# 1.

Can you order the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 so that they make a number with t hese characteristics: it is divisible by 6 and when the final digit is removed it becomes a 5-figure number divisible by 5 and when the final digit is removed again it becomes a 4-figure number divisible by 4 and when this is repeated it becomes a 3-figure number divisible by 3 and when it is repeated again it becomes a 2-figure number divisible by 2? Of course when it is repeated for a last time it will naturally be 1-figure numb er divisible by 1. 2.The oranges all weigh 130 grams. The lemons are also all the same weight which is less than two thirds of the wei ght of an orange. There are twice as many lemons as oranges in the pile. How many lemons are there and how much does each one weigh? 3.5 pirates of different ages have a treasure of 100 gold coins. On their ship, they decide to split the coins using this scheme: The oldest pirate proposes how to share the coins, and all pirates remaining wil l vote for or against it. If 50% or more of the pirates vote for it, then the coins will be shared that wa y. Otherwise, the pirate proposing the scheme will be thrown overboard, and the process is repeated with the pirates that remain. Assuming that all 5 pirates are intelligent, rational, greedy, and do not wish t o die, (and are rather good at math for pirates) what will happen? (from Adam Wasserman) What is the degree of the highest exponent of K when you complete the operation: (K-A)(K-B)(K-C)...(K-Y)(K-Z) [solution]

(from Ilya Sharapov) Prove that for any integer n the number [(2+sqrt(3))n] is odd. ([x] is the integ er part of x) [solution]

b. there are two ones.2 kids. i. a1. are running on an escalator (a moving stairway). They travel as follows: the first one rides the bik e for some time. so a3=0.. the second one finds the bike and rides it until he overtakes the first one. there is one two.e. E. so that any subsegment J=[a. [solution] (from Bruno Haible) Prove that for any positive integer n.. 3 + 2 cos (2 k pi / n)) is a rational number. while a20 in the number of 20-ies i n it.g. John is r unning three times as fast as Jim. a0 is the number of zeros in the sequence. .b] of I would intersect A a nd I-A on sets of the same Lebesgue measure? (If you don't know what "Lebesgue m easure" is. [solution] . and by the time they are off the escalator. then drops it and continues walking in the same direction. . and there are no threes. an such that ak=#{j aj=k}. whil e the second follows him by foot. don't worry . I. Generalize..0] satisfies the condition: these is only one zero there..e. the finite product prod (1 <= k <= floor(n/2). Assuming that they walk with the same speed and bike faster than they wa lk.2. c and d and area S. John and Jim. Eventually. How many stairs does the escalator have? How is its speed related to the speed of the boys? Wer e they running with or against the escalator? [solution] Consider a sequence of n+1 integers a0. J ohn has stepped on 75 stairs while Jim has stepped on 50 stairs. the follow ing inequality holds: ac+bd >= S (when does the inequality turns into equality?) [solution] Prove that all rectangles circumscribed around a given ellipse have the same dia gonal. Describe all such sequences. Then he gives the bike to the first o ne etc.1. the sequence of length 4 [1.1] into two "uniformly same-size" subsets A and I-A. what is the speed of their travel? [solution] (from Eli Minkov) Prove that for any quadrilateral with sides a. [solution] 2 pedestrians have one bike.it's just a generalization of the ordinary length to " bad" sets). so a1=2. so a2=1.. [solution] Is it possible to split the unit segment I=[0. so a0=1.

F and C cross together.e. [solution] You have two 4-minute fuses. and only two persons can cross the bridge at the same time. third. one half will not b urn for 2 minutes.You have 12 coins. find the spere passing through the two points which minimizes the area of its in tersection with the plane.you do not know that). fourth. to which you can attach your rope. They are not homogeneous. F carries the flashlight back again. i. The post office sells boxes of all siz es equipped with multiple latches. F and M cross. disregard the length of the rope you spend on knots. as well as locks and keys (you can duplicate keys. How can you send the valua ble diamond? [solution] . and a scales which ny two sets of coins. and y ou may not jump or fall. movi ng at the speed of the slower of the two. What is the fastest w ay for them to cross the bridge? The obvious solution is for F to always carry the flashlight back. so the recepient must have a key to open the box. F and G cross). Given a plane in the 3D space and 2 points on the different sides of the plane. then F c arries the flashlight back. the only way down is alo ng the flat wall with a single solid ring at midpoint (20 meters from both roof and ground).e. i. Father crosses the bridge in 1 minute.. and you can put more then one lock on the same box). You may use the scales 3 unterfeit and whether it is heavier or lighter [solution] (lighter or heavier than the othe lets you compare the weights of a times. one of which is counterfeit rs . [solution] A family of 4 is trying to cross a bridge at night. Can you do faster? It is alleged that this is the standard problem given at an interview at Microso ft.. finally. One needs a flashlight to cr oss the bridge. Child in 5 minutes and Granny in 10. FM+F+FC +F+FG which means 19 minutes (the notation means: first. The boxes cannot be b roken. Determine which coin is co than the true ones. and an unlocked box cannot be mailed. Can you measure a 3 minute interval with these 2 cords? [solution] You are on top of a 40 meter high building. A key cannot be sent ou tside of a box. Mother in 2 minutes. you have a 30 meter long rope. There are no windows or doors. Can you g et to the ground? [solution] You have to send a diamond over the mail. You can cut and tie the rope as much as you like.

Prove that C and D also meet where th eir lines intersect. all the animals attend except one . The first mathematician is then asked once again whether he can determine the tw . the first mathematician only knows the product and the seco nd only knows the sum of the two integers. some left. if you prefer. However. A and D. and he too answers no. The product of two integers >=2 is given to the first mathematician. he assumes tha t he turned the wrong way and turns around. [solution] (from Tanya Khovanova) Two people are playing heads and tails. Will the situation stabilize and how ? How long will it take? [solution] (from Boris Korsunsky) What is acceleration (or. but it is inhabited by crocodiles. and h e answers no. B and C. How do you put a giraffe into a refrigerator? How do you put an elephant into a refrigerator? The Lion King is hosting an animal conference. and then they try to c orrect their mistake: if a soldier sees the face of his neighbor. dropped from a significant height. one casts n coins. deceleration) of a tennis ball. The second mathematician is then asked whether he can determine the two numbers. Slug A meets B where their respective lines intersect. both are aware that the firs t knows the product and the second knows the sum of the two integers. How do you manage it? [solution] 4 slugs are moving along 4 straight lines at constant speeds. Hence.The following short quiz consists of 4 questions and tells whether you are quali fied to be a "manager". and the sum of the same two integers is given to th e second one. What is the probability that the second one will have (strictly) more heads than the first one? [solution] A row of freshly recruited soldiers is standing before a sergeant who gives a co mmand to turn right. The same hol ds for A and C. right after it bounced from the pavement? [solution] [added: 2000-07-05] (from Raffaello Giulietti) There are two mathematicians in a room. and there is no bridge. The first mathematician is asked whether he can determine the two numbers. None of the lines are parallel and no 3 of them pass through the same point (so called general con figuration). B and D. the other . Which animal does not attend? There is a river you must cross.n+1. Some soldiers turn right.

.o numbers and this time the answer is yes! What are these two numbers? [solution] [added: 2000-11-26] A couple is determined to have at least one son and at least one daughter. The cop has a weak flashlight .e.e. You have to find such a floor that the balls do not break when dropped fr om the floors below it. locks) all even lockers. If you drop su ch a ball from the a certain floor. how many lockers are open? [solution] [added: 2001-11-20] 3 dark corridors (of the same length) meet in a small room.e. The cop runs with speed 2 meters per secons.1) & (. Th e second kid touches (i. opens) each locker. What is the minimum number of drops you will have to m ake? [solution] [added: 2001-10-02] (from Sergey Kagan) There are 1000 lockers (all locked) and 1000 kids. What is the expected total number of children they will have? [solution] [added: 2001-09-28] You have two (2) identical glass balls and a 100-storey building. while the bum can only make one meter per second..m . ((m . What is the maximum corridor length for which the cop has a wi nning strategy against the bum? E. After the 1000th kid locks (or unlocks.g. it might break (obviously. light the corridors one after another and catch the bum. . if it breaks when dropped from the ith floor. if it was locked already) the locker number 1000. [solution] [added: 2002-05-23] (from Bruno Haible) For all integers numbers m.1)) + 1 == m & -m [solution] . but do break when dropped from it and floors above it. The third kid touches (i. Y ou may expend both balls.it lights only 1 meter of space. A cop is trying to c atch a bum there. The first kid touches (i. opens the locked ones and closes the unlocked ones) all lockers with number di visible by 3. who lock the unlocked lockers and unlock the locked ones. then the cop will stand in the room. 8. The fourth kid touches the lockers number 4. it will also break when dropped from all floors abo ve it. 12 etc. if all the corridors are just 1 meter.

e ither red or blue. What is the posterior pr obability that all balls in the urn are white? [solution] . the second knows the cap colors of the t hird through the last one etc.g..[added: 2002-07-02] (from TAOCP) Let X and Y be two independent. each scholar.. so that the even-numbered scholars will survive. Restore the center. they can agree that each odd-numbered scholar will say the cap color of th e next one. he is executed. but is it necessarily more likely to be positive than to be negative? [solution] [added: 2002-07-02] (from Mikhail Khmelnitskiy) A stupid king decided to eliminate his Academy of Sciences (as a cost-saving mea sure. identically distributed random variables with ze ro mean.. starting with the first on e. Can they do better than that? [solution] [added: 2005-07-26] (from Tanya Khovanova) A bum makes 1 cigarette out of 4 cigarette butts. What should the scholars do to minimize the casualties? E. on each scholar's head. [solution] [added: 2005-09-26] An urn contains N black and white balls. so that the first one knows the cap c olors of rest of them. Finally. and decided to do it as follows: all the scholars are put in one line. one after another. so that the first one sees everyone ahe ad of him (second through last). The scholars may agree in advance on what to d o. no foci. and we do not know how many balls of ea ch kind there is: Pr(#white=K)=1/(N+1) for K=0. Then he puts a dunce cap. He has 24 cigarette butts. th eir sum X+Y also has zero mean. The urn was sampled (with replacement) M times and every time the ball was while.. How many cigarettes can he smoke? [solution] [added: 2005-08-10] An ellipse without any markings (no center. no axes) is drawn. Obviously. after he slashed taxes).. foci and axes and draw the tangent to the ellipse though a given poi nt on (or off) it using a compass and a ruler. which are more likely to be positive than to be negative. is asked what color his cap is. while the second sees the third scholar through the last one. and the last one does not see anyone.N. and if his guess (which all the other scholar s hear) is wrong. but not his own.

*grin* [problem] (2-sqrt(3)) = 1/(2+sqrt(3)) < 1. How long will it take them all to fall off the bar ends? Assume that ants have zero size. [solution] [added: 2009-12-29] (from jourfixe) An equilateral triangle is inscribed in a right triangle so that one of its side s is parallel to the hypotenuse. Binomial(n.even! [problem] The answers are: the length is 100 stairs. Suppose there are countably infinitely many scolars. [solution] Notes and Answers to the Puzzles [problem] The polynomial has a term (K-K). Then everything except for the hypotenuse and t he vertexes on it are erased. an ant moving with a speed of 1 m/s.e. wi ll fall off one end in at most 1 second.[(n+1)/2]. Restore the full picture using a compass and a ruler. Prove that they have a winning strategy..[added: 2006-01-21] Placed on a 1 meter long horizontal bar.. and (2+sqrt(3))n + (2-sqrt(3))n = 2 * sum (k=0. Suppose 1000 ants are pl aced on the bar arbitrarily and start running in arbitrary directions. they both turn around and keep running with the same speed. They are asked all at once. When two ants run into each other.2k)*2(n-2k)*3k ) -. They win if only finitely many of them are wrong (alternatively: if either all are wrong or all are correct). the boys were running along the escalator which was moving with the same speed as the slow boy. they do not hear the answers of the others. i. so it's 0. Solution: i n the time the fast boy stepped on 75 stairs. the slow one could step on only 25 . and all of them can see all the others (except for oneself). [solution] [added: 2009-06-12] This is a ramification of a previous problem.

[problem] The answer: The only other examples are [2. This means that the diagonal is sqrt(Trace(A -1)) and thus is independent on the coordinate system... for N=1 the answer is 1. Another way is to use algebra (omitted) .0]. Th us MN=MN-1+1/N where MN is the N-the mean. This is because both wa lk and bike equal distances. he spent twice as much time on the escalator as th e fast one. there is one in N chance that it will be in front of the rest and this is the only way the number of packets can be increased.. i=1.a contradiction. It is also easy to cons truct such a set using so called "nonstandard analysis": just fix an infinite nu mber Z and take all numbers that have 1 in the Z-th place in their binary repres entation.0.0.+nan=n+1. As a function of this number. where vi=A-1ei/ sqrt((A-1ei.2. You might find useful the following relationships: a0+a1+.1. [problem] It is easy to prove that such a set would not be measurable: its indic ator function has an integral of 1/2 of the measure of the set it was integrated on.. [problem] Obviously.0]. this polynomial is closely related to the Tchebyshev polynomials.2. [problem] This product is actually a Fibonacci number. in wh ich A can be represented by a (symmetric) matrix.0. therefore the escalator's speed was the same as the speed of the slow boy.ei)) is the i-th point tangency of th e parallelepiped and the ellipsoid. The diagonal is sqrt(sum((vi.e i)2.0. since he stepped on 50. The easy way is to note that ab+cd >= S and flip one of the triangles into which the quadrilateral is split by its diagonal. This shows how drastically different nonstandard analysis is: to const ruct a non-measurable set.2.0. as well as the family [n-3.. Therefore MN=1+1/2+1/3+. [problem] An n-dimensional ellipsoid is a set {x (Ax. so.. the conventional analysis needs the full power of Zer melo's AC (Axiom of Choice).0. [problem] The hard way is to recall that.+an=n+1 and a1+2a2+3a3+. if l and m are diagonals.1. A circumscribed parallelepiped determines a coordinate system ei.. When we add one car which is faste r than anything we had before.n)).1.+1/N (which .x)=1} for some positive ope rator A. You can replace "3" with another integer and still get an integer product. [problem] The answer is: the harmonic average (the reciprocal of the arithmetic average of the reciprocals) of the walk and bike speeds. and he counted exactly half the stairs. ac+bd >= lm (equality iff the quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle) and lm >= S (equality iff the diagonals are orthogonal). Therefore his speed relative to the ground was half that of the fast boy. thus it is 1/2 almost everywhere ...0] and [2. with a similar recurrent relat ionship..