
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
3. Superimpose on the M
u
diagram the
values of φ M
u
corresponding to 2 No.
10 bars:
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
( )
( )( ) ( )( ) OK in 54 . 2 in 63 . 0 16 12 0033 . 0 0033 . 0
ksi 6998 . 0
is 0.0132 to ing correspond 2, Table From
0132 . 0
16 12
54 . 2
: bars #10 2 for
2 2
min ,
< = = =
=
= = =
d b A
k
k
bd
A
M
s
s
n
ρ
φ
7
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 1. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
0.0092 0.5072 0.0128 0.6813 0.0164 0.8417
0.0093 0.5122 0.0129 0.6859 0.0165 0.8459
0.0094 0.5172 0.0130 0.6906 0.0166 0.8502
0.0095 0.5222 0.0131 0.6952 0.0167 0.8544
0.0096 0.5272 0.0132 0.6998 0.0168 0.8586
0.0097 0.5322 0.0133 0.7044 0.0169 0.8629
0.0098 0.5372 0.0134 0.7090 0.0170 0.8671
0.0099 0.5421 0.0135 0.7136 0.0171 0.8713
0.0100 0.5471 0.0136 0.7181 0.0172 0.8754

Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
Table 2 (Table A-10, Text)
ρ


ρ


ρ



k k k
8
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
F.O.S from ft 5.7 1.33 - 7 point cutoff actual
Hence,
= =
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
– The line φM
n
= 161.2 intersects the curve of
M
u
at 7 in. and 17.7 in. Therefore, the
theoretical cutoff point is located 7 ft. from
the face of either support.
– The actual cutoff point:
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
( )( ) ( )
kips - ft 2 . 161
12
6998 . 0 16 12 9 . 0
2
2
= = = k bd M
n
φ φ
7 2 . 1 4 2 . 15 ) 27 . 1 ( 12 12 and 3 3 . 1 6 1 ′ = ′ ′ = = ′ = ′ ′ =
b
d d
controls
Dia. No. 10 bar
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
Bar Designation
Diameter
in
Area
in
2

Weight
lb/ft
#3 [#10] 0.375 0.11 0.376
#4 [#13] 0.500 0.20 0.668
#5 [#16] 0.625 0.31 1.043
#6 [#19] 0.750 0.44 1.502
#7 [#22] 0.875 0.60 2.044
#8 [#25] 1.000 0.79 2.670
#9 [#29] 1.128 1.00 3.400
#10 [#32] 1.270 1.27 4.303
#11 [#36] 1.410 1.56 5.313
#14 [#43] 1.693 2.25 7.650
#18 [#57] 2.257 4.00 13.60

Table 3. ASTM Standard - English Reinforcing Bars
Note: Metric designations are in brackets
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
9
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
0
50
100
150
200
250
0 5 10 15 20 25
x (ft)
M
u

(
f
t
φM
u
= 161.2 ft-k
7 18
M
u
(
f
t
-
k
i
p
s
)
17.7
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
w
D
= 0.54 k/ft
w
L
= 1.08 k/ft
2 1 ′ ′
9 1 ′ ′
6 1 ′ ′
10 # 3
9 4 2 ′ ′ − ′
L
C
4 . 13 ′
Top View
7 . 5 ′ 7 . 5 ′
x
10
CHAPTER 5c. DEVELOPMENT, SPLICES, AND SIMPLE SPAN BAR CUTOFFS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example: Bar Cutoff Point (cont’d)
– Alternative Method to Find the Theoretical
Cutoff Point:
• In method, the φM
n
value for the continuous
reinforcement can be substituted into Eq. 1,
and consequently the distances from the face
of the right support can be located analytically
as follows:
Simple-Span Bar Cutoffs and Bends
( ) ( )
( )
in 17.7 in, 0 . 7
296 . 1 2
2 . 161 296 . 1 4 1 . 32 1 . 32

: formula) (quadratic which from
0 2 . 161 1 . 32 296 . 1 or
296 . 1 1 . 32 2 . 161
2
2
2
=
− ±
=
= + −
− = =
x
x x
x x M
n
φ
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
9a
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
COLUMNS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Axial Compression
– Columns are defined as members that
carry loads in compression.
– Usually they carry bending moments as
well, about one or both axes of the cross
section.
– The bending action may produce tensile
forces over a part of the cross section.
– Despite of the tensile forces or stresses
that may be produced, columns are
2
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Axial Compression
– Generally referred to as :compression
members” because the compression forces
or stresses dominate their behavior.
– In addition to the most common type of
compression members (vertical elements
in structures), compression members
include:
• Arch ribs
• Rigid frame members inclined or otherwise
• Compression elements in trusses
• shells
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
3
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Reinforced Concrete Columns
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Pont Pont- -du du- -Gard Gard. Roman aqueduct built in 19 B.C. to carry water . Roman aqueduct built in 19 B.C. to carry water
across the across the Gardon Gardon Valley to Valley to Nimes Nimes. Spans of the first and second . Spans of the first and second
level arches are 53 level arches are 53- -80 feet. (Near 80 feet. (Near Remoulins Remoulins, France) , France)
4
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Ohio River Bridge. Typical cantilever and suspended span bridge, Ohio River Bridge. Typical cantilever and suspended span bridge, showing showing
the truss geometry in the end span and cantilevered portion of t the truss geometry in the end span and cantilevered portion of the main he main
span. (Madison, Indiana) span. (Madison, Indiana)
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
5
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Column load transfer from beams and slabs
1) Tributary area method:
Half distance to adjacent columns
y
x
Load on column = area × floor load
Floor load = DL + LL
DL = slab thickness × conc. unit wt.
Example: x = 16.0 ft, y = 13.0 ft, LL = 62.4 lb/ft
2
, slab thickness = 4.0 in.
Floor load = 4.0 (150)/12 + 62.4 = 112.4 lb/ft
2
Load on column = (16.0)(13.0)(112.4) = 10,800 kg = 23.4 kips
6
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Column load transfer from beams and slabs
2) Beams reaction method:
B1 B2
R
B1
R
B1
R
B2
R
B2
Collect loads from adjacent beam ends
C1
B1 B2
B3
B4
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Load summation on column section for design
Design section
Design section
Design section
ROOF
2nd FLOOR
1st FLOOR
Footing
Ground level
Load on pier column
= load on 1st floor column
+ 1st floor + Column wt.
Load on 1st floor column
= load on 2nd floor column
+ 2nd floor + Column wt.
Load on 2nd floor column
= Roof floor + Column wt.
7
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Types of Reinforced Concrete
Columns
1. Members reinforced with longitudinal
bars and lateral ties.
2. Members reinforced with longitudinal
bars and continuous spirals.
3. Composite compression members
reinforced longitudinally with structural
steel shapes, pipe, or tubing, with or
without additional longitudinal bars, and
various types of lateral reinforcement.
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Reinforced Concrete Columns
Introduction
Tie
Longitudinal
steel
Tied column
Spiral
s = pitch
Spirally reinforced column
8
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Reinforced Concrete Columns
Introduction
Composite columns
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Types of Columns in Terms of Their
Strengths
1. Short Columns
A column is said to be short when its length is
such that lateral buckling need not be considered.
Most of concrete columns fall into this category.
2. Slender Columns
When the length of the column is such that
buckling need to be considered, the column is
referred to as slender column. It is recognized that
as the length increases, the usable strength of a
given cross section is decreased because of
buckling problem.
9
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Buckling
– Buckling is a mode of failure generally
resulting from structural instability due to
compressive action on the structural
member or element involved.
– Examples
• Overloaded metal building columns.
• Compressive members in bridges.
• Roof trusses.
• Hull of submarine.
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Buckling
Figure 1a
10
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Buckling
Figure 1b
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
The Nature of Buckling
Definition
“Buckling can be defined as the sudden
large deformation of structure due to a
slight increase of an existing load under
which the structure had exhibited little,
if any, deformation before the load was
increased.”
11
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Buckling Failure of Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Figure 2
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Critical Buckling Load, P
cr
The critical buckling load (Euler Buckling)
for a long column is given by
where
E = modulus of elasticity of the material
I = moment of inertia of the cross section
L = length of column
2
2
L
EI
P
cr
π
=
(1)
12
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
If a compression member is loaded parallel
to its axis by a load P without eccentricity,
the load P theoretically induces a uniform
compressive stress over the cross-sectional
area.
If the compressive load is applied a small
distance e away from the longitudinal axis,
however, there is a tendency for the column
to bend due to the moment M = Pe.
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of
Symmetry
– When the line of action of the axial load P
passes through the centriod of the cross
section, it can be assumed that the
distribution of normal stress is uniform
throughout the section.
– Such a loading is said to be centric, as
shown in Fig 3.
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
13
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of
Symmetry
Figure 3. Centric Loading
P
P
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of
Symmetry
– When the line of action of the concentrated
load P dose not pass through the centroid
of the cross section, the distribution of
normal stress is no longer uniform.
– Such loading is said to eccentric, as shown
in Fig 4.
14
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of
Symmetry


Figure 4. Eccentric Loading
P
P
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Eccentric Axial Loading in a Plane of
Symmetry
The stress due to eccentric loading on a
beam cross section is given by
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
I
My
A
P
f
x
± =
(2)
15
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Columns Loaded with Small Eccentricities
– The concrete column that is loaded with a
compressive axial load P at zero eccentricity
is probably nonexistent, and even the
axial/small eccentricity combination is
relatively rare.
– Nevertheless, the case of columns that are
loaded with compressive axial loads at small
eccentricity e is considered first. In this case
we define the situation in which the induced
small moments are of little significance.
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Notations Columns Loaded with Small
Eccentricities
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
A
g
= gross area of the column section (in
2
)
A
st
= total area of longitudinal reinforcement (in
2
)
P
0
= nominal or theoretical axial load at zero eccentricity
P
n
= nominal or theoretical axial load at given eccentricity
P
u
= factored applied axial load at given eccentricity
ρ
g
= ratio of total longitudinal reinforcement area to
cross-sectional area of column:
g
st
g
A
A
= ρ
(3)
16
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
P
0
A A

Section A-A
.001 .002 .003
f
y
c
f ′
Steel
Concrete
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength of Short Axially Loaded Columns
P
0
f
y
f
y
c
f ′
F
s
= A
st
f
y
F
c
= (A
g
- A
st
)
c
f ′
[ ΣF
y
= 0 ]
From experiment (e.g., ACI):
where
A
g
= Gross area of column section
A
st
= Longitudinal steel area
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
( )
st y st g c
A f A A f P + − ′ = 85 . 0
0
( )
st y st g c
A f A A f P + − ′ =
0
17
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Failure by Axial Load
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
P
u
0
Axial deformation ∆
Initial failure
A
x
i
a
l

l
o
a
d
Tied column
Light
spiral
ACI spiral
Heavy spiral

P
u
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
ACI Code Requirements for Column
Strength
Strength of Reinforced Concrete
Columns: Small Eccentricity
u n
P P ≥ φ
Spirally reinforced column:
Tied column:
( )
( ) | | 75 . 0 , 85 . 0 85 . 0
max
= + − ′ = φ φ φ
st y st g c n
A f A A f P
( )
( ) | | 70 . 0 , 85 . 0 80 . 0
max
= + − ′ = φ φ φ
st y st g c n
A f A A f P
(4)
(5)
(6)
18
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Limits on percentage of reinforcement
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
Lower limit: To prevent failure mode of plain concrete
Upper limit: To maintain proper clearances between bars
08 . 0 01 . 0 ≤
(
(
¸
(

¸

= ≤
g
st
g
A
A
ρ
(7)
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Minimum Number of Bars
– The minimum number of longitudinal bars
is
• four within rectangular or circular ties
• Three within triangular ties
• Six for bars enclosed by spirals
Clear distance between Bars
– The clear distance between longitudinal
bars must not be less than 1.5 times the
nominal bar diameter nor 1 ½ in.
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
19
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Clear distance between Bars (cont’d)
– Table 1 (Table A-14, Textbook) may be
used to determine the maximum number of
bars allowed in one row around the
periphery of circular or square columns.
Cover
– Cover shall be 1 ½ in. minimum over
primary reinforcement, ties or spirals.
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
Table 1. Preferred Maximum Number of Column Bars in One Row
Table A-14, Textbook
20
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Tie Requirements
– According to Section 7.10.5 of ACI Code,
the minimum is
• No. 3 for longitudinal bars No. 10 and smaller
• Otherwise, minimum tie size is No. 4 (see
Table 1 for a suggested tie size)
– The center-to-center spacing of ties must
not exceed the smaller of 16 longitudinal
bar diameter, 48 tie-bar diameter, or the
least column dimension.
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Spiral Requirements
– According to Section 7.10.4 of ACI Code,
the minimum spiral size is 3/8 in. in
diameter for cast-in-place construction (5/8
is usually maximum).
– Clear space between spirals must not
exceed 3 in. or be less than 1 in.
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
21
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Spiral Requirements (cont’d)
– The spiral steel ratio ρ
s
must not be less
than the value given by
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
( )
y
c
c
g
s
f
f
A
A ′
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = 1 45 . 0
min
ρ
(8)
) ( height in core column of volume
turn one in steel spiral of volume
where
s
s
= ρ
s = center-to-center spacing of spiral (in.), also called pitch
A
g
= gross cross-sectional area of the column (in
2
)
A
c
= cross-sectional area of the core (in
2
) (out-to-out of spiral)
f
y
= spiral steel yield point (psi) ≤ 60,000 psi
= compressive strength of concrete (psi)
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Spiral Requirements (cont’d)
– An Approximate Formula for Spiral Steel
Ratio
• A formula in terms of the physical properties of
the column cross section can be derived from
the definition of ρ
s
.
• In reference to Fig. 5, the overall core diameter
(out-to-out of spiral) is denoted as D
c
, and the
spiral diameter (center-to-center) as D
s
.
• The cross-sectional area of the spiral bar or
wire is given the symbol A
sp
.
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
22
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 42
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Spiral Requirements (cont’d)
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
D
c
D
s
Figure 5. Definition of D
c
and D
s
Spiral
CHAPTER 9a. COLUMNS
Slide No. 43
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Spiral Requirements (cont’d)
– From the definition of ρ
s
, an expression
may written as follows:
– If the small difference between D
c
and D
s
is
neglected, then in terms of D
c
, the actual
spiral steel ratio is given by
Code Requirements Concerning
Column Details
( )( ) s D
D A
c
s sp
s
4 /
actual
2
π
π
ρ =
(9)
s D
A
c
sp
s
4
actual = ρ
(10)
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
9b
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
COLUMNS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
The analysis of short columns carrying
axial loads that have small eccentricities
involves:
– Checking the maximum design axial load
strength, and
– Checking the various details of the
reinforcing.
2
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Analysis of Short
Columns with Small Eccentricities
1. Check ρ
g
within acceptable limits as
stipulated by the ACI Code:
2. Check the number of bars within
acceptable limits for the clear space (see
Table 1, Table A-14, Text). The minimum
number is four for bars with rectangular
or circular ties and six for bars enclosed
by spirals.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
08 . 0 01 . 0 ≤ ≤
g
ρ
(1)
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
3. Calculate the maximum design axial load
strength φP
n(max)
.
4. Check the lateral reinforcing. For ties,
check size, spacing, and arrangement.
For spirals, check ρ
s
, and clear distance.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
3
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
Find the maximum design axial load
strength for the tied column of cross
section shown in the figure. Check the
ties. Assume a short column. The
materials strength specified are = 4000
psi and f
y
= 60,000 psi for both
longitudinally steel and ties.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
c
f ′
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
6 1 ′ ′
6 1 ′ ′
cover
2
1
1

6 1 @ 3 # ′ ′
bars 9 # - 8
4
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
1. Check the steel ratio for longitudinal
steel:
2. From Table 1 (Table A-14, Text), using a
13-in. core (column size less cover on
each side), the maximum number of No.
9 bars is eight. This is OK.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
( )
OK 08 . 0 0313 . 0 01 . 0
0313 . 0
16
00 . 8
2
< <
= = =
g
st
g
A
A
ρ
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1
Table 1. Preferred Maximum Number of Column Bars in One Row
Table A-14, Textbook
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
5
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
3. The maximum design axial load strength
may now be computed as follows:
4. Check the ties. The size of No. 3 is OK
for longitudinal bar size up to No. 10. The
spacing of the ties must not exceed the
smaller of
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
( )
( ) [ ]
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
kips 741
8 60 8 256 4 85 . 0 70 . 0 80 . 0
85 . 0 80 . 0
max
=
+ − =
+ − ′ =
st y
c
st g n
A f A A f P φ φ
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
48 tie-bar diameter = 38 (3/8) = 18 in.
16 longitudinal-bar diameter = 16 (1.128) = 18 in.
Least column dimension = 16 in.
Therefore, the tie spacing is OK.
Check clear distance:
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
( ) ( ) ( )
OK in. 6 in. 4 . 4
2
128 . 1 3 8 / 3 2 5 . 1 2 16
distance clear
< =
− − −
=
6
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2
A short circular spiral column having a
diameter of 18 in. is reinforced with eight
No. 9 bars. The cover is 1 ½ in., and the
spiral is 3/8 in. in diameter spaced 2 in. o.c.
Find the maximum design axial load
strength and check the spiral. Use =
3000 psi and f
y
= 40,000 psi
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
c
f ′
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
1. Check the steel ratio for longitudinal steel:
2. From Table 1 (Table A-14, Text), and for
circular column, the maximum number of #
9 bars is 10. This is OK
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
( )
OK 08 . 0 0314 . 0 01 . 0
0314 . 0
9
00 . 8
2
< <
= = =
π
ρ
g
st
g
A
A
7
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1
Table 2. Preferred Maximum Number of Column Bars in One Row
Table A-14, Textbook
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
3. The maximum design axial load strength may
now be computed as follows:
4. Check spirals: 3/8 in. spiral
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
( )
2
2 2
in 5 . 254
4
18
4
= = =
π πD
A
g
( )
( ) [ ]
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
kips 7 . 604
8 40 8 5 . 254 3 85 . 0 75 . 0 85 . 0
85 . 0 80 . 0
max
=
+ − =
+ − ′ =
st y
c
st g n
A f A A f P φ φ
( )
( )
0147 . 0
2 15
11 . 0 4
4
actual = = =
s D
A
c
sp
s
ρ
8
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
D
c
D
s
Figure 1. Definition of D
c
and D
s
Spiral
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
( )( ) s D
D A
c
s sp
s
4 /
actual
2
π
π
ρ =
s D
A
c
sp
s
4
actual = ρ
Approximate:
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Clear distance between spiral loops:
Therefore, 3/8 in dia. spiral @ 2-in. is OK
Analysis of Short Columns:
Small Eccentricity
( )
( )
orced) underreinf (slightly OK 0147 . 0 0149 . 0
0149 . 0
40
3
1
7 . 176
5 . 254
45 . 0 1 45 . 0
min
min
≈ =
= 





− =









− =
s
y
c
c
g
s
f
f
A
A
ρ
ρ
3 3 6 . 1 1
in 63 . 1
8
3
- 2 distance clear
′ ′ < ′ ′ < ′ ′
= =
9
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The design of reinforced concrete
columns involves the following:
– Proportioning of the steel and concrete
areas.
– Selection of properly sized and spaced ties
or spirals.
Since the ratio of steel to concrete area
must fall within a given range:
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
08 . 0 01 . 0 ≤ ≤
g
ρ
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The main strength equation is modified
as follows to include this term:
For tied column:
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( )
( ) [ ]
( )
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
g y c g
g g y
c
g g n
g g st
g
st
g
st y
c
st g n
f f A
A f A A f P
A A
A
A
A f A A f P
ρ ρ φ
ρ ρ φ φ
ρ ρ
φ φ
+ − ′ =
+ − ′ =
= ⇒ =
+ − ′ =
1 85 . 0 80 . 0
85 . 0 80 . 0
Therefore,
85 . 0 80 . 0
max
max (2)
(3)
(4)
10
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Since
an expression can be written for
required A
g
in terms of the material
strength, P
u
and ρ
g
.
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( ) max n u
P P φ ≤ (5)
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
For Tied Columns:
For Spiral Columns:
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( ) [ ]
g y g c
u
g
f f
P
A
ρ ρ φ + − ′
=
1 85 . 0 80 . 0
required
( ) [ ]
g y g c
u
g
f f
P
A
ρ ρ φ + − ′
=
1 85 . 0 85 . 0
required
(6)
(7)
11
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Procedure for Design of Short
Columns with Small Eccentricities
1. Establish the material strengths.
Establish the desired ρ
g
(if any).
2. Establish the factored axial load P
u
.
3. Determine the required gross column
area A
g
.
4. Select the column dimensions. Use full-
inch increments.
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
5. Find the load carried by the concrete and
the load required to be carried by the
longitudinal steel. Determine the required
longitudinal steel area. Select the
longitudinal steel.
6. Design the lateral reinforcing (ties or
spiral).
7. Sketch the design.
12
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3
Design a square-tied column to carry axial
service loads of 320 kips dead load and
190 kips live load. There is no identified
applied moment. Assume that the column
is short. Use ρ
g
about 0.03, = 4000 psi,
and f
y
= 60,000 psi.
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
c
f ′
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
1. Given values are as follows:
ρ
g
=0.03, = 4000 psi, and f
y
= 60,000 psi
2. The factored axial load is
3. The required gross column area is (from Eq.
1)
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
c
f ′
( ) ( ) kips 771 190 7 . 1 320 4 . 1 = + =
u
P
( ) [ ]
g y g c
u
g
f f
P
A
ρ ρ φ + − ′
=
1 85 . 0 80 . 0
required
13
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
4. The required size of a square column will
be
Use a 16-in.-square column. This choice
will require that the actual ρ
g
be slightly in
excess of 0.03
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) [ ]
2
in 270
03 . 0 60 03 . 0 1 4 85 . 0 70 . 0 80 . 0
771
required =
+ −
=
g
A
in. 4 . 16 270 =
( )
2
2
in 256 16 actual = =
g
A
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
5. The load on the concrete is
Therefore, the load to be carried by the
steel is
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( ) ( )
( )( )( )( )( )
kips 473
03 . 0 1 256 4 85 . 0 70 . 0 80 . 0
1 85 . 0 80 . 0 concrete on load
=
− =
− ′ =
g g c
A f ρ φ
kips 298 473 771 steel by load = − =
14
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
The required steel area can be calculated
from
Use eight No. 10 bars (A
st
=10.16 in
2
), see
Table 1.
Table 2 (Table A-14, Text) indicates a
maximum of eight No. 10 bars for a 13-in.
core. OK
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( )( )
2
in 87 . 8
60 70 . 0 80 . 0
298
required = =
g
A
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 1. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
15
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1
Table 2. Preferred Maximum Number of Column Bars in One Row
Table A-14, Textbook
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
6. Design the ties. From Table 1 (Table A-
14, Textbook), select a No. 3 tie. The
spacing must be greater than the smaller
of
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( )
( )
in. 16 dimension column least
in. 3 . 20 1.27 16 diamater bar - al longitudin 16
in. 18 3/8 48 diameter bar - tie 48
=
= =
= =
Controls
16
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
Use No. 3 ties spaced 16 in. o.c. Check
the arrangement with reference to the
figure. The clear space between
adjacent bars in the same face is
Therefore, no additional ties are required
by the ACI Code.
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
( )
in. 6.0 in. 22 . 4
2
27 . 1 3 75 . 0 3 16
< =
− − −
2 (1.5 in.) Cover 2 × dia. of No. 3 tie
dia. of No. 10 bar
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bar number 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 14 18
Unit weight
per foot (lb)
0.376 0.668 1.043 1.502 2.044 2.670 3.400 4.303 5.313 7.650 13.60
Diameter (in.) 0.375 0.500 0.625 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.128 1.270 1.410 1.693 2.257
Area (in
2
) 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56 2.25 4.00
Table 3. Reinforced Steel Properties Table A-1 Textbook
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
Example 3 (cont’d)
17
CHAPTER 9b. COLUMNS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
7. The design sketch is as follows:
Design of Short Columns: Small
Eccentricity
6 1 ′ ′
6 1 ′ ′
cover
2
1
1

o.c. 6 1 @ ties 3 # ′ ′
bars 10 # - 8
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Fifth Edition
CHAPTER
9c
Reinforced Concrete Design
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
COLUMNS
Part I – Concrete Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Load-Moment Relationship
Axial Load-Moment Combination
– Assume that P
u
is applied to a cross
section at an eccentricity e from the
centroid, as shown in Fig. 1a and 1b.
– Add equal and opposite forces P
u
at the
centroid of the cross section, as shown in
Fig. 1c.
– The original eccentric force P
u
may noe be
combined with the upward force P
u
to form
a couple P
u
e, that is a pure moment.
2
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Load-Moment Relationship
Axial Load-Moment Combination
e
P
u
e e
u
P
u
P
u
P
e P
u
= =
Figure 1
(a)
(b) (c) (d)
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Load-Moment Relationship
Axial Load-Moment Combination
– This will leave remaining one force, P
u
acting downward at the centroid of the
cross section.
– It can be therefore be seen that if a force
P
u
is applied with an eccentricity e, the
situation that results is identical to the case
where an axial load of P
u
at the centroid
and a moment of P
u
e are simultaneously
applied as shown in Fig. 1d.
3
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Load-Moment Relationship
Axial Load-Moment Combination
– If M
u
is defined as the factored moment to
be applied on a compression member
along with a factored axial load of P
u
at the
centroid, the relationship between the two
can expressed as
u
u
P
M
e = (1)
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Eccentric Axial Loading in A Plane of
Symmetry
C
y
σ
x
C
y
σ
x
C
y
σ
x
= +
( ) ( )
bending centric
x x x
σ σ σ + =
The Load-Moment Relationship
Figure 2
4
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
P P
A
C
B
E
D
Eccentric Axial Loading in A Plane of
Symmetry
The stress due to eccentric loading on a
beam cross section is given by
I
My
A
P
x
± = σ
(2)
The Load-Moment Relationship
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Equivalent Force System for Eccentric
Loading
P = 4.8 kN
120 mm
8
0

m
m
35 mm
y
P =4.8 kN
( )
( ) m kN 120 35 60 8 . 4
m kN 192 40 8 . 4
⋅ = − =
⋅ = =
z
x
M
M
M
x
= 192 kN·m
M
z
= 120 kN·m
y
x
z
The Load-Moment Relationship
Figure 3
5
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Load-Moment Relationship
Example 1
The T-section shown in Fig. 50 is used as
a short post to support a compressive load
P of 150 kips. The load is applied on
centerline of the stem at a distance e = 2
in. from the centroid of the cross section.
Determine the normal stresses at points A
and B on a transverse plane C-C near the
base of the post.
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
P
e
• •
6 in
6 in
2 in
2 in
Section C-C
C
C
The Load-Moment Relationship
6
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Computing the cross-sectional properties:
| |
( ) ( )( )
A x
A
C
point from in. 5
24
2 6 1 6 2 6 3
in 24 2 6 2 Area
2
=
× + + ×
=
= × = =
( ) ( ) ( )
4
3 3 3
in 136
3
1 4
3
3 6
3
5 2
= − + =
y
I
• •
6 in
6 in
2 in
2 in
N.A.
in 5 =
C
x
The Load-Moment Relationship
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Equivalent force system:
Computations of normal stresses:
( )( ) in kip 600 , 3 12 2 150
centroid through acts kip 150
⋅ = × = =
=
Pe M
P
( )
( )
(C) ksi 12.87 -
136
3 300
24
150
(T) ksi 78 . 4
136
5 300
24
150
= − − = − − =
= + − = + − =
x
B
x
A
I
My
A
P
I
My
A
P
σ
σ
The Load-Moment Relationship
7
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
The first step in the investigation of
short columns carrying loads at
eccentricity is to determine the strength
of given column cross section that
carries load at various eccentricities.
For this, the design axial load strength
φP
n
is found, where P
n
is defined as the
nominal axial load strength at a given
eccentricity.
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
Example 2
Find the design axial load strength φP
n
for
the tied column for the following conditions:
(a) small eccentricity, (b) pure moment, (c)
e = 5 in., and (d) the balanced condition.
The column cross section is shown.
Assume a short column. Bending about
the Y-Y axis. Use = 4000 psi and f
y
=
60,000 psi.
c
f ′
8
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
Y
Y
X X
4 1 ′ ′
4 1 ′ ′
0 2 ′ ′
bars 9 # 6−
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
(a) Small Eccentricity:
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( ) | |
( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) | |
kips 723
6 60 6 280 4 85 . 0 70 . 0 80 . 0
85 . 0 80 . 0
(max)
=
+ − =
+ − ′ =
=
st y st g c
n n
A f A A f
P P
φ
φ φ
( )
bars) 9 # 6 of (area in 6
in 280 20 14
2
2
− =
= =
st
g
A
A
9
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
(b) Pure Moment:
The analysis of the pure moment condition
is similar to the analysis of the case where
the eccentricity e is infinite as shown in
Fig. 4.
The design moment φM
n
will be found
since P
u
and φP
n
will both be zero.
Assume that A
s
is at yield, and then with
reference to Fig. 5, then
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
e = ∞
P
u
Figure 4
10
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
C
1
= concrete compressive force
C
2
= steel compressive force
T = steel tensile force
Since
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
c
c
c c
s
s
3
003 . 0
003 . 0
3

= ′ ⇒ =


ε
ε
(3)
s s s
E f ε′ = ′
(4)
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
n
M φ
7 1 ′ ′
3′ ′
s
A′
s
A
c 85 . 0
2
C
1
C
3′ ′
003 . 0
c
f ′ 85 . 0
T
2
Z
1
Z
y
ε
c
s
ε′
Figure 5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Strain
Stress and Force
11
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Substituting E
s
= 29 × 10
6
psi and given
by Eq. 3 into Eq. 4, gives
For equilibrium in Fig 4d,
Substituting into above equation, yields
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( )
c
c
c
c
f
s
3
87
3
003 . 0 10 29
6

=

× = ′
s
ε′
(4)
T C C = +
2 1
(5)
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– The above equation can be solved for c to
give
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( )( )
( )( )( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( ) 60 3 3 4 85 . 0 3
3
87 85 . 0 4 85 . 0
85 . 0 85 . 0 85 . 0
= −

+
= ′ ′ − ′ ′ +
c
c
c
A f A f A f b c f
s y s c s s c
(6a)
(6b)
on) (compressi ksi 90 . 14
62 . 3
3 62 . 3
87
thus, and
in. 62 . 3
=

= ′
=
s
f
c
(7)
12
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
#3 #4 $5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11
1 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56
2 0.22 0.40 0.62 0.88 1.20 1.58 2.00 2.54 3.12
3 0.33 0.60 0.93 1.32 1.80 2.37 3.00 3.81 4.68
4 0.44 0.80 1.24 1.76 2.40 3.16 4.00 5.08 6.24
5 0.55 1.00 1.55 2.20 3.00 3.95 5.00 6.35 7.80
6 0.66 1.20 1.86 2.64 3.60 4.74 6.00 7.62 9.36
7 0.77 1.40 2.17 3.08 4.20 5.53 7.00 8.89 10.92
8 0.88 1.60 2.48 3.52 4.80 6.32 8.00 10.16 12.48
9 0.99 1.80 2.79 3.96 5.40 7.11 9.00 11.43 14.04
10 1.10 2.00 3.10 4.40 6.00 7.90 10.00 12.70 15.60
Number
of bars
Bar number
Table 1. Areas of Multiple of Reinforcing Bars (in
2
)
Table A-2 Textbook
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Therefore, the forces will be
– The internal Moments are
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( ) ( )( )( )( ) kips 5 . 146 14 62 . 3 85 . 0 4 85 . 0 85 . 0 85 . 0
1
= = ′ = b c f C
c
( ) ( )( ) kips 5 . 34 3 4 85 . 0 3 9 . 14 85 . 0
2
= − = ′ ′ − ′ ′ =
s c s s
A f A f C
( )
kips - ft 8 . 188
2
62 . 3 85 . 0
17
12
5 . 146
1 1 1
=
(
¸
(

¸

− = = Z C M
n
( )
kips - ft 3 . 40
12
14 5 . 34
2 2 2
= = = Z C M
n
13
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
n
M φ
7 1 ′ ′
3′ ′
s
A′
s
A
c 85 . 0
2
C
1
C
3′ ′
003 . 0
c
f ′ 85 . 0
T
2
Z
1
Z
y
ε
more or
c
s
ε′
Figure 5
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Strain
Stress and Force
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Therefore,
and
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
kips - ft 229 3 . 40 8 . 188
2 1
= + = + =
n n n
M M M
( ) kips - ft 160 229 7 . 0 = =
n
M φ
14
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
(c) The eccentricity e = 5 in:
The situation of e = 5 in. is shown in Fig. 6
Note that in Part (a), all steel was in
compression and in Part (b), the steel on the
side of the column away from the load was in
tension. Therefore, there is some value of the
eccentricity at which steel will change from
tension to compression. Since this is not
known, the strain in Fig. 7 is assumed.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
P
u
Figure 6
5′ ′ = e
Y
Y
15
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
n
P
7 1 ′ ′ = d
s
A′
s
A
c 85 . 0
2
C
1
C
3′ ′
003 . 0
c
f ′ 85 . 0
T
2
Z
1
Z
s
ε
c
s
ε′
Figure 7
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Assumed Strain Stress and Force
5′ ′
2 1 ′ ′
Comp./tens.?
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
The assumptions at ultimate load are
1. Maximum concrete strain = 0.003
2. > ε
y
, therefore, =f
y
3. ε
s
is tensile
4. ε
s
< ε
y
and thus f
s
< f
y
These assumptions will be verified later.
The unknown quantities are P
u
and c.
The forces will be evaluated as follows:
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
s
ε′
s
f ′
16
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
c
c
c
T C C P
c
c
c
c
A
c
c d
A E A f T
A f A f C
c c ab f C
n
s s s s s s
s c s y
c

− + =
− + =
=

= |
.
|

\
| −
=
|
.
|

\
| −
= = =
= − =
′ ′ − ′ =
− = ′ =

17
261 8 . 169 40.46

: 7c Fig. in 0 moments From
17
261 3
17
87
87
kips 8 . 169 3 4 85 . 0 3 60
85 . 0
46 . 40 14 85 . 0 4 85 . 0 85 . 0
2 1
2
1
ε
003 . 0
s
ε
c
s
ε′
d
c
c d
c
c d
E f
c
c d
c
c d
s s s
s
s

= × |
.
|

\
| −
= =

=

=
87 10 29 003 . 0
and , 003 . 0
003 . 0
3
ε
ε
ε
(8)
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
From ∑ moments = 0, taking moments about T in
Fig. 7d
Eqs. 8 and 9 can be solved simultaneously for c to
give
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( ) ( )
( )
(
¸
(

¸

+ |
.
|

\
|
− =
+ |
.
|

\
|
− =
14 ` 8 . 169
2
85 . 0
17 46 . 40
12
1

14
2
12
2 1
c
c
C
a
d C P
n
(9)
kips 733
in. 86 . 14
=
=
n
P
c
17
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Now, the assumptions can be checked:
Therefore, = f
y
, and based on the location
of the neutral axis:
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( )
( ) OK 0024 . 0 00207 . 0
10 29
000 , 60
0024 . 0 003 . 0
86 . 14
3 86 . 14
6
= ′ < =
×
= =
= |
.
|

\
| −
= ′
s
s
y
y
s
E
f
ε ε
ε
s
f ′
OK ksi 60 ksi 53 . 12
86 . 14
86 . 14 17
87 < =
|
.
|

\
| −
=
s
f
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– The design moment for an eccentricity of 5
in. can be computed as follows:
– Therefore, the given column has a design
load-moment combination strength of 513
kips axial load and 214 ft-kips moment.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( )
( )
kips - ft 214
12
5 513
kips 513 733 7 . 0
= = =
= = =
e P M
P P
n n
n u
φ φ
φ
18
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
(d) The Balanced Condition Case:
The balanced condition is defined when the
concrete reaches a strain of 0.003 at the same
time that the tension steel reaches its yield
strian, as shown in Fig. 8c.
The value of c
b
can be calculated from
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( ) in. 06 . 10 17
60 87
87
87
87
=
+
=
+
= d
f
c
y
b
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
b
P
7 1 ′ ′ = d
s
A′
s
A
c 85 . 0
2
C
1
C
3′ ′
003 . 0
c
f ′ 85 . 0
T
y
ε
b
c
s
ε′
Figure 8
(a)
(b) (c)
(d)
Strain Stress and Force
b
e
0 00207
19
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Therefore, = f
y
= 60 ksi
The forces can computed as follows:
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( ) 00207 . 0 0021 . 0 003 . 0
06 . 10
3 06 . 10
= > =

= ′
y s
ε ε
s
f ′
( )( )( )( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
kips 397 180 170 407
kips 180 3 60
kips 170 3 4 85 . 0 3 60 C
kips 407 14 06 . 10 85 . 0 4 85 . 0
2 1
2
1
= − + = − + =
= =
= − =
= =
T C C P
T
C
b
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– The value of e
b
may be calculated by
summing moments about T as follows:
– From which, e
b
= 12.0 in. Therefore, at the
balanced condition:
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) 14 170
2
2 06 . 10 85 . 0
17 407 7 397
14
2
85 . 0
7
2 1
+
(
¸
(

¸

− = +
+ |
.
|

\
|
− = +
b
b
b e
e
C
c
d C e P
( )
( )
kips - ft 278
12
12 278
kips 278 397 70 . 0
= = =
= =
b b n
b
e P M
P
φ φ
φ
20
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– The results of the four parts can be tabulated
(see Table 2) and plotted as shown in Fig. 9.
– This plot is called an “interaction diagram”.
– In the plot, any point on the solid line
represents an allowable combination of load
and moment.
– Any point within the solid line represents a
load-moment combination that is also
allowable, but for which this column is
overdesigned.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
278 278 12 in
214 513 5 in.
160 0 Infinite
0 (small) 723 Small
Moment strength
(φP
n
e, ft- kips)
Axial load strength
(φP
n
,kips)
e
Table 2
21
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
0 50 100 150 200 250 300
Mo me nt
kips) - (ft Moment e P
n
φ
(kips)
n
P φ
e
=

0
e
=

5

i
n
.
e
=
e
b
=
1
2
in
.
Compression Failure
Balanced condition
Tensile Failure
Member of Strength Bending
Figure 9. Column Interaction Diagram
e = ∝
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Any point outside the solid line represents an
unaccepted load-moment combination or a
load-moment combination for which this
column is underdesigned.
– Radial lines from the origin represent various
eccentricities (slope = φP
n
/φP
n
or 1/e).
– Any eccentricity less than e
b
will result in
compression controlling the column, and any
eccentricity greater than e
b
will result in
tension controlling the column.
Analysis of Short Columns:
Large Eccentricity
22
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 42
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The design of a column cross section
using the previous calculation approach
would be a trial-and-error method and
would become exceedingly tedious.
Therefore, design and analysis aids
have been developed that shorten the
process to a great extent.
A chart approach has been developed
in ACI Publication SP-17 (97), ACI
Design Handbook.
Design of Short Columns: Large
Eccentricity
CHAPTER 9c. COLUMNS
Slide No. 43
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The charts take on the general form of
Figure 9 but are set up to be more
general so that they will remain
applicable if various code criteria
undergo changes.
These charts can be used for both
analysis and design of columns.
There are also computer programs
available to aid in the design process.
Design of Short Columns: Large
Eccentricity
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
1
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
STRUCTURAL STEEL
DESIGN
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
It is interesting to know that steel was
not economically made in the United
States until late in the nineteenth
century.
However, since then steel has become
the predominate material for the
construction of bridges, buildings,
towers, and other structures.
2
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 2
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Steel exhibits desirable physical
properties that makes it one of the most
versatile structural material in use.
Its great strength, uniformity, light
weight, ease of use, and many other
desirable properties makes it the
material of choice for numerous
structures such as steel bridges, high
rise buildings, towers, and other
structures.
Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 3
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Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
3
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 4
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Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 5
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Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
Construction of Golden Gate Bridge (San Francisco, CA)
4
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 6
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Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 7
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Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
5
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 8
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The many advantages of steel can be
summarized as follows:
– High Strength
• This means that the weight of structure that
made of steel will be small.
– Uniformity
• Properties of steel do not change as oppose to
concrete.
– Elasticity
• Steel follows Hooke’s Law very accurately.
Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 9
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– Ductility
• A very desirable of property of steel in which
steel can withstand extensive deformation
without failure under high tensile stresses, i.e.,
it gives warning before failure takes place.
– Toughness
• Steel has both strength and ductility.
– Additions to Existing Structures
• Example: new bays or even entire new wings
can be added to existing frame buildings, and
steel bridges may easily be windened.
Advantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
6
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 10
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Although steel has all this advantages as
structural material, it also has many
disadvantages that make reinforced
concrete as a replacement for construction
purposes.
For example, steel columns sometimes
can not provide the necessary strength
because of buckling, whereas R/C
columns are generally sturdy and massive,
i.e., no buckling problems occurs.
Disadvantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 11
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The many disadvantages of steel can
be summarized as follows:
– Maintenance Cost
• Steel structures are susceptible to corrosion
when exposed to air, water, and humidity.
They must be painted periodically.
– Fireproofing Cost
• Steel is incombustible material, however, its
strength is reduced tremendously at high
temperatures due to common fires
Disadvantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
7
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 12
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– Susceptibility to Buckling
• For most structures, the use of steel columns is
very economical because of their high strength-
to-weight ratios. However, as the length and
slenderness of a compressive column is
increased, its danger of buckling increases.
– Fatigue
• The strength of structural steel member can be
reduced if this member is subjected to cyclic
loading.
Disadvantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 13
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Disadvantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
Figure 1. S-N Curves for Various Materials (Byars and Snyder, 1975)
S = stress range
N = number of cycles
8
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 14
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– Brittle Fracture
• Under certain conditions steel may lose its
ductility, and brittle fracture may occur at places
of stress concentration. Fatigue type loadings
and very low temperatures trigger the situation.
Disadvantages of Steel as a
Structural Material
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 15
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Early Uses of Iron and Steel
1777-1779: Metal as structural material
began with cast iron, used on a 100-ft
(30-m) arch span, which was built in
England.
1780 –1820: A number of cast-iron
bridges were built during this period.
1846 -1850: The Brittania Bridge over
Menai Strait in Wales was built.
9
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
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1840: Wrought iron began replacing
cast iron soon.
1855: Development of the Bessemer
process, which help producing steel in
large quantities and at cheaper prices.
1989: Steel shapes having yield
strength of 24,000 to 100,000 psi were
produced.
Early Uses of Iron and Steel
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
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Steel Sections
Rolled Sections
– Structural steel can be economically rolled
into a wide variety of shapes and sizes
without appreciably changing its physical
properties.
– Usually the most desirable members are
those with large moments of inertia in
proportion to their areas.
– The I, T, and C shapes, so commonly
used, fall into this class.
10
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
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Steel Sections
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
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Steel Sections
11
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 20
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Steel Sections
Rolled Sections
– Steel section are usually designated by the
shapes of their cross sections.
– As examples, there are angles, tees, zees,
and plates.
– It is necessary, however, to make a definite
distinction between American standard
beams (called S beams) and wide-flange
beams (called Wbeams) as they are both I
shaped.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 21
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Steel Sections
Rolled Sections
I-Shaped Sections
Flange
Web Slope 0 to 5%
Wsection
S section
slope %
3
2
16
12
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 22
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Steel Sections
Designation System
– Structural shapes are abbreviated by a
certain system usually described in LRFD
manual for use in drawings, specifications,
and designs.
– This system has been standardized so that
all steel mills can use the same
identification for purposes of ordering,
billing, etc.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 23
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Steel Sections
Designation System
Some examples of this abbreviation system
are as follows:
1. A W17 × 117 is a Wsection approximately
27 in. deep weighing 114 b/ft.
2. An S12 × 35 is an S section 12 in. deep
weighing 35 lb/ft.
3. An HP12 × 74 is bearing pile section which
is approximately 12 in. deep weighing 74
lb/ft.
13
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 24
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Steel Sections
Designation System
4. A C10 × 30 is a channel section 10 in.
deep weighing 30 lb/ft.
5. An MC18 × 58 is a miscellaneous
channel 18 in. deep weighing 58 lb/ft,
which cannot be classified as a C shape
because of its dimensions.
6. An L6 × 6 × ½ is an equal leg angle, each
leg being 6 in long and ½ in. thick.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
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14
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 26
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Stress-Strain Relationships in
Structural Steel
Idealized Relationships
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
F
y
Elastic
region
ε
y
(b) Idealized
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
F
y
Elastic
region
ε
y
(a) As Determined by Tensile Test
y
y
F
E
ε
= = slope
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 27
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Modern Structural Steels
Properties of Modern Steels
– The properties of steel used can be greatly
changed by varying the quantities of carbon
present and adding other elements such as
• Silicon
• Nickel
• Manganese, and
• Copper
– A steel having a significant amount of these
elements is referred to as an alloy steel.
15
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 28
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Modern Structural Steels
Yield Point of Modern Steels
– In the past, a structural carbon steel
designated as A36 and having yield stress
of F
y
= 36 ksi was the commonly used
structural steel.
– Today, a steel having F
y
= 50 ksi can be
produced and sold at almost the same
price as 36 ksi steel.
– Structural steels are generally grouped into
several major ASTM classifications:
ASTM= American Society for Testing and Materials
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 29
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Modern Structural Steels
Yield Point of Modern Steels
– The carbon steels A36, A53, A500, A501,
and A529.
– The high-strength low alloy steels A572,
A618, A913, and A992.
– The corrosion resistant high-strength low-
alloy steels A242, A588, and A847
Considerable information is presented for
each of these steels in Part 2 of The LRFD
Manual.
16
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 30
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Uses of High-Strength Steels
There are indeed ultra-high-strength
steels that have yield strengths from
160 to 300 ksi. These steels have not
been included in the LRFD Manual
because they have not been assigned
ASTM numbers.
The steel industry is now experimenting
with steels with yield stresses from 200
to 300 ksi.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 31
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Uses of High-Strength Steels
It is believed hat steels with 500 ksi
yield strength will be made available
within few years.
The theoretical biding force between
iron atoms has been estimated to be in
excess of 4000 ksi.
17
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 32
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Uses of High-Strength Steels
Factors that Lead to the Use of High-
strength Steels:
1. Superior corrosion resistance.
2. Possible savings in shipping, erection,
and foundation costs caused by weight
savings.
3. Use of shallow beams permitting smaller
floor depths.
4. Possible savings in fireproofing because
smaller members can be used.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 33
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Responsibilities of the Structural
Designer and Engineer
The structural designer or engineer
must learn to arrange and proportion
the parts of structures so that they can
be practically erected and will have
sufficient strength and reasonable
economy. Some of the items that must
be considered include
– Safety
– Cost
– Practicality
18
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Responsibilities of the Structural
Designer and Engineer
– Safety
• Not only must the frame of a structure safely
support the loads to which it is subjected, but
also it must support them in such a manner that
deflections and vibrations are not so great as to
frighten the occupants or to cause unsightly
cracks.
– Cost
• The engineer or designer needs to keep in mind
the factors that can lower cost without sacrificing
the strength, e.g., the use of standard-size
members, simple connections, etc.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 35
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– Practicality
• Designers and engineers need to understand
fabrication methods, and should try to fit their
work to the fabrication facilities available.
• The more the designer knows about the
problems, tolerances, and clearances in shop
and field the more probable it is that
reasonable, practical, and economical designs
will be produced.
Responsibilities of the Structural
Designer and Engineer
Could I get this thing together if I were sent
out to do it??
19
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 36
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Computers and Structural Steel
Design
Personal computers have drastically
changed the way steel structures are
analyzed and designed.
Many of the commercial structural
software packages can perform
– Structural Analysis, and
– Structural Design
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computers and Structural Steel
Design
The need for these programs stems
from the fact that the calculations
involved in both the design and analysis
of an engineering system are quite time-
consuming.
With the use of a computer, the design
engineer greatly can reduce the time
required to perform these calculations.
20
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 38
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Computers and Structural Steel
Design
Although computers do increase design
productivity, they also tend to reduce
the engineer’s “feel” for the structure.
This can be a particular problem for
young engineers with very little design
experience.
Computers should not be looked at as
black boxes that can do powerful things
for us.
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 39
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Computers and Structural Steel
Design
Knowledge and understanding of the
basic engineering principals are
prerequisites for the effective
implementation of any design.
No matter how impressive your tool
chest, you will be hard-pressed to repair
a car if you do not understand how it
works.
21
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURAL STEEL DESIGN
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computers and Structural Steel
Design
This specially true when using
computers to perform structural designs
and analyses.
Although they have powerful potential
utility, computers are particularly
useless without a fundamental
understanding of how engineering
systems work.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
2a
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
SPECIFICATIONS,
LOADS, AND METHODS
OF DESIGN
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Specifications and Building Codes
The design of structural steel in the
United States is controlled and
governed by building codes.
These codes provide general guidelines
of the minimum requirements for the
design of a structural component or a
system.
These codes, which are actually laws or
ordinances, specify minimum:
2
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 2
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– Design loads
– Design stresses
– Construction types
– Material quality
– Other factors.
Some of these codes are written
specifically for certain areas and
disciplines of an engineering practice.
Specifications and Building Codes
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 3
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Examples:
– The design of steel bridges is generally in
accordance with specifications of the
American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (AASHTO).
– Railroad bridges are designed in
accordance with specifications provided by
the American Railway Engineering
Association (AREA).
Specifications and Building Codes
3
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 4
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– The design or analysis of offshore
structures is usually governed by the
specifications adopted by the American
Petroleum Institute (API).
– Commercial ship design is generally
controlled by the specifications furnished by
the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS).
– Reinforced concrete structures are
generally designed according to the
American Concrete Institute (ACI).
Specifications and Building Codes
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 5
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Structural Steel Design
– Structural steel design of buildings in the
United States is principally based on the
specifications of the American Institute of
Steel Construction (AISC).
Specifications and Building Codes
“ “LRFD LRFD Manual of Steel Construction,” 3rd Edition Manual of Steel Construction,” 3rd Edition
ASIC ASIC A American merican I Institute of nstitute of S Steel teel C Construction onstruction
4
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 6
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Structural Steel Design
– The AISC is comprised of steel fabricator
and manufacturing companies, as well as
individuals interested in steel design and
research.
– The AISC Specifications are the result of
the combined judgment of researchers and
practicing engineers.
– The research efforts have been synthesized
into practical design procedures to provide a
safe, economical structure.
Specifications and Building Codes
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 7
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Building Codes
– The term building code is sometimes used
synonymously with specifications.
– More correctly, a building code is a broadly
based document, either a legal document
such as a state or local building code, or a
document widely recognized even though
not legal which covers the same wide
range of topics as the state or local
building code.
Specifications and Building Codes
5
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 8
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Building Codes
– Building codes generally treat all issues
relating to
• Safety
• Architectural details
• Fire protection
• Heating and air conditioning
• Plumbing and sanitation, and
• Lighting
– Building codes also prescribe standard
loads for which the structure is to be
designed.
Specifications and Building Codes
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 9
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The important thing to remember about
specifications and building codes is that
they are written, not for the purpose of
restricting engineers, but for the
purpose of protecting the public. No
matter which building code or
specification is or is not being used, the
ultimate responsibility for the design of
safe structure lies with the structural
design engineer.
Specifications and Building Codes
6
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 10
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Loads
– The accurate determination of the loads to
which a structure or structural element will
be subjected is not always predictable.
– Even if the loads are well known at one
location in a structure, the distribution of
load from element to element throughout
the structure usually requires assumptions
and approximations.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 11
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Loads
– The objective of a structural engineer is to
design a structure that will be able to
withstand all the loads to which it is
subjected while serving its intended
purpose throughout its intended life span.
– Loads can be classified into three broad
categories: (1) Dead Loads, (2) Live
Loads, and (3) Environmental Loads.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
7
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 12
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Types of Loads
– Dead Loads
– Live Loads
– Environmental Loads
• Impact
• Rain loads
• Wind loads
• Snow loads
• Earthquake loads
• Hydrostatic and soil pressure
• Thermal and other effects
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 13
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Dead Loads
– Dead load is a fixed position gravity service
load.
– It is called dead load because it acts
continuously toward the earth when the
structure is in service.
– The weight of the structure is considered
dead load, as well as attachments to
structure such as pipes, electrical conduit,
air-conditioning and heating ducts, lighting
fixtures, and roof and floor covering, etc.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
8
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 14
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Dead Loads (cont’d)
– Dead loads are usually known accurately
but not until the design has been
completed.
– Reasonable estimates of structure weights
may be obtained by referring to similar
types of structures or to various formulas
and tables.
– Approximate weights of some common
building materials for roofs, walls, floors,
and so on are provided in Table 1.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 15
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Table 1. Typical Dead Loads for Some
Common Building Materials
Reinforced concrete 150 lb/ft
3
Structural steel 490 lb/ft
3
Movable steel partitions 4 psf
Plaster and concrete 5 psf
Suspended ceilings 2 psf
3-ply ready roofing 1 psf
Hardwood flooring (7/8 in.) 4 psf
2 ´ 12 ´ 16 in. double wood floors 7 psf
Wood studs with ½ in gypsum 8 psf
Clay brick wythes (4 in.) 39 psf
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
9
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
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Live Loads
– Gravity loads acting when the structure is
in service, but varying in magnitude and
location, are termed live loads.
– Example of live loads are
• Human occupants
• Furniture
• Movable equipment
• Vehicles
• Stored goods
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
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Live Loads (cont’d)
– A great deal of information on the
magnitudes of these various loads, along
with specified minimum values, are
presented in ASCE 7-98:
• Floor loads:
– Typical values for floor loading are listed in Table 2
• Traffic loads:
– Bridges are subjected to series of concentrated loads
of varying magnitude caused by groups of truck or
train wheels.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
10
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
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Table 2. Typical Minimum Uniform Live
Loads for Design of Building
LL (psf)
Apartments 40
Public rooms 100
100
50
100
Lobbies 100
Offices 50
Classrooms 40
Corridors first floor 100
Corridors above first flo 80
Light 125
Heavy 250
First floor 100
Other floors 75
Type of Building
Apartment houses
Dining rooms and restaurants
Garages (passenger cars only)
Stores (retail)
Gymnasiums, main floors, and balconies
Office buildings
Schools
Storage warehouses
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
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Table 3. Typical Concentrated Live
Loads for Buildings
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
Hospitals - operating rooms, private rooms, and wards 1000 lb
Manufacturing building (light) 2000 lb
Manufacturing building (heavy) 3000 lb
Office floors 2000 lb
Retail stores (first floors) 1000 lb
Retail stores (upper floors) 1000 lb
School classrooms 1000 lb
School corridors 1000 lb
11
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
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• Impact loads:
– Impact loads are caused by the vibration of moving
or movable loads. The ASCE Specification requires
that when structures are supporting live loads that
tend to cause impact, it is necessary for those loads
to be increased by the percentages given in Table 4.
• Longitudinal loads
– Longitudinal loads are another type of load that
needs to be considered in designing some
structures. Stopping a train on a railroad bridge or a
truck on a highway bridge causes longitudinal forces
to be applied. Imagine the tremendous longitudinal
force developed when the driver of a 40-ton truck
traveling at 60 mph has to stop suddenly.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
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Table 4. Live Load Impact Factors
Elevator machinery 100%
Motor driven machinery 20%
Reciprocating machinery 50%
Hangers for floors or balconies 33%
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
12
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
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Environmental Loads
– Snow loads
• On inch of snow load is equivalent to a load of
approximately 0.5 psf.
• For roof design, snow loads vary from 10 to 40
psf.
– Rain loads
• Although snow load are a more severe problem
than rain loads for the usual roof. The situation
can be reversed for flat roofs with poor
drainage systems.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 23
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Environmental Loads (cont’d)
– Wind loads
• Wind loads can be severe. Numerous
structural failures by wind were reported.
Perhaps the most infamous of these are the
failure of
Tay Bridge in Scotland in 1979, which caused
the deaths of 75 people,
Tacoma Narrow Bridge in Tacoma,
Washington, in 1940,
Union Carbide Building in Toronto in 1958.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
13
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 24
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– Wind loads (cont’d)
• In accordance with Bernoulli’s theorem for ideal
fluid striking an object, the increase in static
pressure equals the decrease in dynamic
pressure, or
• Where q is the dynamic pressure on the object,
ρ is the mass density of air (specific weight w =
0.07651 pcf at sea level and 15
0
C), and V is
the wind velocity.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
2
2
1
V q ρ = (1)
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 25
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– Wind loads (cont’d)
• In terms of velocity V in miles per hour, the
dynamic pressure q (psf) would be given by
• In design of usual types of buildings, the
dynamic pressure q is commonly converted into
equivalent static pressure p, which may be
expressed as
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
2 2
0026 . 0
2600
5280
2 . 32
07651 . 0
2
1
2
1
V V q = 











= = ρ (2)
p g e
C C qC p =
(3)
14
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 26
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Where
C
e
= exposure factor that varies from 1.0 (for 0-
40-ft height) to 2.0 (for 740-1200-ft height).
C
g
= gust factor, such as 2.0 for structural
members and 2.5 for small elements
including cladding.
C
p
= shape factor for the building as a whole.
• The commonly used wind pressure of 20 psf, as
specified by many building codes, correspond to
a velocity of 88 mph from Eq. 2.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
– Earthquake Loads
• An earthquake consists of horizontal and
vertical ground motions, with the vertical motion
usually having much smaller magnitude.
• Since the horizontal motion of the ground
causes the most significant effect, it is that
effect which usually thought of as earthquake
load.
• When the ground under a structure having a
certain mass suddenly moves, the inertia of the
mass tends to resist the movement (Fig. 1)
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
15
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
– Earthquake Loads (cont’d)
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
W
W
(a) At rest (b) Under horizontal motion
from earthquake
Earthquake motion
reaction
inertia = CW
Figure 1
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
– Earthquake Loads (cont’d)
• In order to simplify the design process, most
building codes contain an equivalent lateral
force procedure for designing to resist
earthquake.
• One of the most widely used design
recommendations is that of the Structural
Engineers Association of California (SEAOC).
• Some recent rules for equivalent lateral force
procedure are those given by the ANSI
Standard.
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
16
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
– Earthquake Loads (cont’d)
• In the ANSI, the lateral seismic forces V,
expressed as follows, are assumed to act non-
concurrently in the direction of each of the main
axes of the structure:
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
ZIKCSW V =
(4)
Z = seismic zone coefficient (varies from 1/8 to 1).
I = occupancy important factor (varies from 1.5 to 1.25).
K = horizontal force factor (varies from 0.67 to 2.5).
T = fundamental natural period.
S = soil profile coefficient (varies from 1.0 to 1.5).
W = total dead load of the building.
12 . 0
15
1
≤ =
T
C
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
– Earthquake Loads (cont’d)
• When the natural period T cannot be
determined by rational means from technical
data, it may be obtained as follows for shear
walls or exterior concrete frames using deep
beams or wide piers, or both:
Dead, Live, and Environmental Loads
D
h
T
n
05 . 0
=
(5)
D = dimension of the structure in the direction of the applied
forces, in feet.
h
n
= height of the building
17
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)
The load and resistance factor design
(LRFD) is a probability-based design
approach.
It has been adopted in most modern
structural codes.
The LRFD is based on a limit states
philosophy, i.e., a state at which a
structure ceases to perform its intended
function.
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Need for Reliability Evaluation
– The presence of uncertainty in engineering design
and analysis has always been recognized.
– Traditional approaches simplify the problem by
considering the uncertain parameters to be
deterministic.
– Traditional approaches account for the uncertainty
through the use of empirical safety factor.
– This factor is based on past experience but does
not absolutely guarantee safety or performance.
Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)
18
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability-Based Design (RBD)
– RBD requires the consideration of:
• Loads
• Structural Strength
• Methods of Reliability Analysis (i.e., FORM)
– Two primary approaches for RBD:
• Direct Reliability-based Design
• Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD)
Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability Based-design Approach Versus
Deterministic Approach
• According to ASD, one factor of safety (FS) is used that
accounts for the entire uncertainty in loads and strength.
• According to LRFD (probability-based), different partial
safety factors for the different load and strength types are
used.
ASD
FS
1

=

m
i
i
n
L
R
LRFD
1

=

m
i
i i n
L R γ φ
Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)
(6)
19
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The General From of LRFD:

=

m
i
ni i n
L R
1
γ φ
Where
φ = strength reduction factor
γ
i
= load factor for the i
th
load component out of n components
R
n
= nominal or design strength (stress, moment, force, etc.)
L
ni
= nominal (or design) value for the i
th
load component out
of m components
Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)
(7)
CHAPTER 2a. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Special Form for Specific Strength
(moment) and Load Effects (dead and
Live load):
Load and Resistance Factor
Design (LRFD)
L D R
L L D D R
M M M
M M M
6 . 1 2 . 1 90 . 0
or

+ ≥
+ ≥ γ γ φ
(8)
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
2b
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
SPECIFICATIONS,
LOADS, AND METHODS
OF DESIGN
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
The load factors are usually amplifying
factors that are used in LRFD design
equation to increase the loads.
The purpose of increasing the loads is
to account for the uncertainties involved
in estimating the magnitudes of dead
and/or live loads.
How close (%) could you estimate the worst
wind or snow load that will ever be applied
to a particular building?
2
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Since the dead loads can be estimated
more accurately than live loads, the
factor for live load is usually higher than
that used for dead loads.
Examples:
– A load factor of 1.6 for live loads in LRFD
steel manual as compared to 1.2 for dead
loads.
– A load factor of 1.7 for live loads in ACI
Code as compared to 1.4 for dead loads.
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Loads and Load Combinations
1.4 (D + F) (1)
1.2 (D + F + T) + 1.6 (L + H) + 0.5 (L
r
or S or R) (2)
1.2 D + 1.6 (L
r
or S or R) + (0.5 L or 0.8 W) (3)
1.2 D + 1.6 W+ 0.5 L + 0.5 (L
r
or S or R) (4)
1.2 D + 1.0 E + 0.5 L + 0.2 S (5)
0.9 D + 1.6 W+ 1.6 H (6)
0.9 D + 1.0 E + 1.6 H (7)
3
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Notations
U = the design (ultimate) load
D = dead load
F = fluid load
T = self straining force
L = live load
L
r
= roof live load
H = lateral earth pressure load, ground water pressure.
S = snow load
R = rain load
W= wind load
E = earthquake load
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Example 1
A floor system has W24 × 55 section
spaced 8 ft on-center supporting a floor
dead load of 50 psf and a live load of 80
psf. Determine the governing load in lb/ft
which each beam must support.
2
in 8 1 8 area
beam, the of length of foot one For
= × =
( )
( ) lb/ft 640 80 8
lb/ft 455 50 8 55
Therefore,
= =
= + =
L
D
4
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
S
p
a
n
o
f
B
e
a
m
, L
w
u
L
8

f
t
8

f
t
Load Factors
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Example 1 (cont’d)
Computing factored loads and noting that
D and L are the only loads to be supported,
therefore using Eqs. 1 to 7 result in:
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) lb/ft 866 640 5 . 0 0 6 . 1 455 2 . 1
8 . 0 or 5 . 0 or or 6 . 1 2 . 1 . 3
lb/ft 1570
0 or 0 or 0 5 . 0 0 640 6 . 1 0 0 455 2 . 1
or or 5 . 0 6 . 1 2 . 1 . 2
lb/ft 637 0 455 4 . 1 4 . 1 . 1
= + + =
+ + =
=
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
= + = + =
W L R S L D U
R S L H L T F D U
F D U
r
r
Controls (largest)
5
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Example 1 (cont’d)
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) lb/ft 409 0 6 . 1 0 0 . 1 455 9 . 0 6 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 . 7
lb/ft 5 . 409 0 6 . 1 0 6 . 1 455 9 . 0 6 . 1 6 . 1 9 . 0 . 6
lb/ft 866 0 2 . 0 640 5 . 0 0 0 . 1 455 2 . 1
2 . 0 5 . 0 0 . 1 2 . 1 . 5
lb/ft 866 0 5 . 0 640 5 . 0 0 6 . 1 455 2 . 1
or or 5 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 1 2 . 1 . 4
= + + = + + =
= + + = + + =
= + + + =
+ + + =
= + + + =
+ + + =
H E D U
H W D U
S L E D U
R S L L W D U
r
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Example 2
The various axial loads for a building column
have been computed according to the
applicable building code with the following
results: dead load = 200 k, load from roof = 50
k (roof live load), live load from floor = 250 k,
compression wind = 80 k, tensile wind 65 k,
compression earthquake = 60 k, and tensile
earthquake = 70 k.
Determine the critical design load using the
combinations provided by Eqs. 1 to 7.
6
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Example 2 (cont’d)
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) k 268 65 8 . 0 50 6 . 1 200 2 . 1 c.
k 384 80 8 . 0 50 6 . 1 200 2 . 1 b.
k 445 250 5 . 0 50 6 . 1 200 2 . 1 a.
8 . 0 or 5 . 0 or or 6 . 1 2 . 1 . 3
k 665
50 5 . 0 0 250 6 . 1 0 0 200 2 . 1
or or 5 . 0 6 . 1 2 . 1 . 2
k 280 0 200 4 . 1 4 . 1 . 1
= − + + =
= + + =
= + + =
+ + =
=
+ + + + + =
+ + + + + =
= + = + =
U
U
U
W L R S L D U
R S L H L T F D U
F D U
r
r
Controls (largest)
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Load Factors
Example 2 (cont’d)
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) k 110 0 6 . 1 70 0 . 1 200 9 . 0 b.
k 240 0 6 . 1 60 0 . 1 200 9 . 0 a.
6 . 1 0 . 1 9 . 0 . 7
k 76 0 1.6 65 - 1.6 200 9 . 0 b.
k 308 0 1.6 80 1.6 200 9 . 0 a.
6 . 1 6 . 1 9 . 0 . 6
k 295 0 2 . 0 250 5 . 0 70 0 . 1 200 2 . 1 b.
k 425 0 2 . 0 250 5 . 0 60 0 . 1 200 2 . 1 a.
2 . 0 5 . 0 0 . 1 2 . 1 . 5
k 286 50 5 . 0 250 5 . 0 65 6 . 1 455 2 . 1 b.
k 518 50 5 . 0 250 5 . 0 80 6 . 1 455 2 . 1 a.
or or 5 . 0 5 . 0 6 . 1 2 . 1 . 4
= + − + =
= + + =
+ + =
= + + =
= + + =
+ + =
= + + − + =
= + + + =
+ + + =
= + + − + =
= + + + =
+ + + =
U
U
H E D U
U
U
H W D U
U
U
S L E D U
U
U
R S L L W D U
r
7
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength (or Resistance) Factors
Strength factors are usually reduction
factors that applied to the strength
(stress, force, moment) of the member
to account for the uncertainties in
material strengths, dimensions, and
workmanship.
With a resistance factor, the designer
attempts to account for imperfection in
analysis theory, variation in material
properties, and imperfect dimensions.
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength (or Resistance) Factors
This can be accomplished by
multiplying the theoretical ultimate
strength (also called nominal strength)
of each member by a capacity reduction
factor φ, which generally less than one.
These values are 0.85 for columns, 0.75
or 0.90 for tension members, 0.90 for
bending or shear in beams, and so on.
Typical reduction factors are provided in
Table 1 (Table 2.2, Text).
8
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Strength (or Resistance) Factors
Table 1. Typical Resistance (Strength) Factors
0.60 Bearing on concrete foundations
0.65 Bearing on bolts (other than A307)
0.75
Bolts in tension, plug, or slot welds, fracture in the net section of
tension members
0.80
Shear on effective area of full-penetration groove welds, tension
normal to the effective area of partial-penetration groove welds.
0.85
Columns, web crippling, edge distance, and bearing capacity at
holes
0.90
Beams on bending and shear, fillet welds with stress parallel to
weld axis, groove welds base metal
1.00
Bearing on the projected areas of pins, web yielding under
concentrated loads, slip-resistant bolt shear values
φ Type of Loading
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
Reliability
– The reliability of an engineering system can
be defined as the system’s ability to fulfill its
design functions for a specified period of time.
– In the context of this course, it refers to the
estimated percentage of times that the
strength of a member will equal or exceed the
maximum loading applied to that member
during its estimated life (say 25 years).
9
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
Reliability
– Motivation
• Assume that a designer states that his or her
designs are 99.6 percent reliable (this is usually
the case obtained with most LRFD design).
• If we consider the designs of 1000 structures, this
does not mean that 4 of the 1000 structures will fall
flat on the ground, but rather it means that those
structures at some time will be loaded into the
plastic range and perhaps the strain hardening
range. So excessive deformation and slight
damage might occur, but a complete failure.
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
– In the previous example, it would be
desirable to have 100%-reliability.
– However, this is an impossible goal
statistically. There will always be a chance
of failure (unreliability), say 2 or 3 %.
– The goal of the LRFD Specification was to
keep this to very small and consistent
percentage.
10
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
– To do this, the resistance or strength R of
each member of steel structure as well as
the maximum loading Q, expected during
the life of the structure, are computed.
– A structure then is s said to be safe if
Q R ≥
(1)
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
– General Form

=

m
i
ni i n
L R
1
γ φ
Where
φ = strength reduction factor
γ
i
= load factor for the i
th
load component out of n components
R
n
= nominal or design strength (stress, moment, force, etc.)
L
ni
= nominal (or design) value for the i
th
load component out
of m components
(2)
11
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Probability Based-design Approach Versus
Deterministic Approach
• According to ASD, one factor of safety (FS) is used that
accounts for the entire uncertainty in loads and strength.
• According to LRFD (probability-based), different partial
safety factors for the different load and strength types are
used.
ASD
FS
1

=

m
i
i
n
L
R
LRFD
1

=

m
i
i i n
L R γ φ
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
– The actual values of R and Q are random
variables and it is therefore impossible to
say with 100% certainty that R is always
equal or greater than Q for a particular
structure.
– No matter how carefully a structure is
designed, there will be always some
chance that Q exceeds R as shown in
Figure 1.
12
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
Load Effect (L)
Strength (R)
Density
Function
Origin 0 Random Value
Area (for g < 0) =
Failure probability
(Q)
( ) 0 < − = Q R g
Figure 1
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
– Reliability Index β
• A measure of reliability can be defined by
introducing a parameter β, called the reliability
index.
β can be computed using structural reliability
theory and knowledge of the first and second
moment statistical characteristics (i.e., mean
and COV) for both the strength and load
variables.
13
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
– Reliability Index β (cont’d)
• For two variables and linear performance
function, the reliability index b can be defined
as the shortest distance from the origin to the
failure line as shown in Fig. 2. Mathematically,
it can be expressed as
2 2
Q R
Q R
σ σ
µ µ
β


= (2)
µ = mean value of strength or load variable
σ = standard deviation of strength or load variable
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability Index β
β
R'
L'
Failure Line
g = 0
Survival
Region
Design
Point
Failure
Region
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
Figure 2
The reliability index β is the shortest distance from the origin to the failure surface.
14
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
LRFD Specification
– Reliability Index β (cont’d)
• The important relationship between the
reliability index β and the probability of failure P
f
is given by
where Φ(.) = cumulative probability distribution
function of the standard normal distribution.
( ) β Φ − =1
f
P
(3)
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Target Reliability Indices or Levels (AISC)
Reliability and the LRFD
Specification
Structural Type
Target
Reliability Level
(β 0
)
Metal structures for buildings (dead, live, and snow loads)
3
Metal structures for buildings (dead, live, and wind loads)
2.5
Metal structures for buildings (dead, live, and snow, and
earthquake loads)
1.75
Metal connections for buildings (dead, live, and snow loads)
4 to 4.5
Reinforced concrete for buildings (dead, live, and snow loads)
ductile failure 3
brittle failure 3.5
15
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Advantages of LRFD
LRFD Advantages
– Provides a more rational approach for new
designs and configurations.
– Provides consistency in reliability.
– Provides potentially a more economical
use of materials.
– Allows for future changes as a result of
gained information in prediction models,
and material and load characterization
– Easier and consistent for code calibration.
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
The computer program INSTEP32
design software can be used to perform
the necessary calculations for load
combinations provided by Eqs. 1
through 7.
This program can also assist you in
solving many of the problems presented
in the textbook.
16
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Installation of INSTEP32
1. Insert the CD-ROM in your computer.
2. In Windows Explorer, open the
INSTEP32 directory on the CD-ROM.
3. Double-click on Setup.
4. The Setup program will guide you
through the installation process.
INSTEP32 can be started by clicking the
INSTEP32 icon on the Start Menu on the
desktop.
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations
– To perform the calculations for load
combinations, start INSTEP32 and then
select Design– Load Combinations from
the menu bar.
– After you have done this, that data entry
dialogue shown in the following slides will
appear.
17
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations (cont’d)
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations
18
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations
Using the computer program INSTEP32,
compute the governing factored loads for
each of the following: D = 200 k, L
r
= 50 k,
L = 250 k, W= 80 k, and E = 60 k.
The input and output of the program is
shown in the next slides. Therefore, the
critical factored load for design is 665 k.
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations
19
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations (cont’d)
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations (cont’d)
Critical
Factored
load
20
CHAPTER 2b. SPECIFICATIONS, LOADS, AND METHODS OF DESIGN
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 3: Load Combinations (cont’d)
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
3a
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
ANALYSIS OF TENSION
MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Tension members are found in
– Bridges and roof trusses
– Towers
– Bracing systems
– Cases where they are used as tie rods
The design of tension members is very
simple and straightforward.
No buckling problems are encountered
as in the case of compression members.
2
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
RHINE BRIDGE, COLOGNE RHINE BRIDGE, COLOGNE- -RODENKIRCHEN, (1946 RODENKIRCHEN, (1946- -47), SPAN 94.5 47), SPAN 94.5- -378 378- -94.5 m 94.5 m
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Transmission Towers Transmission Towers
Introduction
3
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Tension Members
– Trusses
Introduction
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Tension Members
– Tension Structures
Introduction
4
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Rods
– One of the simplest forms of tension
members is the circular rod.
– The rod has been used frequently in the
past, but has only occasional uses
nowadays in bracing systems, light
trusses, and in timber construction.
– The problems associated with rods that
there is some difficulty connecting them to
many structures.
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Rolled Shapes (Standard Sections)
– Today, tension members include
• Single angles
• Double angles
• Tees
• Channels
• Wsections, and
• Built-up sections
– These members look better, are stiffer, and
are easier to connect to other structures.
5
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Steel Sections
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Tie Plates (bars)
– Members consisting of more than one
section need to be tied together.
– Tie plates (also called tie bars) located at
various intervals or perforated cover plates
serve to hold the various pieces in their
correct positions.
– These plates help correct any an equal
distribution of loads between the various
parts.
6
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Steel Cables
– They are made with special steel alloy wire
ropes that are cold-drawn to a desired
diameter.
– The resulting wire strengths of about
200,000 to 250,000 psi can be
economically used for suspension bridges,
cable supported roofs, ski lifts, and other
similar applications.
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design Strength of Tension Members
Nominal Strength
– The strength of a tension member may be
described in terms of the “limit states” that
govern.
– The controlling strength limit state for a
tension member can either
• Yielding of the gross cross-section of the
member away from the connection, or
• Fracture of the effective net area (i.e., through
the holes) at the connection
7
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification
When the limit state is general yielding of
the gross section over the member length,
as for a tension member without holes (i.e.,
with welded connection), the nominal
strength P
n
is expressed as
Design Strength of Tension Members
90 . 0 with = ≤
=
t g y t u
g y n
A F P
A F P
φ φ
(1)
F
y
= yield stress
A
g
= gross cross-sectional area
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification
– For tension members having holes, such as
for rivet or bolts, the reduced cross section is
referred to as the net area.
– Holes in member cause stress concentration
(nonuniform stresses).
– For example, a hole in a plate with a tensile
service force P produces a stress distribution
at service load as shown in Fig. 1
Design Strength of Tension Members
8
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 1. Elastic Stress Distribution with
Holes Present
Design Strength of Tension Members
P
P
avg max
3 f f =
section net on
avg
f
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification
– Theory of elasticity shows that tensile
stress adjacent to the hole will about three
times the average stress on the net area.
– However, as each fiber reaches yield
strain, that is ε
y
= F
y
/E
s
, its stress then
becomes a constant F
y
with deformation
continuing with increasing load until finally
all fibers have achieved or exceeded the
strain ε
y
(see Fig. 2)
Design Strength of Tension Members
9
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design Strength of Tension Members
Figure 2. Ultimate Condition - Stress
Distribution with Holes Present
P
P
y
F
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification
When the limit state is a localized yielding
resulting in a fracture through the effective
net area of a tension member having holes,
the nominal strength P
n
is expressed as
Design Strength of Tension Members
F
u
= tensile strength
A
e
= effective net area = UA
n
A
n
= net area
U = efficiency factor
75 . 0 with = ≤
=
t e u t u
e u n
A F P
A F P
φ φ
(2)
10
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design Strength of Tension Members
Table 1
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Net Areas, A
n
– Whenever a tension member is to be
fastened by means of bolts or rivets, holes
must be provided at the connection.
– Therefore, the member cross sectional
area is reduced and the strength of the
member may also be reduced depending
on the size and location of the holes.
– The term “net cross-sectional area” or “net
area” refers to the gross sectional area of
the member minus the holes, notches, or
other indentations.
Design Strength of Tension Members
11
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Net Areas, A
n
(cont’d)
– Methods for Cutting Holes
1. The most common and least expensive
method is to punch standard holes 1/16 in.
(1.6 mm) larger than the diameter of the rivet
or bolt.
In general the plate thickness is less than the
punch diameter. This is accounted in design
by assuming that the extend of the damage is
limited to a radial distance of 1/32 in. (0.8
mm) around the hole.
Design Strength of Tension Members
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Net Areas, A
n
(cont’d)
– Methods for Cutting Holes
2. A second method of cutting holes consists of
subpunching them 3/16 in. (4.8 mm) diameter
undersize and them reaming the holes to the
finished size after the pieces being joined are
assembled.
This method is more expensive, but offers the
advantage of accurate alignment.
This method produces better strength.
Design Strength of Tension Members
12
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Net Areas, A
n
(cont’d)
– Methods for Cutting Holes
3. A third method consists of drilling holes to a
diameter of the rivet or bolt plus 1/32 in. (0.8
mm).
This method is used to join thick pieces, and
is the most expensive of the all common
methods.
Design Strength of Tension Members
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Net Areas, A
n
(cont’d)
How to find the area of the hole?
The area f the hole is considered a rectangular
area, and is computed as follows:
Design Strength of Tension Members
p h h
t d A × =
(3)
For fastener in standard holes,
d
h
= diameter of fastener + 1/8 in. (3.2 mm)
t
p
= thickness of plate or metal used
13
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
s
p h h
t d A × =
Design Strength of Tension Members
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
What is the net area A
n
for the tension
member shown?
Design Strength of Tension Members
4
4
1
- Plate ×
Standard hole for a
bolt diam. - in
4
3
- −
P
P
14
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Design Strength of Tension Members
in. 4
in.
4
1
( )
2
in 0 . 1 25 . 0 4 = =
g
A
h
d in.
8
7
8
1
4
3
hole for deducted be width to = = + =
2
in 781 . 0
4
1
8
7
0 . 1 = |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
− = − =
p h g h g n
t d A A A A
Area (A
h
) of hole
P
P
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2
Determine the net area of the 3/8 × 8-in
plate shown. The plate is connected at its
ends with two lines of ¾-in bolts.
Design Strength of Tension Members
P
u
P
u
2
u
P
2
u
P
u
P
in 8
4
1
- Plate ×
in 8
4
1
- Plate ×
in 8
8
3
- Plate ×
15
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Design Strength of Tension Members
h
d in.
8
7
8
1
4
3
hole one for deducted be width to = = + =
( )
2
in 3 8
8
3
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
A
2
in 34 . 2
8
3
8
7
2 0 . 3
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

× − =
− = − =
p h g h g n
t d A A A A
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3
Compute the net area for the member
shown in the figure.
Design Strength of Tension Members
31 WT12×
bolts in
4
3

16
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
– Using a WT12 × 31, the following
properties can be obtained from the AISC
Steel Manual (Page 1-44):
A = 9.16 in
2
t
w
= 0.430 in
t
f
=0.59 in
Therefore,
A
g
= A = 9.16 in
2
Design Strength of Tension Members
CHAPTER 3a. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 3 (cont’d)
Design Strength of Tension Members
h
d in.
8
7
8
1
4
3
hole one for deducted be width to = = + =
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
Web Falnge
Web Flange
in 75 . 7 430 . 0
8
7
59 . 0
8
7
2 16 . 9
2
2
2
= −
|
.
|

\
|
− =
− − =
− − =
− − =
w h f h g
p h p h g
h h g n
t d t d A
t d t d A
A A A A
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
3b
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
ANALYSIS OF TENSION
MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Whenever there is more than on hole
and the holes are not lined up
transverse to the loading direction, more
than one potential failure line may exist.
The controlling failure line is that line
which gives the minimum net area.
In the previous examples, tension
members were assumed to fail
transversely as along line AB in Fig. 1a
or 1b.
2
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Figure 1. Possible Failure Sections in
Plates
A
B
A
B
A
B
C
E
D
s
g
(a)
(b)
(c)
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Fig. 1c shows a member in which a
failure other than a transverse one is
possible.
The holes are staggered, and failure
along section ABCD is possible unless
the holes are a large distance apart.
In Fig. 1b, the failure line is along the
section AB.
3
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
In Fig. 1c, which is showing two lines of
staggered holes, the failure line might
be through one hole (section ABE) or it
might be along a diagonal path ABCD.
At first glance, one might think section
ABE is critical since the path ABE is
obviously shorter than path ABCD.
However, from path ABE, only one hole
would be deducted while two holes
would be deducted from path ABCD.
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Controlling Section
– In order to determine the controlling
section, both paths ABE and ABCD must
be investigated .
– Accurate checking of strength along path
ABCD is very complex.
– However, a simplified empirical relationship
has been proposed by Cochrane and
adopted by in the AISC LRFD Manual.
4
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
LRFD Specification
– The LRFD Specification and other
specifications use a very simple method for
computing the net width of a tension
member along a zigzag section.
– The method is to take the gross width of
the member regardless of the line along
which failure might occur, subtract the
diameter of the holes along the zigzag
section, and for each individual line the
quantity given by s
2
/4g.
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
LRFD Specification
– In determining the critical section among
various paths, the one that gives the least
value after subtracting the holes, and the
quantity
is the critical section.
g
s
4
2
s = stagger or spacing of adjacent holes parallel to loading
direction (see Fig. 2), also called pitch
g = gage distance transverse to the loading (Fig. 2)
(1)
5
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Figure 2. Critical Section and net
Length
A
B
C
E
D
s
g
g
s
4
2
Net length of ABC = length of ABC – diameter of hole
Net length of ABCD = length of ABCD – 2(diameter of hole) +
g
s
4
2
Note: for standard bolts, add 1/8 in. to hole diameter,
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 1
Determine the critical net area of the ½ -in
plate shown using the LRFD Specification.
The holes are punched for ¾-in bolts.
A
B
C
E
F D
in
1
2
in
1
2
in 3
in 3
in 11
in 3
6
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 1 (cont’d)
From the figure,
s = 3 in, and g = 3 in and 6 in
The critical section could be possibly be
ABCD, ABCEF, or ABEF
in 25 . 9
8
1
4
3
2 11 of length net
in)
8
1
dia. hole ( 2 of length of length net
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
+ − =
ABCD
ABCD ABCD
A
B
C
E
F D
in
2
1
2
in
2
1
2
in 3
in 3
in 11
in 3
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 1 (cont’d)
A
B
C
E
F D
in
1
2
in
1
2
i 3
i 3
i 3
( )
( )
(controls) in 125 . 9
3 4
3
8
1
4
3
3 11 of length net
4
in)
8
1
dia. hole ( 3 of length of length net
2
2
= + |
.
|

\
|
+ − =
+ + − =
ABCEF
g
s
ABCEF ABCEF
7
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 1 (cont’d)
A
B
C
E
F D
in
2
1
2
in
2
1
2
in 3
in 3
in 11
in 3
( )
( )
in 625 . 9
6 4
3
8
1
4
3
2 11 of length net
4
in)
8
1
dia. hole ( 2 of length of length net
2
2
= + |
.
|

\
|
+ − =
+ + − =
ABEF
g
s
ABEF ABEF
2
in 56 . 4
2
1
125 . 9 area neat The
Therefore,
= |
.
|

\
|
=
n
A
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 2
Determine the minimum net area of the plate
shown assuming 15/16-in diameter holes,
and the holes are punched for nonstandard
bolts (i.e., add 1/16 in).
A
B
C
E
F
D
in
1
2
in 4
in 12
G
in
8
1
2 in
8
7
1
in
1
2
in 3
in 12
4
1
PL ×
8
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 2 (cont’d)
From the figure,
s = and g = 2.5 in, and 4 in
The critical section could be possibly be
ABCD, ABECD, or ABEFG
in,
8
7
1 and in
8
1
2
in 00 . 10
16
1
16
15
2 12 of length net
in)
16
1
dia. hole ( 2 of length of length net
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
+ − =
ABCD
ABCD ABCD
A
B
C
E
F
D
in
2
1
2
in 4
in 12
G
in
8
1
2 in
8
7
1
in
2
1
2
in 3
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 2 (cont’d)
in 875 . 1
8
7
1 and in, 125 . 2
8
1
2 = =
( )
( )
( )
( )
in 734 . 9
4 4
125 . 2
5 . 2 4
125 . 2
16
1
16
15
3 12 of length net
4
in)
16
1
dia. hole ( 3 of length of length net
2 2
2
1
2
=
+ + |
.
|

\
|
+ − =
+ + − =

=
ABECD
g
s
ABECD ABECD
i
A
B
C
E
F
D
in
1
2
G
in
8
1
2 in
8
7
1
in
1
2
i 3
9
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 2 (cont’d)
A
B
C
E
F
D
in
2
1
2
in 4
in 12
G
in
8
1
2 in
8
7
1
in
2
1
2
in 3
( )
( )
( )
( )
in 671 . 9
4 4
875 . 1
5 . 2 4
125 . 2
16
1
16
15
3 12 of length net
4
in)
16
1
dia. hole ( 3 of length of length net
2 2
2
1
2
= + + |
.
|

\
|
+ − =
+ + − =

=
ABEFG
g
s
ABEFG ABEFG
i
2
in 42 . 2
4
1
671 . 9 area neat The
Therefore,
= |
.
|

\
|
=
n
A
controls
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 3
For the two lines of bolt holes shown,
determine the pitch s that will give a net
area DEFG equal to the one along ABC.
A
B
C
E
F
D
in 2
in 2
in 6
s
G
s
in 2
10
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 3 (cont’d)
A
B
C
E
F
D
in 2
in 2
in 6
s
G
s
in 2
( ) in 125 . 5
8
1
4
3
1 6 of length net =
(
¸
(

¸

+ − = ABC
( )
( ) 8
4.25
2 4 8
1
4
3
2 6 of length net
2 2
s s
DEFG + = +
(
¸
(

¸

+ − =
in. 65 . 2
8
25 . 4 125 . 5
of length net of length net : t Requiremen
2
= ∴
+ =
=
s
s
DEFG ABC
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
LRFD Manual Provisions for Angles
– Holes for bolts and rivets are usually drilled
or punched in steel angles at certain
standard locations.
– These locations or gages are dependent
on the angle-leg widths and on the number
of lines of holes.
– Table1 (Table 3.1, Text), which is taken
from Fig. 10.6 of the LRFD Manual, shows
these gages.
11
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
LRFD Manual Provisions for Angles
Leg 8 7 6 5 4 3 1/2 3 2 1/2 2 1 3/4 1 1/2 1 3/8 1 1/4 1
g 4 1/2 4 3 1/2 3 2 1/2 2 1 3/4 1 3/8 1 1/8 1 7/8 7/8 3/4 5/8
g 1 3 2 1/2 2 1/4 2
g 2 3 3 2 1/2 1 3/4
Table 1. Usual Gages for Angles, in Inches (AISC Manual)
1
g
2
g
g
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
LRFD Manual Provisions for Angles
– When holes are staggered on two legs of
an angle, the gage length g for use in s
2
/4g
expression is obtained by using a length
between the centers of the holes measured
along the centerline of the angle thickness,
i.e., the distance AB in Fig. 2.
– Thus the gage distance g is given by
t g g
t
g
t
g g
b a b a
− + = − + − =
2 2
(2)
12
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
LRFD Manual Provisions for Angles
t
2
t
a
g
2
t
b
g
C
L
C
L
A
B
Figure 2. Gage Distances for an Angle
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 4
Determine the net area A
n
for the angle
given in the figure if 15/16-in diameter
holes for nonstandard bolts (i.e., add 1/16
in.) are used.
2
1
2
4
1
2
2
1
2
3′ ′
L6 × 4 × (A = 4.72 in
2
)
2
1
AISC Manual
13
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 4 (cont’d)
For the net area calculations the angle may
be visualized as being flattened into a plate
as shown in Fig. 3.
Where D is the width to be deducted for
the hole.
Path ABCD:
t
g
s
Dt A A
g n
4
2
+ − =
2
in 72 . 3
2
1
16
1
16
15
2 72 . 4 = ×
(
¸
(

¸

+ − Governs
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 4 (cont’d)

2
1
2

4
1
4
3′ ′ 3′ ′
A
B
C
D
E
Figure 3. Angle for the example with legs
shown “flattened” into one plane.
leg 6′ ′
leg 4′ ′
14
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Staggered Holes
Example 4 (cont’d)
Using Eq. 2:
Path ABECD:
Hence, A
n
= 3.72 in
2
.
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2 2
in 94 . 3
2
1
25 . 4 4
3
5 . 2 4
3
2
1
16
1
16
15
3 72 . 4 = ×
(
¸
(

¸

+ + ×
(
¸
(

¸

+ −
in,
4
1
4
2
1
4
1
2
2
1
2
1
= − + = − + = t g g g
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effective Net Areas
The net area as computed previously
gives the reduced section that resist but
still may not correctly reflect the
strength.
This particularly true when the tension
member has a profile consisting of
elements not in common plane and
where the tensile load is transmitted at
the end of the member by connection to
some but not all of the elements.
15
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effective Net Areas
An angle section having connection to
one leg only is an example of such a
such a case.
For such situations, the tensile force is
not uniformly distributed over the net
area.
To account for nonuniformity, the AISC
Specification provide for an “effective
net area A
e
” equal to UA
n
.
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effective Net Areas
AISC LRFD Provisions for Effective Net
Area
The AISC LRFD Specification provide that
the effective net area is to be computed as
Where
U = reduction coefficient
A
n
= net area
n e
UA A =
(3)
16
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effective Net Areas
AISC LRFD Provisions for Effective Net
Area
– The above equation (Eq. 3) logically applies
for both fastener connections having holes
and for welded connections.
– For welded connections, the net area equal
the gross area A
g
since there are no holes.
– Whenever the tensile load is transmitted by
bolts, rivets, or welds through some but not
all of the cross-sectional elements of the
members, the load carrying efficiency is
reduced and U will be less than unity.
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effective Net Areas
AISC LRFD Provisions for Effective Net Area
The following equation can be used to estimate
the reduction coefficient U:
Where
= distance from centroid of element being
connected eccentrically to plane of load transfer
L = length between first and last bolts in line.
0.9 1 ≤ − =
L
x
U
(4)
x
17
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effective Net Areas
AISC LRFD Provisions for Effective Net Area
Table 1. Permissible U Values for Bolted Connections
c. All members having only two fasteners per line in the direction
of stress, U = 0.75.
b. W, M, or S shapes not meeting the conditions of subparagraph a,
structural tees cut from these shapes, and all other shapes including
built-up cross sections, provided the connection has no fewer than
three fasteners per line in the direction of stress, U = 0.85.
a. W, M, or S shapes with flange widths not less than two-thirds the
depth, and structural tees cut from these shapes, provided the
connection is to the flanges and has no fewer than three fasteners
per line in the dircetion of stress, U = 0.90.
CHAPTER 3b. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effective Net Areas
AISC LRFD Provisions for Effective Net
Area
x
x
L
x
Figure 4
C.G. angle
C.G. angle
C.G. angle
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
3c
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
ANALYSIS OF TENSION
MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
When tension in a member is
transmitted by bolts, A then equal the
net area A
n
of the member and U is
computed as follows:
The length L used in above expression
is equal to the distance between the first
and the last bolts in the line.
0.9 1 ≤ − =
L
x
U
(1)
2
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
Figure 1a. Values of for Different Shapes
x
x
L
x
C.G. angle
C.G. angle
C.G. angle
x
(I)
(II)
(III)
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
Figure 1b. Values of for Different Shapes
x
x
Structural tee
x
x
Mid depth of W
Note = in structural tee tables x y
(I)
(II)
3
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
The angle shown in Fig. 1a-I is connected
at its ends to only one leg.
The area effective in resisting tension can
be appreciably increased by shortening
the width of the unconnected leg and
lengthening the width of the connected
width (see Fig. 1a-I and II)
is measured from the plane of the
connection to the center of gravity (C.G.)
or centroid of the whole section.
x
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
Calculation of U for W Section
– In order to calculate U for a W section
connected by its flange only, it is assumed
that the section is split into two structural
tees.
– Then, the value of used will be the
distance from the outside edge of the
flange to the C.G. of the structural tee as
shown in Part II of Fig. 1b.
x
4
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
Example 1
Determine the tensile design strength of a
W10 × 45 with two lines of ¾-in diameter
bolts in each flange using A572 Grade 50
steel with F
y
= 50 ksi and F
u
= 65 ksi and
the LEFD Specification. There are
assumed to be at least three bolts in each
line 4 in. on center, and the bolts are not
staggered with respect to each other.
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
Example 1 (cont’d)
The following properties of W10 × 45 section
are obtained from LRFD Manual (Page 1-20):
• A = A
g
= 13.3 in
2
, d = 10.1 in., b
f
= 8.02 in., t
f
= 0.62 in.
(a) Case I-Yielding of the Section:
(b) Case II-Net-section Fracture:
( )( ) k 5 . 598 3 . 13 50 90 . 0 = = =
g y n t
A F P φ φ
( ) A A
n
= =
(
¸
(

¸

+ − =
2
in 13 . 11 62 . 0
8
1
4
3
4 3 . 13
5
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Analysis of Bolted Members
Example 1 (cont’d)
Referring to the tables for half of a W10 × 45
(or WT5 × 22.5), the value of is obtained as
Then
x
in. 907 . 0 = x
From LRFD, P. 1-49
( )
( )( ) k 1 . 483 91 . 9 65 75 . 0
in 91 . 9 13 . 11 89 . 0
9 . 0 89 . 0
8
907 . 0
1 1
2
= = =
= = =
< = − = − =
e u t n t
e
A F P
UA A
L
x
U
φ φ
Therefore, design strength = 483.1 k
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Splice and gusset plates are usually used as
statically loaded tensile connecting elements.
According to the LRFD Manual, their strength
can be determine from
– For yielding of connection elements:
– For fracture of connection elements:
Connecting Elements for Tension
Members
y g n
F A R =
= 90 . 0 φ
g n u n n
A A F A R 85 . 0 with
75 . 0
≤ =
= φ
(1)
(2)
6
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Connecting Elements for Tension
Members
Example 2
A tension member W10 × 45 with F
y
= 50
ksi and F
u
= 65 ksi is assumed to be
connected at its ends with two 3/8 × 12-in
plates as shown. If two lines of ¾-in bolts
are used in each plate, determine the
design tensile force which the plates can
transfer.
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Connecting Elements for Tension
Members
2
u
P
2
u
P
u
P
12
8
3
PL ×
12
8
3
PL ×
45 W10×
7
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Connecting Elements for Tension
Members
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
in 69 . 7
8
3
2
8
1
4
3
12
8
3
2 plates 2 of
k 405 12
8
3
2 50 9 . 0
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ − |
.
|

\
|
=
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
=
n
g y t
A
A F φ
( )
( )( )
k 9 . 372
Therefore,
controls k 9 . 372 65 . 7 65 75 . 0
in 65 . 7
69 . 7 in 65 . 7 12
8
3
2 85 . 0 85 . 0
t
2
2
=
= = =
= ∴
< =
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
=
n
n u t n t
n
g
P
A F P
A
A
φ
φ φ
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
The design strength of a tension
member is not always controlled by
or by the strength of the bolts or welds
with which the member is connected.
It may instead be controlled by its block
shear strength as will be described.
g u g y t
A F A F
t
or φ φ
8
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Failure due to Block Shear
– The failure of a member may occur along a
path involving tension on one plane and
shear on a perpendicular plane as shown
in Fig. 2.
– In this figure, several possible block shear
failures are shown.
– For these situations, it is possible for a
“block” to tear out.
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Figure 2. Failure due to Block Shear
Tension plane
Shear plane
These cross-hatched
Parts may tear out.
Tension plane
Tension plane
Shear plane
Shear plane
(a) Bolted Angle
(b) Bolted Flange of W Section
This cross-hatched
Parts may tear out.
9
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Failure due to Block Shear
– When a tensile load applied to a particular
connection is increased, the fracture
strength of the weaker plane will be
approached.
– That plane will not fall because it is
restrained by the stronger plane.
– The load can be increased until the
fracture strength of the stronger plane is
reached.
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Failure due to Block Shear
– During this time, the weaker plane is in
yielding.
– The total strength of the connection equals
the fracture strength of the stronger plane
plus the yield strength of the weaker plane.
– However, it is not realistic to add the
fracture strength of one plane to the
fracture strength of the plane to determine
the block shear capacity of a particular
member.
10
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Failure due to Block Shear
Block shear failure can be thought of
as being a tearing or rupture failure
and not a yielding failure at bolt holes.
Shear plane
This cross-hatched
Parts may tear out.
Tension plane
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Failure due to Block Shear
– The member shown in Fig. 3a has a larger
shear area and a small tensile area.
– Therefore, the primary resistance to a
block shear failure is shearing and not
tensile.
– The LRFD Specification states that it is
logical to assume that when shear fracture
occurs on this large shear-resisting area,
the small tensile area has yielded.
11
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Figure 3. Block Shear
5
u
P
Large shear area
Small tensile area
(a) Shear Fracture and Tension Yielding
5
u
P
u
P
(b) Free body of “block” that tends to shear
out in angle of part a.
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Failure due to Block Shear
– Part (b) of Fig. 3 shows a free body of the
block that tends to tear out the angle of
Part a. This block shear is caused by the
bolts bearing on the back of the bolts
holes.
– When a member has a large tensile area
and a small shear area, the block shear
failure will be tensile and not shearing.
12
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
LRFD Specification on Block Shear
– The block shear design strength of a
member is to be determined by
1. Computing the tensile fracture strength on the
net section in one direction and adding to that
value the shear yield strength on the gross area
on the perpendicular segment.
2. Computing the shear fracture strength on the
gross area subject to tension and adding it to the
tensile yield strength on the net area subject to
shear on the perpendicular segment.
– The expression to use is the one with larger
rupture value.
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
LRFD Specification on Block Shear
1.If F
u
A
nt
≥ 0.6 F
u
A
nv
, then shear yielding and
tension fracture, and the following Eq. is used:
2.If F
u
A
nt
< 0.6 F
u
A
nv
, then shear yielding and
tension fracture, and the following Eq. is used:
in which φ = 0.75, and
| | | |
nt u nv u nt u gv y n
A F A F A F A F R + ≤ + = 6 . 0 6 . 0 φ φ φ
| | | |
nt u nv u gt y nv u n
A F A F A F A F R + ≤ + = 6 . 0 6 . 0 φ φ φ
(3)
(4)
13
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
LRFD Specification on Block Shear
A
gv
= gross area subjected to shear, in
2
A
gt
= gross area subjected to tension, in
2
A
nv
= net area subjected to shear, in
2
A
nt
= net area subjected to tension, in
2
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Example 3
The A572 Grade 50
(F
u
= 65 ksi) tension
member shown is
connected with three
¾-in bolts. Determine
the block shearing
strength of the
member and its
tensile strength.
v
l = ′ ′ 2
4′ ′
4′ ′
h
l = ′ ′ 5 . 2
5 . 3 ′ ′
2
1
4 L6 × ×
Shear plane
Tension plane
14
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Example 3 (cont’d)
For L6 × 4 × ½, the LRFD Manual gives the
following properties (P. 1-34 & 1-35):
A = 4.72 in
2
, and x in unconnected leg = 0.986 in.
The following areas can be computed:
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
in 03 . 1
2
1
8
1
4
3
2
1
5 . 2
in 91 . 3
2
1
8
1
4
3
5 . 2 10
in 25 . 1
2
1
5 . 2
in 0 . 5
2
1
10
= |
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
= |
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
= |
.
|

\
|
=
= |
.
|

\
|
=
nt
nv
gt
gv
A
A
A
A
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Example 3 (cont’d
– Tensile strength of angle:
( )( ) ( )( )
4 Eq. use Therefore,
k 5 . 152 91 . 3 65 6 . 0 0.6 k 9 . 66 03 . 1 65 = = < = =
nv u nt u
A F A F
| | | |
( )( ) ( ) | |
( )( ) ( ) | | k 164 03 . 1 65 9 . 3 65 6 . 0 75 . 0
k 161 25 . 1 50 9 . 3 65 6 . 0 75 . 0
6 . 0 6 . 0
= + <
= + =
+ ≤ + =
n
nt u nv u gt y nv u n
R
A F A F A F A F R
φ
φ φ φ
( )( ) k 4 . 212 72 . 4 50 9 . 0
: Criterion Yieding (a)
= = =
g y t n t
A F P φ φ
Controls
15
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Example 3 (cont’d
( )
( )
( )( )
k 161
Therefore,
k 8 . 183 77 . 3 65 75 . 0
in 77 . 3 28 . 4 88 . 0
9 . 0 88 . 0
8
986 . 0
1 1
in 28 . 4
2
1
8
1
4
3
1 72 . 4
: Criterion Fracture (a)
2
2
=
= = =
= = =
≤ = − = − =
= =
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

+ − =
n t
e u t n t
e
n
P
A F P
UA A
L
x
U
A A
φ
φ φ
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Block Shear
Use of Tables in LRFD Manual
– Tables are available in Part 9 of the LRFD
Manual, 2
nd
Edition with which block shear
strengths of W beams can be determined .
– In Table 9.3, values of φ F
u
A
nt
are
tabulated per inch of material thickness,
and then in Table 9.4 values of φ (0.6F
y
A
gv
)
per inch of material thickness are given.
16
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 4
Using the program INSTEP32, determine
the design tensile strength of a 12-ft long
W12 × 136 consisting of A572 Grade 50
steel if the net area is assumed to be 35.52
in
2
and U = 0.9.
Input:
P
u
= 0 kips
Net Area = 35.52 in
2
Length = 12 × 12 = 144 in
U = 0.9
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 4 (cont’d)
17
CHAPTER 3c. ANALYSIS OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Computer Example
Example 4 (cont’d)
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
4
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DESIGN OF TENSION
MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
This chapter deals with the design of
tension members for external loads.
In general, the design of tension
members should have the following
properties:
1. Compactness
2. Dimensions that fit into the structure with
reasonable relation to other member
dimensions.
3. Minimization of shear blocks and lag.
2
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
AISC LRFD Specifications
The design strength φ
t
P
n
is the lesser of
a) φ
t
F
y
A
g
b) φ
t
F
u
A
e
c) The block shear strength, φ
t
R
n
(1)
(2)
(3)
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
AISC LRFD Specifications
– The first expression (Eq. 1) is satisfied if
the minimum gross area is at least equal to
the following:
– The second expression (Eq. 2) is satisfied
if the minimum value of A
e
is at least
y t
u
g
F
P
A
φ
= min
u t
u
e
F
P
A
φ
= min
(4)
(5)
3
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
AISC LRFD Specifications
– And since A
e
= U A
n
for bolted members, the
minimum value of A
n
is given by
– Then the minimum A
g
for the second expression
(Eq. 2) must be at least equal the minimum
value of A
n
plus the estimated hole area:
U F
P
U
A
A
u t
u e
n
φ
= =
min
min
(6)
areas hole estimated min + =
U F
P
A
u t
u
g
φ
(7)
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
AISC LRFD Specifications
– The third expression (Eq. 3) can be
evaluated once a trial shape has been
selected, and the other parameters related
to the block shear strength are known.
– The designer can substitute into Eqs. 4
and 7, taking the larger value of A
g
so
obtained for an initial size estimate.
4
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
AISC LRFD Specifications
– The designer also has to check the
slenderness ratio that it would not exceed
a value of 300, that is
300
min
or
300
L
r
r
L
=
=
(8)
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
AISC LRFD Specifications
– If no load involved other than the dead and
live loads, then the designer must check
the following load factor expressions and
take the larger:
L D P
D P
u
u
6 . 1 2 . 1
4 . 1
+ =
=
(9)
(10)
5
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
Example 1
Select a 30-ft-long W12
section of A992 steel to
support a tensile service
dead load P
D
= 130 k and
a tensile service load P
L
= 110 k. As shown in the
figure, the member is to
have two lines of bolts in
each flange for 7/8-in
bolts (at least three in a
line 4 in on center).
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
Example 1 (cont’d)
Considering the load factor expressions of
Eqs. 9 and 10:
Computing the minimum A
g
required using
Eqs. 4 and 7:
Assume U = 0.9 and assume the flange
thickness is 0.380 in from the manual for W12.
( )
( ) ( ) k 332 110 6 . 1 130 2 . 1 6 . 1 2 . 1
k 182 130 4 . 1 4 . 1
= + = + =
= = =
L D P
D P
u
u
Controls
( )
2
in 38 . 7
50 9 . 0
332
min = = =
y t
u
g
F
P
A
φ
6
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1
Selection of Members
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
Example 1 (cont’d)
Preferable min r:
( )( )
( )
2
in 09 . 9 380 . 0
8
1
8
7
4
9 . 0 65 75 . 0
332

areas hole estimated min
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+ =
U F
P
A
u t
u
g
φ
in 2 . 1
300
12 30
300
min =
×
= =
L
r
7
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
Example 1 (cont’d)
Try W12 × 35, that has the following
properties (P. 1-20 and 1-21, Manual):
A
g
= 10.3 in
2
, d = 12.5 in, b
f
= 6.56 in
t
f
=0.520 in, and r
y
= 1.54 in
Checking:
For half W12 × 35 or that is a WT6 × 17.5 :
( )( ) k 332 k 5 . 463 3 . 10 50 9 . 0 > = = =
g u t n t
A F P φ φ
x
Manual) of 49 - 1 P. in is it (note in 30 . 1 y x =
OK
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Selection of Members
Example 1 (cont’d)
Checking (cont’d)
( )
( )
( ) ( ) | |
Section 35 W12 USE Therefore,
300 234
54 . 1
12 30
k 332 k 6 . 336 22 . 8 84 . 0 65 75 . 0
in 22 . 8 520 . 0
8
1
8
7
4 3 . 10
90 . 0 84 . 0
8
30 . 1
1 90 . 0 1
in 8 4 2
2
×
< =
×
=
> = = =
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
< = |
.
|

\
|
− = ≤ |
.
|

\
|
− =
= =
y
y
e u t n t
n
r
L
A F P
A
L
x
U
L
φ φ OK
OK
8
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
The LRFD Specification provides a
definite set of rules describing how the
different parts of built-up tension members
are to be connected together:
1. When a tension member is built up from
element in continuous contact with each
other, such as a plate and a shape, or two
plates, the longitudinal spacing of connectors
between those elements must not exceed 24
times the thickness of the thinner plate, or 12
in if the member is to be painted.
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
2. Should the member consists of unpainted
weathering steel elements in continuous contact
and be subject to atmospheric corrosion, the
maximum permissible connector spacings are
14 times the thickness of the thinner plate, or 7
in.
3. Should a tension member be built up from two
or more shapes separated by intermittent filet,
the shapes must be connected to each other at
intervals such that the slenderness ratio of the
individual shapes between fasteners does not
exceed 300.
9
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
4. The distance from the center of any bolts
to the nearest edge of the connected part
under consideration may not be larger
than 12 times the thickness of the
connected part, or 6 in.
NOTE: refer to Page 105 of the textbook
and LRFD Specification D2 for more details
about the the design of connecting plates.
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
Example 2
Two C12 × 30s, as shown in the figure, have
been selected to support a dead tensile
working load of 120 k and a 240-k live load
tensile working load. The member is 30 ft long
consists of A36 steel, and has one line of at
least three 7/8-in bolts in each channel flange
3 in on center. Using the LRFD Specification,
determine whether the member is satisfactory
and design the necessary tie plates. Assume
centers of bolt holes are 1.75 in from the
backs of the channels.
10
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
Example 2 (cont’d)
6 32 . 5 ′ ′
674 . 0

4
3
1

4
3
1

2
1
8

12

12
C of c.g.
30s C12 - 2 ×
each) in 82 . 8 (
2
= A
2
u
P
2
u
P
2
u
P
2
u
P
plate the of width
plate tie
of length
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
Example 2 (cont’d)
Using C12 × 30s, the following properties
from the LRFS Manual can be obtained:
A
g
= 8.81 in
2
each, t
f
= 0.501 in, I
x
= 162 in
4
each
I
y
= 5.12 in
4
each, y axis 0.674 from back of C, and
r
y
= 0.762 in.
Load to be resisted:
( )
( ) ( ) k 528 240 6 . 1 120 2 . 1 6 . 1 2 . 1
k 168 120 4 . 1 4 . 1
= + = + =
= = =
L D P
D P
u
u
Controls
11
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
Example 2 (cont’d)
Design Strengths:
( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )( )( ) k 528 k 5 . 577 85 . 0 62 . 15 58 75 . 0
Text) 2, - 3 (Table 2 Table from 85 . 0
in 62 . 15 501 . 0
8
1
8
7
2 81 . 8 2
k 528 k 9 . 570 81 . 8 2 36 9 . 0
2
> = = =
=
=
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
+ − =
> = =
U A F P
U
A
A F
n u t n t
n
g y t
φ φ
φ OK
OK
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1
Selection of Members
12
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
Example 2 (cont’d)
Slenderness Ratio:
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
( )
300 9 . 83
29 . 4
30 12
controls in, 38 . 5 in 29 . 4 since
in 38 . 5
81 . 8 2
511
in 29 . 4
81 . 8 2
324
in 511 326 . 5 81 . 8 2 12 . 5 2
in 324 162 2
4 2
4
< =
×
=
= < =
= =
= =
= + =
= =
x
x
x y x
y
x
y
x
r
L
r r r
r
r
I
I
OK
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Tension Members
Example 2 (cont’d)
Design of tie plates:
( )
( )
ft 19.05 in 6 . 228 300
762 . 0
300 preferable Max.
in 0.762 C of Least
: plates tie of spacing preferable Max.
in) 12 (say in 5 . 11
2
1
1 2 8.5 paltes tie of width Min.
in)
16
3
(say 17 . 0 5 . 8
50
1
plates tie of thickness Min.
in) 6 (say in 67 . 5 5 . 8
3
2
plates tie of length Min.
in 5 . 8
4
3
1 2 - 12 bolts of lines between Distance
= = ⇒ = ⇒ =
=
= |
.
|

\
|
+ =
= =
= =
= |
.
|

\
|
=
L
L
r
L
r
USE 3/16 × 6 × 1 ft
13
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rods and Bars
When rods and bars are used as
tension members, they may be simply
welded at their ends, or they may be
threaded and held in place with nuts.
The LRFD nominal tensile design stress
for threaded rods is given in their table
J3.2 and equals φ0.75 F
u
, and is to be
applied to the gross area of the rod A
D
computed with the major thread
diameter.
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rods and Bars
The area required for a particular
tensile load can then be calculated from
the following expression:
75 . 0 with
75 . 0
= ≥ φ
φ
u
u
D
F
P
A
(11)
14
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Rods and Bars
Example 3
Using A36 steel and LRFD Specification,
select a standard rod of A36 steel to
support a tensile working dead load of 10 k
and a tensile working live load of 20 k.
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
) in 49 . 1 ( rod diameter - in -
8
3
1 USE
in 35 . 1
58 75 . 0 75 . 0
44
75 . 0
: 11 Eq.
k 44 20 6 . 1 10 2 . 1 6 . 1 2 . 1
k 14 10 4 . 1 4 . 1
2
2
=
= = =
= + = + =
= = =
D
u
u
D
u
u
A
F
P
A
L D P
D P
φ
Controls
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design for Fatigue Loads
The AISC has provisions for fatigue
design as outlined by the following
procedure:
1. The design stress range determined in
accordance with the AISC requirements
is only applicable for the following
situations:
a. Structures for which the steel has adequate
corrosion protection for the conditions
expected in that locality.
b. Structures for temperatures do not exceed
300
0
F.
15
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design for Fatigue Loads
2. The provisions of the Specification apply
to stresses which are calculated with
unfactored loads and the maximum
permitted stress due to these loads is
0.66 F
y
.
Formulas are given in Appendix K.3 of
the Specification for computing the
design stress range.
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design for Fatigue Loads
The stress range, for most cases, can
be calculated from
TH
f
SR
F
N
C
F ≥
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
333 . 0
Where
F
SR
= design stress range, ksi
C
f
= constant from Table A-K3.1 in LRFD Appendix
N = number of stress fluctuations in design life
F
TH
= threshold fatigue stress range from Table A-K3.1
in LRFD Appendix, Ksi.
(12)
16
CHAPTER 4. DESIGN OF TENSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design for Fatigue Loads
Example 4
A tension member is to consist of a W12
section (F
y
= 50 ksi) with fillet-welded end
connections. The service dead load is 40
k, while it is estimated that the service live
load will vary from a compression of 20 k to
a tension of 90 k fifty times per day for an
estimated design life of 25 years. Select
the section.
See Solution on Page 116, Textbook.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
5a
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
AXIALLY LOADED
COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Axial Compression
– Columns are defined as members that
carry loads in compression.
– Usually they carry bending moments as
well, about one or both axes of the cross
section.
– The bending action may produce tensile
forces over a part of the cross section.
– Despite of the tensile forces or stresses
that may be produced, columns are
2
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Axial Compression
– Generally referred to as: “compression
members” because the compression forces
or stresses dominate their behavior.
– In addition to the most common type of
compression members (vertical elements
in structures), compression members
include:
• Arch ribs
• Rigid frame members inclined or otherwise
• Compression elements in trusses
• shells
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Steel Columns
3
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
4
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
General
– Columns include top chords of trusses and
various bracing members.
– In many cases, many members have
compression in some of their parts. These
include:
• The compression flange
• Built-up beam sections, and
• Members that are subjected simultaneously to
bending and compressive loads.
5
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
General
– Mode of Failures for Columns
1. Flexural Buckling (also called Euler buckling) is
the primary type of buckling. Members are
subject to flexure or bending when they become
unstable.
2. Local Buckling: This type occurs when some
part or parts of the cross section of a column are
so thin that they buckle locally in compression
before the other modes of buckling can occur.
The susceptibility of a column to local buckling is
measured by the width-thickness ratio of the
parts of the cross section
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
P
P
General
Euler Buckling
6
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
General
– Local Buckling
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
General
– Mode of Failures for Columns (cont’d)
3. Torstional Buckling may occur in columns
that have certain cross-sectional
configurations. These columns fail by twisting
(torsion) or by a combination of torsional and
flexural buckling.
7
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Slenderness Ratio
– The longer the column becomes for the same
cross section, the greater becomes its
tendency to buckle and the smaller becomes
the load it will carry.
– The tendency of a member to buckle is usually
measured by its slenderness ratio, that is
r
L
= Ratio s Slendernes
gyration of radius where = =
A
I
r
(1)
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Effect of Material Imperfections and
Flaws
– Slight imperfections in tension members
and beams can be safely disregarded as
they are of little consequences.
– On the other hand, slight defects in
columns may be of major significance.
– A column that is slightly bent at the time it
is put in place may have significant
bending moment resulting from the load
and the initial lateral deflection.
8
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Why is a column more critical than a
beam or a tension member?
– A column is a more critical member in a
structure than is a beam or tension
members because minor imperfections in
materials and dimensions mean a great
deal.
– This fact can be illustrated by a bridge
truss that has some of its members
damaged by a truck.
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Why is a column more critical than a
beam or a tension member? (cont’d)
– The bending of tension members probably
will not be serious as the tensile loads will
tend to straighten those members; but the
bending of any compression members is a
serious matter, as compressive loads will
tend to magnify the bending in those
members.
9
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Columns Bay
– The spacing of columns in plan establishes
what is called a Bay.
– For example, if the columns are 20 ft on
center in one direction and 25 ft in the
other direction, the bay size is 20 ft × 25 ft.
– Larger bay sizes increase the user’s
flexibility in space planning.
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Columns Bay
ft 25
ft 20
ft 25 ft 20 : Size Bay ×
10
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Residual Stresses
Residual stresses are stresses that
remain in a member after it has been
formed into a finished product.
Causes:
1. Uneven cooling that occurs after hot rolling
of structural shapes.
2. Cold bending or cambering during
fabrication.
3. Punching of holes during fabrication.
4. Welding.
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Residual Stresses
Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections
– In wide-flange or H-shaped sections, after hot
rolling, the flanges, being the thicker parts, cool
more slowly than the web region.
– Furthermore, the flange tips having greater
exposure to the air cool more rapidly than the
region at the junction of the flange and the web.
– Consequently, compressive residual stress
exists at flange tips and mid-depth of the web,
while tensile residual stress exists in the flange
and the web at the regions where they join.
11
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Residual Stresses
Residual Stresses in Rolled Sections
Maximum compressive
Stress, say 12 ksi average
(83 Mpa)
Compression (-)
Tension (+)
(-)
(+)
Figure 1. Typical residual stress
pattern on rolled shapes
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used for Columns
In theory, numerous shapes can be
used as columns to resist given loads.
However, from practical viewpoint, the
number of possible solutions is severely
limited by section availability,
connection problems, and type of
structure in which the section is to be
used.
12
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used for Columns
Figure 1. Types of Compression Members
Single angle Double angle Tee Channel
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used for Columns
Figure 1. (cont’d)Types of Compression
Members
W Column
Pipe or round
HSS tubing
Square HSS
tubing
13
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used for Columns
Figure 1. (cont’d)Types of Compression
Members
Rectangular
HSS tubing
Four angle
box section
Box section Box section
CHAPTER 5a. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used for Columns
Figure 1. (cont’d)Types of Compression
Members
W with
Cover Plats
W and
channels
Built-up Built-up
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
5b
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
AXIALLY LOADED
COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Development of Column Formulas
In 1757, Leonhard Euler, A Swiss
mathematician wrote a paper of great
value concerning the buckling of
columns
He was probably the first person to
realize the significance of buckling.
The Euler formula, the most famous of
all column equations will be derived in
the following viewgraphs.
2
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
This formula marked the real beginning
of theoretical and experimental
investigation of columns.
Practical column design is based
primarily on formulas that have been
developed to fit with reasonable
accuracy test-result curves.
The testing of columns with various
slenderness ratios results in a scattered
range of values as shown in Fig. 1.
Development of Column Formulas
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 1. Test Result Curve
Development of Column Formulas
r
L
A
P
u
a
t

f
a
i
l
u
r
e
3
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The dots in Fig. 1 will not fall on a
smooth curve even if all of the testing is
performed in the same laboratory
because of the difficulty of
– Exactly centering the loads
– Lack of perfect uniformity of the materials
– Varying dimensions of the sections
– Residual stresses
– End restraint variations
– Etc.
Development of Column Formulas
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The practical approach is to attempt to
develop formulas which give results
represented by an approximate average
of the test results.
It is to be noted also that the laboratory
conditions are not field conditions and
column tests probably give the limiting
values of column strengths.
Development of Column Formulas
4
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Yield Strength and Length of Column
– Short Columns
• The yield stresses of the section tested are
quite important for short columns as their failure
stresses are close to those yield stresses.
– Columns with Intermediate L/r
• The yield stresses are of lesser importance on their
effect on failure stresses. Also residual stresses
have more effect on the results.
– Long Slender Columns
• The yield stresses are of no significance, but the
column strength is very sensitive to end conditions.
Development of Column Formulas
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
– Buckling is a mode of failure generally
resulting from structural instability due to
compressive action on the structural
member or element involved.
– Examples
• Overloaded metal building columns.
• Compressive members in bridges.
• Roof trusses.
• Hull of submarine.
5
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
– Examples (cont’d)
• Metal skin on aircraft fuselages or wings with
excessive torsional and/or compressive
loading.
• Any thin-walled torque tube.
• The thin web of an I-beam with excessive
shear load
• A thin flange of an I-beam subjected to
excessive compressive bending effects.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
– In view of the above-mentioned examples,
it is clear that buckling is a result of
compressive action.
– Overall torsion or shear may cause a
localized compressive action that could
lead to buckling.
– Examples of buckling for commonly seen
and used tools (components) are provided
in the next few viewgraphs.
6
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
Figure 2
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
Figure 2 (cont’d)
7
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
Figure 2 (cont’d)
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
– In Fig. 2, (a) to (d) are examples of
temporary or elastic buckling.
– While (e) to (h) of the same figure are
examples of plastic buckling
– The distinctive feature of buckling is the
catastrophic and often spectacular nature
of failure.
8
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
Figure 3. Steel Column Buckling
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Buckling
– The collapse of a column supporting
stands in a stadium or the roof of a building
usually draws large headlines and cries of
engineering negligence.
– On a lesser scale, the reader can witness
and get a better understanding of buckling
by trying to understand a few of the tests
shown in Fig. 2.
9
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
The Nature of Buckling
– For non-buckling cases of axial, torsional,
bending, and combined loading, the stress
or deformation was the significant quantity
in failure.
– Buckling of a member is uniquely different
in that the quantity significant in failure is
the buckling load itself.
– The failure (buckling) load bears no unique
relationship to the stress and deformation
at failure.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
The Nature of Buckling
– Buckling is unique from our other
structural-element considerations in that it
results from a state of unstable equilibrium.
– For example, buckling of a long column is
not caused by failure of the material of
which the column is composed, but by
determination of what was a stable state of
equilibrium to an unstable one.
10
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
– Let’s consider Fig. 4, 5, and 6, and study
them very carefully.
– In Fig. 4, some axial load P is applied to
the column.
– The column is then given a small deflection
by applying the small lateral force F.
– If the load P is sufficiently small, when the
force F is removed, the column will go back
to its original straight condition.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
cr
P P <
cr
P P <
cr
P P <
F
Before
F
During
F
After
F
Stable Equilibrium
Figure 4
F
Before
F
During
F
After
F
11
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
– The column will go back to its original
straight condition just as the ball returns to
the bottom of the curved container.
– In Fig. 4 of the ball and the curved
container, gravity tends to restore the ball
to its original position, while for the column
the elasticity of the column itself acts as
restoring force.
– This action constitutes stable equilibrium.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
– The same procedure can be repeated for
increased value of the load P until some
critical value P
cr
is reached, as shown in
Fig. 5.
– When the column carries this load, and a
lateral force F is applied and removed, the
column will remain in the slightly deflected
position. The elastic restoring force of the
column is not sufficient to return the
column to its original straight position but is
sufficient to prevent excessive deflection of
the column.
12
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
cr
P P =
cr
P P =
cr
P P =
F
Before
F
During
F
After
F
Precarious Equilibrium
Figure 5
Before
F
During
F
After
F
F
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
– In Fig. 5 of the ball and the flat surface, the
amount of deflection will depend on the
magnitude of the lateral force F.
– Hence, the column can be in equilibrium in an
infinite number of slightly bent positions.
– This action constitutes neutral or precarious
equilibrium.
– If the column is subjected to an axial
compressive load P that exceeds P
cr
, as
shown in Fig. 6, and a lateral force F is applied
and removed, the column will bend
considerably.
13
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
cr
P P >
cr
P P >
cr
P P >
F
Before
F
During
F
After
F
Unstable Equilibrium
Figure 6
Before
F
During
F
After
F
Possible
buckle
or
collapse
F
Small
disturbance ν
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
– That is, the elastic restoring force of the
column is not sufficient to prevent a small
disturbance from growing into an excessively
large deflection.
– Depending on the magnitude of P, the
column either will remain in the bent position
or will completely collapse and fracture, just
as the ball will roll off the curved surface in
Fig. 6.
14
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Mechanism of Buckling
– This type of behavior indicates that for
axial loads greater than P
cr
, the straight
position of a column is one of unstable
equilibrium in that a small disturbance will
tend to grow into an excessive
deformation.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Definition
“Buckling can be defined as the sudden
large deformation of structure due to a
slight increase of an existing load
under which the structure had exhibited
little, if any, deformation before the load
was increased.”
15
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– The purpose of this analysis is to
determine the minimum axial compressive
load for which a column will experience
lateral deflection.
– Governing Differential Equation:
• Consider a buckled simply-supported column of
length L under an external axial compression
force P, as shown in the left schematic of Fig.
7. The transverse displacement of the buckled
column is represented by δ.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
(a)
(b)
P
P
P
y
Figure 7
y
16
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– Governing Differential Equation:
• The right schematic of Fig. 7 shows the forces
and moments acting on a cross-section in the
buckled column. Moment equilibrium on the
lower free body yields a solution for the internal
bending moment M,
0 = + M Py
(1)
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– Governing Differential Equation (cont’d):
• Recall the relationship between the moment M
and the transverse displacement y for the
elastic curve,
• Eliminating M from Eqs. 1 and 2 results in the
governing equation for the buckled slender
column,
M
dx
dy
EI =
2
2
(2)
17
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– Governing Differential Equation (cont’d):
– Buckling Solution:
• The governing equation is a second order
homogeneous ordinary differential equation
with constant coefficients and can be solved by
the method of characteristic equations. The
solution is found to be,
0
2
2
= + y
EI
P
dx
y d
(3)
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– Buckling Solution (cont’d):
• Where p
2
= P/EI. The coefficients A and B can
be determined by the two boundary conditions,
y(0) = 0 and y(L) = 0, which yields,
px B px A x y cos sin ) ( + =
(4)
0 sin
0
=
=
pL A
B
(5)
18
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– Buckling Solution (cont’d):
• The coefficient B is always zero, and for most
values of m × L the coefficient A is required to
be zero. However, for special cases of m × L,
A can be nonzero and the column can be
buckled. The restriction on m × L is also a
restriction on the values for the loading F; these
special values are mathematically called
eigenvalues. All other values of F lead to trivial
solutions (i.e. zero deformation).
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– Buckling Solution (cont’d):
• Since p
2
= P/EI, therefore,
L
n
L L L
p
n pL
pL
π π π π
π π π π
, ,
3
,
2
, , 0
or
, , 3 , 2 , , 0
0 sin
L
L
=
= ⇒
=
(6)
( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
, ,
3
,
2
, , 0
L
EI n
L
EI
L
EI
L
EI
P
π π π π
L =
(7)
19
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load
– Buckling Solution (cont’d):
• Or
• The lowest load that causes buckling is called
critical load (n = 1).
L 3 , 2 , 1 , 0 for
2
= 





= n
L
n
EI P
π
(8)
2
2
L
EI
P
cr
π
=
(9)
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load, P
cr
The critical buckling load (Euler Buckling)
for a long column is given by
where
E = modulus of elasticity of the material
I = moment of inertia of the cross section
L = length of column
2
2
L
EI
P
cr
π
=
(9)
20
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Stress
– The critical buckling normal stress F
e
is
found as follows:
When the moment of inertia I in Eq. 9 is
replaced by Ar
2
, the result is
where
A = cross-sectional area of column
r = radius of gyration =
( )
e
cr
F
r L
E
A
P
= =
2
2
/
π
(10)
A
I
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Stress
The critical buckling normal stress is given
by
Where
r = radius of gyration =
(L/r) = slenderness ratio of column
( )
2
2
/ r L
E
F
e
π
=
A
I
(11)
21
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load and Stress
– The Euler buckling load and stress as
given by Eq. 9 or Eq. 11 agrees well with
experiment if the slenderness ratio is large
(L/r > 140 for steel columns).
– Short compression members (L/r < 140 for
steel columns) can be treated as
compression blocks where yielding occurs
before buckling.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Critical Buckling Load and Stress
– Many columns lie between these extremes
in which neither solution is applicable.
– These intermediate-length columns are
analyzed by using empirical formulas to be
described later.
– When calculating the critical buckling for
columns, I (or r) should be obtained about
the weak axis.
22
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 42
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 1
A W10 × 22 is used as a 15-long pin-
connected column. Using Euler
expression (formula),
a. Determine the column’s critical or
buckling load, assuming the steel has a
proportional limit of 36 ksi.
b. Repeat part (a) if the length of the column
is changed to 8 ft.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 43
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 1 (cont’d)
Using a W10 × 22, the following properties
can be obtained from the LRFD Manual:
A = 6.49 in
2
, r
x
= 4.27 in, and r
x
= 1.33 in
Therefore, minimum r = r
y
= 1.33 in.
a.
34 . 135
33 . 1
12 15
=
×
=
r
L
( )
( )
( )
range elastic in is column OK
ksi 36 ksi 63 . 15
34 . 135
10 29
/
2
3 2
2
2
< =
×
= =
π π
r L
E
F
e
23
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 44
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 1 (cont’d)
b. Using an 8-ft W10 × 22:
18 . 72
33 . 1
12 8
=
×
=
r
L
( )
( )
( )
applicable not is equation Euler
and range inelastic in is column
ksi 36 ksi 94 . 54
18 . 72
10 29
/
2
3 2
2
2

> =
×
= =
π π
r L
E
F
e
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 45
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Review of Parallel-Axis Theorem for
Radius of Gyration
– In dealing with columns that consist of
several rolled standard sections, it is
sometimes necessary to compute the
radius of gyration for the entire section for
the purpose of analyzing the buckling load.
– It was shown that the parallel-axis theorem
is a useful tool to calculate the second
24
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 46
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Review of Parallel-Axis Theorem for
Radius of Gyration
– Moment of area (moment of inertia) about
other axes not passing through the
centroid of the overall section.
– In a similar fashion, the parallel-axis
theorem can be used to find radii of
gyration of a section about different axis
not passing through the centroid.
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 47
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Review of Parallel-Axis Theorem for
Radius of Gyration
– Consider the two channels, which are
laced a distance of 2a back to back.
C
C C
C
x
x x
x
x x x
r
A
I
A
I
A
I
r I I = = = = ⇒ =
sec sec overall
2
2
2
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 2
sec
2 2
sec
overall
2 2
sec
2
sec
2
sec
2
sec
2
2

2 2 2
d r
A
d r A
A
I
r
d r A d A r A d A I I
C
C
C C C
y
y y
y
y y y y
+ =
+
= = ⇒
+ = + = + =
(12)
(13)
Lacing bars
x x
y
y
2d
x
C
2a
25
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 48
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Parallel-Axis Theorem for Radius of
Gyration
Eqs. 12 and 13 indicate that the radius of
gyration for the two channels is the same
as that for one channel, and
( )
2
2
C y y
x a r r
C
+ + =
(14)
d x a
C
= + where
Lacing bars
x x
y
y
2d
x
C
2a
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 49
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 2
Two C229 × 30 structural steel channels
are used for a column that is 12 m long.
Determine the total compressive load
required to buckle the two members if
(a) They act independently of each other.
Use E = 200 GPa.
(b) They are laced 150 mm back to back
as shown in Fig. 10.
26
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 50
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 2 (cont’d)
Lacing bars
x x
y
y
150 mm
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 51
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 2 (cont’d)
(a) Two channels act independently:
• If the two channels are not connected and each
acts independently, the slenderness ratio is
determined by using the minimum radius of
gyration r
min
of the individual section
• For a C229 × 30 section (see Fig 8):
2
min
mm 3795 mm 3 . 16 = = = A r r
y
27
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 52
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Buckling of Long Straight
Columns
Example 3 (cont’d)
Figure 8
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 53
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 2 (cont’d)
• (b) For a C229 × 30 section (see Fig 8):
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
kN 27.6 N 10 64 . 27
2 . 736
10 3795 2 10 200
/
(slender) 2 . 736
3 . 16
10 12
3
2
6 9 2
2
2
3
= × =
× ×
= =
=
×
=

π π
r L
EA
P
r
L
cr
mm 10 01 . 1 mm 10 3 . 25
mm 8 . 14 mm 8 . 81
6 4 6
min
× = × =
= =
y x
C
I I
x r
Lacing bars
x x
y
y
150 mm
x
C
= 14.8 mm
28
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 54
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 2 (cont’d)
( )
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
mm 3 . 91
3795 2
10 23 . 63

mm 10 23 . 63 8 . 14 75 3795 10 01 . 1 2 2
7 . 81
3795 2
10 6 . 50
mm 10 6 . 50 10 3 . 25 2 2
6
2 6 2 6 2
6
2 6 6
=
×
= = ⇒
× = + + × = + =
=
×
= = ⇒ × = × = =
A
I
r
Ad I I
A
I
r I I
y
y
y y
x
x x x
C
C
( )
( ) ( ) [ ]
( )
kN 3 . 694
9 . 146
10 3795 2 10 200
/
9 . 146
7 . 81
10 12
e, therefor , 7 . 81
2
6 9 2
2
min
2
3
min
min
=
× ×
= = ∴
=
×
= = =

π π
r L
EA
P
r
L
r r
cr
x
Lacing bars
x x
y
y
150 mm
x
C
= 14.8 mm
CHAPTER 5b. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 55
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Euler Formula
Example 2 (cont’d)
– An alternate solution for finding r
x
and r
y
:
• Using Eqs. 12 and 14,
• Therefore,
( ) ( ) ( )
mm 3 . 91
8 . 14 75 3 . 16
mm 8 . 81
2 2 2 2
=
+ + = + + =
= =
C y y
x x
x a r r
r r
C
C
mm 8 . 81
min
= =
x
r r
The slight difference in the result is due to round-off errors.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
5c
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
AXIALLY LOADED
COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
Limitations of Basic Euler Formula
– The basic Euler formula is only useful if the
end support conditions are carefully
considered.
– The results obtained by application of the
formula to specific examples compare very
well with test results for centrally loaded,
long, slender columns with rounded ends.
2
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Limitations of Basic Euler Formula
– In real life, these types of columns barely
exists.
– For example, the columns with which one
works do not have rounded ends and are
not free to rotate because their ends are
bolted or welded to other members.
– Furthermore, the axial load applied to
these columns are not centric in most
cases.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of End Restraint on Column Load
Capacity
– End restraint and its effect on the load-
carrying capacity of columns is very
important subject.
– Columns with appreciable rotational and
transnational end restraint can support
considerably more load than those with
little rotational end restraint as at hinged
end.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
3
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
General Notes On Column Buckling
1. Boundary conditions other than simply-
supported will result in different critical loads and
mode shapes.
2. The buckling mode shape is valid only for small
deflections, where the material is still within its
elastic limit.
3. The critical load will cause buckling for slender,
long columns. In contrast, failure will occur in
short columns when the strength of material is
exceeded. Between the long and short column
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
General Notes On Column Buckling
limits, there is a region where buckling occurs
after the stress exceeds the proportional limit but
is still below the ultimate strength. These
columns are classified as intermediate and their
failure is called inelastic buckling.
4. Whether a column is short, intermediate, or long
depends on its geometry as well as the stiffness
and strength of its material. This concept is
addressed in the columns introduction page.
4
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Concept of Effective Length
– The Euler buckling formula, namely Eqs. 9
or 11 of Chapter 5b, were derived for a
column with pivoted ends.
– The Euler equation changes for columns
with different end conditions, such as the
four common ones found in Figs.1and 2.
– While it is possible to set up the differential
equation with appropriate boundary
conditions to determine the Euler buckling
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 1
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
5
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
(Beer and Johnston 1992)
Figure 2
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Concept of Effective Length
formula for each case, a more common
approach makes use of the concept of an
“effective length”.
– The pivoted ended column, by definition, has
zero bending moments at each end.
– The length L in the Euler equation, therefore,
is the distance between successive points of
zero bending moment.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
6
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Concept of Effective Length
– All that is needed to modify the Euler
column formula for use with other end
conditions is to replace L by .
– is defined as the effective length of the
column.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
L′
L′
LRFD by defined as factor length effective
where

=
= = ′
K
KL L L
e
(1)
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Effective Length Concept
Definition:
The effective length (or L
e
or KL) of a
column is defined as the distance
between successive inflection points or
points of zero moment.
L′
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
7
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Effective Length Concept
Based on the effective length concept, the
Euler buckling load and stress formulas
become, respectively
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
/

or

r KL
E
F
KL
EI
P
e
cr
π
π
=
=
length effective = ′ = = L L KL
e
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
(2)
(3)
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
AISC LRFD Specifications for End
Restraint
– Table C-C2.1 of the ”Commentary on the
LRFD Specification” gives recommended
values of the effective length factors K
when ideal conditions are approximated.
– This table is reproduced here as Table 1
(Table 5.1, Textbook).
– Two sets of K values are provided in the
table.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
8
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
Table 1
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
AISC LRFD Specifications for End
Restraint
– One being the theoretical values and the
other being the recommended design
values.
– The recommended values are based on
the fact that perfectly pinned and fixed
conditions are not always possible.
– For continuous frames, the LRFD provides
special K-value Charts for that purpose.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
9
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Braced and Unbraced
Structural Frames on Columns Strength
– Structural steel columns can be parts of
structural frames.
– These frames are sometimes braced and
sometimes unbraced.
– A braced frame is one for which sideway
(joint translation) by means of bracing,
shear walls, or lateral support from
adjoining structure (see Fig. 2a).
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Braced and Unbraced
Structural Frames on Columns Strength
– An unbraced frame does not have any of
these types of bracing provided, and must
depend on the stiffness of its own
members and rotational rigidity of the joints
between the frames members to prevent
lateral buckling (see Fig. 2b)
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
10
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 2
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
L
L
B
A
Lateral
deflection
Column is in this
Position after sideway
And joint rotation
B
A
L
Lateral
deflection
(a)
(b)
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Braced and Unbraced Structural
Frames on Columns Strength
– Examination of Fig 2a will show that the
effective length will exceed the actual length
of the column as the elastic curve will
theoretically take the shape of the curve of a
pinned-end column of twice its length and K
will theoretically equal 2.0.
– Notice in Fig 2b how much smaller the lateral
deflection of column AB would be if it were
pinned at both ends to prevent sideway.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
11
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Effect of Braced and Unbraced
Structural Frames on Columns Strength
– For braced frames, K values can never be
greater than 1.0, but for unbraced frames
the K values will always be greater than
1.0 because of sideway.
– The smaller the effective length (i.e.,
braced) of a particular column, the smaller
its danger of lateral buckling and the
greater its load-carrying capacity.
End Restraint and Effective
Lengths of Columns
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
Local Buckling
– Up to this point, the overall stability of a
particular column has been considered.
– Yet, it is entirely possible for thin flanges or
webs of a column or beam to buckle locally
in compression well before the calculated
buckling strength of the whole member is
reached.
– When thin plates are used to carry
compressive stresses they are particularly
susceptible to buckling about their weak axes
due to small moment of inertia.
12
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification (Section B5)
– The LRFD Specification provides limiting
values for the width-thickness ratios of the
individual parts of compression members
and for the parts of beams in their
compression regions.
– Two categories are listed in the LRFD
Manual:
• Stiffened elements
• Unstiffened elements
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification (Section B5)
– An unstiffened element is a projecting
piece with one free edge parallel to the
direction of the compression force.
– A stiffened element is supported along
two edges in that direction.
– These types of elements are shown in
Figure 3. In each case, the width b and the
thickness t of the elements in question are
shown.
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
13
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 3. Unstiffened and Stiffened Elements
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification (Section B5)
– For establishing width-thickness ratio
limits for elements of compression
members, the LRFD Specification divides
members into three distinct classifications
as follows:
1. Compact sections
2. Noncompact sections
3. Slender compression elements
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
14
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Compact Sections
– A compact section is one that has a
sufficiently stocky profile so that it is capable
of developing a fully plastic stress
distribution before buckling.
– For a section to be compact, it has to have a
width-thickness ratios equal to or less than
the limiting values provided in Table 4 (Table
5.2, Text, or Table B5.1, LRFD Maual).
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
Figure 4. Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for
Compression Elements
15
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
Figure 4. (cont’d) Limiting Width-Thickness
Ratios for Compression Elements
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
Figure 4. (cont’d) Limiting Width-Thickness
Ratios for Compression Elements
S
t
i
f
f
e
n
e
d

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
16
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
Figure 4. (cont’d) Limiting Width-Thickness
Ratios for Compression Elements
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Noncompact Sections
– A noncompact section is one for which the
yield stress can be reached in some but not
all of its compression elements before
buckling occurs.
– It is not capable of reaching fully plastic stress
distribution.
– For a section to be noncompact, it has to
have a width-thickness ratios greater than λ
p
but less than λ
r
as provided in Table 4 (Table
5.2, Text, or Table B5.1, LRFD Maual).
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
17
CHAPTER 5c. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Slender Compression Elements
– A slender element with a cross section that
does not satisfy the width-thickness ratio
requirements of Table 4 (Table 5.2, Text,
or Table B5.1, LRFD Maual).
– For a section to be slender, it has to have a
width-thickness ratios greater than λ
r
as
provided in Table 4 (Table 5.2, Text, or
Table B5.1, LRFD Maual).
Stiffened and Unstiffened Elements
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
5d
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
AXIALLY LOADED
COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Long, Short, and Intermediate
Columns
The strength of a column and the
manner in which it fails are greatly
dependent on its effective length.
A very short stocky steel column may
be loaded until it reaches it yield point,
and perhaps the strain hardening range.
In essence, it can support about the
same load in compression that it can in
tension.
2
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
As the effective length of a column
increases, its buckling stress will
decrease.
The steel column is said to fail
elastically if the buckling stress is less
than the proportional limit of steel when
the effective length exceeds a certain
value.
Long, Short, and Intermediate
Columns
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Long Columns
– Long columns usually fails elastically.
– The Euler formula predicts very well the
strength of long columns where the axial
compressive buckling stress remains
below the proportional limit.
Long, Short, and Intermediate
Columns
3
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Short Columns
– The failure stress equals to the yield stress
for short columns.
– For a column to fall into this class, it would
have to be so short as to have no practical
application.
Long, Short, and Intermediate
Columns
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Intermediate Columns
– For intermediate columns some of the
fibers will reach the yield stress and some
will not.
– The member will fail by both yielding and
buckling, and their behavior is said to be
inelastic.
– Most columns fall into this range.
Long, Short, and Intermediate
Columns
4
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
The Euler formula is used by the AISC
LRFD Specification for long columns
with elastic buckling.
Other empirical (based on testing)
equations are used by the LRFD for
short and intermediate columns.
With these equations, a critical or
buckling stress F
cr
is determined for a
compression element.
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD General Design Equation for
Columns
The design strength of a compression
member is determined as follows:
0.85 with = ≤
=
φ φ φ
cr g c n c
cr g n
F A P
F A P
(1)
5
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Critical Buckling Stress
Two equations are provided by the LRFD
for the critical buckling stress F
cr
:
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
>
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
5 . 1 for
877 . 0
5 . 1 for 658 . 0
2
2
c y
c
c y
cr
F
F
F
c
λ
λ
λ
λ
(2)
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Critical Buckling Stress
The limiting λ
c
value is given by
Where F
e
= Euler buckling stress =
Hence,
e
y
c
F
F
= λ
( )
2
2
/ r KL
E π
( )
( )
E
F
r
KL
E
r KL F
r KL
E
F
F
F
y y y
e
y
c
π π π
λ = = = =
2
2
2
2
/
/
(3)
(4)
6
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Critical Buckling Stress
So the limiting λ
c
value to be used in Eq. 2
is given by
where
F
y
= yield strength of material (steel)
F
e
= Euler critical buckling stress
E
F
r
KL
F
F
y
e
y
c
π
λ = =
(5)
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Critical Buckling Stress
– For inelastic flexural buckling, Eq. 2 can be
used to compute the critical buckling stress
F
cr
when λ
c
≤ 1.5.
– For elastic flexural buckling, Eq. 2 can be
used to compute the critical buckling stress
F
cr
when λ
c
> 1.5.
– Eq. 2 include the estimated effects of
residual stresses and initial out-of-
straightness of the members.
– Eq. 2 is presented graphically in Fig. 1.
7
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
Figure 1. LRFD Critical Buckling Stress
Short
column
Intermediate
column
Long column
5 . 1 =
c
λ
Inelastic buckling
Elastic buckling
(Euler Formula)
r
KL
cr c
F φ
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Critical Buckling Stress
– To facilitate the design process, the LRFD
Manual provides computed values φ
c
F
cr
values for steels with F
y
= 36 ksi and 50 ksi
for KL/r from 1 to 200 and has shown the
results in Tables 3.36 and 3.50 of the
LRFD Specification located in Part 16 of
the Manual.
– Also, there is Table 4 of the LRFD
Specification from which the user may
obtain values for steel with any F
y
values.
8
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-143)
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-145)
9
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Column Formulas
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 4-25)
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Maximum Slenderness Ratios
Compression members preferably
should be designed with
as specified in Section B7 of the LRFD
Manual.
200 ≤
r
KL
(6)
Note that LRFD Tables 3.36 and 3.50 give a value of 5.33 ksi for
the design stress φ
c
F
cr
when KL/r = 200. If KL/r > 200, it is
then necessary to substitute into the column formulas to get the
the stress.
10
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Maximum Slenderness Ratios
More Simplification by the LRFD
Manual for Design
– It is to be noted that the LRFD Manual in
its Part 4 has further simplified the
calculations required by computing the
column design strength φ
c
F
cr
A
g
for each of
the shapes normally used as columns for
commonly used effective lengths or KL
values.
– These were determined with respect to the
least radius of gyration for each section.
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1
a. Using the column design stress values
shown in Table 3.50, part 16 of the LRFD
manual, determine the design strength, φ
c
P
n
of the F
y
= 50 ksi axially loaded column
shown in the figure.
b. Repeat the problem using the column tables
of part 4 of the Manual.
c. Check local buckling for the section selected
using the appropriate values from Table 5.2.
11
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
72 12 W ×
ft 15
n c u
P P φ ≤
n c u
P P φ ≤
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
a. The properties of the W12 × 72 are
obtained from the LRFD Manual as
in 430 . 0 in 27 . 1
in 670 . 0 in 00 . 12 in 3 . 12
in 04 . 3 in 31 . 5 in 1 . 21
2
= =
= = =
= = =
w
f f
y x
t k
t b d
r r A
( ) ( )
( )
37 . 47
04 . 3
15 12 80 . 0

and
controls , in 31 . 5 in 04 . 3 Since
Text) 5.1, (Table 1 Table from 80 . 0
=
×
=
= < =
=
y
y x y
r
KL
r r r
K
12
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
Table 1
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
For KL/r = 47 and 48, Table 3-50 of the
LRFD Manual, Page 16.I-145, gives
respectively the following values for φ
c
F
cr
:
36.2 ksi and 35.9 ksi.
Using interpolation,
ksi 09 . 36
47 48
47 37 . 47
2 . 36 9 . 35
2 . 36
9 . 35 48
37 . 47
2 . 36 47
= ⇒


=



cr c
cr c
cr c
F
F
F φ
φ
φ
13
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
P. 16.I-145
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
Therefore,
b. Entering column tables Part 4 of the
LRFD Manual with K
y
L
y
in feet:
( ) k 5 . 761 1 . 21 09 . 36 = = =
g cr c n c
A F P φ φ
( )
k 761
ft 12 15 80 . 0
= =
= =
n c u
y y
P P
L K
φ
14
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
P. 4-25
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 1 (cont’d)
c. Checking W12× 72 for compactness:
For flange
For web, noting h = d – 2k = 12.3 – 2 (1.27) =9.76 in
( )
49 . 13
50
10 29
56 . 0 56 . 0 96 . 8
670 . 0 2
0 . 12
2
3
=
×
= < = =
y f
F
E
t
h
88 . 35
50
10 29
49 . 1 49 . 1 7 . 22
430 . 0
76 . 9
3
=
×
= < = =
y w
F
E
t
h
OK
OK
See Table 2
See Table 3
15
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 2. Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for
Compression Elements
Example Problems
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 3. (cont’d) Limiting Width-Thickness
Ratios for Compression Elements
S
t
i
f
f
e
n
e
d

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
Example Problems
16
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 2
Determine the design strength φ
c
P
n
of the
axially loaded column shown in the figure if
KL = 19 ft and 50 ksi steel is used.
20
2
1
PL ×
y
x
x
in 12
42.7 MC18×
in 50 . 18
C] of back from in 877 . 0
, in 3 . 14 , in 554
in, 0 . 18 , in 6 . 12 [
4 4
2
=
= =
= =
x
I I
d A
y x
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 2 (cont’d)
( )
( )( ) ( )( )
in 87 . 6
2 . 35
5 . 9 6 . 12 2 25 . 0 20 0.5
top from
in 2 . 35 6 . 12 2
2
1
20
2
=
× + ×
=
= + |
.
|

\
|
=
y
A
( ) ( ) | |
( )
( )
( ) ( ) | |
( )
in 64 . 6
2 . 35
1554
in 92 . 6
2 . 35
1688
in 1554
12
20 5 . 0
877 . 0 6 6 . 12 2 3 . 14 2
in 688 , 1 25 . 0 69 . 6 10
12
5 . 0 20
69 . 6 25 . 9 6 . 12 2 554 2
4
3
2
4 2
3
2
= = =
= = =
= + + + =
= − + + − + =
A
I
r
A
I
r
I
I
y
y
x
x
y
x
Controls
17
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 2 (cont’d)
For KL/r = 34 and 35, Table 3-50 of the
LRFD Manual, Page 16.I-145, gives
respectively the following values for φ
c
F
cr
:
39.1 ksi and 38.9 ksi
( )
34 . 34
64 . 6
19 12
=
×
= =
y
r
KL
r
KL
ksi 03 . 39
34 35
34 34 . 34
1 . 39 9 . 38
1 . 39
9 . 38 35
34 . 34
1 . 39 34
= ⇒


=



cr c
cr c
cr c
F
F
F φ
φ
φ
Therefore, the design strength = φ
c
P
n
= φ
c
A
g
F
cr
=39.03 (35.2) = 1374 k
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3
a. Using Table 3.50 of Part 16 of the LRFD
Manual, determine the design strength φ
c
P
n
of the 50 ksi axially loaded W14 × 90 shown
in the figure. Because of its considerable
length, this column is braced perpendicular
to its weak axis at the points shown in the
figure. These connections are assumed to
permit rotation of the member in a plane
parallel to the plane of the flanges. At the
same time, however, they are assumed to
prevent translation or sideway and twisting
18
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3 (cont’d)
of the cross section
about a longitudinal
axis passing through
the shear center of
the cross section.
– Repeat part (a) using
the column tables of
Part 4 of the LRFD
Manual.
n c
P φ
n c
P φ
ft 32
ft 10
ft 10
ft 12
90 W14×
General support
xy direction
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3
(cont’d)
– Note that the
column is braced
perpendicular to
its weak y axis as
shown.
ft 10
ft 10
ft 12
y
y
x
x
Bracing
90 W14×
19
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3 (cont’d)
a. The following properties of the W14 × 90
can be obtained from the LRFD Manual as
Determination of effective lengths:
See Table for the K values
in 70 . 3 in 14 . 6 in 5 . 26
2
= = =
y x
r r A
( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) ft 6 . 9 12 8 . 0
ft 10 10 0 . 1
ft 6 . 25 32 8 . 0
= =
= =
= =
y x
y y
x x
L K
L K
L K
Governs for K
y
L
y
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Table 1
Example 3 (cont’d)
20
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3 (cont’d)
Computations of slenderness ratios:
Design Strength:
43 . 32
70 . 3
10 12
03 . 50
14 . 6
6 . 25 12
=
×
= |
.
|

\
|
=
×
= |
.
|

\
|
y
x
r
KL
r
KL
Governs
( ) k 938 5 . 26 4 . 35
ksi 4 . 35 gives 50 - 3 Table , 50 03 . 50
c
c
= = = ∴
= ≈ =
g cr c n
cr
A F P
F
r
KL
φ φ
φ
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3 (cont’d)
b. Using columns tables of Part 4 of LRFD
Manual:
Note: from part (a) solution, there are two
different KL values:
Which value would control? This can
accomplished as follows:
ft 10 and ft 6 . 25 = =
y y x x
L K L K
y
y y
x
x x
r
L K
r
L K
Equivalent =
21
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3 (cont’d)
The controlling K
y
L
y
for use in the tables is larger
of the real K
y
L
y
= 10 ft, or equivalent K
y
L
y
:
y x
x x
x
x x
y y y
r r
L K
r
L K
r L K
/
Equivalent = =
k 938
: ion interpolat by and 42 . 15 For
ft 10 43 . 15
66 . 1
6 . 25
Equivalent
1.66 les column tab of bottom from 90 for W14
c
=
=
= > = =
= ×
n
y y
y y y y
y
x
P
L K
L K L K
r
r
φ
CHAPTER 5d. INTRODUCTION TO AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 41
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example Problems
Example 3 (cont’d)
The Interpolation Process:
• For K
y
L
y
= 15 ft and 16 ft, column table (P. 4-
23) of Par 4 of the LRFD Manual, gives
respectively the following values for φ
c
P
n
: 947 k
and 925 k. Therefore, by interpolation:
k 938
15 16
15 42 . 15
947 925
947
925 16
42 . 15
947 15
= ⇒


=



n c
n c
n c
P
P
P φ
φ
φ
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
6a
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DESIGN OF AXIALLY
LOADED COMPRESSION
MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
The members that can be designed for
compression include:
– Single shapes
– W sections with cover plates
– Built-up sections constructed with channels
– Sections whose unbraced lengths in the x
and y directions.
– Lacing and tie plates for built-up sections
with open sides.
2
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
The Design Process for Columns
– It is to be noted that the design of columns
wit formulas involves a trial-and-error
process.
– The design stress φ
c
F
cr
is not known until a
column size is selected and vice versa.
– Once a trial section is assumed, the r value
for that section can be obtained and
substituted into the appropriate column
equation to determine its design stress.
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
The Design Process for Columns
– In the design of columns, the factored load
P
u
is computed for a particular column and
then divided by an assumed design stress
to give an estimated column area A, that is
cr c
u u
F
P P
A
φ
= =
stress assumed
estimated
(1)
3
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
The Design Process for Columns
– After an estimated column area is
determined, a trial section can be selected
with approximately that area.
– The design stress for the selected section
can be computed and multiplied by the
cross sectional area of the section to
obtain the member’s design strength.
– This design strength is compared with the
factored load P
u
. It must be equal or
greater than the load P
u
.
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
General Notes on Column Design
– The effective slenderness ratio (KL/r) for
the average column of 10 to 15 ft in length
will generally fall between 40 and 60.
– A value for KL/r in this range can be
assumed and substituted into the
appropriate column equation.
– Or instead of the column equation, tables
in LRFD manual can be consulted to give
the design strength for that particular KL/r
value. (KL/r ranges from 1 to 200 in LRFD)
4
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Example 1
Using F
y
= 50 ksi, select the lightest W14
section available for the service column
loads P
D
= 130 k and P
L
= 210 k. Assume
KL = 10 ft.
( )
( ) ( ) k 492 210 6 . 1 130 2 . 1 6 . 1 2 . 1
130 2 . 1 2 . 1
= + = + =
= = =
L D u
D u
P P P
P P
50 Assume =
r
KL
Governs
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Example 1 (cont’d)
2
required
in 90 . 13
4 . 35
492
ksi 35.4 Manual) of 16 (Part 3.50 Table form
= = = ∴
=
cr c
u
cr c
F
P
A
F
φ
φ
( )
83 . 62
91 . 1
10 12
91 . 1
in 91 . 1 in, 85 . 5 , in 1 . 14 48 Try W14
2
=
×
=
=
= = = ×
y
y
y x
r
KL
r
r r A
ksi 31.85 on iterpolati by and
Manual) of 16 (Part 3.50 Table form
=
cr c
F φ
controls
5
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-145)
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-145)
6
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Example 1 (cont’d)
( ) ( )
( ) in 92 . 1 in, 89 . 5 , in 6 . 15 53 Try W14
larger W14 next try
k 492 k 449 1 . 14 85 . 31
2
= = = ×

< = = =
y x
g cr c n c
r r A
A F P φ φ
NG
ksi 31.95 on iterpolati by and
Manual) of 16 (Part 3.50 Table form
5 . 62
92 . 1
10 12
92 . 1
=
=
×
=
=
cr c
y
y
F
r
KL
r
φ
controls
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Example 1 (cont’d)
Checking width-thickness ratio for W14 × 53:
( ) ( ) k 492 k 498 6 . 15 95 . 31 < = = = ∴
g cr c n c
A F P φ φ
OK








= = =
= =
×
in 370 . 0 in, 9 . 13 in, 25 . 1
in, 660 . 0 , in 8.060
53 W14
w
f f
t d k
t b
( )
49 . 13
50
10 29
56 . 0 56 . 0 11 . 6
660 . 0 2
060 . 8
2
3
=
×
= < = =
y f
f
F
E
t
b
OK
( )
88 . 35
50
10 29
49 . 1 49 . 1 81 . 30
370 . 0
25 . 1 2 9 . 13
3
=
×
= < =

=
y w
F
E
t
h
OK
7
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
The LRFD Manual can be used to
select various column sections from
tables without the need of using a trial-
and-error procedures.
These tables provide axial design
strengths φ
c
P
n
for various practical
effective lengths of the steel sections
commonly used as columns.
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 4-25)
8
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
The values are given with respect to the
least radii of gyration for W’s and WT’s
with 50 ksi steel.
Other grade steels are commonly used
for other types of sections as shown in
the Manual and listed there.
These include 35 ksi for steel pipe, 36
ksi for L’s, 42 ksi for round HSS
sections, and 46 ksi for square and
rectangular HSS sections.
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
For most columns consisting of single
steel shapes, the effective slenderness
ratio with respect to the y axis (KL/r)
y
is
larger than the effective slenderness
ratio with respect to the x axis (KL/r)
x
.
As a result, the controlling or smaller
design stress is for the y axis.
Because of this, the LRFD tables
provide design strengths of columns
with respect to their y axis.
9
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 2
Using the LRFD column tables with their
given yield strengths:
a. Select the lightest W section available for
the loads, steel, and KL of Example 1.
Use F
y
= 50 ksi.
b. Select the lightest satisfactory standard
(S), extra strong (XS), and double extra
strong (XXS) pipe columns described in
part (a) of this example. Use F
y
= 35 ksi.
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 2 (cont’d)
c. Select the lightest satisfactory rectangular
and square HSS sections for the situation
in part (a). Use F
y
= 46 ksi.
d. Select the lightest round HSS section for
part (a). Use F
y
= 42 ksi.
a. Enter LRFD tables with K
y
L
y
= 10 ft., P
u
=
492 k, and F
y
= 50 ksi.
10
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 2 (cont’d)
Lightest suitable section in each W series:
b. Pipe Columns:
( )
( )
( )
49 W10 USE Therefore,
k 520 49 10
k 559 53 12
k 498 53 14
×
= ×
= ×
= ×
n c
n c
n c
P W
P W
P W
φ
φ
φ
( )
( ) 575k lb/ft 72.5 0.875 XXS8
k 549 lb/ft 65.5 0.500 XS12
available not :
= ×
= ×
S
controls
Page 4-26 of Manual
Lightest
Page 4-76 of Manual
Page 4-76 of Manual
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 2 (cont’d)
c. Rectangular and square HSS sections:
d. Round HSS section:
( )
( ) k 537 lb/ft 9 . 52
8
3
10 12 HSS
k 530 lb/ft 3 . 57
16
5
14 14 HSS
= × ×
= × ×
( ) k 500 lb/ft 3 . 52 312 . 0 16 HSS = × Page 4-66 of Manual
Page 4-49 of Manual
Page 4-51 of Manual
11
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
How to handle the situation when
(KL/r)
x
is larger than (KL/r)
y
?
– Two methods can be used:
• Trial-and error method
• Use of LRFD Tables
– An axially loaded column is laterally
restrained in its weak direction as shown in
Figs. 1 and 2
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Figure 1 u
P
u
P
L
2
L
2
L
This brace must be a section which
Prevents lateral movement and twisting
Of the column.
A rod or bar is not satisfactory.
12
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Figure 2
2
L
y
y
x
x
Bracing
2
L
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
How to handle the situation when
(KL/r)
x
is larger than (KL/r)
y
?
Trial-and-error Procedure:
• A trial section can be selected as described
previously.
• Then the slenderness values (KL/r)
x
and (KL/r)
x
are computed.
• Finally, φ
c
F
cr
is determined for the larger value
of (KL/r)
x
and (KL/r)
x
and multiplied by A
g
to
obtained φ
c
P
n
.
• Then if necessary, another size can be tried,
and so on.
13
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
How to handle the situation when
(KL/r)
x
is larger than (KL/r)
y
?
– It is assumed that K is the same in both
directions. Then, if equal strengths about
the x and y axis to be obtained, the
following relation must hold:
y
y
x
x
r
L
r
L
=
(2)
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
How to handle the situation when
(KL/r)
x
is larger than (KL/r)
y
?
– For L
y
to be equivalent to L
x
, the following
relation would hold true:
– If L
y
(r
x
/r
y
) is less than L
x
, then L
x
controls.
– If L
y
(r
x
/r
y
) is greater than L
x
, then L
y
controls.
y
x
y x
r
r
L L =
(3)
14
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
How to handle the situation when (KL/r)
x
is
larger than (KL/r)
y
?
Use of LRFD Tables:
• Based on the preceding information, the LRFD
Manual provides a method with which a section
can be selected from tables with little trial and error
when the unbraced lengths are different.
• The designer enters the appropriate table with
K
y
L
y
, selects a shape, takes r
x
/r
y
value in the table
for that shape, and multiplies it by L
y
.
• If the result is larger than K
x
L
x
, then K
y
L
y
controls and
the shape initially selected is the correct one.
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
How to handle the situation when (KL/r)
x
is
larger than (KL/r)
y
?
Use of LRFD Tables (cont’d):
• If the result of the multiplication is less than K
x
L
x
,
then K
x
L
x
controls and the designer will reenter the
tables with a larger K
y
L
y
equal to K
x
L
x
/(r
x
/r
y
) and
select the final section.
15
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 3
Select the lightest satisfactory W12 for the
following conditions: F
y
= 50 ksi, P
u
= 900 k,
K
x
L
x
= 26 ft, and K
y
L
y
= 13 ft.
a. By trial and error
b. Using LRFD tables
a. Using trial and error:
50 Assume =
r
KL
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 3 (cont’d)
2
L
y
y
x
x
Bracing
2
L
u
P
u
P
L
2
L
2
L
ft 26
1
= =
=
L KL
K
16
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 3 (cont’d)
( )
( ) k 900 k 850 6 . 25 2 . 33 ksi 2 . 33
81 . 50
07 . 3
13 12
58 99 . 57
38 . 5
26 12
in 07 . 3 in, 38 . 5 , in 6 . 25 87 Try W12
in 42 . 25
40 . 35
900
Manual) of 3.50 Table (from ksi 40 . 35
2
2
required
< = = ∴ =
=
×
= 





≈ =
×
= 





= = = ×
= = =
=
n c cr c
y
x
y x
cr c
u
cr c
P φ F
r
KL
r
KL
r r A
F
P
A
F
φ
φ
φ
A subsequent check of the next larger W section (W12 × 96) shows it will work.
Therefore, USE W12 × 96
NG
controls
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-145)
17
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-145)
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Design Tables
Example 3 (cont’d)
b. Using LRFD tables:
Enter tables with K
y
L
y
= 13 ft, F
y
= 50 ksi,
and P
u
= 900 k.
( )
k 935 96 W12 USE
86 . 14
75 . 1
26
/
with bles Reenter ta
controls. Therefore,
ft 75 . 22 75 . 1 13
/
Equivalent
on based with 75 . 1 87 Try W12
c
= = ×
= = =
< = = =








= ×
u n
y x
x x
y y
x x
x x
y x
x x
y y
y y n c
y
x
P P
r r
L K
L K
L K
L K
r r
L K
L K
L K P
r
r
φ
φ
OK
See P. 4-25 of Manual
18
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Columns
Compression members may be
constructed with more shapes built-up
into a single member.
They may consist of parts in contact
with each other, such as cover-plated
sections:
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Columns
Or they may consist of parts in near
contact with each other, such as pair of
angles:
These pairs of angles may be separated
by a small distance from each other
equal the thickness of the end
connection or gusset plates between
them.
19
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Columns
They may consist of parts that are
spread well apart, such as pairs of
channels:
Or four angles, and so on.
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Columns
Two-angle sections probably are the
most common type of built-up members.
They are frequently used as the
members of light trusses.
When a pair angles are used as a
compression member, they need to be
fastened together so they will act as a
unit.
Welds may be used at intervals or they
may be connected with bolts.
20
CHAPTER 6a. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-up Columns
For long columns, it may be suitable to
use built-up sections where the parts of
the columns are spread out or widely
separated from each other.
These types of built-up columns are
commonly used for crane booms and
for compression members of various
kinds of towers.
The widely spaced parts of these types
must be carefully laced or tied together.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
6b
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DESIGN OF AXIALLY
LOADED COMPRESSION
MEMBERS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Built-Up Columns with Components
in Contact with Each Other
If a column consists of two equal size
plates as shown in Fig. 1, and if those
plates are not connected together, each
plate will act as a separate column, and
each will resist approximately half of the
total column load.
This means that the total moment of
inertia of the column will equal two
times the moment of inertia of one plate.
2
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 1. Column consisting of two plates not
connected to each other
Built-Up Columns with Components
in Contact with Each Other
b
d d
2
u
P
2
u
P
2
u
P
2
u
P
Plates deform
equal amounts
6 12
2
3 3
bd bd
I =








=
(a) Column cross section
(b) Deformed shape of Columns
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The two “columns” will act the same and
have equal deformation, as shown in
part (b) of Fig. 1.
If the two plates are connected together
sufficiently to prevent slippage on each
other, they will act as a unit as shown in
Fig. 2.
Their moment of inertia may be
computed for the whole built-up section.
Built-Up Columns with Components
in Contact with Each Other
3
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 2. Column consisting of two plates
fully connected to each other
Built-Up Columns with Components
in Contact with Each Other
Plates deform
equal amounts
u
P
u
P
( )
( )
3
3
3
6
4

12
8

12
2
bd
d b
d b
I
=
=
=
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The moment of inertia for this built-up
section will be four times as large as it
was for the column of Fig 1, where
slipping between plates was possible.
Also, the column of Fig 2 will deform
different amounts as the column bends
laterally.
Built-Up Columns with Components
in Contact with Each Other
4
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Should the plates be connected in a few
places, the strength of the resulting
column would be somewhere in
between the two cases just described.
The greatest displacement between the
two plates in Fig 1 tend to occur at the
ends and the least displacement tends
to occur at middle depth.
Built-Up Columns with Components
in Contact with Each Other
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Greatest Strength of Built-up Column
Built-Up Columns with Components
in Contact with Each Other
As a result, connections placed at column
ends which will prevent slipping between
the parts have the greatest strengthening
effect, while those at middepth have the
least effect
5
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The following example presents the
design of member built up from two
channels that are not in contact with
each other.
The parts of such members need to be
connected or laced together across their
open sides.
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
Select a pair of 12-in standard channels for
the column and load shown using F
y
= 50
ksi. For connection purposes, the back-to-
back distance of the channels is to be 12
in.
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
6
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
ft 20
k 580 =
u
P
k 580 =
u
P
in 12
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Try 2C12 × 30’s (for each channel, A = 8.81
in
2
, I
x
= 162 in
4
, I
y
= 5.12 in
4
, )
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
2
required
in 38 . 16
40 . 35
580
ksi 40 . 35
Manual, LRFD the of 3.50 Table from Then
50 Assume
= = =
=
=
cr c
u
cr c
F
P
A
F
r
KL
φ
φ
in 674 . 0 = x
7
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-145)
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
( ) [ ]
in 326 . 5 674 . 0
2
12

2
channels of distance
5.326 that Note
in 510 326 . 5 81 . 8 12 . 5 2
in 324 162 2
4
2
2
= − =
− =
= + =
= × =
x
I
I
y
x
x
in 6
8
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
( )
( )
( ) ends pinned 1, Table From 0 . 1
used be in to 29 . 4
in 38 . 5
81 . 8 2
510
in 29 . 4
81 . 8 2
324
=
= ∴
=
×
= =
=
×
= =
K
r
A
I
r
A
I
r
x
y
y
x
x
Controls
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Table 1
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
9
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
( )( )
( )
30 2C12 SE U Thus,
k 580 k 596 81 . 8 2 82 . 33 Therefore,
ksi 82 . 33
: ion interpolat by and Manual the of 3.50 Table From
94 . 55
29 . 4
20 12
ft 20 20 0 . 1
×
> = × = =
=
=
×
= =
= =
g cr c n c
cr c
x
A F P
F
r
KL
r
KL
KL
φ φ
φ
OK
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Manual Design Tables (P. 16.I-145)
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
10
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Checking width/thickness ratios:
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other










= = =
= = =
×
in 1.125 in
8
1
1 in, 51 . 0
in 12 . 5 in, 17 . 3 in, 0 . 12
30 C12
k t
t b d
w
f f
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Built-Up Columns with Components
Not in Contact with Each Other
( )
ksi 50 30, 2C12 USE
88 . 35
50
10 29
49 . 1 49 . 1 12 . 19
510 . 0
125 . 1 2 0 . 12
49 . 13
50
10 29
56 . 0 33 . 6
501 . 0
17 . 3
3
3
= × ∴
=
×
= < =

=
=
×
= < = =
y
y w
y f
f
F
F
E
t
h
F
E
t
b
OK
OK
11
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 4. Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for
Compression Elements
Built-Up Columns
CHAPTER 6b. DESIGN OF AXIALLY LOADED COMPRESSION MEMBERS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 4. (cont’d) Limiting Width-Thickness
Ratios for Compression Elements
S
t
i
f
f
e
n
e
d

E
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
Built-Up Columns
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
8a
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
BEAMS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
A beam is generally considered to be
any member subjected to principally to
transverse gravity or vertical loading.
The term transverse loading is taken to
include end moments.
There are many types of beams that are
classified according to their size,
manner in which they are supported,
and their location in any given structural
system.
2
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Figure 1. Loading on Beams
Beam
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Beams can be
– Straight as shown in Figure 2c.
• For example the straight member bde.
– Curved as shown in Figure 2c.
• For example the curved member abc.
Beams are generally classified
according to their geometry and the
manner in which they are supported.
3
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Figure 2. Classification of Beams
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
a
b
c
d
e
Cable
Load
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Geometrical classification includes such
features as the shape of the cross
section, whether the beam is
– Straight or
– Curved
Or whether the beam is
– Tapered, or
– Has a constant cross section.
4
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Beams can also be classified according
to the manner in which they are
supported. Some types that occur in
ordinary practice are shown in Figure 3,
the names of some of these being fairly
obvious from direct observation.
Note that the beams in (d), (e), and (f)
are statically indeterminate.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Figure 3. Types of Beams Based on the
Manner in Which They are Supported.
(a) Cantilever
(c) Overhanging
(e) Fixed ended
(b) Simply supported
(d) continuous
(f) Cantilever, simply supported
5
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
6
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Beams used in Buildings and Bridges
– Girders
• Usually the most important beams, which are
frequently at wide spacing.
– Joists
• Usually less important beams, which are
closely spaced, frequently with truss-type webs.
– Stringers
• Longitudinal bridge beams spanning between
floor beams.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Types of Beams
Beams used in Buildings and Bridges
(cont’d)
– Purlins
• Roof beams spanning between trusses.
– Girts
• Horizontal wall beams serving principally to
resist bending due to wind on the side of an
industrial building.
– Lintels
• Members supporting a wall over window or
door openings.
7
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used As Beams
Among the steel shapes that are used
as beam include
– Wshapes, which normally prove to be the
most economical beam sections, and they
have largely replaced channels and S
sections for beam usage.
– Channels are sometimes used for beams
subjected to light loads, such as purlins,
and in places where clearances available
require narrow flanges.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used As Beams
Figure 4. W Section as a Beam
x
x
y
y
L
8
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Sections Used As Beams
Another common type of beam section
is the open web joist or bar joist.
This type of section, which commonly
used to support floor and roof slabs, is
actually a light shop-fabricated parallel
chord truss.
It is particularly economical for long
spans and light loads.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Bending moment produces bending
strains on a beam, and consequently
compressive and tensile stresses.
Under positive moment (as normally the
case), compressive stresses are
produced in the top of the beam and
tensile stresses are produced in the
bottom.
Bending members must resist both
compressive and tensile stresses.
9
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Stresses in Beams
– For introduction to bending stress the
rectangular beam and stress diagrams of
Fig. 5 are considered.
– If the beam is subjected to some bending
moment that stress at any point may be
computed with the usual flexure formula:
I
Mc
f
b
=
(1)
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Figure 5. Variation in Bending Stresses
b
f
y
F
N.A.
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)
(f)
y
F
y
F
y
F
b
f
y
F
y
F
y
F
y
F
10
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Stresses in Beams
– It is important to remember that the
expression given by Eq. 1 is only
applicable when the maximum computed
stress in the beam is below the elastic limit.
– The formula of Eq. 1 is based on the
assumption that the stress is proportional
to the strain, and a plane section before
bending remains plane after bending.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Stresses in Beams
– The value of I/c is a constant for a
particular section and is known as the
section modulus S.
– The flexure formula may then be written as
follows:
S
M
= σ
(2)
11
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Plastic Moment
– In reference to Fig. 5:
• Stress varies linearly from the neutral axis to
extreme fibers, as shown in Fig. 5b.
• When the moment increases, there will also be
a linear relationship between the moment and
the stress until the stress reaches the yield
stress F
Y
, as shown in Fig. 5c.
• In Fig. 5d, when the moment increases beyond
the yield moment, the outermost fibers that had
previously stressed to their yield point will
continue to have the same but will yield.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Plastic Moment
– In reference to Fig. 5 (cont’d):
• The process will continue with more and more
parts of the beam cross section stressed to the
yield point as shown by the stress diagrams of
parts (d) and (e) of Fig. 5., until finally a full
plastic distribution is approached as shown in
Fig. 5f.
12
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Plastic Moment
– Definition
“The plastic moment can be defined as
the moment that will produce full
plasticity in a member cross section
and create a plastic hinge”.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Shape Factor
– Definition
“The shape factor of a member cross
section can be defined as the ratio of
the plastic moment M
p
to yield moment
M
y
”.
– The shape factor equals 1.50 for
rectangular cross sections and varies from
about 1.10 to 1.20 for standard rolled-
beam sections
13
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Hinges
The Concept of Plastic Hinge
– The plastic hinge concept is illustrated as
shown in the simple beam of Fig. 6.
– The load shown in the figure is applied to
the beam and increased in magnitude until
the yield moment is reached and the
outermost fiber is stressed to the yield
stress.
– The magnitude of the load is further
increased with the result that the outer
fibers begin to yield.
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Stresses
Figure 6. Plastic Hinge
u
P
shape W
hinge Plastic
yielding of Area
14
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Hinges
The Concept of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
– The yielding spreads out to other fibers
away from the section of maximum
moment as indicated in Fig. 6.
– The length in which this yielding occurs
away from the section in question is
dependent on the loading conditions and
the member cross section.
– For a concentrated load P
u
applied at the
center line of a simply-supported beam
with a rectangular cross section, yielding in
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Hinges
The Concept of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
extreme fibers at the time the plastic hinge
is formed will extend for one-third of the
span.
– For a W section in similar circumstances,
yielding will extend for approximately one-
eighth of the span.
– During the same period, the interior fibers
at the section of maximum moment yield
gradually until nearly all of them have
yielded and a plastic hinge is formed.
15
CHAPTER 8a. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Hinges
The Concept of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
– The effect of the plastic hinge is assumed
to be concentrated at one section for
analysis purposes.
– However, it should be noted that this effect
may extend for some distance along the
beam.
– For the calculation of deflection and for the
design of bracing, the length over which
yielding extends is very important
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
8b
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
BEAMS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Design
For many years the elastic theory has
been the basis for steel structural
design and analyses. This theory is
based on the yield stress of a steel
structural element.
However, nowadays, it has been
replaced with a more rational and
realistic theory, the ultimate stress
design that is based on the plastic
capacity of a steel structure.
2
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Design
In the elastic theory, the maximum load
that a structure could support is
assumed to equal the load that caused
a stress somewhere in the structure
equal the yield stress F
y
of the material.
The members were designed so that
computed bending stresses for service
loads did not exceed the yield stress
divided a factor of safety (e.g., 1.5 to 2)
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Design
Elastic Versus Ultimate-based Design of
Steel Structures
• According to ASD, one factor of safety (FS) is
used that accounts for the entire uncertainty in
loads and strength.
• According to LRFD (probability-based),
different partial safety factors for the different
load and strength types are used.
ASD
FS
1

=

m
i
i
n
L
R
LRFD
1

=

m
i
i i n
L R γ φ
3
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Design
Engineering structures have been
designed for many years by the allowable
stress design (ASD), or elastic design with
satisfactory results.
However, engineers have long been aware
that ductile members (e.g., steel) do not fail
until a great deal of yielding occurs after
yield stress is first reached.
This mean that such members have
greater margin of safety against collapse
than the elastic theory would seem to
suggest.
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Elastic Modulus
The yield moment M
y
equals the yield
stress F
y
times the elastic modulus S:
where
S F M
y y
=
(1)
section cross of fiber outer to N.A. from distance
inertia of moment
=
=
=
c
I
c
I
S
4
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Elastic Modulus
The elastic modulus for a rectangular
section b × d as shown in Fig. 1 can be
computed by using:
– The flexural formula, or
– The internal couple method
d
b
Figure 1
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Elastic Modulus
Using the Flexural Formula
– Rectangular Cross Section:
6
6 2 /
12 /
2
,
12
/
2
2 3 3
bd F
S F M
bd
d
bd
c
I
S
d
c
bd
I
S F M
S
M
c I
M
I
c M
F
y
y y
y y
y y y
y
= = ∴
= = = ⇒ = =
=
= = =
5
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Elastic Modulus
Using the Internal Couple Method:
– Rectangular Section:
N.A.
2
d
2
d
y
F
y
F
4 2 2
1
db F
b
d
F C
y
y
= 





× =
4 2 2
1
db F
b
d
F T
y
y
= 





× =
d
b
6 3
2
4
arm moment Force
2
bd F
d
db F
M
y y
y
= 





×








= × =
d
3
2
Figure 2
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
The resisting moment at full plasticity
can be determined in a similar manner.
The result is the so-called plastic
moment M
p
.
It is also the nominal moment of the
section, M
n
n p
M M =
(2)
6
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
The plastic ( or nominal) moment equals
T or C times the lever arm between
them as shown.
N.A.
2
d
2
d
y
F
y
F
2 2
db F
b
d
F C
y
y
= 





× =
4 2
db F
b
d
F T
y
y
= 





× =
d
b
d
3
2
Figure 3
4 2 2 2 2
arm lever Force
2
bd
F
d
db F
d
C
d
T M
y
y
p
= ×








= = = × =
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
The plastic moment is equal to the yield
stress F
y
times the plastic modulus Z.
From the foregoing expression for a
rectangular section, the plastic modulus
Z can be seen to equal bd
2
/4.
4
4
2
2
bd
Z
bd
F Z F M
y y p
=








= =
7
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
The shape factor, which is equal
Is also equal to
S
Z
S F
Z F
M
M
y
y
y
p
= =
5 . 1
6
4
Factor Shape
2
2
= = =
bd
bd
S
Z
So, for rectangular section, the shape factor
equal 1.5.
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Shape Factor
– Definition
“The shape factor of a member cross
section can be defined as the ratio of
the plastic moment M
p
to yield moment
M
y
”.
– The shape factor equals 1.50 for
rectangular cross sections and varies from
about 1.10 to 1.20 for standard rolled-
beam sections
8
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Shape Factor
The shape factor Z can be computed from
the following expressions:
S
Z
M
M
y
P
=
=
Factor Shape
from Or
Factor Shape
(3)
(4)
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Neutral Axis for Plastic Condition
– The neutral axis for plastic condition is
different than its counterpart for elastic
condition.
– Unless the section is symmetrical, the
neutral axis for the plastic condition will not
be in the same location as for the elastic
condition.
– The total internal compression must equal
the total internal tension.
9
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Neutral Axis for Plastic Condition
– As all fibers are considered to have the
same stress F
y
in the plastic condition, the
areas above and below the plastic neutral
axis must be equal.
– This situation does not hold for
unsymmetrical sections in the elastic
condition.
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Plastic Modulus
– Definitions
“The plastic modulus Z is defined as the
ratio of the plastic moment M
p
to the
yield stress F
Y
.”
“It can also be defined as the first
moment of area about the neutral axis
when the areas above and below the
neutral axis are equal.”
10
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Example 1
Determine the yield moment M
y
, the plastic
or nominal moment M
p
(M
n
), and the plastic
modulus Z for the simply supported beam
having the cross section shown in Fig. 4b.
Also calculate the shape factor and
nominal load P
n
acting transversely
through the midspan of the beam. Assume
that F
Y
= 50 ksi.
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Example 1 (cont’d)
P
n
12 ft
12 ft
15 in.
8 in.
17 in.
15 in.
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
Figure 4
(a)
(b)
11
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Example 1 (cont’d)
Elastic Calculations:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
base lower from in 974 . 9
38
5 . 0 1 8 5 . 8 1 15 5 . 16 1 15
in 38 1 8 1 15 1 15
2
=
+ +
=
= + + =
C
y
A
15 in.
8 in.
17 in.
15 in.
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
N.A.
9.974 in.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
4
3 3 3 3
in 64 . 672 , 1
3
026 . 6 14
3
026 . 7 15
3
974 . 8 7
3
974 . 9 8
=
− + − =
x
I
( )
kip - ft 75 698
12
7 . 167 50
in 7 . 167
974 . 9
64 . 672 , 1
3
. S F M
c
I
S
Y y
= = = = = =
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
15 in.
8 in.
17 in.
15 in.
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
N.A.
y
N
.
A
1
A
2
Example 1 (cont’d)
Plastic Calculations:
• The areas above and below the neutral axis
must be equal for plastic analysis
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
in 11
22 8 15 15 2
8 15 15
1 1 8 1 15 1 15
2 1
=
= − + =
+ = − +
+ = − +
=
N
N
N N
N N
y
y
y y
y y
A A
12
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Example 1 (cont’d)
Plastic Calculations (cont’d):
15 in.
8 in.
17 in.
15 in.
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
N.A.
11 in.
A
1
A
2
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
3
in 228 2 1 4 5 . 4 1 15 5 . 5 1 11 5 . 11 1 8 = + + + = Z
( )
kip - ft 950
12
228 50
= = = = Z F M M
y n p
36 . 1
75 . 698
950
Factor Shape = = =
y
n
M
M
36 . 1
7 . 167
228
Factor Shape
from calculated be also can factor shape the Note,
= = =
S
Z
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Example 1 (cont’d)
– In order to find the nominal load P
n
, we
need to find an expression that gives the
maximum moment on the beam. This
maximum moment occurs at midspan of the
simply supported beam, and is given by
4
2 /
L P
M M
n
L P
= =
P
n
12 ft
12 ft
L
13
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Plastic Modulus
Example 1 (cont’d)
( )
( )
kips 3 . 158
24
950 4

Therefore,
4
24
950
4

2 /
= =
=
= =
n
n
n
L P
P
P
L P
M M
P
n
12 ft
12 ft
L
15 in.
8 in.
17 in.
15 in.
1 in.
1 in.
1 in.
N.A.
11 in.
A
1
A
2
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Theory of Plastic Analysis
The basic theory of plastic analysis is
considered a major change in the
distribution of stresses after the
stresses at certain points in a structure
reach the yield stress F
y
.
The plastic theory implies that those
parts of the structure that have been
stressed to the yield stress F
y
cannot
resist additional stresses.
14
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Theory of Plastic Analysis
They instead will yield the amount
required to permit the extra load or
stresses to be transferred to other parts
of the structure where the stresses are
below the yield stress F
y
, and thus in the
elastic range and able to resist
increased stress.
Plasticity can be said to serve the
purpose of equalizing stresses in cases
of overload.
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Theory of Plastic Analysis
Idealized Stress-Strain Diagram for Steel
– The stress-strain diagram is assumed to
have the idealized shape shown in Fig. 5.
– The yield stress and the proportional limit
are assumed to occur at the same point for
this steel.
– Also, the stress-strain diagram is assumed
to be a perfectly straight line in the plastic
range.
– Beyond the plastic range there is a range of
strain hardening.
15
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Theory of Plastic Analysis
Figure 5. Stress-Strain Diagram for Steel
Unit Strain, ε
U
n
i
t

S
t
r
e
s
s
,

f
y
F
( ) Elasticity Slope
ε
f
E = =
Plasticity
S
train
h
ard
en
in
g
CHAPTER 8b. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Theory of Plastic Analysis
Idealized Stress-Strain Diagram for Steel
– The strain hardening range could
theoretically permit steel members to
withstand additional stress.
– However, from a practical standpoint, the
stains occurring are so large that they
cannot be considered.
– Furthermore, inelastic buckling will limit the
ability of a section to develop a moment
greater than M
p
, even if strain hardening is
significant.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
8c
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
BEAMS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Determinate Beam
– A statically determinate beam will fail if one
plastic hinge developed.
– Consider the simply-supported beam of Fig.
1. That has a constant cross section and
loaded with a concentrated load P at
midspan.
– If P is increased until a plastic hinge is
developed at the point of maximum moment
(just underneath P), an unstable structure
will be created as shown in Fig 1b.
2
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Determinate Beam (cont’d)
P
(a)
(b)
Figure 1
Real hinge
Real hinge
Plastic hinge
n
P
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Determinate Beam (cont’d)
– Any further increase in the load will cause
collapse.
– P
n
represents the nominal or theoretical
maximum load that the beam can support.
3
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Indeterminate Beam
– For statically indeterminate beam to fail, it
is necessary for more than one plastic
hinge to form.
– The number of plastic hinges required for
failure of statically indeterminate structure
will be shown to vary from structure to
structure, but never be less than two.
– The fixed-end beam of Fig. 2 cannot fail
unless the three hinges shown in the figure
are developed.
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Indeterminate Beam (cont’d)
P
(a)
(b)
Figure 2
Plastic hinge
Plastic hinge
Plastic hinge
n
P
4
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Indeterminate Beam (cont’d)
– Although a plastic hinge may have formed in a
statically indeterminate structure, the load can
still be increased without causing failure if the
geometry of he structure permits.
– The plastic hinge will act like a real hinge as
far as the increased loading is concerned.
– As the load is increased, there is a
redistribution of moment because the plastic
hinge can resist no more moment.
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Indeterminate Beam (cont’d)
– As more plastic hinges are formed in the
structure, there will eventually be a
sufficient number of them to cause
collapse.
– Actually, some additional load can be
carried after this time before collapse
occurs as the stresses go into the strain
hardening range.
– However, deflections that would occur are
too large to be permissible in the design.
5
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Indeterminate Beam (cont’d)
– The propped beam of Fig. 3 is an example
of a structure that will fail after two plastic
hinges develop.
– Three hinges are required for collapse, but
there is a real hinge on the right end.
– In this beam the largest elastic moment
caused by the design concentrated load is
at the fixed end.
– As the magnitude of the load is increased a
plastic hinge will form at that point.
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
Statically Indeterminate Beam (cont’d)
P
(a)
(b)
Figure 3
Plastic hinge
Real hinge
Plastic hinge
n
P
6
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
The Collapse Mechanism
The Mechanism
– The load may be further increased until the
moment at some point (here it will be at the
concentrated load) reaches the plastic
moment.
– Additional load will cause the beam to
collapse.
– Therefore, the Mechanism is defined as the
arrangement of plastic hinges and perhaps real
hinges which permit the collapse in a structure
as shown in part (b) of Figs. 1, 2, and 3.
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
There are various methods that can be
used to perform plastic analysis for a
given structure.
Two satisfactory method for this type of
analysis are
– The virtual-work Method (Energy Method)
– Equilibrium Method
In this course, we will focus on the
virtual-work method.
7
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
The Virtual-Work Method
– The structure under consideration is
assumed to be loaded to its nominal
capacity, M
n
.
– Then, it is assumed to deflect through a
small additional displacement after the
ultimate load is reached.
– The work performed by the external loads
during this displacement is equated to
internal work absorbed by the hinges.
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
The Virtual-Work Method
– For this case, the small-angle theory is
used.
– For this theory, the sine of a small angle
equals the tangent of that angle and also
equals the same angle expressed in
radians.
int. ext.

work Internal work External
W W =
=
(1)
8
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 1
Determine the plastic limit (or nominal)
distributed load w
n
in terms of the plastic
(or nominal) moment M
n
developed at the
hinges.
ft 18 = L
(k/ft)
n
w
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 1 (cont’d)
The collapse mechanism for the beam is
sketched.
ft 18 = L
(k/ft)
n
w
2
L
2
L
δ
θ θ
θ 2 Collapse Mechanism
L w
n
A
B
C
9
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Because of the symmetry, the rotations θ
at the end plastic hinges are equal.
– The work done by the external load (w
n
L) is
equal w
n
L times the average deflection δ
avg
of the mechanism at the center of the
beam.
– The deflection δ is calculated as follows:
2
theory) angle (small
2 /
tan
L
L
θ
δ
δ
θ θ
= ∴
= ≈
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 1 (cont’d)
– The internal work absorbed by the hinges
is equal the sum of plastic moments M
n
at
each plastic hinge times the angle through
which it works.
– The average deflection δ
avg
throughout the
length of the beam is equals one-half the
deflection δ at the center of the beam, that
is
4 2 2
1
2
1
avg
L L θ θ
δ δ =






= =
10
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Applying Eq. 1 (conservation of energy),
yield a relationship between w
n
and M
n
as
follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n n
n n n n
M
L
L w
M M M L w
W W
θ
θ
θ θ θ δ
4
4
2

work Internal work External
avg
int. ext.
=






+ + =
=
=
Left
A
Middle
B
Right
C
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Therefore,
– For 18-ft span, the plastic limit distributed
load is computed as
2
16
4
4
L
M
w
M
L
L w
n
n
n n
=
= 





( ) 25 . 20 18
16 16
2 2
n n n
n
M M
L
M
w = = =
11
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 2
For the propped beam shown, determine
the plastic limit (or nominal) load P
n
in
terms of the plastic (or nominal) moment
M
n
developed at the hinges.
ft 20 = L
n
P
ft 10
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 2 (cont’d)
The collapse mechanism for the beam is sketched.
ft 20 = L
n
P
ft 10
2
L
2
L
δ
θ θ
θ 2 Collapse Mechanism
L w
n
A
B
C
12
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Because of the symmetry, the rotations θ
at the end plastic hinges are equal.
– The work done by the external load (P
n
) is
equal P
n
times the deflection δ of the
mechanism at the center of the beam.
– The deflection δ is calculated as follows:
2
theory) angle (small
2 /
tan
L
L
θ
δ
δ
θ θ
= ∴
= ≈
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 2 (cont’d)
– The internal work absorbed by the hinges
is equal the sum of plastic moments M
n
at
each plastic hinge times the angle through
which it works.
– Note that in example, we have only two
plastic hinges at points A and B of the
mechanism. Point C is a real hinge, and no
moment occurs at that point.
– Also note that the external work is
calculated using δ and not δ
avg
. because of
the concentrated load P
n
in that location.
13
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Applying Eq. 1 (conservation of energy),
yield a relationship between P
n
and M
n
as
follows:
( ) ( ) ( )
n n
n n n
M
L
P
M M P
W W
θ
θ
θ θ δ
3
2
2

work Internal work External
int. ext.
=






+ =
=
=
Left
A
Middle
B
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 2 (cont’d)
– Therefore,
– For 20-ft span, the plastic limit load P
n
is
computed as
L
M
P
M
L
P
n
n
n n
6
3
2
=
= 





n
n n n
n
M
M M
L
M
P 3 . 0
10
3
20
6 6
= = = =
14
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 3
For the fixed-end beam shown, determine
the plastic limit (or nominal) load P
n
in
terms of the plastic (or nominal) moment
M
n
developed at the hinges.
ft 30 = L
n
P
ft 20
3
2
=
L
ft 10
3
=
L
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 3 (cont’d)
The collapse mechanism for the beam is sketched.
ft 30 = L
n
P
ft 20
3
2
=
L
ft 10
3
=
L
3
2L
3
L
δ
1
θ
2
θ
) (
2 1
θ θ +
Collapse Mechanism
n
P
A
B
C
E
15
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 3 (cont’d)
– Because of the unsymmetry, the rotations
θ
1
and θ
2
at the end plastic hinges are not
equal.
– We need to find all rotations in terms, say
θ
1
– The work done by the external load (P
n
) is
equal P
n
times the deflection δ of the
mechanism at the center of the beam.
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 3 (cont’d)
From triangles ABE and BCE:
3
2L
3
L
δ
1
θ
2
θ
) (
2 1
θ θ +
n
P
A
B
C
E
1 2 2 1
2 2 2
1 1 1
2 or
3 3
2
: 3 and 2 Eqs. from Thus,
3 3 /
tan : BCE
3
2
3 / 2
tan : ABE
θ θ θ θ
θ δ
δ
θ θ
θ δ
δ
θ θ
= =
= ⇒ = ≈
= ⇒ = ≈
L L
L
L
L
L
1 1 1 2 1
1 2
1
3 2 : B At
2 : A At
: C At
Therefore,
θ θ θ θ θ θ
θ θ θ
θ θ
= + = + =
= =
=
B
A
C
(2)
(3)
16
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 3 (cont’d)
– The internal work absorbed by the hinges
is equal the sum of plastic moments M
n
at
each plastic hinge times the angle through
which it works.
– Note that in example, we have three plastic
hinges at points A, B, and C of the
mechanism. Also there is no real hinge.
– Also note that the external work is
calculated using δ and not δ
avg
. because of
the concentrated load P
n
in that location.
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 3 (cont’d)
– Applying Eq. 1 (conservation of energy),
yield a relationship between P
n
and M
n
as
follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n n
n n n n
M
L
P
M M M P
W W
1 1
1 1 1
int. ext.
6
3
2
3 2

work Internal work External
θ θ
θ θ θ δ
=






+ + =
=
=
Left
A
Middle
B
Right
C
2 Eq. from
3
2
1
θ δ
L
=
17
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Example 3 (cont’d)
– Therefore,
– For 30-ft span, the plastic limit load P
n
is
computed as
L
M
P
M
L
P
n
n
n n
9
6
3
2
=
= 





n
n n
n
M
M
L
M
P 3 . 0
30
9 9
= = =
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Complex Structures
– If a structure (beam) has more than one
distributed or concentrated loads, there
would be different ways in which this
structure will collapse.
– To illustrate this, consider the propped
beam of Fig. 4.
– The virtual-work method can be applied to
this beam with various collapse
mechanisms.
18
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Complex Structures (cont’d)
ft 30 = L
n
P
ft 10
n
P 6 . 0
ft 10 ft 10
Figure 4
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Complex Structures (cont’d)
– The beam with its two concentrated loads
is shown in Fig. 5 together with four
possible collapse mechanisms and the
necessary calculations.
– It is true that the mechanisms of parts (a),
(c), and (d) of Fig. 5 do not control, but
such a fact is not obvious for those taking
an introductory course in plastic analysis.
– Therefore, it is necessary to consider all
cases.
19
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Figure 5a. Various Cases of Collapse Mechanism
ft 30 = L
n
P
ft 10
n
P 6 . 0
ft 10 ft 10
θ 2
θ 3
θ 20
θ 10
θ
( ) ( ) ( )
n n
n n
n n n
M P
P M
P P M
227 . 0
4 . 4
10 20 6 . 0 5
=
=
+ = θ θ θ
Real hinge
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Figure 5b. Various Cases of Collapse Mechanism
ft 30 = L
n
P
ft 10
n
P 6 . 0
ft 10 ft 10
θ
θ 3
θ 10
θ 20
θ 2
( ) ( ) ( )
n n
n n
n n n
M P
P M
P P M
154 . 0
5 . 6
20 10 6 . 0 4
=
=
+ = θ θ θ
Real hinge
Controls
Controls
20
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 38
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Figure 5c. Various Cases of Collapse Mechanism
ft 30 = L
n
P
ft 10
n
P 6 . 0
ft 10 ft 10
θ
θ 2
θ 10
θ
( ) ( )
n n
n n
n n
M P
P M
P M
3 . 0
33 . 3
10 3
=
=
= θ θ
Real hinge
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 39
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Figure 5d. Various Cases of Collapse Mechanism
ft 30 = L
n
P
ft 10
n
P 6 . 0
ft 10 ft 10
θ
θ
θ 10
θ
( ) ( ) ( )
n n
n n
n n n
M P
P M
P P M
1875 . 0
33 . 5
10 10 6 . 0 3
=
=
+ = θ θ θ
Real hinge
θ 10
θ
21
CHAPTER 8c. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 40
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Plastic Analysis of Structure
Complex Structures (cont’d)
– The value for which the collapse load P
n
is
the smallest in terms of M
n
is the correct
value.
– or the value where M
n
is the greatest in
terms of P
n
.
– For this beam, the second plastic hinge
forms at the concentrated load P
n
, and P
n
equals 0.154 M
n
.
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
8d
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
INTRODUCTION TO
BEAMS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
Location of Plastic Hinge
– For a uniformly loaded fixed-end beam
shown in Fig. 1, the location of the plastic
hinge along the length of the beam is at the
midspan of the beam.
– This was concluded due to the fact that
beam is symmetrical in terms of both the
uniform loading and the end supports.
2
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 1. Uniformly Loaded Fixed-end Beam
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
ft 18 = L
(k/ft)
n
w
2
L
2
L
δ
θ θ
θ 2 Collapse Mechanism
L w
n
A
B
C
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
– For other beams with uniform loads, such
as propped or continuous beams, the
determination of the location of plastic
hinge may be rather difficult.
– For this reason, a value, expressed as
fraction of the length L, that determines the
location of the plastic hinge is needed for
the analysis of both the propped and
continuous beams.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
3
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
– Consider the propped beam of Fig. 2.
– The elastic moment diagram for this beam
is shown as the solid line in part (b) of the
figure.
– As the uniform load is increased in
magnitude, a plastic hinge will first form at
the fixed end.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 2. Propped Beam
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
L
( ) k/ft
n
w
x
n
M
n
M
(a)
(b)
4
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
– At this time the beam will, in effect, be a
“simple” beam with a plastic hinge on one
end and a real hinge on the other.
– Subsequent increases in the load will
cause the moment to change as
represented by the dashed line in part (b)
of Fig. 2.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
– The process will continue until the moment
at some other point (a distance x from the
right support in the figure) reaches M
n
and
create another plastic hinge.
– The virtual-work expression for the
collapse mechanism for the beam shown in
Fig. 3 is written as follows:
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
| | ( )( )
|
.
|

\
| −
+ + =
(
¸
(

¸

− θ θ θ θ
x
x L
M x L L w
n n
2
1

(1)
5
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 3.
Collapse
Mechanism
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
L
( ) k/ft
n
w
x
n
M
n
M
θ
( ) x L − θ
Real Hinge
1
α
2
α
θ α
x
x L −
=
1
θ θ
α θ α
x
x L −
+ =
+ =

1 2
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
Or
Solving for M
n
by taking the derivative of
M
n
with respect to x and equate it to zero,
that is
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
| | ( )( )
| | ( )( )
|
.
|

\
| −
+ +
(
¸
(

¸


=
(
¸
(

¸

− = |
.
|

\
| −
+ +
θ θ θ
θ
θ θ θ θ
x
x L
x L L w
M
x L L w
x
x L
M
n
n
n n
2
1

2
1

(2)
(3)
0 =
dx
dM
n
(4)
6
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Location of Plastic Hinge (cont’d)
– Solving for x, it can be shown that Eq. 4
yields a value of x as given by
– This value is applicable to uniformly loaded
end spans of both propped and continuous
beams with simple supports.
Location of Plastic Hinge for
Uniform Loadings
L x 414 . 0 =
(5)
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Continuous beams are very common in
engineering structures (Fig. 4).
They can be analyzed by both the
elastic and the plastic theories.
However, the plastic analysis can be
more complicated.
Plastic analysis can be applied to
continuous beams as it is to one-span
beams.
7
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Figure 4. Continuous Beams
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
The resulting values definitely give a
more realistic picture of the limiting
strength of a structure than can be
obtained by elastic analysis.
Continuous statically indeterminate
beams can be handled by virtual-work
method as they were for single-span
statically indeterminate beams.
8
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Virtual-Work Method for Continuous
Beams
– For each span of the continuous beams,
virtual-work expressions are written
separately.
– From the resulting expressions, it is
possible to determine the limiting or
maximum loads that the beams can
support.
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1
A W18 × 55 (Z
x
= 112 in
3
) has been
selected for the beam shown in the figure.
Using 50 ksi steel and assuming full lateral
support, determine the value of w
n
.
( ) k/ft
n
w
ft 30 ft 24
9
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (cont’d)
– The nominal (plastic) moment of the beam
is calculated first:
– The virtual-work expressions are written
separately for each span of the continuous
beams.
– The collapse mechanisms for the two
spans are drawn as shown in Fig. 5b.
( )
k - ft 7 . 466
12
112 50
= = = Z F M
y n
(6)
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (cont’d)
( ) k/ft
n
w
ft 30 ft 24
1
δ
θ θ θ
θ 2
2
δ
α
Figure 5
(a)
(b)
θ α +
ft 15 ft 15
x
x - ft 24
Real hinge
10
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (cont’d)
Calculation of rotation angles:
Using Eq. 4, the location of the plastic hinge for
the left span is
• From the triangle of the right span:
• From the triangle of the left span:
( ) ft 94 . 9 24 414 . 0 414 . 0 = = = L x
θ δ
δ
θ θ 15
15
tan
1
1
= ⇒ = ≈
ft 06 . 14 94 . 9 24 24 = − = − x
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (cont’d)
• Also
• Therefore,
– Virtual-work applied to right span:
θ δ
δ
θ θ 06 . 14
06 . 14
tan
2
2
= ⇒ = ≈
θ
θ δ
α α 414 . 1
94 . 9
06 . 14
94 . 9
tan
2
= = = ≈
int. ext.

work Internal work External
W W =
=
11
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 1 (cont’d)
– Virtual-work applied to left span:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
ft
k
30 . 8 7 . 466 01778 . 0 01778 . 0
15 30
4 2
4 15
2
1
30
2
avg 1 1
= = = = ∴
= |
.
|

\
|
× ×
+ + = ×
n
n
n
n n
n n
M
M
w
M w
M L w
θ θ
θ θ θ δ
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
ft
k
44 . 9 7 . 466 02023 . 0 02023 . 0 . 0
06 . 14 24
414 . 3 2
414 . 1 06 . 14
2
1
24
avg 2 2
= = = = ∴
+ + = |
.
|

\
|
× ×
+ + = ×
n
n
n
n n
n n
M
M
w
M w
M L w
θ θ θ θ
θ θ α δ
Controls
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2
Using a W21 × 44 (Z
x
= 95.4 in
3
) consisting
of A992 steel, determine the value of P
n
for
the beam shown.
n
P
n
P 5 . 1
n
P
ft 30 ft 30 ft 30
ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15
12
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2 (cont’d)
Collapse Mechanisms:
n
P
n
P 5 . 1
n
P
ft 30 ft 30 ft 30
ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15 ft 15
θ 15 θ 15 θ 15
θ 2 θ 2 θ 2
θ θ θ θ θ θ
Figure 6
(a)
(b)
Real hinge
Real hinge
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2 (cont’d)
– The nominal (plastic) moment of the beam
is calculated first:
– The virtual-work expressions are written
separately for each span of the continuous
beams.
– The collapse mechanisms for the three
spans are drawn as shown in Fig. 6b.
( )
k - ft 5 . 397
12
4 . 95 50
= = = Z F M
y n
13
CHAPTER 8d. INTRODUCTION TO BEAMS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Continuous Beams
Example 2 (cont’d)
For the first and third spans:
For the center span:
( ) ( )
( )
( ) kips 5 . 79 5 . 397 2 . 0 2 . 0
15
3
2 15
int. ext.
= = = =
+ =
=
n
n
n
n n
M
M
P
M P
W W
θ θ θ
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) kips 7 . 70 5 . 397 1778 . 0 1778 . 0
15 5 . 1
4
2 15 5 . 1
int. ext.
= = = =
+ + =
=
n
n
n
n n
M
M
P
M P
W W
θ θ θ θ
Controls
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
9a
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR
MOMENTS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
A fairly long, simply supported beam
can be subjected to gravity transverse
loading.
Due to the application of this loading,
the beam will bend downward, and its
upper part will be placed in compression
and will act as a compression member.
The cross section of this “column” will
consist of the portion of the cross
section above the neutral axis.
2
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Figure 1. Deformation of Beam due to
Lateral Loading
w
P
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Figure 2. Distribution of Normal Stress
in a Beam Cross Section
x
y
P
w
R
F
C
F
T
V
r
c
y
dy dA
Neutral axis
Figure 9
c
This part acts as a
compression member
3
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
For the usual beam the “column” will
have a much smaller moment of inertia
about its y or vertical axis than its x or
horizontal axis.
If its y axis is not braced perpendicularly,
it will buckle laterally at a much smaller
load than would otherwise have been
required to produce a vertical failure.
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Lateral Buckling of Beams
– Lateral buckling will not occur if the compression
flange is braced laterally or if twisting of the
beam is prevented at frequent intervals.
– Types of beams with respect to lateral buckling:
1. The beams can be assumed to have continuous
lateral bracing for their compression flanges.
2. Next, the beams can be assumed to be braced
laterally at short intervals.
3. Finally, the beams can be braced laterally at larger
intervals.
4
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Lateral Buckling of Beams (cont’d)
– Fig. 3 shows that beams have three
distinct ranges or zones of behavior
depending on their lateral bracing situation:
• Zone 1: closely spaced lateral bracing, beams
fail plastically.
• Zone 2: moderate unbraced lengths, beams fail
inelastically.
• Zone 3: Larger unbraced lengths, beams fail
elastically
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction
Figure 3. M
n
as a function of L
b
Plastic
Behavior-full
Plastic moment
(Zone 1)
Inelastic
buckling
(Zone 2)
Elastic
buckling
(Zone 3)
p
L
r
L
pd
L
M
n
L
b
(laterally unbraced length of compression flange
5
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Yielding Behavior- Full Plastic
Moment, Zone 1
LRFD Specification
– The full plastic moment M
p
(or M
n
) is limited
to a value of 1.5 M
y
.
– If L
b
of the compression flange of a
compact I- or C-shaped section does not
exceed L
p
(for elastic analysis) or L
pd
(for
plastic analysis), then the member bending
strength about its major axis (e.g., x) may
be determined as follows:
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification (cont’d)
– When elastic analysis is used, L
b
may not
exceed the value L
p
to follow if M
n
is to
equal F
y
Z:
Yielding Behavior- Full Plastic
Moment, Zone 1
90 . 0 with
5 . 1
= =
≤ = =
b n b u
y y p n
M M
M Z F M M
φ φ
(1)
yf
y p
F
E
r L 76 . 1 =
(2)
6
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification (cont’d)
– For solid rectangular bars and box beams
with A = cross-sectional area (in
2
) and J =
torsional constant (in
4
), L
b
may not exceed
the value L
p
to follow if M
n
is to equal F
y
Z:
Yielding Behavior- Full Plastic
Moment, Zone 1
JA
M
E r
L
p
y
p
13 . 0
= (3)
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification (cont’d)
– When plastic analysis is used to
established member forces for symmetric
I-shaped members with compression
flanges larger than their tension flanges
loaded in the plane of the web, L
b
may not
exceed the value L
pd
to follow if M
n
is to
equal F
y
Z:
Yielding Behavior- Full Plastic
Moment, Zone 1
y
y
pd
r
F
E
M
M
L
|
|
.
|

\
|
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
2
1
076 . 0 12 . 0 (4)
7
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
– In Eq. 4, M
1
is the smaller moment at the
end of the unbraced length of the beam
and M
2
is the larger moment at the end of
the unbraced length.
– The ratio M
1
/ M
2
is positive when the
moments cause the member to be bent in
double curvature and negative if they bend
it in single curvature.
– According to LRFD, only steels with F
y
value of 65 ksi or less may be considered.
Yielding Behavior- Full Plastic
Moment, Zone 1
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Beams are generally designed so that
they will provide sufficient design
moment capacities φM
n
and checked
to see if any of the following items are
critical:
1. Shear
2. Deflections
3. Crippling
4. Lateral bracing for compression flanges
5. Fatigue
8
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
The factored moment will be computed,
and a section having that much design
moment capacity will be initially
selected from the LRFD Manual.
Table 5-3 of the Manual, entitled “W-
Shaped Selection by Z
x
can be used.
From this table, steel shapes having
sufficient plastic moduli to resist certain
moments can quickly be selected.
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Two items to be considered when
using the LRFD table in selecting
shapes:
1. Steel sections cost so many cents per
pound and it is therefore desirable to
select the lightest possible shape having
the required plastic modulus. The table
has sections arranged in various groups
having certain ranges of plastic moduli.
The heavily typed section at the top of
each group is the lightest in that group.
9
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
2. The plastic moduli values in the table are
given about the horizontal axes for
beams in their upright positions. If a
beam is to be turned on its side, the
proper plastic modulus can be found in
Table 5-3 of the Manual or LRFD tables
giving dimensions and properties of
shapes in Part 1 of the LRFD Manual. A
W shape turned on its side may only be
10 to 30 percent as strong as one in the
upright position when subjected to gravity
loads.
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Beam Weight Estimates
– Beam design should include the weight of
the beam.
– However, because this information is not
possibly available before the design, a
simple procedure or method for
estimating the beam weight should be
used.
– This method involves:
1. calculating the maximum factored bending
moment M
u
.
10
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
2. Select a section from LRFD Table 5-3.
3. Then, the weight of that section or a little bit
more (since the beam’s weight will increase
the moment somewhat) can be used as the
estimated beam weight.
4. Finally, this estimated load can be added to
the external dead load acting on the beam.
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Example 1
Select a beam section for the span and
loading shown in the figure, assuming full
lateral support is provided for the
compression flange by the floor slab above
(that is L
b
= 0) and F
y
= 50 ksi.
ft 21
D = 1 k/f (not including beam weight)
L = 3 k/f
11
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Example 1 (cont’d)
Beam weight estimate:
Referring to Table 5-3 in Part 5 of the
LRFD Manual, a W21 × 44 (Z
x
= 95.8 in
3
)
is the lightest section available.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
3
required
2 2
in 2 . 88 12
50 90 . 0
75 . 330
Z
kips - ft 75 . 330
8
21 6
8
ft
kips
0 . 6 0 . 3 6 . 1 0 . 1 2 . 1 excluded weight beam
= ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= = =
= + =
y t
u
u
u
u
F
M
L w
M
w
φ
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1 (cont’d)
Assume beam weight = 44 lb/ft, therefore
the design distributed load w
u
will be
revised as follows:
Therefore,
USE W21 × 44 with F
y
= 50 ksi
Design of Beams, Zone 1
( ) ( )
( )
( )
3 3
required
2 2
in 8 . 95 in 88.9 12
50 90 . 0
5 . 333
kips - ft 5 . 333
8
21 05 . 6
8
ft
kips
05 . 6 3 6 . 1 044 . 1 2 . 1
= < = ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
= + =
Z Z
L w
M
w
u
u
u
OK
12
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Example 2
The 5-in reinforced-concrete slab shown in
the figure is to be supported with steel W
sections 8 ft 0 in on centers. The beams,
which will span 20 ft, are assumed to be
simply supported. If the concrete slab is
designed to support a live load of 100 psf,
determine the lightest steel section
required to support the slab. It is assumed
that the compression flange of the beam
will be fully supported laterally by the
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Example 2 (cont’d)
concrete slab. The concrete weighs 150
lb/ft
3
, and F
y
= 50 ksi.
ft 8 ft 8 ft 8 ft 8
in 5
Span = 20 ft
Span = 20 ft
13
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Example 2 (cont’d)
( )
kips - ft 3 . 95
8
20 906 . 1
8
2 2
= = =
L w
M
u
u
S
p
a
n
o
f
B
e
a
m
=
2
0
i
n
.
w
u
20 in.
8

f
t
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Example 2 (cont’d)
Calculation of Dead and Live Loads:
Initial design excluding beam weight:
( )( )
( )
ft
kips
8 . 0
ft
lb
800 8 100 load live
ft
kips
5 . 0
ft
lb
500 150 1 8
12
5
weight slab
= = =
= = × |
.
|

\
|
=
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
3
required
2 2
in 07 . 25 12
50 90 . 0
0 . 94
Z
kips - ft 0 . 94
8
20 88 . 1
8
ft
kips
88 . 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 5 . 0 2 . 1 excluded weight beam
= ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= = =
= + =
y t
u
u
u
u
F
M
L w
M
w
φ
14
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 2 (cont’d)
Referring to Table 5-3 in Part 5 of the
LRFD Manual, a W10 × 22 (Z
x
= 26.0 in
3
)
is the lightest section available.
Assume beam weight = 44 lb/ft, therefore
the design distributed load w
u
will be
revised as follows:
Design of Beams, Zone 1
| | ( )
ft
kips
906 . 1 8 . 0 6 . 1 022 . 0 5 . 0 2 . 1 = + + =
u
w
CHAPTER 9a. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Design of Beams, Zone 1
Example 2 (cont’d)
Therefore,
USE W10 × 22 with F
y
= 50 ksi
( )
( )
3 3
required
2 2
in 0 . 26 in 25.4 12
50 90 . 0
3 . 95
kips - ft 3 . 95
8
20 906 . 1
8
= < = ×
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= = =
Z Z
L w
M
u
u
OK
1
• A. J. Clark School of Engineering •Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Third Edition
CHAPTER
9b
Structural Steel Design
LRFD Method
ENCE 355 - Introduction to Structural Design
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Maryland, College Park
DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR
MOMENTS
Part II – Structural Steel Design and Analysis
FALL 2002
By
Dr . Ibrahim. Assakkaf
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 1
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Lateral Support of Beams
Most beams are designed in such a way
that their flanges are restrained against
lateral buckling.
The upper flanges of beams used to
support concrete building and bridge
floors are often incorporated in these
concrete floors.
Therefore, these type of beams fall into
Zone 1.
2
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 2
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Lateral Support of Beams
If the compression flange of a beam is
without lateral support for some
distance, it will have a stress distribution
similar to that of columns.
When the compression flange of a
beam is long enough and slender
enough, it may buckle unless lateral
support is provided
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 3
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Lateral Support of Beams
Twisting or Torsion of Beams
– When the compression flange begin to
buckle, twisting or torsion will occur, and
the smaller the torsional strength of the
beam the more rapid will be the failure.
– Standard shapes such as W, S, and
channels used for beam sections do not
have a great deal of resistance to lateral
buckling and the resulting torsion.
– Some other shapes, notably the built-up
box shapes are tremendously stronger.
3
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 4
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Lateral Support of Beams
Lateral Support not Provided by Slab
– Should lateral support of the compression
flange not be provided by a floor slab, it is
possible that such support my be provided
with connecting beams or with special
members inserted for that purpose.
– Depending on the spacing of the support,
the beam will fall into Zones 1, 2, or 3.
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 5
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
Inelastic buckling can occur when the
bracing is insufficient to permit the
member to develop and reach a full
plastic strain distribution before buckling
occurs.
Because of the presence of residual
stresses, yielding will begin in a section
at applied stresses equal to
r y
F F −
(1)
4
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 6
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
In Eq. 1, F
y
= yield stress of the web,
and F
r
= compressive residual stress,
and assumed equal to 10 ksi for rolled
shapes and 16.5 ksi for welded shapes.
When a constant moment occurs along
the unbraced length L
b
of a compact I-
or C-shaped section and L
b
is larger
than L
p
, the beam will fail inelastically
unless L
b
is greater than a distance L
r
.
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 7
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
Lateral Buckling of Beams
– Fig. 1 shows that beams have three
distinct ranges or zones of behavior
depending on their lateral bracing situation:
• Zone 1: closely spaced lateral bracing, beams
fail plastically.
• Zone 2: moderate unbraced lengths, beams fail
inelastically.
• Zone 3: Larger unbraced lengths, beams fail
elastically
5
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 8
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
Plastic
Behavior-full
Plastic moment
(Zone 1)
Inelastic
buckling
(Zone 2)
Elastic
buckling
(Zone 3)
p
L
r
L
pd
L
M
n
L
b
(laterally unbraced length of compression flange)
Figure 1. M
n
as a function of L
b
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 9
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Coefficients
– A moment coefficient, designated by C
b
, is
included in design formulas to account for
the effect of different moment gradients on
lateral-torsional buckling.
– The use of this coefficient is to take into
account the effect of the end restraint and
loading condition of the member on lateral
buckling.
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
6
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 10
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Coefficients (cont’d)
– In Fig 2a, the moment in the unbraced beam
causes a worse compression flange
situation than does the moment in the
unbraced beam of Fig. 2b.
– For one reason, the upper flange in Fig. 2a
is in compression for its entire length, while
in Fig. 2b the length of the “column”, that is
the length of the upper flange that is in
compression is much less (shorter column).
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 11
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Coefficients (cont’d)
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
L
Length of upper
Flange “column”
(b) Double curvature
L
Length of upper
Flange “column”
(a) Single curvature
8
2
L w
u
24
2
L w
u
12
2
L w
u
12
2
L w
u
u
w
u
w
Figure 2
14 . 1 =
b
C 38 . 2 =
b
C
7
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 12
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Bending Coefficients (cont’d)
– Values of C
b
:
• For the simply supported beam of Fig .2a:
C
b
= 1.14
• For the fixed-end beam of Fig. 2b:
C
b
= 2.38
– The basic moment capacity equations for
Zones 2 and 3 were developed for laterally
unbraced beams subjected to single
curvature with
C
b
= 1.0
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 13
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification
– LRFD Specification provides moment or C
b
coefficients larger than 1.0 which are to be
multiplied by the computed M
n
values.
– The results are higher moment capacities.
– The value of C
b
= 1.0 is a conservative value.
– In should be noted that that value obtained
by multiplying M
n
by C
b
may not be larger
than the plastic moment M
p
of Zone 1, which
is equal to F
y
Z.
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
8
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 14
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification
The Manual provides an equation for
calculating the coefficient C
b
as follows:
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
C B A
b
M M M M
M
C
3 4 3 5 . 2
5 . 12
max
max
+ + +
=
(2)
M
max
= largest moment in unbraced segment of a beam
M
A
= moment at the ¼ point
M
B
= moment at the ½ point
M
C
= moment at the ¾ point
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 15
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
LRFD Specification
– C
b
= 1.0 for cantilevers or overhangs where
the free end is unbraced.
– Some special values of C
b
calculated with
Eq. 2 are shown in Fig. 3 for various beam
moment situations.
– Most of these values are also given in
Table 5.1 of the LRFD Manual
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
9
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 16
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Figure 3a
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
( ) k/ft
u
w
14 . 1 =
b
C
( ) k/ft
u
w
30 . 1 =
b
C
2 / L 2 / L
u
P
32 . 1 =
b
C
2 / L 2 / L
u
P
67 . 1 =
b
C
2 / L 2 / L
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 17
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
Figure 3b
u
P
0 . 1 =
b
C
( ) k/ft
u
w
varies
b
C
u
P
2 / L 2 / L
u
P
67 . 1 section End
0 . 1 Midsection
=
=
b
b
C
C
3 / L 3 / L
u
P
3 / L
u
P
67 . 1 sections end For two
11 . 1 sections center For two
=
=
b
b
C
C
4 / L
u
P
4 / L
u
P
4 / L 4 / L
10
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 18
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
Figure 3c
2.27 =
b
C
1
M
1
M
( ) k/ft
u
w
38 . 2 =
b
C
( ) k/ft
u
w
38 . 2 =
b
C
2 / L 2 / L
u
P
92 . 1 =
b
C
2 / L 2 / L
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 19
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Introduction to Inelastic
Buckling, Zone 2
Figure 3d
u
P
27 . 2 =
b
C
2 / L 2 / L
u
P
32 . 1 =
b
C
2 / L 2 / L
11
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 20
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
If the distance between points of
torsional bracing is increased beyond L
p
(see Fig. 1), the moment capacity of the
section will become smaller and
smaller.
Finally, at an unbraced length L
r
, the
section will buckle elastically as soon as
the yield stress is reached.
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 21
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Effect of Residual Stresses
– Due to the rolling operation on steel
shapes, there is residual stress in the
section equal to F
r
.
– Thus, the elastically computed stress
caused by bending can only reach F
y
– F
r
as given by Eq. 1. Assuming C
b
= 1, the
design moment for a compact I- or C –
shaped section may be determined as
follows if L
b
= L
r
:
( )
r y x b r b
F F S M − = φ φ (3)
12
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 22
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Provisions for Zone 2 Design by the LRFD
– If decrease the unbraced length L
b
from L
r
to
L
p
, buckling does not not occur when the yield
stress is first reached.
– This range between L
r
and L
p
is called Zone 2
and is illustrated in Fig. 1.
– For these cases, when the unbraced length
falls between L
r
and L
p
, the design moment
strength will fall approximately on a straight
line between
( )
r r y x b p y b n
L F F S L Z F M at and at − = φ φ φ
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 23
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Provisions for Zone 2 Design by the
LRFD
– For intermediate values of the unbraced
length, the moment capacity may be
determined by proportions or by
substituting into expressions.
– If C
b
is larger than 1.0, the section will
resist additional moment but not more than
p b y b
M Z F φ φ =
(4)
13
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 24
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Provisions for Zone 2 Design by the LRFD
The moment capacity can determined by the
following two expressions:
or
( ) | |
px b p b px b b nx b
M L L BF M C M φ φ φ ≤ − − =
( )
p
p r
p b
r p p b n
M
L L
L L
M M M C M ≤
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|


− − =
(5)
(6)
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 25
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Provisions for Zone 2 Design by the
LRFD
– In Eq. 5, BF is a factor given in LRFD
Table 5-3 for each section, which enables
us to do the proportioning with simple
formula.
– Note that in Eq. 6, after the moment M
n
has
been computed, it should be multiplied by
φ
b
to obtain φ
b
M
n
.
14
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 26
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Example 1
Determine the moment capacity of a W24 ×
62 with F
y
= 50 ksi if L
b
= 8.0 ft and C
b
=
1.0.
For F
y
= 50 ksi, the LRFD Table 5-3 (P. 5-46)
gives the following for W24 × 62:
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
kips 6 . 21
and ft, - kip 578
ft - kip 396
ft, 3 . 13 ft, 84 . 4
=
=
=
= =
BF
M
M
L L
p b
r b
r p
φ
φ
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 27
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Example 1 (cont’d)
( ) ( ) ( )
and 2, in Zone falls capacity moment The
3 . 13 0 . 8 4 8 . 4 Since ′ = < ′ = < ′ =
r b p
L L L
( ) | |
( ) | |
( ) | | 578 7 . 509 84 . 4 0 . 8 6 . 21 578 0 . 1 = ≤ = − − =
≤ − − =
≤ − − =
p b n b
p b p b p b b n b
px b p b px b b nx b
M M
M L L BF M C M
M L L BF M C M
φ φ
φ φ φ
φ φ φ
kip - ft 509.7 capacity moment The
Therefore,
=
Eq. 5
15
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 28
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Plastic
Behavior-full
Plastic moment
(Zone 1)
Inelastic
buckling
(Zone 2)
Elastic
buckling
(Zone 3)
ft 84 . 4
=
p
L
ft 3 . 13
=
r
L
pd
L
M
n
L
b
(laterally unbraced length of compression flange)
Figure 1. M
n
as a function of L
b
Example 1 (cont’d)
ft 0 . 8 =
b
L
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 29
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Example 2
Select the lightest available section for a
factored moment of 290 ft-kips if L
b
= 10.0
ft. Use 50 ksi steel and assume C
b
= 1.0.
Enter LRFD Table 5-3 (P. 5-47) and notice
that φ
b
M
p
for W18 × 40 is 294 ft-kip.
For this section:
kips 7 . 11
and ft, - kip 294
ft - kip 205
ft, 0 . 12 ft, 49 . 4
=
=
=
= =
BF
M
M
L L
p b
r b
r p
φ
φ
16
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 30
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Example 2 (cont’d)
( ) ( ) ( )
and 2, in Zone falls capacity moment The
0 . 12 0 . 10 9 4 . 4 Since ′ = < ′ = < ′ =
r b p
L L L
( ) | |
( ) | |
( ) | | 294 5 . 229 49 . 4 0 . 10 7 . 11 294 0 . 1 = ≤ = − − =
≤ − − =
≤ − − =
p b n b
p b p b p b b n b
px b p b px b b nx b
M M
M L L BF M C M
M L L BF M C M
φ φ
φ φ φ
φ φ φ
kip - ft 290 kip - ft 229 capacity moment The
Therefore,
= < =
u
M
NG
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 31
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Example 2 (cont’d)
Moving up in the table and after several
trials, try a W21 × 48 that has the following
properties:
kips 2 . 13
and ft, - kip 401
ft - kip 279
ft, 4 . 15 ft, 09 . 6
=
=
=
= =
BF
M
M
L L
p b
r b
r p
φ
φ
( ) ( ) ( )
and 2, in Zone falls capacity moment The
4 . 15 0 . 10 9 0 . 6 Since ′ = < ′ = < ′ =
r b p
L L L
17
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 32
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Moment Capacity, Zone 2
Example 2 (cont’d)
( ) | |
( ) | |
( ) | | 401 249 09 . 6 0 . 10 2 . 13 401 0 . 1 = ≤ = − − =
≤ − − =
≤ − − =
p b n b
p b p b p b b n b
px b p b px b b nx b
M M
M L L BF M C M
M L L BF M C M
φ φ
φ φ φ
φ φ φ
kip - ft 290 kip - ft 349 capacity moment The
Therefore,
= > =
u
M
OK
Hence, USE W21 × 48
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 33
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Buckling, Zone 3
When a beam is not fully braced, it may
fail due to buckling of the compression
portion of the cross section laterally
about the weak axis.
This will be accompanied also with
twisting of the entire cross section about
the beam’s longitudinal axis between
points of lateral bracing.
For the moment capacity to fall into
Zone 3, L
b
≥ L
r
18
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 34
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Buckling, Zone 3
Plastic
Behavior-full
Plastic moment
(Zone 1)
Inelastic
buckling
(Zone 2)
Elastic
buckling
(Zone 3)
p
L
r
L
pd
L
M
n
L
b
(laterally unbraced length of compression flange)
Figure 1. M
n
as a function of L
b
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 35
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Buckling, Zone 3
LRFD Specifications for Zone 3
The classic equation for determining the
flexural-torsional buckling moment is given
by
w y
b
y
b
b cr
C I
L
E
GJ EI
L
C M
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
π π
(7)
G = shear modulus of steel = 11,200 ksi
J = torsional constant (in
4
)
C
w
= warping constant (in
6
)
NOTE: These properties are provided in Tables 1.25 to 1.35
Of the LRFD Manual for rolled sections
19
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 36
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Buckling, Zone 3
Example 3
Compute φM
cr
for a W18 × 97 consisting of
50 ksi steel if the the unbraced length L
b
is
38 ft. Assume C
b
= 1.0.
For W18 × 97, Table 5-3 (P. 5-46) of the
Manual gives
kips 8 . 12
and ft, - kip 791
ft - kip 564
ft, 5 . 27 ft, 36 . 9
=
=
=
= =
BF
M
M
L L
p b
r b
r p
φ
φ
CHAPTER 9b. DESIGN OF BEAMS FOR MOMENTS
Slide No. 37
ENCE 355 ©Assakkaf
Elastic Buckling, Zone 3
Example 3 (cont’d)
( ) ( ) ( )
and 3, in Zone falls capacity moment The
8 3 5 . 27 6 3 . 9 Since ′ = < ′ = < ′ =
b r p
L L L
From Part 1 of the Manual, tables for torsion properties (P. 1-91):
6 4 4
in 800 , 15 and , in 86 . 5 , in 201 = = =
w y
C J I
( ) ( )( )( ) ( )( )
kip - ft 410 kip - in 9 . 916 , 4
800 , 15 201
12 38
10 29
86 . 5 200 , 11 201 10 29
38 12
1
7 Eq. using Therefore,
2
3
3
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
×
×
+ × |
.
|

\
|
×
=
π π
cr
M
Therefore, φ
b
M
cr
= 0.9 (410) = 369 ft-kip
From P.1-17

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