Current Transformers

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DESIGN CARETERIA

In the following pages brief and simplified guidelines are given for the selection and design of current transformers for a particular duty. The information and data presented in these notes is not sufficient to be used alone for selecting an instrument transformer for a particular duty. Instrument transformers are “custom made ” and it is recommended that each and every parameter should be carefully considered before a selection is made. Instrument transformers are not low priced items. In general they make up of about 2 to 4 % of the cost of a conventional (open terminal) substation, excluding land. Therefore economics is as important as technical details when selecting CT’ s. In case instrument transformers are “over designed” or “over rated” money will be simply wasted on technical characteristics that will never be used in the field life of the instrument transformers. We hope these simple guidelines will be of assistance to readers.
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Type of Insulations

Current Transformers

Dry Type

SF6 gas filled

Oil Filled

Dry types are cast epoxy types. These are most common up to 36 kV applications. In Western Europe, Australia, cast epoxy types are also commonly used up to 72.5 kV.

SF6 gas filled CT’ s are most commonly used for very high voltage applications, usually above 500 kV. Below 500 kV, SF6 filled CT’ s are not economical.

Oil filled CT’ s are the oldest, the most reliable and the most field tested type of CT’ s.

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that is they can reduce the current to small magnitudes which can be safely handled. However some types have some particular characteristics that have to be discussed and considered very carefully before a selection is made 4 .Type of structure Oil Filled CT’s Tank Type Inverted Type Porcelain Type All three types listed above can perform the same job.

Type of structure Tank Type Inverted Type Porcelain Type 5 .

Center of Gravity The centre of gravity is low. Centre of gravity is very high. Transportation and erection is easy.Comparison Between Types Center of Gravity Center of Gravity The centre of gravity is low. therefore earthquake performance is very good. 6 . Therefore transportation and erection are very difficult. therefore earthquake performance is very good. Earthquake performance is very poor. Transportation and erection is easy.

7 . therefore the windings operate in a cool region. therefore the windings are always in the hottest part of the CT.Comparison Between Types The hot oil rises to the top. Hot oil and hot paper loose their good insulation properties very quickly. The hot oil rises to the top and at the same time direct sunlight heats the oil on the top. The warm oil rises to the top. therefore the windings operate in a cool region.

Small oil loss will not affect the insulation. 8 . A very small amount of oil loss will leave the windings without oil. Actually more than half of the oil has to be lost before the windings are without oil. Therefore internal flashovers are common if the CT losses some oil.Comparison Between Types Small oil loss will not affect the insulation. Actually more than half of the oil has to be lost before the windings are without oil.

If the winding is already a round shape then these radial dynamic forces cancel each other and the resultant force is minimum 9 .Comparison Between Types F4 F1 F4 F1 F3 F2 F3 F2 During a short circuit the dynamic forces make it into a round shape.

according to IEC. the manufacturers will have to custom design the insulation and the resulting CT will be unnecessarily very expensive. 10 . 170/325/750 kV insulation level means the CT will operate at 170 kV phase to phase voltage continuously. As an example. It is very important and advisable not to select insulation levels different from standards. i) Highest System Voltage ( Insulation Level ) This parameter must be selected in accordance with a Standard. the one minute power frequency test voltage is 325 kV rms and the basic impulse test voltage is 750 kV peak. For example if an insulation level of 170/325/900 kV is asked for.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER At least the following parameters must be known when a CT is to be selected for a certain job. This value will also determine the power frequency and impulse test levels of the CT.

HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Rated kV Power Frequency BIL 3.2 12 17.5 24 36 52 72.5 123 145 170 245 300 362 420 IEC STANDARD 10 20 28 38 50 70 95 140 230 275 325 460 460 510 630 40 60 75 95 125 170 250 325 550 650 750 1050 1050 1175 1425 11 .6 7.

This way the CT will easily satisfy the accuracy. 12 .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER ii) Frequency Frequency will be usually 50 or 60 Hz. however this is not a rule. However for practical and operational reasons multi ratio CT’ s are usually preferred. Current transformers and inductive voltage transformers can usually operate at both frequencies without major difference in their performance. iii) Ratio It is advisable to have as little number of interchangeable ratios as possible. There are three ways of changing the ratio of CT’ s : a) by changing the number of turns of the primary winding b) by changing the number of turns of the secondary winding c) by changing the number of turns of both windings It is advisable to change ratios by changing the number of turns of the primary winding. burden and composite error requirements on all ratios. Capacitive voltage transformers must be designed for a specific frequency.

HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER P1 P2 P1 C2 C1 P2 1 2 2 200 S1 S2 200 S3 400 S1 S2 RATIO : 200-400/1 A SECONDARY TAP Primary Turn AT 1 200 1 400 Secondary A Turn AT Connection 1 200 200 S1-S2 1 400 400 S1-S3 RATIO : 200-400/1 A PRIMARY TAP Primary A Turn AT Connection 200 2 400 Parallel 400 1 400 Series Secondary A Turn AT 1 400 400 1 400 400 A 200 400 Connection S1-S2 S1-S2 13 .

HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER P1 C2 C1 P2 PRIMARY WINDINGS 2 2 RATIO : 200-300-400-800/5 A 160 S1 S2 80 S3 80 SECONDARY WINDINGS S4 A 200 300 400 800 Primary Turn 4 4 2 2 AT 800 1200 800 1600 Connection Parallel Parallel Series Series A 5 5 5 5 Secondary Turn 160 240 160 320 AT 800 1200 800 1600 Connection S1-S2 S1-S3 S1-S2 S1-S4 14 .

HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER iv) Rated Burden in VA It is important to select the correct VA requirement. however. It is advisable to spare some VA for future addition of instruments into the circuit. this should not be overdone. It is easy to calculate the required VA if we know : a) the length and cross section of the conductor between the CT and the control room or panels b) the VA requirement of the instrument and/or relay the simple addition of these loads will give the VA. Unnecessarily high VA will require big and bulky CT’ s that will be more expensive. 15 . It is not true that a CT with 80 VA burden is better or stronger than a CT with 30 VA burden.

2d Bc = -------cs . one way cs = cross section in mm² 16 .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER P1 S1 A I> kWh S2 P2 d a² . 57 Bc = Burden in VA presented by copper leads (out and return conductor) a = amper d = Distance in meter.

06 3.07 1.90 11.01 1.07 1.86 0.90 17 .40 15.00 1.5 0.12 0.89 4.18 0.90 5.40 13.29 0.09 2.54 1.57 Burden in VA 1A.40 14.00 22.40 8.19 0.74 0.00 3.27 0.32 0.36 0.78 2.14 2.10 21.14 0.49 0.09 0.14 0.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER 2d m 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 0.5 4 6 2.71 0.12 7.48 1.11 2.36 1.71 2.79 1.04 0.42 1.72 0.90 8.57 0.60 10.63 0.50 0.80 6.70 0.71 1.86 3.21 3.30 17.10 13.45 0.78 0. cross section in mm2 4 6 10 1.90 7.60 5A.54 1.63 1.30 0.18 10.29 0.89 0.89 0.34 0.36 0.10 2.24 14.10 0.57 0.18 0.50 2. cross section in mm2 2.60 11.50 3.40 4.34 0.29 0.54 0.56 1.20 7.25 0.70 8.90 6.40 6.50 2.40 8.21 0.43 1.80 2.80 0.13 3.43 0.30 17.00 0.70 4.43 0.44 1.24 1.86 0.14 0.21 0.80 0.

= cs . 57 = 0.8 = 28. Example 1 : 1 Ampere Secondary Current Transformer . 57 Total Actual Burden Spare 25% Burden to Select 1² .9 + 2 + 5 + 15 = 22.8 VA = 22.7 ≅ 30 VA 18 .= 0.Distance from CT to control panel .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Following are two simple examples of how to choose burdens.Cross section of conductor between CT and panel . 2d Bc = -------.9 + 5.Instruments connected to the CT : 100 meters : 4 mm² : i) ammeter ii) wattmeter iii) O/C relay 2 VA 5 VA 15 VA Burden presented by the copper conductor = Bc a² .9 VA 4 .9 VA = 5. 2.100 ------------.

15 ≅ 40 VA 19 .70 ----------. 57 = 6.= cs . 57 Total Actual Burden Spare 25% Burden to Select : 70 meters : 10 mm² 2 VA 5 VA 15 VA 5² .15 + 2 + 5 + 15 = 28.15 + 7 = 35.Cross section of conductor between CT and panel Instruments connected to the CT : i) ammeter ii) wattmeter iii) O/C relay Burden presented by the copper conductor = Bc a² . 2d Bc = -------. 2.= 6.15 VA = 7 VA = 28.Distance from CT to control panel .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Example 2 : 5 Ampere Secondary Current Transformer .15 VA 10 .

20 VA 20 . the CT accuracy class is not guaranteed. many international standards require the accuracy to be satisfied between 100% and 25% of the rated burden.5 %5In %20In %50In %100In %120In In 0. If the burden is selected too high and the actual burden is less than 25% of the selected burden. %100 VA 0.5 %25 VA Required 60 VA Class is guaranteed between 15 .60 VA Actual 20 VA Class is not guaranteed between 5 .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER %5In Another very important point to consider is that.

HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Calculation of Core Size (IEC) : P1 800 A P2 Vk x 10000 S = -----------------------4.4 Tesla) N2 = Number of Secondary Turn f = Frequency 5A S1 160 Turn 1 Turn 5A S2 S1 160 Turn S2 Core 1 : 30 VA.4 x 160 x 50 21 . Class 0. Class 5P20.44 x 1.5 Fs5.44 x 1. 800/1 A Vk = n x VA/Is = 20 x 30 VA /1 A = 600 V 150 x 10000 S = -------------------------= 30 cm ² 4.44 x B x N2 x f S = cross section of Core (cm²) Vk = Knee point voltage (V) B = Flux Density (1. 800/1 A Vk = n x VA/Is = 5 x 30 VA /1 A = 150 V Core 2 : 30 VA.4 x 160 x 50 600 x 10000 S = -------------------------= 120 cm ² 4.

4 H AT/m 32 Calculation of Io Calculation of Rct HxL Io = -------N2 Io = Magnetising Current (A) H = Magnetising Force AT/m L = Length of Magnetic Part (m) N2 = Number of Secondary Turn l Rct = δ x -------A Rct = Secondary resistance (Ω) δ = Constant (0.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Calculation of Core Size (BS) : B Tesla Vk x 10000 S = -----------------------4.4 Tesla) N2 = Number of Secondary Turn f = Frequency 1.0172) for copper l = Length of secondary winding A = cross section of secondary winding 22 .44 x B x N2 x f S = cross section of Core (cm²) Vk = Knee point voltage (V) B = Flux Density (1.

its VA rating drops. the instrument security factor ( FS ) has to be stated alongside the Accuracy Class.0 is sufficient for measuring cores.5 and the Instrument Security Factor is 5. A typical expression (in IEC ) is 0.5 at 25 VA and perhaps only 10VA at Class 0. then Class 1.2 should be selected only when very large amounts of energy transfer and revenue is in question.2.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER v) Accuracy Class The accuracy should be selected for the job.0 at 40 VA.5 can be selected. 23 .5FS5 which means the Accuracy Class is 0. For measuring cores. Class 0. If energy meters are to be connected and also if revenue is to be calculated with these meters then Class 0. it can provide Class 0. As a rough example if a CT can provide Class 1. It must be remembered that as the CT becomes more accurate in class. This figure is usually 5 or 10. If only indicating instruments like ammeters and wattmeters are to be connected.

At lower burdens than the rated burden. during a short circuit when there is a very high current flowing in the primary winding the measuring core will saturate around 5 times its rated value. the secondary current flowing through the instruments will not rise above 5 Amps. the saturation value increases approximately by n. This is a precaution to prevent instruments being burn out during a short circuit. Sn + Rct x Is² n = Fs x -----------------------S + Rct x Is² Sn = Rated Burden (VA) S = Actual Burden (VA) Is = Rated secondary Current (A) Rct = Internal Resistance at 75° (Ω) Example Rct x Is² = 1 Sn = 50 VA S = 20 VA Fs = 5 n = 5 x 2.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Instrument Security Factor FS5 means.4 = 12 24 . If this core is a 1 Ampere core.

• High Saturation value Saturation voltage is given by ALF (Accuracy Limit Factor) . graphs and formulae for CT accuracy class and burden calculations. then optimum selections can be made. It is given as a minimum value. 25 .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER The IEC classes for protective current transformers are 5P and 10P The main characteristics of these CT’s : • Low accuracy (larger errors permitted than measuring transformers). In order to make a good selection. tables. selection of accuracy class and saturation factor is more complicated. the characteristics for the protection relays should be known. If these documents are followed accurately. All reputable protection relay manufacturers publish charts. For protection cores.indicates the over current as a multiple of the the rated primary current up to which the rated accuracy is maintained with the rated burden connected.

HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Relation between Vk and VA Ratio : 800/1 A. 5P20. Vk > 600 V. 30 VA Vs = 30 VA/1 A = 30 V. Vk = 30 V x 20 = 600 V Transformers diagram converted to the secondary side Np/Ns x Ip Ie Is Rj (winding resistance) Exciting impedance If Iµ Es Burden 26 . VA = ? 20 x Vs = 600 V Vs = 30 V VA = 30 V x 1 A = 30 VA Ratio : 800/1 A. 5P20.

It is not advisable to use more than one standard for one particular job because the standards may have conflicting clauses. 27 . climate and seismic conditions do affect the design of CT’ s. the standard should be firmly defined from the beginning.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER vi ) Standards When selecting a CT for a particular job. Therefore these must be considered when a CT is selected for a particular job. vii) Environmental Conditions The altitude. It is not good practice. to select the insulation level from BS and then to select the accuracy class from IEC. for example.

HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Example : 145 KV Current Transformers 1.28 Normal Insulation Level : 145 / 275 /650 KV After Correction : 145 / 275/832 KV Inner insulation (hermetically sealed) does not effect from altitude. Basically this factor is valid for correction of lightning impulse level. 28 .

These forces act to break apart the CT. In this example the CT will withstand 40KA for 1 second without any burning of the windings.5 times Ith.5 Ith peak Ith is the thermal capacity of the CT. Generally Idyn is 2. Idyn = 2. Ith is expressed in rms value. Idyn is expressed in peak value. Idyn is the dynamic capacity of the CT to withstand mechanical forces during the short circuit. 29 .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER viii) Short Circuit Rating The short circuit rating is usually defined as follows : Ith = 40 KA/1 sec rms. insulation or the oil (250 °C).

30 .600 (I2)² x 3 sec = 1600 I2 = 23 KA / 3 sec Where I2 is the maximum current the CT can withstand for 3 seconds. its rating at 3 seconds can be calculated as below : 40² x 1 sec = constant = 1.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER The relation between 1 seconds and 3 seconds performance can be shown with the formula I² x t = constant If a CT is rated at 40 KA/1 seconds.

1.5 KA/1 sec cs1 = 200 mm² cs2 =175 mm² 200 mm² > 175 mm² ⇒ select 200 mm² 31 .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER Calculation of Primary Cross Section : In x 1.8 cs1 = Cross section of primary (mm²) 1.2 cs1 = ------------1.2 Cont.or -----------------180 180 cs2 = Cross section of primary (mm²) Ith = Short time current KA 180 = Constant for copper Example : In = 300 A.8 = Constant for copper Ith (1 sec) Ith x √3 (3 sec) cs2 = ------------. 31.2 = Continuous current 1.

heavy and very heavily polluted areas. Most standards have recommendations for light. therefore creepage distance has a major effect on the CT price. For example. normal. High creepage distance bushings cost more. in Turkey where 170 kV system is used . The total creepage length is calculated by multiplying the creepage distance with the maximum system voltage. 32 .HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER ix) Creepage Creepage is the length of the surface path from the live part to the grounded part of a transformer. The creepage length is determined by the exterior shape of the bushing sheds.400 mm. Unnecessary high values of creepage distances should be avoided. the total length of medium pollution creepage is 170 kV x 20 mm/kV = 3.

125 7.300 5.400 4.460 3.HOW TO SELECT A CURRENT TRANSFORMER kV 72.495 2.792 7.813 2.075 3.020 33 .500 9.920 4.720 3.720 8.050 11.450 1.595 4.800 6.500 13.5 72.250 5.320 2.240 9.5 72.813 2.222 6.000 7.400 10.968 2.248 1.160 1.5 123 123 123 123 145 145 145 145 170 170 170 170 Type Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy mm/KV 16 20 25 31 16 20 25 31 16 20 25 31 16 20 25 31 Total 1.270 245 245 245 245 300 300 300 300 362 362 362 362 420 420 420 420 Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy Light Medium Heavy Very Heavy 16 20 25 31 16 20 25 31 16 20 25 31 16 20 25 31 3.900 6.625 4.900 3.5 72.

2 x In continuous (up to 2. • Transformers are hermetically sealed. Standards • IEC. Continuous Thermal Current • 1. other standards on request. Primary Current • up to 4000 A Thermal and Dynamic Ratings • Short time thermal current ratings up to 40 KA/ 3 sec and dynamic current ratings up to 100 KA peak. others on request. 34 . BS.0 x In on request). AS. ANSI. 60 Hz Secondary Current • 1 A. 2 A or 5 A.EMEK DESIGN General Description • Primary and secondary cores are housed in a single porcelain bushing. Frequency • 50 Hz. • Well proven “hair pin” technology is used.

Primary Conductor 7. Oil Sampling Valve (Opposite side of the secondary box) 19. Primary Windings 10. Paper Insulation (HV side) 9.EMEK DESIGN 19 1 3 2 1. Secondary Windings Support 14. Aluminium Head 6. Steel Tube (filled with epoxy resin to eliminate effect of dynamic forces during short circuit) 8. Porcelain Bushing 11. Oil (Current transformer is completely filled by oil) 15. Aluminium Rain Cover 2. Stainless Steel Bellows 3. Secondary Windings 13. Paper Insulation (LV side) 12. Oil Filling Tap 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 17 35 . Lifting holes 17. Oil Level Indicator 4. Primary Terminals 4 5 6 5. Base Plate 16. Secondary Terminals 18.

EMEK DESIGN Cores • Grain oriented silicon steel is used. Insulation of cores by paper 36 . • The core shapes are toroidal without air gap.

37 .EMEK DESIGN Secondary winding on the cores Secondary Windings • Enamelled electrolytic copper wire is used.

EMEK DESIGN Max. 7 cores can be accommodated Paper Insulation on the cores 38 .

EMEK DESIGN Primary Windings Electrolytic copper suitable to withstand rated continuous current and short time thermal current is used. Paper insulation on primary winding 39 .

EMEK DESIGN Insulation Oil impregnated paper.5 mm = 50 mm Safety Margin : 50 mm x 1. high dielectric strength. low dielectric losses.5 mm/KV Total Thickness : 275 KV/5.6 mm Secondary Insulation : 55 x 1/3 = 18.4 mm 40 . How to calculate thickness of paper : 145 KV Current Transformers Power Frequency Withstand Voltage : 275 KV Dielectric characteristic of paper = 5.1 = 55 mm Primary Insulation : 55 x 2/3 = 36. Graded layers with well rounded edges enable a uniformly distributed field over the whole unit Primary and secondary winding insulation is completed.

EMEK DESIGN Epoxy Forces during short time Steel Tube 41 .

42 .EMEK DESIGN Installation of Base Plate Base of the transformers are fabricated from steel and galvanised Inserting porcelain bushing onto windings.

EMEK DESIGN WRONG How to measure creepage distance : Brown glazed porcelain (other colours on request). Extra high creepage distance is also possible on request CORRECT 43 .

Every housing is subject to pressure and vacuum test before installation. Installation of Head The housing head is fabricated from corrosion protected aluminium. 44 .EMEK DESIGN Spring Bracelet Bracelets All bracelets used on transformers are made from aluminium alloy.

EMEK DESIGN Primary Terminals • Primary terminals are made from tin plated copper. 1-800 A = ∅ 30 & 80 mm 801-1600 A = ∅ 40 & 125 mm 1601-2500 A = ∅ 50 & 125 mm 2501-3000 A = ∅ 60 & 130 mm 3001-4000 A = ∅ 65 & 125 mm 45 . •Stud. • Vertical and horizontal primary terminals are available. nema pad or clamp type primary terminals are available. Dimensions depend on rated primary current (stud type).

46 . followed immediately by the oil filling under vacuum.EMEK DESIGN Vacuum & Oil Filling pipes Heaters Oil Impregnation Heat and vacuum are applied to the fully insulated windings after assembly of the current transformer for drying purposes (around 3-4 days).

EMEK DESIGN Oil Filling Tap Oil Level Indicator Insulating Oil The insulating oil is mineral oil in conformity with IEC 296. Floating type oil level indicator is standard supply. Before impregnation. 47 . Drain plug for taking samples and oil refilling facilities are provided on request. moisture and gases are removed from the oil by special processes.

EMEK DESIGN

Hermetic Seal Oil volume variations are compensated with stainless steel bellows placed in the head of the current transformers. With this facility there will be no contact between air and oil in the transformers. The dielectric strength will remain unchanged for the life time of the CT.

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EMEK DESIGN

Changing of Ratio Ratio change can be achieved by primary series-parallel connection Primary ratio changing terminal is located in the primary connection box which is on the head of transformer.

Changing of Ratio Ratio change can be achieved by secondary taps located in the secondary terminal box..

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EMEK DESIGN

Secondary Terminal Box Hinged type boxes are used and are sealable on request. They are made from aluminium or stainless steel. Clamp type secondary terminals are used. Other secondary terminals are available on request

Name Plate Name plates are stainless steel and weatherproof.

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are additionally painted grey . Other colours are available on request. External Binding Elements All external bolts. which are already corrosion protected. Painting External surface of the transformers. washers etc. 51 . nuts. are either stainless steel or hot dip galvanised steel. Clamp type terminals are available on request.EMEK DESIGN Earthing M10 or M16 earthing terminals are used and are located on the base of the transformers.

EMEK DESIGN Optional Accessories •Steel support structure • Primary connectors • Marshalling box 52 .

Altitude Standard design is suitable up to 1000 m above sea level. Spare Part There are no user serviceable parts. Other ranges on request. Ensure that there is no oil leakage. Higher values on request. Special Tools No special tools are required for maintenance 53 .EMEK DESIGN Earthquake Design Standard design is up to 0.6g. Maintenance Maintenance free. Ambient Temperature Standard design is suitable for temperature range -50° C to +50° C. Mechanical Strength Applied load to the primary terminal in horizontal and vertical is in conformity with IEC 44-1. simple recommendations : Clean the porcelain bushing at regular intervals depending on the degree of pollution. therefore no spare parts are required.

dust and sand etc.EMEK DESIGN Assembly Before the assembly. Packing • The transformers are packed in rugged wooden crates which are suitable for overseas transportation. • The porcelain is not damaged. • The transformers are encapsulated in polyethylene covers to keep them from environmental effects such as rain-fall. • There is no damage on the primary terminals. following visual checks should be made. Storage • It is recommended to store the transformers packed prior to installation. (during transport and storage). 54 . • There are no oil leaks. • Wooden crates can be lifted by either a fork lift or by a crane with slings. • The aluminium protective cover on the bellows is not damaged. • The oil level indicator indicates sufficient oil level.

EMEK DESIGN TRANSPORTATION Transportation is only possible in the upright (vertical) position. The vehicle used for transportation must be of adequate size. factory level re-conditioning and testing is necessary. The packing must be tightly tied to the chassis of the transportation vehicle. TOP EMEK max 15° TOP EMEK EMEK TOP CORRECT MAX INCLINATION 55 WRONG . Attention should be paid to the red “UP” arrows on the crate. The crates should not be put on top of each other. care should be given to prevent rigorous vibration. Prolonged and rough vibration may lead to oil disturbances. The CT should never be transported or stored in the horizontal position. If unpaved and rough roads are to be travelled. For transformers which have been transported and/or stored in horizontal position for any reason.

EMEK DESIGN NEVER Use the primary terminals for lifting the transformers Lift the transformers by using the holes provided on the base 56 .

Each unit has its own stainless steel bellow for compensating the change in the oil volume. In other words each unit is an independent CT itself such that when they are connected in series they share the line voltage and the turns ratio of the cascaded CT is the combination of turns ratio of each unit. insulation. The CT’s have both dielectric and magnetic cascade arrangements.CASCADED TYPE (245-420 KV) CASCADED TYPE CURRENT TRANSFORMERS In this part we will explain basic technical characteristics of cascaded type current transformers. 57 . They are feasible for levels of 245kV and above. No connections are necessary between the two units. oil and stainless steel bellows for oil volume compensation. They have been around since system levels of 400kV and above have been in use. Each unit has a magnetic circuit. A simple electrical connection is made between the upper part and lower part. The upper part and lower part have independent oil compartment therefore no oil connection is made between the units. For lower levels the single piece design has an economic advantages. Cascade design CT’s are not new. high voltage ( high amps ) and low voltage ( low amps ) winding.

CASCADED TYPE (245-420 KV) UPPER PART Cores 150 A 150 A Upper part secondary winding LOWER PART Cores 1A 1A Lower part secondary winding SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM OF 1600/1-1 A CASCADECURRENT TRANSFORMER 58 LOWER PART Lower part primary winding UPPER PART 1600 A Upper part primary winding .

Lifting Holes 18. Insulating Oil 17. Secondary Support 11. Insulating Oil 8. Paper Insulation 9. Oil Sampling Valve 12. Oil Sampling Valve 59 . Porcelain Bushing 15. Aluminium Rain Cover 2. Porcelain Bushing 10. Secondary Cores 16. Stainless Steel Bellows 13. Aluminium Head 6.CASCADED TYPE (245-420 KV) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 18 1. Primary Winding 7. Secondary Terminal Box 19. Oil Level Indicator 4. Primary Terminals 5. Stainless Steel Bellows 3. Paper Insulation 14.

The upper and lower part have independent oil compartments therefore no oil connection is made between the units. Ferrous surfaces are hot dip galvanised and painted.CASCADED TYPE (245-420 KV) Cascade type current transformers are made up from two individual and independent CT’s which are connected in series. Each unit has its own stainless steel bellow for compensating the change in the oil volume. 60 . This way complications of horizontal transport are avoided. Minimum ferrous surfaces are subjected to the environment to minimise corrosion. The height of the units is suitable for upright (vertical) transport on normal trucks and they will pass under standard bridges.

Simple electrical connection is made between the upper part and the lower part.CASCADED TYPE (245-420 KV) Both units are assembled on site. 61 . No special tools are required for connection.

Less insulation strain means longer life. 0 62 . Therefore there is considerably less strain on the insulation.CASCADED TYPE (245-420 KV) V The line (and test) voltage is shared 275/√3/2 = 137/√3 KV equally by both units. The insulation task of each unit is actually half of the V/2 275/√3/2 = 137/√3 KV task of a single piece unit.

The bottom unit is never effected with thermal and dynamic forces because the upper part saturates around 30 to 50 times ( according to core characteristics ) the rated current and anything above this level is not passed onwards to bottom unit.CASCADED TYPE (245-420 KV) 40 KA / 1 sec Core saturate at 50 times of rated secondary 50 x 150 A = 7. The primary current pass through bottom conductors carrying the short circuit part which is negligible current is far shorter than the ones in compare to 40 KA a single piece hairpin design. 63 .5 KA is the short time from a short circuit. Shorter conductor means less heating and smaller dynamic forces.5 KA Better Short Circuit Characteristics : Only the upper part is prone to thermal and dynamic effects resulting from a short circuit. Because of its short height. the upper part is not severely effected 7.

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