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Ministry of Health Protection of the Ukraine

Zaporozhye state medical university


Department of skin and venereal diseases

LESNITSKY A.I., KOVALYOVA T.D.

Anatomy, phtsiology & hystology of the skin.


Primary & secondary morphological elements

2007
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Fibrous
Substance

fatty tissue)
Hypodermis
(subcutaneous
Stratum
Amorphous papillare
Intestinal
Substance

Stratum
Cell reticulare
sskin

Elements

Germinatinne layer
Dermis
Skin

Stratum basale
the true skin

Prikle – cell layer


Stratum spinosum

Granular layer
Stratum granulosum

lucid layer
Stratum lucidum

Horny layer
Epidermis

Stratum corneum
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Fig.1. Structures of the skin.
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Epidermis
Layer consistence function
1.Stratum basale 1. keratinoblastis 1. young cells, are devided by mitosis, and form all the
(germinative layer) (1 layer, like a polisade). structures of epidermis.
2. Melanoblastis (their ratio is 2. Melanin is formed in the melanoblastis and protects the
1:11 to keratinoblastis). skin from ultraviolet rays.

2. Stratum spinosum 1. Dendritic epidermocytis 1. Cytoplasmatic dentricals akanthos provide the


(pricle-cell layer (5-7 layers) connection of cells with the other cells. Intercellular
2. Langhan’s cells fluid cerculates through these canals. This cells produce
3. Hrenstayin’s cells interleukins.
Immunological (protective) cells.

3. Stratum granulosum 1-2 layers of elongated cells. There The beginning of hornysation (keratinisation) but mitosis is
(granular layer) are keratohyalinis granuls in the present.
protoplasm of these cells.

4. Stratum lucidum These cells contain eleidin. Str. Protective function. This layers does not allow water mild
(lucid layer) lucidum contains glycogens, acid solution, alkalines, electrolites to penetrate in.
lipoids, fatty acids.

5. Stratum corneum It is composed of fine, anuclear Keratinisation take an active part in the skin protection from
(horny layer) keratinised elongated cells penetration into the it microorganisms and harmful
containing keratin. substanses.

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Dermis (the true skin)
Layer Consistence Function
I. Structural amorphous interstitial substance: Provides turgor, dencity, nutrition, sencitivity of
1. collagenous fibres the skin.
2. elastics fibres
3. argyrophile fibres
4. vessels
5. nerves an nerve endings

II. True homogeneous membrane Protection due to immunoglobulins. Normalization


Papillary and 1. Lipoids of the water level.
reticular layers 2. Mucopolysaccharides (mainly, hyaluronic and
chondroitin – sulfuric acids)
3. Albuminis
4. Water

III. Cells structure Collagen


1. Fibroblasts Formation, and immunity.
2. Histiocytes
3. Lymphocytes
4. Mast cells
5. Plasma cells
6. Melanophages
7. Epithelial appendages of the skin

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Inflammation

Acute Subacute Chronic

Exudation Proliferation Alteration

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Exudation

The escape of fluid and formed elements


from the vessels because of increased
permeability of the vascular walls

Vacuolar Status Ballooning


degeneration sprongioises degeneration
Necrobiotic and
(alteration cavities) degenerative
in which vacuoles forming In which the changes in the cells
in the protoplasm of the oedematous fluid of the malpighian
cells of the malpighian separates the layer is a
layer are arranged in the intercellular spaces of combination of
vicinity or around the the malpighian layer vacuolar
nucleus and displace into and ruptures the degeneration and
the periphery. intercellular bridges. status spongioides.
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Proliferation
is the multiplication of
tissue elements

Hyperkeratosis Parakeratosis Acanthosis Granulosis Hialinis


degeneration

The presence in the Is intensified by


The thickening horny layer of the proliferation оf
of the horny epidermis of cells the priclecell Is thickening
Presence of
layer without with stained rod – layer in the form of the granular
hialini in
changes in the shaped nuclei (the of progections layer of the
the cells
structure of the granylar and clear into the dermis epidermis
cells. layer are absent in to this or that
such cases). dept.

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Alteration
Is the manifestation of tissue damage
(dystrophy and necrosis
of the tissue elements)

Nucleolous reaction is
Acantholysis is degeneration of the cells
melting intercellular
epithelial bridges, the
impairment of firm
connections between
epithelial cells as the result
that cells are easily separated
and form more or less large
layers of the desquamating
epidermis. Such process is
observed in pemphigus.
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Secondary
syphilis erythema

Scarlet fever

inflammatory
rozeola
measles
vascular

Teleangiectasiae

fever
Non

Typhoid
Emotional
inflammatory

spots

ecchymosis petechiae
Spot

vasculitis
(macula)

Haemorrhagic

vibex purpura

Nevus, (mole) congenital


spots

sunburn
acquired
Hyperpigmental

chloasma
spots
Pigmental

freckle

congenital
albinism
spots

leucoderma
Hypopigmental

vitiligo acquired
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neurodermatitis hyperkeratosis

wart
inticular

epidermal

inflammation
psoriasis Parakeratosis

Mycosis
hyperkeratotive
form
layer

II siphilis

acanthosis
Infiltration
in a papillary

psoriasis
miliary

Lichen planus

eczema
dermal

syphilis
papula

neurodermatitis granulosis
nummular

Lichen planus
papilomatosis

Condiloma latum
Pointed
condiloma
Virus papiloma
Non

wart
psoriasis

Parakeratosis
inflammation
hypertrophic

Lichen planus

hyperkeratosis
epidermodermal

callosity
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Nodule
(nodus)

Is situated in the subcutaneous fat


(for infiltration and proliferation)

inflammation tumour Congestion


of calcium,
hydradenitis

tuberculosis

III syphilis
Vasculitis

leprosy
cholesterol

xanthomas
new growths
nodular

Benign and
malignant

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True pemphigus

Dyuring’s
dermatosis

Erythema
exudativum herpes
multiforme

Blister dermatosis
Toxicodermia
Vacuolar and ballooning degeneration

medicamentational

Blister dermatitis
Blister
(bulla)

Acantholysis
Vesicle (vesicula)

Blister forms
eczema

Lyell’s
necrolysis
Status spongioides

Blister forms
of the porphyria
cutanea tarda
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Pustule
(pustula)
Pustule Phlyctena

Staphyloccal impetigo Stretococcal impetigo


(connected with hair follicles) Tubercle
(tuberculum)

Infectionus
granuloma

leishmaniasis
Tuberculosis

III siphilis

leprozy
infiltration proliferation

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Wheal
(urtica)

Acute edema of dermis in the papillary skin layer

Urticaria hives, The bites of mosquito and


Nettle rash midge

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Skin as Skin is the
Protective an organ organ of
(barrier) of sense immunity
function of
the skin

Secretory and
excretory Skin Thermoregulatory
functions of the function of the skin
skin physiology

Respiratory Resorption Metabolic


function of function of function of
the skin the skin the skin

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Protect the
Protects the organism Physiology underlying
from the damaging desquamation tissue
effect of sun rays from drying

Homogeneous
tightness of substanal
protects from
mechanical effects Protective (barrier) Resistance to
electric current
(blows, friction, functions of the skin
compression)

An acid (pH5.0-6,0)
Bactericidal Immynological
water-lipid mantle
properties of function. Skin
which attenuatus or
sweat (lisocini) associated limphoid
neutralizis the
and sebum tissue. Salt
damaging effect of
(squaleni)
chemical substances.

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Langhan’s
cells
Hrenstayin’s
Keratinocytes T-lymphocytys
cells

Neutrophyle Mast cells


granulocytes tissue
Salt basophyly

Monocytes Vessels
tissue histiocytes endothelial cells

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