1.

Can you order the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 so that they make a number with t hese characteristics: it is divisible by 6 and when the final digit is removed it becomes a 5-figure number divisible by 5 and when the final digit is removed again it becomes a 4-figure number divisible by 4 and when this is repeated it becomes a 3-figure number divisible by 3 and when it is repeated again it becomes a 2-figure number divisible by 2? Of course when it is repeated for a last time it will naturally be 1-figure numb er divisible by 1. 2.The oranges all weigh 130 grams. The lemons are also all the same weight which is less than two thirds of the wei ght of an orange. There are twice as many lemons as oranges in the pile. How many lemons are there and how much does each one weigh? 3.5 pirates of different ages have a treasure of 100 gold coins. On their ship, they decide to split the coins using this scheme: The oldest pirate proposes how to share the coins, and all pirates remaining wil l vote for or against it. If 50% or more of the pirates vote for it, then the coins will be shared that wa y. Otherwise, the pirate proposing the scheme will be thrown overboard, and the process is repeated with the pirates that remain. Assuming that all 5 pirates are intelligent, rational, greedy, and do not wish t o die, (and are rather good at math for pirates) what will happen? (from Adam Wasserman) What is the degree of the highest exponent of K when you complete the operation: (K-A)(K-B)(K-C)...(K-Y)(K-Z) [solution]

(from Ilya Sharapov) Prove that for any integer n the number [(2+sqrt(3))n] is odd. ([x] is the integ er part of x) [solution]

b. there are two ones.2 kids. i. a1. are running on an escalator (a moving stairway). They travel as follows: the first one rides the bik e for some time. so a3=0.. the second one finds the bike and rides it until he overtakes the first one. there is one two.e. E. so that any subsegment J=[a. [solution] (from Bruno Haible) Prove that for any positive integer n.. 3 + 2 cos (2 k pi / n)) is a rational number. while a20 in the number of 20-ies i n it.g. John is r unning three times as fast as Jim. a0 is the number of zeros in the sequence. .b] of I would intersect A a nd I-A on sets of the same Lebesgue measure? (If you don't know what "Lebesgue m easure" is. [solution] . and by the time they are off the escalator. then drops it and continues walking in the same direction. . and there are no threes. an such that ak=#{j aj=k}. whil e the second follows him by foot. don't worry . I. Generalize..0] satisfies the condition: these is only one zero there..e. the finite product prod (1 <= k <= floor(n/2). Assuming that they walk with the same speed and bike faster than they wa lk.2. c and d and area S. John and Jim. Eventually. How many stairs does the escalator have? How is its speed related to the speed of the boys? Wer e they running with or against the escalator? [solution] Consider a sequence of n+1 integers a0. J ohn has stepped on 75 stairs while Jim has stepped on 50 stairs. the follow ing inequality holds: ac+bd >= S (when does the inequality turns into equality?) [solution] Prove that all rectangles circumscribed around a given ellipse have the same dia gonal. Describe all such sequences. Then he gives the bike to the first o ne etc.1. the sequence of length 4 [1.1] into two "uniformly same-size" subsets A and I-A. what is the speed of their travel? [solution] (from Eli Minkov) Prove that for any quadrilateral with sides a. [solution] 2 pedestrians have one bike.it's just a generalization of the ordinary length to " bad" sets). so a1=2. so a2=1.. [solution] Is it possible to split the unit segment I=[0. so a0=1.

3}. a graduate of my high school. and was advised that the problem is unsolvable. the lock open s and she can escape. then stops and she can try again.2 } and {4. in the Summer 1988 (3 years into "perestrojka"). He found his two tormenters and told them that the problem had n o solution. but each of the other two is okay. so his two examiners failed him. Restore the axe s with a compass and a ruler. determine their orientation and change it as s he wishes. The lady can put her two hands into the drum. each having a different speed. we will end up with 3 packets: {1}. He asked them to provide it. then the coordinate axes were erased.you never know. E.5. are going along a 1-lane road. You can ask one Yes-or-No quest ion to any one of the three computers. which alw ays answers any Yes-or-No question correctly." He said: "which on e of you does?" They looked at each other and changed his grade from failing to passing.. He went home and consulted a friend of his (a specialist on the matters related to the admission process). the drum rotates quickly for 1 min (so that she do es not know which spikes she touched).N cars. {5. This problem was given during the Moscow State University Faculty of Mechanics a nd Mathematics entrance oral mathematics examination to a Jew. which always answ ers any Yes-or-No question IN-correctly. which sometimes tell s the truth and sometimes lies . [solution] You are at a computer store which sells 3 computers: the Japanese one. [solution] Draw the tangent to a circle at a given point using only a ruler (no compass). with the "fast " cars tailgating the "slow" ones. Can she escape? How? [solution] A parabola y=x2 was drawn. [solution] A lady is locked in a dungeon. so no pass ing is possible. the cars will accumulate in packets. The lock is an ad vanced coded one: it has 4 oriented (top/bottom) spikes in a drum. If all 4 spikes end up the same direction (up or down).g. if the initial order was 1. he will cook and eat the lady. Wh at can you do? [solution] .4. Find the average number of packets as a function of N. after which you must buy any one of the t hree. while the vile monster went to get firewood. They said it did. arranged in a square and invisible. More problems with a similar history. of course. He s aid: "do you know the solution?" They said: "yes. When the monster is back in 15 min. not a consultation" (the usual answer to such a question).2. so he was admitted to the University. The guy could not do the problem in the 15-20 minutes allowed. They said "this is an appeal hearing. So the poor chap went back to appeal his failing grade (one could appeal on the day of the exam only). You don't want the Russian computer. 5 being the fastest). the Chinese one.3 (1 b eing the slowest. Eventually. If not. feel 2 of t he spikes (adjacent or diagonal). and a Russian one.

F and C cross together.e. [solution] You have two 4-minute fuses. and only two persons can cross the bridge at the same time. third. one half will not b urn for 2 minutes.You have 12 coins. find the spere passing through the two points which minimizes the area of its in tersection with the plane.you do not know that). fourth. to which you can attach your rope. They are not homogeneous. F carries the flashlight back again. i. The post office sells boxes of all siz es equipped with multiple latches. F and M cross. disregard the length of the rope you spend on knots. as well as locks and keys (you can duplicate keys. How can you send the valua ble diamond? [solution] . and a scales which ny two sets of coins. and y ou may not jump or fall. movi ng at the speed of the slower of the two. What is the fastest w ay for them to cross the bridge? The obvious solution is for F to always carry the flashlight back. so the recepient must have a key to open the box. F and G cross). Given a plane in the 3D space and 2 points on the different sides of the plane. then F c arries the flashlight back. the only way down is alo ng the flat wall with a single solid ring at midpoint (20 meters from both roof and ground).e. i. Father crosses the bridge in 1 minute.. and you can put more then one lock on the same box). You may use the scales 3 unterfeit and whether it is heavier or lighter [solution] (lighter or heavier than the othe lets you compare the weights of a times. one of which is counterfeit rs . [solution] A family of 4 is trying to cross a bridge at night. Can you do faster? It is alleged that this is the standard problem given at an interview at Microso ft.. finally. One needs a flashlight to cr oss the bridge. Child in 5 minutes and Granny in 10. FM+F+FC +F+FG which means 19 minutes (the notation means: first. The boxes cannot be b roken. Determine which coin is co than the true ones. and an unlocked box cannot be mailed. Can you measure a 3 minute interval with these 2 cords? [solution] You are on top of a 40 meter high building. A key cannot be sent ou tside of a box. Mother in 2 minutes. you have a 30 meter long rope. There are no windows or doors. Can you g et to the ground? [solution] You have to send a diamond over the mail. You can cut and tie the rope as much as you like.

Prove that C and D also meet where th eir lines intersect. all the animals attend except one . The first mathematician is then asked once again whether he can determine the tw . the first mathematician only knows the product and the seco nd only knows the sum of the two integers. some left. if you prefer. However. A and D. and he too answers no. The product of two integers >=2 is given to the first mathematician. he assumes tha t he turned the wrong way and turns around. [solution] (from Tanya Khovanova) Two people are playing heads and tails. Will the situation stabilize and how ? How long will it take? [solution] (from Boris Korsunsky) What is acceleration (or. but it is inhabited by crocodiles. and h e answers no. B and C. How do you put a giraffe into a refrigerator? How do you put an elephant into a refrigerator? The Lion King is hosting an animal conference. and then they try to c orrect their mistake: if a soldier sees the face of his neighbor. dropped from a significant height. one casts n coins. deceleration) of a tennis ball. The second mathematician is then asked whether he can determine the two numbers. Slug A meets B where their respective lines intersect. both are aware that the firs t knows the product and the second knows the sum of the two integers. How do you manage it? [solution] 4 slugs are moving along 4 straight lines at constant speeds. Hence.The following short quiz consists of 4 questions and tells whether you are quali fied to be a "manager". and the sum of the same two integers is given to th e second one. What is the probability that the second one will have (strictly) more heads than the first one? [solution] A row of freshly recruited soldiers is standing before a sergeant who gives a co mmand to turn right. The same hol ds for A and C. right after it bounced from the pavement? [solution] [added: 2000-07-05] (from Raffaello Giulietti) There are two mathematicians in a room. and there is no bridge. The first mathematician is asked whether he can determine the two numbers. None of the lines are parallel and no 3 of them pass through the same point (so called general con figuration). B and D. the other . Which animal does not attend? There is a river you must cross.n+1. Some soldiers turn right.

.o numbers and this time the answer is yes! What are these two numbers? [solution] [added: 2000-11-26] A couple is determined to have at least one son and at least one daughter. The cop has a weak flashlight .e.e. You have to find such a floor that the balls do not break when dropped fr om the floors below it. locks) all even lockers. If you drop su ch a ball from the a certain floor. how many lockers are open? [solution] [added: 2001-11-20] 3 dark corridors (of the same length) meet in a small room.e. The cop runs with speed 2 meters per secons.1) & (. Th e second kid touches (i. opens) each locker. What is the minimum number of drops you will have to m ake? [solution] [added: 2001-10-02] (from Sergey Kagan) There are 1000 lockers (all locked) and 1000 kids. What is the expected total number of children they will have? [solution] [added: 2001-09-28] You have two (2) identical glass balls and a 100-storey building. while the bum can only make one meter per second..m . ((m . What is the maximum corridor length for which the cop has a wi nning strategy against the bum? E. After the 1000th kid locks (or unlocks.g. it might break (obviously. light the corridors one after another and catch the bum. . if it breaks when dropped from the ith floor. if it was locked already) the locker number 1000. [solution] [added: 2002-05-23] (from Bruno Haible) For all integers numbers m.1)) + 1 == m & -m [solution] . but do break when dropped from it and floors above it. The third kid touches (i. Y ou may expend both balls.it lights only 1 meter of space. A cop is trying to c atch a bum there. The first kid touches (i. opens the locked ones and closes the unlocked ones) all lockers with number di visible by 3. who lock the unlocked lockers and unlock the locked ones. then the cop will stand in the room. 8. The fourth kid touches the lockers number 4. it will also break when dropped from all floors abo ve it. 12 etc. if all the corridors are just 1 meter.

e ither red or blue. What is the posterior pr obability that all balls in the urn are white? [solution] . the second knows the cap colors of the t hird through the last one etc.g..[added: 2002-07-02] (from TAOCP) Let X and Y be two independent. each scholar.. so that the even-numbered scholars will survive. Restore the center. they can agree that each odd-numbered scholar will say the cap color of th e next one. he is executed. but is it necessarily more likely to be positive than to be negative? [solution] [added: 2002-07-02] (from Mikhail Khmelnitskiy) A stupid king decided to eliminate his Academy of Sciences (as a cost-saving mea sure. identically distributed random variables with ze ro mean.. starting with the first on e. Can they do better than that? [solution] [added: 2005-07-26] (from Tanya Khovanova) A bum makes 1 cigarette out of 4 cigarette butts. What should the scholars do to minimize the casualties? E. on each scholar's head. [solution] [added: 2005-09-26] An urn contains N black and white balls. so that the first one knows the cap c olors of rest of them. Finally. and decided to do it as follows: all the scholars are put in one line. one after another. so that the first one sees everyone ahe ad of him (second through last). The scholars may agree in advance on what to d o. no foci. and we do not know how many balls of ea ch kind there is: Pr(#white=K)=1/(N+1) for K=0. Then he puts a dunce cap. He has 24 cigarette butts. th eir sum X+Y also has zero mean. The urn was sampled (with replacement) M times and every time the ball was while.. How many cigarettes can he smoke? [solution] [added: 2005-08-10] An ellipse without any markings (no center. no axes) is drawn. Obviously. after he slashed taxes).. foci and axes and draw the tangent to the ellipse though a given poi nt on (or off) it using a compass and a ruler. which are more likely to be positive than to be negative. is asked what color his cap is. while the second sees the third scholar through the last one. and the last one does not see anyone.N. and if his guess (which all the other scholar s hear) is wrong. but not his own.

*grin* [problem] (2-sqrt(3)) = 1/(2+sqrt(3)) < 1. How long will it take them all to fall off the bar ends? Assume that ants have zero size. [solution] [added: 2009-12-29] (from jourfixe) An equilateral triangle is inscribed in a right triangle so that one of its side s is parallel to the hypotenuse. Binomial(n.even! [problem] The answers are: the length is 100 stairs. Suppose there are countably infinitely many scolars. [solution] Notes and Answers to the Puzzles [problem] The polynomial has a term (K-K). Then everything except for the hypotenuse and t he vertexes on it are erased. an ant moving with a speed of 1 m/s.e. wi ll fall off one end in at most 1 second.[(n+1)/2]. Restore the full picture using a compass and a ruler. Prove that they have a winning strategy..[added: 2006-01-21] Placed on a 1 meter long horizontal bar.. and (2+sqrt(3))n + (2-sqrt(3))n = 2 * sum (k=0. Suppose 1000 ants are pl aced on the bar arbitrarily and start running in arbitrary directions. they both turn around and keep running with the same speed. They are asked all at once. When two ants run into each other.2k)*2(n-2k)*3k ) -. They win if only finitely many of them are wrong (alternatively: if either all are wrong or all are correct). the boys were running along the escalator which was moving with the same speed as the slow boy. they do not hear the answers of the others. i. so it's 0. Solution: i n the time the fast boy stepped on 75 stairs. the slow one could step on only 25 . and all of them can see all the others (except for oneself). [solution] [added: 2009-06-12] This is a ramification of a previous problem.

[problem] The answer: The only other examples are [2. This means that the diagonal is sqrt(Trace(A -1)) and thus is independent on the coordinate system... for N=1 the answer is 1. Another way is to use algebra (omitted) .0]. Th us MN=MN-1+1/N where MN is the N-the mean. This is because both wa lk and bike equal distances. he spent twice as much time on the escalator as th e fast one. there is one in N chance that it will be in front of the rest and this is the only way the number of packets can be increased.. i=1.a contradiction. It is also easy to cons truct such a set using so called "nonstandard analysis": just fix an infinite nu mber Z and take all numbers that have 1 in the Z-th place in their binary repres entation.0.0.+nan=n+1. As a function of this number. where vi=A-1ei/ sqrt((A-1ei.2. You might find useful the following relationships: a0+a1+.1. [problem] It is easy to prove that such a set would not be measurable: its indic ator function has an integral of 1/2 of the measure of the set it was integrated on.. [problem] Obviously.0]. this polynomial is closely related to the Tchebyshev polynomials.2. [problem] This product is actually a Fibonacci number. in wh ich A can be represented by a (symmetric) matrix.0. therefore the escalator's speed was the same as the speed of the slow boy.ei)) is the i-th point tangency of th e parallelepiped and the ellipsoid. The diagonal is sqrt(sum((vi.e i)2.0. since he stepped on 50. The easy way is to note that ab+cd >= S and flip one of the triangles into which the quadrilateral is split by its diagonal. This shows how drastically different nonstandard analysis is: to const ruct a non-measurable set.2.0. as well as the family [n-3.. Therefore MN=1+1/2+1/3+. [problem] An n-dimensional ellipsoid is a set {x (Ax. so.. the conventional analysis needs the full power of Zer melo's AC (Axiom of Choice).0. [problem] The hard way is to recall that.+an=n+1 and a1+2a2+3a3+. if l and m are diagonals.1. A circumscribed parallelepiped determines a coordinate system ei.. When we add one car which is faste r than anything we had before.n)).1.+1/N (which .x)=1} for some positive ope rator A. You can replace "3" with another integer and still get an integer product. [problem] The answer is: the harmonic average (the reciprocal of the arithmetic average of the reciprocals) of the walk and bike speeds. and he counted exactly half the stairs. ac+bd >= lm (equality iff the quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle) and lm >= S (equality iff the diagonals are orthogonal). Therefore his speed relative to the ground was half that of the fast boy. thus it is 1/2 almost everywhere ...0] and [2. with a similar recurrent relat ionship..

otherwise reverse both of them anyway . Move the tangent t to S at A to be the line at infinity. and she will have an 11-minute lead on the monster! The steps are like this: Turn up two diagonal spikes. reverse both of them and she is free. Grab two adjacent spikes. turn the down one up and she is free. and if the answer is "no". E.. if the answer is . Now she is either free or she has 3 up spikes and 1 down spike. Proof: as usual with ruler-only constructions. while the Chinese would lie about its false answer. Grab two diagonal spikes. If they are co-oriented.this is the standard double negation trick). Reverse two diagonal spikes .is approximately ln(N)). we can use an arbitrary projectiv e transformation to simplify the picture. If you are talking to a Russian computer. Then AH is tangent to S. If they are opposite. [problem] Yes. the point is A.she is free now! [problem] Parabola has a nice property: the midpoints of all parallel sections l ie on a line parallel to the axis. you get the correct answer (the Japanese w ould tell you the truth. If you are talking to an Ori ental computer (Japanese or Chinese). Let F be the intersec tion of AD and CE and G be the intersection of AC and BD. thu s giving you the truth . draw a lin e through their midpoints.now two adjacent are up and two are down. Note that the property in question was not part of the standard secondary school curriculum in the USSR. Choose 4 arbitrary points on S: B.e. it does not matter which one of the computers 2 and 3 to buy. you buy the computer number 3. then the midpoint perpendicular to that last section will be the y axis. C. There are 2 ideas here: you are not going to buy the computer you are talking to you ask a double negation question to nix the difference between the Japanese an d the Chinese computers From Charles Floyd: An alternative to the double negation question for this spec ific problem is to ask the computer number 1: "is the computer number 2 more lik ely to tell me the truth than the computer number 3?" and then. so if the answer is "yes". Turn up two adjacent spikes. Now S is a parabola and a simple algebraic exercise will show that EB ("shoulders") and FG ("waist") are parallel.now two diagonal spikes are up and two other diagonal spikes are down. i. while the line perpendic ular to it passing through its intersection with the parabola will be the x axis . you b uy the computer number 2. then a section perpendicular to it. and E. Draw the 5-pointed star through these 5 points. Let H be the intersect ion of EB ("shoulders") and FG ("waist"). [problem] You ask the computer number 1: "what would you answer me if I were to ask you whether the computer number 2 is Russian?". [problem] The circle is S. otherwise reverse one of them . So take any two parallel sections. so you can act as if the answe r were truthful too. that they intersect t at the same point.

We compare two of them and are done. otherwise the lighter of them is counterfeit. projecting the center of the sphere on the plane perpend icular to our plane and passing through the two points. we know whether the counterfeit is ligh ter or heavier than the genuine one and we have 3 coins. If one of them."yes" buy the computer number 3.. we could have detected it among 27 coins. T wo minutes later the first fuse will be spent and the second one will still have 2 minutes left in it. but the Chinese computer will lie and tell you that the Japanese is "less truthful" if you are talking to the Russian computer. w e compare the two remaining h's with each other and the heavier is counterfeit. we have to choose between the h f rom the first group and the two l's from the second group. we reduce the area. the h is counterfeit. we have 3 sets of coins. it does not matter which of the othe r two computers to buy [problem] Separate the 12 coins into 3 sets of 4 coins each and compare 2 of the sets. Let the line be l. the counterfeit is the 4th and we still have one more weighting to find out whether the counterfeit is lighter or heavier than t he genuine one.e. XK*KY = AK*KB = constant therefore XY = XK+KY is minimal when XK = KY. so t he problem is thus reduced to a planar one: given two points and a line separati ng them in a plane. If they are the same. points A and B and the line AB intersects the line l at the p oint K. while the circle intersects the line l at points X and Y. is heavier. [problem] First of all. If the first weighting revealed a discrepancy. Light it from the other (not-yet-burning) end. Indeed. the center of the circle is the intersection of the midpoint perpendicular to AB and the pe rpendicular to l at K. i. and that is what you want if you are talking to the Chinese computer. and if the answer is "no" buy the computer num ber 2: if you are talking to the Japanese computer. heavy and genuine. then the "less truthful" of the rema ining 2 computers is the Russian one. if we knew whether the coun terfeit coin is lighter or heavier. If they weigh different. Then. say the first one. 4 each: light. If they weigh the same. so 3 weightings should allow us to distinguish between 27 variants. Compare 2 groups: llh and llh. find the circle through these two points with the shortest i ntersection with the line. Th e way the problem us stated though. then the "less truthful" of the rem aining 2 computers is the Chinese one. Note that each weighting gives us 1 trit of information. one of which is counter feit. [problem] The trick is to send the slowest people together: FM+F+CG+M+FM is 17 m inutes. so we compare the two l's: is they are the same. If they are the same. One minute . [problem] Light the first fuse from both ends and the second one from one end. the counterfeit coin is in the last group of 4 and we compare 3 coins from this last group with any 3 coins from the other 8 genuin e ones. we could only distinguish between 24 variant s (1 out of 12 coins times 1 out of 2 heavies/lighter variants).

thus all 4 slugs remai n on the same line at all times. Assuming the locks are "padlocks". then send it to the recipient. [This tests your memory. Attach one end of the long piece to the ring and f the noose.] The Elephant .10m and 20m. [This tests your ability to think through the repercussions of your actions . [problem] If two slugs meet at the same point. around 90% of the professionals the y tested got all questions wrong. we see t hat the lines AC and BC must coincide (similarly. the line going through them alway s stays parallel to a certain direction. Andersen Consulting says this conclusively disproves the theory that most management consultants have the brains of a four year old. you open the box (it is locked only with your lock). slide the long the noose and fold it in half. Now you have a 20m composite rope. put in the elephant and close the d oor. Another solution (by Tanya Khovanova) is to consider the 3-dimensional space-tim e. put in the giraffe and close the door. send it to the recipient.] According to Andersen Consulting World Wide.later it will be spent. tie a bowline the short piece. there is another solution: lock an empty box. where the trajectories (world lines) of the slugs are straight lines. Therefore. You remov e your lock and mail the box again. to the midpoint. The con dition that two slugs meet means that the corresponding world lines intersect.] Open the refrigerator. [problem] Open the refrigerator. w hich implies that all 4 lines lie in the same plane. But many pre-schoolers got several correct ans wers.this is unfavorable regardless of the last coin of the 2nd person . he adds his lock so that it goes through one half of a latch and sends it back. putting your lock through the other latch and yo ur recipient's lock (so that the box is locked with the the chain of two locks). who opens the his lock and thus unlocks the box. [problem] The answer is 1/2. attach the other end to the roof. This problem is related to the private key encryption when the private keys comm ute. take out the giraffe. put the diamond in and lock it. The recipient loc ks the box he got from you with his own lock and sends it back to you. [This question tes ts whether you tend to do simple things in an overly complicated way.all the Crocodiles are attending the Animal Meeting! [This tes ts whether you learn quickly from your mistakes. the result can be 1st has more heads . since A and B meet. Together it makes three minutes. AD=BD).] You swim across . at one end of piece through enough to get slide it out o [problem] You put the diamond in the box. lock it and mail it.he is in the refrigerator. Now you have a 20m rope to go 20m down. [problem] Cut the rope in two pieces . thus they all intersect (si nce their projections on the spatial dimensions intersect). When they cast n coins each.

Therefore.2nd has more heads . 4) after the first mathematician answered no the first time. [problem] The answer is 3. [problem] As soon as the end soldiers turn outside. we observe that the two events. again. If we encode a left-looking soldier as 1 and a right-looking soldier as 0.5. Therefore it could not have been 7=3+4. Continue unt il you get above the top floor or you drop the first ball K times. thus induction shows that the situation will stabilize with the left-most k sold iers looking left and the right-most l soldiers looking right. it was moving at a constan t speed when it hit the ground. Since the ball was dropped from a significant height. [problem] The answer is 2 and 6.. It will take at m ost N-1 (N being the the number of soldiers) turns to stabilize.. this is a parallel sorting routine. The strategy is to drop the first ball from the K-th story. i. The average number of turns divided by N seems to be converging to about 0. you know that the answer is between 1 and K and you have t o use at most K-1 drops to find it out.e.6 from below. Since whenever two soldiers look at each other's faces they turn around. it is out. See the details. Since [1] and [2] have equal probabilities and [3] is split into two equal-proba bility groups. [problem] The answer is 14. if it breaks. i.then there is a 50:50 chance that th e last coin of the 2nd person would make the result favorable. he would have to be deciding between 3. If the second mathematician had 7=3+4. Since 10=2*5 has only one product decom position. so the number of soldiers wh o will be finally looking left (right) is the same as the number of soldiers who were looking left (right) initially. so the air resistance was the same but acting in the opposite direction. [problem] The answer is 2g (g=9. so the second mathematician would have known the answer (3. that the 2nd person has (strictly ) more heads than the 1st one and that the 1st one has at least as many heads as the 2nd one. they will never turn again. then. If the numbers were larger.this is favorable regardless of the last coin of the 2nd pe rson 1st and 2nd have the same number of heads . It the first ball does not break when dropped from the K-th floor. yo .81m/sec2 is the acceleration of the free fall). where at each step the neighboring unordered digi ts are transposed. if it breaks.e. thus K drops will be used. the maximum bei ng achieved in the N-1 cases when some left-most soldiers are looking right and the rest are looking left. you drop it again from the (K+K-1)-th floor. have equal probabilities. the resistance of the air at that speed wa s equal to the free fall acceleration. the total number of drops is K. you find the critical floor between K+1 a nd K+K-1 in K-2 drops.4 and 2. the negative answer of the seco nd mathematician would not have given enough information to the first. the num ber of soldiers looking left and right is constant. The smallest number with two permissible produc t decompositions is 12=2*6=3*4. After bouncing the ball was moving in the opposite direction with the same speed.

Similar logic works for the left hand side as well. when you take m & -m. Obviously.x0/ 2 = x0/2 + 1 = 2 (the cop inspected x0+1 meters of the corridor A. The next c annot be above 25 etc.1/q < 0. X=Y=1/p. is the square root of i). the only possible strategy is to drop the first ball with some "large " intervals and then drop the last ball with interval 1 inside the "large" inter val set by the two last drops of the first ball. which does not have to be bigger that 1/2 wh en p > 1/2. [problem] They can save all but one. [problem] The answer is no. Thus xn+1 = an+1 + 1 = (xn/2 + 1) + 1 = xn/2 + 2 which converges to 4. Since we know that the variables are more likely to be p ositive than to be negative.A and B . [problem] The answer is 31. we know that p > 1/2 > q. you get M. Now a1 = (x0+1) . thus.e. call i t M=M(m)=2r(m) where r(m) is the ruler function. if any. There fore. The number of full squares less than 1000 is (isqrt 1000) wh ich is 31.u have to choose K so that the total number of floors covered in K steps. the first one .. 13*14/2=91 -too small. 1 is replaced with 0 and 0 with 1) and 1 added. E. write m in binary. so he can be sure that the bum is still in B. when p=2/3. Now he has two corridors . namely.e. and the one they cannot save. the cop runs x1=a 1+1=3 meters into B and back in x1 seconds. then it ends with a 1 and some (possibly none) 0s (this 1 and these 0s are exac tly the binary representation of M). the bum could reclaim x0/2 meters). Th e cop runs x0=b0+1=2 meters into A and back in x0 seconds. but in x0/2 s econds that he ran back. The locker number i is accessed as many times as it has divisors. 14*15/2=105 -. In the corridor B.. but the cop is already in the room and he will see the bum . and the negative value -1/q with probability q=1p (thus the mean is 0). it ends with the same number of 0s as m (which should not be too surprising sin ce. full squares (since we have an involution on the set of divisors of i. obviously. [problem] Both sides are equal to the largest power of 2 which divides m. i.. To see this. E.enough. j --> i/j whose fixed point. M(-m)=M(m)). third and sixth kids.e.g. locker number 6 is accessed 4 times . thus the maximum corridor length is 5. P(X+Y>0) = 4/9 < 1/2. is greater that 100 (the total size of the building).an d he knows that the bum is farther than a0=1 in A and farther than b0=1 in B. written in Two's Complement. so b1=1. second. thus 1/p . which is K(k+1)/2. [problem] The answer is 5 meters. Thus the lockers which will be open are those whose number has an odd number of divisors.. is the sam e sequence inverted (i. Next.by the first. If you claim that you can finis h in 13 drops. the bum could make it to the room in b seconds and run into the "clean" corridor for another 1 meter. since then you won't be able to detect the critical floor 13. both variables must be positive. which happens with probability p*p. Now b2 = x1/2 + 1 = 5/2 and a2 = 1. -m. The cop can walk one of the corridors to the e nd and ensure that the bum is not there. for the sum X+Y to be positive.. you cannot drop the first ball for the first time from a floor ab ove 13.g. i. Consider the random variables that take the positive value 1/p with probability p.

.. smoke it.. For the triangle ABI we have the median IO .. approximately. then smoke it and have 1+2=3 butts. The locus of points T between X and Y such that the distance ZT is the harmon ic average of the distances ZX and ZY is the circle. [problem] Similar to parabola. Let foci be A and B. .Z]=-1 and if we project Z to infinity (this p reserves cross-ratio)..(1-k/N)M) so Pr=NM / sum(k=1. Pr=2(M+1)/(2N+M+1). cannot be saved with any tricks since he has no information at all.. This is because the cross-ratio [X. Thus. and return the butt Answer: 8 cigarettes. not make! He can make 6 cigarettes out of 24 cigarette butts.. make a cigarette. we can get the center O at the intersection of their centerlines. so. The circumscri bed circle for the triangle IJX thus intersects the longer axis at the foci A an d B. if the number is odd. the denominator is sum(k=0. then smoke them and have 6 cigarette butts..Y.N-1.. The numerator is 1. adds to the number of times the previous scholars (including the first one!) said red. A suitable circle centered at the center intersects ellipse at 4 points that det ermine the directions of the axes. the midpoints of all parallel sections lie on a line ("cent erline for these sections") though the center. then borrow 1 butt from a fellow bum. and.kM). this probability is approximately 2/3.. otherwise he says blue. The protoc ol is like this: the first scholar counts the red caps he sees and says red if t his number is odd. He meets his fate.. The tangent at an arbitrary point Z on the ellipse is the normal to the bisector of the angle AZB. and the line AB (the longe r axis). the bisector at I (the normal to the tangent at I). and the lines ZA and ZB are tangent to the ellipse. if M=N large. and blue if it is even.T. consider all the sections XY of the ellipse through Z. but the rest of th e scholars are saved: each one of them counts the red caps ahead of him. If Z is not on the ellipse. so by choosing two non-parallel s ections. [problem] This is a simple application of the Bayes formula: Pr(Urn has N White Sample has M White) = Pr(Sample has M white Urn has N White) / Pr(Sample has M white). then make 1 cigarette out of 4 butts and save 2 butts. T is projected to the midpoint between images of X and Y and the circle above is projected onto the centerline. that intersects the ellipse at two points A and B. [problem] The problem says smoke. The circumscribed circle for the triangle ABI must pass through the poi nt X of the intersection of the bisector with the shorter axis and though the po int J symmetric to I wrt the shorter axis (because the circle's center lies on t he center perpendicular to the side AB that is the shorter axis). he says red himself. its centerline. The denominator is N(M+1)/(M+1) + NM/2 + .N. Take a non-axis section. and a line parallel to the section thro ugh the intersection I of the section with the ellipse (it will be tangent to th e ellipse at I).

. we need to apply. To complete the proof. which follows from AG:GF=BH: HF. BD:CD=(AB*sin(BAD)):(AC*sin(CAD)) Proof: Compare areas of triangles ADB and ADC. Since each scholar sees all caps but his own. Draw the ray CF AD BE to the intersection F with the circle . . we need to show that GH AB. Points G=intersect(AF. [problem] The essential component of the proof is the Axiom of Choice. Let AB=CD=CE. Lemma: In a triangle ABC with point D on BC. [problem] Construction: given hypotenuse AB and a point C on it.that is the 3rd vertex of the right triangle.. he knows the equivalence class and can make the guess prescribed by the selected representative element. we can assume that they run independently. . BFC.[problem] Since the ants are indistinguishable for our purposes. Construct a circle on diameter AB. so we can factor the set of sequences by it and find a representative element in each. The scholars assume that t he image of the sequence is (say) 0 and guess their own hat accordingly. Placement of caps correspond to infinite sequences of 1s and 0s. The alternative problem: there is a homomorphism from the infinite sequences of 0s and 1s onto Z2 which extends the notion of parity.CE) are the missing vertexes of the equilateral triangle.. then AD BE and DE=AB. We call two suc h sequences similar if they differ only in a finite number of places...e. i. This means that in at most one second all ants will be gone. Draw rays CD and CE at angles PI/3 (60 degrees) between them and AB. This is an equivalence relationship. their actual behavior whe n they bump into each other (turn around) is equivalent to the ants passing thro ugh each other. To prove that. to triangles AFC. DEC.CD) and H=intersect(BF.