S WO 2-4155


WO 3-6925 s

May 20, RELEASE NO: 64-113 1964

NASA TO LAUNCH SIXTH SATURN I The National Aeronautics and Space Administration will launch the sixth Saturn I flight vehicle (SA-6) from Cape Kennedy, Fla., no earlier than May 26. Main purpose of the flight is to qualify the launch vehicle further and develop the technology necessary to build the more powrful Saturns needed for manned lunar landings and other space exploration.


-2SA-6 will carvy into Earth orbit the first unmanned

"boilerplate" model of the Apollo spacecraft which is being developed to carry three American astronauts to the iloon before the end of this decade. An active guidance svstem will be used on a Saturn Cor the first time to steer the second stage of the Saturn I

and the attached Apollo spacecraft into an orbit ran-in6 froo L0C) to 140 statute n,'les above the Earth. The SA-6

satellite, consisting of tici second stage (S-IV), an instru-

ment unit and the Apollo spacecraft will weigh 37,300 pounds. The weight-in-orbit record is held by tne fifth
Saturn I (SA-5) launch which put 37,700 pounds in orbit

Jan. 29.

This orbiting package consists of the S-IV An

stage, instrument unit and a sand-filled nose cone.

"open loop guidance"., or autopilot system, was used in the SA-5 flight. Other primary missions of the SA-6 flight are to test propulsion additionally, structure and flight contrcil systems and to prove the technique for separating the second stage from the 7irst stage.


-3Secondary missions include determining structural characteristics of the launch escape system, operational suitability of Atlantic Missile 1lange ground tracking stations, launch escape system jettison characteristics, and demonstrating the compatibility of spacecraft research and development instrumentation and communication systems with launch vehicle systems. Five Saturn I's, each generating 1.3 million pounds thrust or more and weighing a million pounds have been successfully launched. The first four (Block I) rockets had only the booster stage live. Beginning with the Block II Saturn SAG-1

all Saturn I's have powered second stages and are capable of placing about 20,000 pounds of useful payload into Earth orbit. SA-6 and later vehicles in the series carry early, unmanned models of the Apollo command and service Modules. The last three Saturn I flights (SA-9, SA-8, SA-10) will carry meteoroid detection satellites. SA-6 is 190 feet tall and will weigh about ',130,000 pounds at liftoff, It consists of four elements: S-I

stage, S-IV stage, instrument unit, and an Apollo spacecraft ("boilerplate" Command Module, dummy Service Module and insert/adapter, plus launch escape system). -more-

-4The S-Iv and the irn crument unit are being flown for the second time. Thie S-I is undergoing its second

flight test in this (Block II) configuration. Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, at NASA Headquarters, is in charge of all NASA manned space effort, including the development of the Saturn vehicle and Apollo spacecraft. The three cen-

ters sharing responsibility in the Apollo moon program are the Marshall Space Flight Center, vehicle developer; Manned Spacecraft Center, spacecraft developer; and Kennedy Space Center, t1-. launching organization. The cen-

ters, reporting directly to Mueller, are headed by Dr. Wernher von Braun, Dr. Robert Gilruth and Dr. Kurt Debus, respectively. In the SA-6 launching, the centers will be assisted by three firms, Chrysler Corp., Douglas Aircraft Co., and North Americaun Aviation, principal contractors for the Saturn I first and second stages and the Apollo spacecraft, respectively.




Flight Sequence........... The SA-6 Sal


8 10 12


. .

Measuring Program. .......................... Apollo Spacecraft .............. Vehicle Background and Description ,.. Launch Complex.................. Launch Preparations ............................... Optical Systems .
.......... .. ...................

. . ...............



. .. .. . .. .. . 31



Tracking Networlc. .......................... Saturn/Apollo Industrial Participation ...............

. 40


FLIGHT SEQUENCE After ignition the SA-6 will be held to the launch pedestal until all engines are operating smoothly. normally occurs about three seconds after ignition. SA-6 will be fired on an azimuth of 90 degrees, but after the first few seconds it will "roll into" its flight azimuth of 105 degrees. 15 seconds of flight. The tilt program will begin after The rocket will continue to tilt Liftoff

until the 134th second of flight when it will be inclined at 67 degrees from the launch vertical. About 70 seconds after liftoff the rocket will pass through the region of maximum dynamic pressure (max Q) when the aerodynamic pressures exerted on the rocket's structure are Greatest. This will occur about 3.5 statute

miles In range and 7.5 statute miles in altitude. Soon nifer the 100th second of flight there begins a critical series of actions concerning the separation of the two stages and the ignition of the S-IV. follows: (1) At 107 seconds, S-IV (second stage) engine hydroThe steps are as

gen prestart flow begins, lasting 4ll seconds (until S-IV start-up). -more-


At 134 seconds the S-I (first stage) propellant

level switches, which will sense a low level of propellant and initiate the liquid oxygen (LOX) prestart flow in the S-IV, are armed.


At 138 S-IV LOX prestart flow begins.
The inboard engines will be cut off at 140 seconds

and the outboard engines will be cut off by an automatic timer (program device) six seconds later. At S-T outboard

engine cutoff the vehicle will be traveling about 5,900 statute miles per hour at an altitude of about 43 miles and a range of about 56 miles, (5) place: Within two seconds, the following sequence takes The S-IV's four solid propellant ullage motors

begin their three-to-four-second firing; separation command is given and the explosive bolts attaching the two stages are fired; the instrument unit (IV) control rate gyro signals are introduced into the S-IV control system; the S-I's four solid propellant .etrorockets begin their two-second firing period; and the S-IV stage engines are ignited (1.7 seconds after the separation signal) about 1118 seconds following lif toff .


Some 12 seconds after' S-[/tS-Iv separlat.ion,

the launch

escape tower and the S-LV ullage motor cases are Jettisoned. Active guidance employing the ST-12 1 1 platform, used for the first time on SA-6, will start about 16 seconds after S-IV engine ignition. The guidance system will determine contin-

ually during flight the most efficient steering commands which will result in the requLred conditions for insertion into orbit. The S-IV engines will operate about 4175 seconds, At that time, 10.5 minutes after

almost eight minutes.

liftoff, the S-IV with the instrument unit and unmanned Apollo will go into orbit. At Insertion, the SA-6 satellite will be traveling at about 16,500 statute miles per hour. Insertion will occur

about 1,300 statute miles downrange from the launcri site.

THE SATELLITE The length of the portion to be orbited is 80 feet, slightly less than half the length of the entire vehicle. The payload will not be separated from the second stage and instrument unit and there will be no reccvery. orbiting body and weights of components include: -moreThe

-9Spent S-IV stage Instrument Unit

14,200 lbs.

6,1co lbs.

Payload (Insert/Adapter Apollo Command Module and Apollo Service Module)--17,000 lbs. Total 37,300 lbs.

(Initially the orbiting body will have an additional 1,700 pounds of weight - propellant residual in the S-IV stage which will gradually evaporate). It is expected that the orbit will have a perigee of about 110 statute miles and an apogee of about 140 statute miles. The planned orbital lifetime of the payload is less

than a week. The satellite will have an orbital period of about 88 minutes and may tumble slowly. When the satellite is in

sunlight and the viewer in shadow, it will be easily visible from Earth. Its visibility will vary with altitude, but it

will usually appear about the magnitude of Venus, the evening star. If the vehicle is launched about mid-morning, as planned, the satellite will not be visible to the North American continent on the first evening. It may be visible the next

morning in the southern Uniced States. -more-


A minitrack transmitter in the instrument unit will be operating on a frequency of 136.650 m.c. The system

has one battery which should assure operation for the vehicle's lifetime. The telemetry system is expected to operate through one orbit, providing signals which will be tracked by other ground stations. The SA-6 flight will allow a test of the major ground tracking networks of the U.S. NASA, the Department of

Defense and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory will take part in a global ground tracking exercise. NASA's

Goddard Space Flight Center will coord4nate this operation. Early "quick look" tracking and data reduction to determine orbital characteristics will be conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center with assistance from several stations.

MEASURING PROGnAM SA-6 will telemeter to the ground during flight some 1310 measurements, as follows: S-I stage, 630; S-IV, 355; Block I Saturns,

Instrument Unit, 210; and spacecraft, 116.

with only one stage live and carrying no instrument unics, had about 600 flight measurements. measurements. SA-5 made about 1200

In addition to the flight measurements, 220

"blockhouse measurements" are scheduled to be received in the control center during countdown. end with lifto(ff. -moreThese measurements will

The vehicle has 13 flight telemetry systems: six

on the S-I, three on the S-IV and four in the instrument unit (excluding minitrack). The payload has three.

The telemetry systems transmit such measurements as engine turbine temperature; propellant pump rpm; poistions of valves; temperature of engine bearings, heat exchanger outlets, tall skirts, turbine exhaust and nitrogen pressurization tanks and payload, pressures in combustion chambers, propellant tanks and payload; strain and vibration throughout the vehicle; stabilized platform position; velocity; motion of control actuators; propellant level; battery voltages and currents; inverter frequency. Optical systems which are being carried for the second time on Saturn. Eight motion picture cameras and two tele-

vision cameras will record vital functions of rocket operation. Similar optical systems were highly successful on the

SA-5 flight. NASA also will record acoustic, vibration, blast effects and other measurements of the launching. About 400

measurements will be made at Launch Comple;: 37, at other locations on Cape Kennedy,, on Merritt Island and on the Florida Mainland up to a distance of about 15 miles from toe launch site. This program is being conducted by the John IF.Kennedy Space Center, NASA.


12 -

APOLLO SPACECRAFT The SA-6 vehicle will carry an early, "boilerplate" model of the Apollo Con-and and Service Modules, plus the insert/adapter which is located beneath the Service Module. The total Apollo weight in orbit will be about 17,000 pounds, more than 5:000 pounds of which will be lead ballast. The launch escape system, to be Jettisoned during S-IV powered flight, weighs about three tons and consists of an inert pitch control motor, an inert launch escape motor and nozzle skirt, a spacecraft escape tower with separation mechanism, and necessary instrumentation sensors and wiring. mounted within the nose will be a "Q-ball," a dynamic pressure sensor used to measure the angle of the vehicle in flight. Pitch Control Motor, simulated for this mission, is nine inches in diameter, 22 inches long, and weighs 35 pounds. Tower Jettison Motor is a solid propellant motor, 26 it will have a bolt

inches in diameter, 47 inches long.

flange at the aft end to attach it to the forward end of the launch escape motor. The motor has two thrust nozzies,

canted at 30 degrees from the motor centerline.

Its gr)as T:

wtight is 55 pounds including interstage structures.

tower Jettison motor develops 33,000 pounds of thrust fo.' one second and burn-out occurs at 1.3 seconds.

more -



Launch Escape Motor, simulated for this mission, weighs approximately 4,900 pounds, is 26 inches in diameter and is 183 inches long. Tower Structure is composed of welded tubular titanium alloy with truncated rectangular cross-section. inches long with a base 46 by 50 inches. It is 120

The tower forms

the intermediate structure between the Command Module and escape motor. A structural skirt is used to attach the The tower will be covered with

escape mctor co the tower. an ablative material. Tower Separation System each of four tower legs.

Consists of explosive bolts in

In addition to the conventional

internal explosive charge, an independent linear shaped charge is provided at a flattened section on each bolt. dhaige is triggered by a separate initiator. vides a redundant means of tower separation. Command Nodule on SA-6 is a boilerplate aluminum structure simulating size, weight, shape and center of gravity of the manned operational spacecraft. It is covered with cork Each

This system pro-

insulation material to protect the structure from overheating.




Crew Compartment in the boilerplate Command Module uses frame stiffeners of the exterior shell structure to attach mountings for instrumentation, electrical power sys-

tem and ballast required to maintain proper weight and center of gravity. Also included are a main hatch (aluminum

alloy structure) for access to the compartment and a forward access way (tubular structure of aluminum) welked to the forward bulkhead. This access is provided with a bolted-on cover. Aft Heat Shield on the boilerplate is similar in shape It is composed of an inner

to the operational heat shield.

and outer layer of laminated glass over an aluminum honeycomb core and attached to the Commane Module by four struts. Forward Compartment Cover on the SA-6 mission, is a sheet metal fabricated cover and fiberglass honeycomb radome assembled together and bolted to the Command Module. Communications and Instrumentation Systems will handle 116 measurements to be telemetered to ground stations. Environmental Control System provides cool air in a continuous flow to maintain Command Module ambient temperature at 80 degrees F., plus or minus 10 degrees. The system con-

sists of a storage tank, pump, cold plates, heat exchanger, fan thermal control valves, and quick disconnect valves.

Power for this unit is supplied by the electrical power system.







Electrical Power System consists of two instrumentation batteries, two pyro-batteries, two logic batteries, a power control box, and a Junction box. The instrumentation bat-

teries are 120 ampere/hour units and the pyro batteries are five ampere/hour units. Launch Escape System Sequencer serves primarily as the arm/de-arm mechanism for the pyro system. initiate any sequence in the SA-6 flight. It does not The tower sepa-

ration and Jettison motor firing signal is provided by the Saturn instrument unit flight sequencer to the launch escape system sequencer. The launch escape system sequencer for-

wards this signal to the tower sequencer firing circuits. The sequencer includes two independent and identical sections that perform the same functions. Each section contains

separate pyro and logic batteries and busses, and individual pyro and logic arm/de-arm motor switches. Service Module and Insert are aluminum structures 154 inches in diameter. The Service Module, 124 inches long and The Ser-

the insert, 52 inches long, are bolted together.

vice Module is attached to the Command Module by an insert, or non-functioning separation system, bolted to the adapter. The active umbilical system, instrumentation sensors, associated cabling and ballast are contained in the Service Module.




-16Also included are reaction control system quadrant packages having the same weight, shape, location and aerodynamic characteristics as live service module reaction control system packages. Spacecraft Adapter is an aluminum structure bolted to the S-IV stage. It is 154 inches in diameter, 92 inches

long, and contains an air conditioning barrier, instrumentation sensors and associated cabling.

-17VEHICLE BACKGROUND AND DESCRIPTION Saturn SA-6 is a two-stage 190 feet high vehicle. Liftoff weight is approximately 1,130,000 pounds. Elements of the SA-6 are the S-I first stage, the S-IV second stage, an instrument unit and a boilerplate Apollo payload. This two-stage vehicle -Block II configuration -second of the Saturn I

is capable of placing into a

low Earth orbit about 20,000 pounds of useful payload. (In the case of SA-6, the total weight is greater, but this includes the spent S-IV stage, the instrument unit and the payload adapter, which in a normal mission, would not orbit with the payload.) Some 1310 measurements throughout the vehicle will be monitored during prelaunch and flight. THE SATURN I The Saturn I program -flight vehicle -of which SA-6 is the sixth

grew out of studies made by a group Initial objective

headed by Dr. Wernher von Braun in 1957.

of the study was to demonstrate with ground tests the feasibility of building a large rocket using a cluster of


small, available engines.

In slightly more than a year,

a flight program, including the development of high-energy upper stages, was started. Saturn I has had a remarkably successful test program and has led to the development of two larger space vehicles, the Saturn IB and Saturn V. The Saturn I, will

not be used for manned Apollo flights, NASA, in October, 1963, cancelled the four manned flights which had been planned for Saturn I. Saturn IB uses virtually the same first stage as the Saturn I,but for its second stage, it uses the 200,000pound-thrust S-IVB. Originally the S-IVB was designed Using

only as the third stage of the Saturh V moon rocket.

it in the Saturn IB permits an increase over the Saturn I payload capability by 50 per cent without the expense of starting a new development program. The Saturn I program will end with the 10th flight. issions of the remaining four vehicles will be to contribute to the development of the Saturn IB and Saturn V; to launch unmanned Apollo boilerplate command and service modules (SA-7); and to place into Earth orbit large satellites (having wingspan of 100 feet) to detect the presence and determine the size of meteoroids (SA-9, SA-8, and SA-l1.) -more-

-19S-I STAGE DESCRIPTION -S-1 -SA-6ts first stage -the

is a 1.5-million pound thrust booster which is

21-1/2 feet in diameter and 80 feet long. Weight at liftoff of the S-I is some 960,000 pounds. About 850,000 pounds of this weight is propellant. Major areas of the big stage are the "boattail" (or engine) area, propellant containers and the spider beam area. Eight liquid oxygen-kerosene (RP-1) Rocketdyne H-1 engines, each developing 188,000 pounds thrust, are mounted in the "boattail" area to power the S-I stage. nominal thrust is 1,504,000 pounds. In the first four Saturn I launchings, the H-1 engines were operated at 165,000 pounds thrust, giving the stage a total oi 1.3 million pounds thrust. SA-5 was the first Total

flight test of the propulsion system at its designed rating. The few internal engine changes necessary to increase

performance primarily increased the flow rate of propellants into the combustion chamber. Rocketdyne is uprating the

H-1 engine to operate at 200,000 pounds thrust.


-20Four inboard engines of S-I are rigidly mounted to the thrust structure in a square pattern around the centerline of the vehicle and are canted outward at a threedegree angle. The outboard engines (six degree cant angle)

are gimbal-mounted to permit turning for control. purposes during the first stage powered flight, A television camera mounted in the number two engine compartment will provide for the first time real-time coverage and a permanent record of the operation of components on a flight engine. The camera begins operating

just before liftoff and continues until the stage falls into the ocean. It will monitor the operation of propelthe gas generator, the heat ex-

lant wrap-around lines, changer, tains.

hydraulic actuator arms and flexible flame cur-

Nine tanks feed the eight H-1 engines.


in a circle about a large center tank 105 inches in diameter (Jupiter size) are eight 70-inch diameter (Redstone size) tanks. The center tank and four outer ones contain liquid oxygen, the alternate outer tanks hold kerosene fuel. Kerosene tanks are pressurized by gaseous nitrogen carried in spheres atop the tanks and the liquid oxygen tanks are pressurized by gaseous oxygen obtained by passing the -more-

-21 -* liquid oxygen through heat exchangers that are part of each engine package. SA-6 propellant containers, as have all Block II vehicle propellant containers, have been lengthened to provide some 100,000 pounds of additional propellants, At liftoff the LOX in the stage is approximately 600,000 pounds and the fuel load is about 250,000 pounds, Each engine uses 737 pounds of propellant per second and the total propellant consumption per second is 5,900 pounds. There are 320 valves and control devices

governing the propellant flow in the stage. S-I's spider beam area, while structurally supporting the forward end of the stage, adapts the stage to the S-IV and transmits thrust to the S-IV stage. This assem-

bly also provides mounting for retro rockets, film and television cameras, a LOX/SOX (liquid oxygen/solid oxygen) disposal system, which includes five sets of high pressure pneumatic triplex spheres, and various measuring and control components. The LOX-SOX disposal system prevents unintentional ignition of cool-down LOX, SOX or both, which falls from the thrust chambers of the S-IV stage engines during the -more-

-22chiildown period prior to the S-IV stage ignition.


ous nitrogen is channeled from storage tanks through six dispersal manifold rings into the RL-10 thrust chamber areas. This gaseous nitrogen keeps the liquid oxygen

from freezing during chilldown and allows the gaseous oxygen to escape into the atmosphere. Eight tail fins (four large and four stubs) on the S-I provide support and hold-down points for launch and increase aerodynamic stability during flight. larger fins -about 40 feet. Eight of the 10 S-I flight stages are being assembled and tested by the Marshall Center. The two other first Span of the is

which measure some nine feet across --

stages, S-I-8 and S-I-10, and all first stagesfor the Saturn IB are being produced by the Chrysler Corp. at MSFC's Michoud Operations, New Orleans, La, SA-6's first stage structural fabrication took approximately 27 weeks. some 17 weeks. Fifty-three miles of wiring and 73,000 connections were used to join the S-I's 1,708 electrical and electronic components. -moreFinal assembly was completed in

-23SA-6's first stage was static fired twice during May and June, 1963, at the Marshall Center: a short dura-

tion firing of 30 seconds and a full duration firing of nearly 2.5 minutes. S-IV SECOND STAGE -The S-IV sta'e is a 90,000-pound-

thrust stage powered by six Pratt and Whitney RL-10A3 engines, each developing 15,000 pounds thrust. The engines

burn liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, a high-energy combination which produces more than a third more thrust per pound of propellants than conventional fuels. The use of

super-cold hydrogen (it boils at -423 degrees F) presented several problems, the solutions to which represent a con-

siderable advancement in the art of rocketry. S-IV is 18 1/2 feet in diameter, 41 1/2 feet long and It carries about 100,000

weighs about 13,500 pounds empty. pounds of propellant -propelled flight.

enough for about eight minutes of

Douglas Aircraft Co.'s Missiles and Space Division was awarded the S-IV Development contract in July, 1960. Manu:acturing is done at Santa Monica, Calif., and static testing at Sacramento, Calif. -more-


The RL-10 engine is gen power3d rocket.

the country's pioneering hydro-

Its design was begun by Pratt and It under-

Whitney Division of United Aircraft in 1958.

went its first in-space operation in a Centaur rocket late in 1963. It has been ground tested to an unusual

degree and has been shown to be a very reliable engine in these tests. The engines functioned perfectly in flights

of Centaur AC2 and SA-5. S-IV is a self-supporting structure designed to permit ground handling without pressurization. Basically

the S-IV is a two-section tank structure which has an insulated coamrLn-n bulkhead dividing the tank structure into a forward liquid hydrogen tank and an aft LOX tank. Unusual techniques used in S-IV include a common bulkhead to separate propellant tanks, internal insulation in the liquid hydrogen tank, a helium heater, storing helium gas in titanium bottles immersed in the liquid h arogen fuel and use of a new system to corntrol propellant use. The common bulkhead separating the large liquid hydrogen tank from a smaller liquid oxygen tank is made up of two aluminum domes with fiberglass honeycomb bonded to each to form a rigid "sandwich". The bulkhead mini-

mizes heat losses from the liquid oxygen, at -297 degrees F. to the liquid hydrogen, at -423 degrees F. -more-

-25The extremely low boiling point of the liquid hydrogen requires that the fuel tank be insulated to minimize loss through boil-off. Inside surfaces of the

liquid hydrogen container have 3/4-inch polyurethane foam bonded to the walls. Glass cloth, 1/10-inch thick,

coated with a polyurethane sealant, covers the foam. The interior of the tank is machine-milled in a wafflelike pattern to reduce weight. Helium gas which pressurizes the liquid oxygen tank during flight is stored at liquid hydrogen temperature to take advantage of the resultant large weight savings. The titanium bottles, in addition, have improved material properties at this super low temperature. The helium is

passed through the helium heater to raise its temperature and expand it prior to entering the liquid oxygen tank.

The RL-10 engine resembles other engines externally but internally it contains many advances, Most rocket

engines use propellant-burning gas generators to drive the pumps which feed propellants to the thrust chamber. In the RL-10, liquid hydrogen from the pump enters the cooling jacket surrounding the thrust chamber to cool the engine, Combustion temperature inside the chamber is In the cooling jacket the hydrogen -more-

6,ooo degrees F.

-26becomes gaseous and then, still very cold, it passes through a venturi. It expands and drives a turbine which pro4

vides power to pump more of the liquid hydrogen into the cooling jacket. liquid oxygen. S-IV's six engines are mounted on the thrust structure canted six degrees outward from the vehicle's center line and can be gimballed through about four degrees. The The turbine also provides power to pump

S-1V stage is controlled by gimballing the six engines in response to signzls from the vehicle instrument unit. The SA-6 second stage was static tested once, for 459 seconds, at Douglas Aircraft's test facility near Sacramento, Calif., on Nov. 22, 1963. INSTRUMENT UNIT -The SA-6 vehicle maintains sta-

bility and alters its flight path by changing the direction of the thrust vectors of the S-I's four outboard engines or the six engines of the S-TV. Commands for engine gim-

balling as well as inflight sequencing of vehicle systems originate in the Instrument Unit (IU).

The IU is located between the S-IV stage and the payload. It has five temperature and pressure-controlled areas

for environmental control of the electrical/electronic equipment.


-27The unitfs overall height is approximately 91 inches and the outside fairing height is 58 inches. inch diameter unit weighs some 6,100 pounds. The SA-6 IU houses the vehicle guidance and control system, seven tracking sub-systems and four telemetry sub-systems. Other systems include the power supply and The 154-

distribution system, the cooling system arid the gaseous nitrogen air bearing supply system, Four 40-inch diameter tubes arranged at 90 degrees around a vertical 70-inch diameter center hub make up the environmentally-controlled portions of the IU. Most

of the unit's instrumentation is housed within the five temperature and pressure controJbd tubes. Antennas,

horizon sensors, and the umbilical panel for use in ground checkout and servicing are located on the outside skin. The liquid nitrogen cooling system is attached to the inside of the structure. SA-6's guidance and control system is adaptive. It

will not try to adhere to a predetermined trajectory but will adapt itself to any foreseeable situation. It con-

sists of the ST-124 stabilized Dlatform, the platform electronic box, guidance signal processor, and digital computer, -more-

-28On SA-6 the "closed-loop" guidance function is provided by the combination of the stabilized platform (ST124) system, the guidance signal processor (GSP-24) and the digital computer (ASC-15). The ST-90 stabilized platform active on previous Saturn I flights will provide the timed tilt program and roll maneuver during S-I flight, The program device sequences the switch over between the two stabilized platforms, and shortly thereafter the computer introduces signals to guide the S-IV/Apollo into orbit. The instrument unit also has two control accelerometers which are used to measure the vehicle's lateral acceleration in the pitch and yaw planes during the portion of S-I flight where significant aerodynamic forces exist. The purpose is to bias the vehicle into the wind direction and thus reduce engine swivel angle and angle-of-attack. This reduces structural loading. The control accelerometers

were first flown active on SA-4., replacing the local angleof-attack meters used previously. Several other systems that were flown on SA-4 and SA-5 are being tested again, These include a radar altimeter and a Q-ball transducer. -more-

-29Seven separate on-board tracking systems will include subsystems, that, together with subsystems being flown on other SA-6 stages will be used in determining trajectory for range safety purposes and for vehicle performance evaluation. Four of the tracking systems are The other

operational and used for flight evaluation. three systems are in the developmental stage. A tape recorder

will record transmitted data of

one of the IU telemetry systems at critical time periods (S-I/S-Iv Separation and around S-IV cutoff) for later transmission to ground stations. Some 210 measurements will be transmitted through the four IU telemetry links to ground stations during the flight. SA-6 TRANSPORTATION -- All major sect-ions of the 190 foot tall SA-6 arrived at Cape Kennedy late in Februray. The Saturn I booster and instrument unit made the 2,000-mile 11-day trip to the Cape aboard the Marshall Space Flight Center barge "Promise". The S-IV stage was flown from the Douglas Aircraft Co. test facility at Sacramento, Calif., aboard a modified Stratocruiser known as the "Pregnant Guppy!". -more-

-30The Apollo spacecraft boilerplate, complete with launch escape system, Command Module, Service Module and related ground service equipment and insert/adapter, was flown to Florida aboard the "Pregnant Guppy" and Air Force planes from North American Aviation, Inc., the prime contractor. Downey, Calif.,


-31LAUNCH COMPLEX 37 SA-6, will be launched from the 120-acre Launch Complex Complex 37 is just north of Complex 34 Con-

37 at Cape Kennedy.

where the first four Saturns (Block I) were launched.

struction of the $6 5-million facility was begun in 1961 and completed in 1963. in Jan. 29, 1964. Complex 37 has dual launch pads and associated facilities. The two pads, 1,200 feet apart, are designated "A" Pad B was completed in time for the launch of SA-5 Work is still underway on Its first use was for the launch of SA-5

and "B".

and is being used again for SA-6. Pad A.

Each pad has its own umbilical tower, launch pedestal and automatic ground control station. A single launch con-

trol center and mobile service structure serve both pads. The pads also share a central propellant storage and transfer system. The umbilical towers are 268 feet high with a 32 footsquare base. The towers can be heightened to 320 feet if

necessary for future programs. -more-


The pads of Complex 37 are served by the Launch Control Center 1,000 feet away. It is a half-sphere 110 It's dome is more

feet in diameter and 37 feet high. than 12 feet thick.

More than 3,000 cubic yards of con-

crete and 400 tons of steel were used in its construction. Complex 37 has a 328 foot-tall 7,000,000-pound service structure which rolls between Pads A and B to provide access for technicians and scientists who check out the Saturn rocket. Atoo is a derrick with a mast 60 feet high. It can

lift as much as 60 tonse. The service stbrcturet s 120 foot-square base rides on 72 wheels along its tracks at 40 feet per minute. In work-

:tng position at either pad, the service structure's weight
is removed from the wheels by hydraulic arms lowered onto

foundation assemblies and locked into place. The SA-6 will be launched from a pedestal 47 feet square. In the center of the pedestal a 12-sided, 32 foot-

diameter ring allows engine exhaust to escape during launch. Triangular platforms on top of the pedestals provide a work area around the base of the rocket. Complex 37 has a complete fuel storage and transfer system for both liquid oxygen/RP-l and liquid oxygen/ liquid hydrogen engines. (Complex 34 had no liquid hydrogen

-33facilities but is being modified to include them.) Among

the facilities on Complex 37: a 125,000 gallon storage unit; a 28,000 gallon replenishing tank for storing RP-1 (kerosene) fuel; and a 125,000 gallon storage tank{ for liquid hydrogen. A high-pressure gas facility provides nitrogen and helium for purging fuel lines, actuating hydraulic systems, etc. for both Complex 37 and nearby Complex 34. LAUNCH PREPARATIONS Preparations for the launch phase of SA-6 began with the arrival by barge of the S-I first stage at the John F. Kennedy Space Center, NASA, Feb. 18. The booster was moved

Feb. 19 to Launch Complex 37B and was erected in the service structure. The Apollo spacecraft arrived at Cape

Kennedy Feb. 19 and was taken to Hangar AF for checkout. The SA-6 S-IV second stage arrived Bef. 22 and also was taken to Hangar AF for inspection and weighing. The S-IV was mechanically mated to the S-I booster March 19. The instrument unit which was brought to the

Cape with the booster, was erected March 23.

-34The Apollo spacecraft was mated April 2 and electrical mating of the S-I, S-IV and IU was accomplished April 3. On April 24, radio frequency (RF) checks were made of the integrated launch vehicle and on May 7 cryogenic tanking tests were conducted on both the S-I and S-IV stages. A simulated flight test was conducted on T-6 days. The S-I stage will be loaded with RP-1 (fuel) on T-2 days. The 18-hour launch countdown begins on T-l day. The

first part of the count, about seven hours long, includes battery installation, propulsion system checks, ordnance installation and connections. Part two of the countdown requires 11 hours. Major steps are:

T-10 hours T- 9 hours T- 8 hours T- 7 hours T- 6 hours


radio frequency (RF) checks internal power test final propulsion preparation, S-I and S-IV stages begin liquid oxygen loading, S-I destruct system connections begin liquid oxygen loading, S-IV

T- 4 hours, 30 minutes -T- 3 hours --

remove service structure begin final phase liquid oxygen loading, S-I

T- 2 hours, 30 minutes --

-35T-ll0 minutes T-105 minutes T- 60 minutes

seal launch control center doors begin liquid hydrogen tanking, S-IV terminal count begins, pneumatic system to flight pressure, complete liquid hydrogen tanking telemeters on C-band, MISTRAM and UDOP on range safety command transmitter on final phase internal power test begins telemetry calibration ignition arming on range clearance arm destruct system firing command, automatic sequence begins

T- 24 minutes T- 20 minutes T- 15 minutes T- 13 minutes T- 10 minutes TTTTTT5 minutes 4 minutes 3 minutes


2 minutes, 33 seconds -3 seconds -ignition LIFTOFF



OPTICAL SYSTEMS SA-6 will carry eight motion picture cameras and two television cameras to view the interiors of two oxygen tanks,

S-IV stage separation, retrorocket firing and S-IV stage
ullage rocket and propulsion system operation. picture cameras, mounted on the perimeter of tYare slanted outward for ejection. All motion spider bean,

All will cary color film

except those monitoring the interior of the oxygen tanks. This is the second time such an elaborate optical instrumentation has been carried on a launch vehicle -first being SA-5. the

The cameras will record events in several

critical areas of the rocket, especially the activities involved in the separation of the S-I and S-IV stages and in the ignition of the six RL-10 engines of the S-IV stage. Similar camera systems will be carried on SA-7. Advantages of photography include high picture resolution, in color if desired, and filming at a high frame rate for later viewing in "slow motion.' A chief advantage of in-flight

television is that the information is acquired in real-time and might eventually be used as a basis to make decisions. Motion Picture System Two film cameras will view the interiors of two LOX tanks, the center and one outer, through optical-fiber bundles.





Four cameras will view forward along the outside of the vehicle to monitor retrorocket and ullage rocket firing, coasting, aerodynamic flutter of one blowout panel and firing of the S-YV stage. A third interior camera will view sepa-

ration of the stages and engine number four of the S-IV, and the last camera uses an optica:-fiber bundle to monitor the operation of the solid oxygen-gaseous oxygen disposal system. The two at ignition. ameras viewing LOX tank interiors will start Five others will start about 40 seconds before The

stage separation and will run for about one minute.

camera recording panel flutter will operate for 90 seconds beginning 30 seconds after liftoff Each camera is enclosed in a capsule whicn has an opticany clear quartz window at the forward end. recorded on 16mm film. Images are

The cameras are powered by 28 volts

d.c. supplied by the booster's electrical system. One camera, equipped with a battery pack, will continue taking pictures for some 25 seconds after separation of stages even though the camera will have been ejected at 20 Seconds after separation. The capsule will have no special stabiliHowever,

zation system to keep it trained on the booster.

tests have shown that the camera's move off target is so slow that the booster will be photographed for several seconds after capsule ejection.



All film cameras will be ejected at about 300,000 feet altitude from individual ejection tubes 20 seconds after stage separation about 87 miles downrange. Capsules will re-enter the atmosphere at more than 7,000 mph and impact in the Atlantic Ocean about 500 miles from the launch site. At 1,000 feet altitude a paraballoon will be inflated to serve as a stabilizer and to decelerate the capsule's falll.ng speed to about 90 feet per second before impact. Panels of the balloons are alternately international orange and coated with white glass beads. Upon contact with water, a yellow-green flourescent dye will be released. Packed with a radio transmitter atop the balloon is a high-intensity flashing light which produces a flash every two seconds. Ships and airplanes will be stationed in the impact area to watch for the falling capsules and make speedy recovery. Para-divery of the USAF Air Rescue Service will attach additional floatation devices to the capsules when they are reached. The primary recovery aid is a SARAH beacon. Of the ei.ght camera capsules ejected from SA-5, seven were recovered. Telavision System The television system will provide real-time visual information on the functioning of selected items and a permanent -more-

-39visual record for future study and analysis. The cameras

will operate at 30 frames per second from liftoff until S-I impact. The television cameras will not be ejected. Images

will be recorded on video tape at the ground monitoring stationand a kinescope record will be kept as a backup to the tape. One camera is mounted forward on the spider beam to monitor staging and ejection of two motion picture camera capsules. The other is mounted in the number two engine com-

partment of the S-I to view the wrap-around lines, gav generator, heat exchanger, engine curtain and actuator arms. Video signals are preamplified in the camera and passed on for amplification in the control unit. The control unit

provides aperture correction and focusing control of the camera, generates the sweep signals for the camera vidicon and introduces the blanking signals to the video output. synchronizing generator in A

the control unit keeps the opera-

tiLon of components in sequence. The transmitter's carrier signal is 860 me.

Input power A

required is 50 watts, and nominal output is five watts.

separate power supply will provide voltage for transmitter operation. The ground receiving, monitoring and recording

station consists of an antenna system, a parametric amplifier, tape recorder, kinescope recorder, viewing unit and a monitor for the flight cameras. - more

-40TRACKING NETWORK The Saturn SA-6 orbital vehicle will be tracked by a combination of tracking and data acquisition facilities including portions of the manned space flight network and the STADAN (Satellite Tracking and Data Acquisition Network), supported by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Network and elements of the Department of Defense national ranges. The Smithsonian network will supply orbital tracking information through the use of Baker-Nunn cameras. DOD participating stations are -Hawaii, Point Arguello,

Calif.; White Sands, N.M.; Cape Kennedy, Fla., and others of the Atlantic Missile Range such as Patrick Air Force Base, Ascension Island and Antigua.

Manned space flight network stations involved include those at Bermuda; Woomera, Australia; and NASA's new dualpurpose tracking station at Carnarvon, Australia. These

stdions will record telemetry for one orbit and "skin-track" with C-band and S-band radar for an indefinite period. The

precount, countdown and first two orbits will be treated in a manner similar to the Mercur--Atlas missions, with the network under the control of a network director at the space operations control center at Goddard Space Flight Center.


-41Although the air-to-ground voice links and command subsystems will not be used, standard operations procedures will be employed. Radar data will be transmitted to Goddard

in real time and the standard station-to-station voice communication network will be used. The S-IV second stage, the instrument unit and the boilerplate Apollo spacecraft in an orbit of about 110 statute miles perigee and 140 statute miles apogee will give the radars a good target. The telemetry beacons of the launch Beyond this,

vehicle may operate for one complete orbit.

radar look angle data will be computed at GSFC and determination of daily individual station tracking assignments will be made. A minitrack beacon on board the payload will permit the STADAN stations to continue tracking for the lifetime of the vehicle, and computers will periodically update the look angles.




-42SATUJRI /APOLLO INDUSTRIAL PARTICIPATION Saturn Thirty-nine industrial firms hold 130 active research, development and production contracts totaling more than $500,000 per firm in the Saturn program. In addition, other

firms hold 44 contracts valued at between $100,000 and $500,000. Of this 174 total, 29 contracts concern Saturn I

only, seven combine work on Saturns I and IB, three concern IB and V, 47 are for I and V, 13 cover all three configurations, two are for IB only and 73 are for Saturn V only. Contracts were awarded directly to the firms by the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, technical manager of Saturn development. Hundreds of other companies are parti-

cipating to a lesser degree, most being subcontractors. Five major firms hold a total of 20 contracts valued at $1,770,875,523 for work in the Saturn I, IB and V programs. Each firm has contracts totaling more than $100 million. North American Aviation's Rocketdyne Division. Canoga Park, Calif. and Space and Information Systems Division Downey, Calif. head the list with eight contracts totaling $484,807,766. The contracts are for H-1 engines for Saturn

I and IB and for F-2 and J-2 engines for the Saturn V (all Rocketdyne), and the Saturn V second stage, S-II (SISD). -more-

-43The Boeing Co. of Seattle, holds two contracts listed

at $469,394,362.

Boeing is manufacturing S-IC stages for

the mammoth Saturn V Moon rocket at the NASA Michoud Operations plant in New Orleans. Douglas Aircraft Co., Santa Monica, Calif. holds four

contracts totaling $400,723,917 for S-IV stages for Saturn I
and S-IVB stages for Saturn IB and V. Chrysler Corp., Detroit, has three contracts with a

total value of $303,407,591 for manufacturing first stages
for Saturn I and IB at the Michoud plant. United Aircraft Corp.'s Pratt and Whitney Aircraft DJvision. West Palm Beach, Fla. and East Hartford, Conn. has three contracts in support of the Saturn I program. supplies RL-10 engines for the S-IV stage. P & W

These contracts

total $112,541,525.
Mason-Rust Co., New Orleans, is sixth largest with three contracts totaling $29,826,624 for facility maintenance and support services at the Michoud plant. Bendix Corp., Teterboro, N.J. has five contracts totaling $25,516,097 in support of Saturn I, IB and V. Bendix is pro-

ducing stabilized platform systems for the three rockets. more -


International Business Machines Corp.,

Rockville, Md.

has six contracts adding up to $23,431,186 for flight computers, data adapters and other electronic equipment for Saturns I, IB and V. next largest

Brown Engineering Co., Huntsville, Ala. is with 10 contracts totaling $23,367,674.

Brown is furnishing

research and development engineering services and fabrication manpower in the Saturn I and V programs. Hayes International Corp 0 , Birmingham and Huntsville, Ala. has seven contracts totaling $14;642,734 to provide R & D engineering services and for fabrication and related services. Federal Mogul Bower Bearings, Inc.'s Division, Long Beach, Calif. is Arrowhead Products

designing and testing items

of S-IC ducting in the Saturn V program under a contract for

Radio Corp. of America, Van Nuys, Calif. as four con-

tracts totaling $10,349,689 providing for ground computer stations, display and console systems and data channels for Saturn I. Spaco, Inc., Huntsville, has five contracts totaling

$4,307,357 for R & D engineering and fabrication services.

more -

Lockheed-Georgia Co., Marietta, Ga. and Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., Sunnyvale, Calif. and Huntsville, Ala. hold six contracts valued at $3,474,835 covering design of an advanced telemetry system, R&D support on structural components, and gaidance and control systems, and for mission support services. Other contractors, contract amounts and the services or products being provided are: Republic Aviation Cor , Farmingdale, N.Y., $3,283,234,

fabrication of S-I components, ground support and test equipment. AVCO Corp., Cincinnati, 0. and Nashville, Tenn.., $2,953,730, provide digital decoders and other electronic equipment and components. Calumet and Hecla, Inc., Flexonics Division, Bartlett, Ill., $2,909,827, manufacture of propellant feed lines and connectors. Ryan Aeronautical Co. and Ryan Electronics, San Diego, Calif., $2,616,843, design and fabrication of radar alti-

meters and fabrication of bulkhead segments for S-IC fuel tanks.

- more -


Whittaker Controls, Iran Nuys, $2,519,950, provide fuel and LOX prevalves for Saturn V booster stage. Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, Inc., Buffalo, N.Y. $2,45C,312, base heating studies on Saturn stsages.

Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, $2,378,085, vibration
testing. Progressive Welder and Machine Co., Pontiac, Mich.

$2,124,116, tooling and fabrication of major fixtures for
S-IC construction. Martin-Marietta Corp., Baltimore, Md. $2,115,884,

manufacture of horizon sensors and associated power supplies and for designing, manufacturing, and testing high pressure helium storage bottles. Electronic Communications of St. Petersburg, Fla.

$1,876,826, development and fabrication of prototype flight
control computers. AiResearch Division of the Garrett Corp., Phoenix,

Ariz. $1,796,299, development of S-IC fuel and LOX pre-valves.
Noithrop Corp. Hawthorne, Calif. and Huntsville,

$1,714,066, R&D engineering and mission support services. Nortronics Division Hawthorne, and Norwood, Mass. $1,056,061,
fabrication of hermatically sealed gyros and rate gyro packages and repair and modification of a prototype Q-ball transducer. -more-

-47Telecomputing Corp., yl,013,118, operation of computer facility at Slidell, La. ARINC Research Corp., Huntsville, $966,368, R & D engineering services. Edwards Air Froce Base, Calif. $800,000, study of blast hazards of rocket propellant. General Dynamics/Fort Worth, Fort Worth, Tex., $673,930, fabrication of honeycomb sections. Redstone Machine and Tool Co., Huntsville, $659,691, engineering and fabrication services. Auburn Research Foundation, Auburn, Ala., $636,670, research on radio frequency systems and analytical study of thrust vector control on large space vehicles. Moog Servo Controls, Aurora, N.Y. $627,610, fabrication of prototype mechanical feedback servo-actuators. Parker Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, valves and pre-valves. Greer Hydraulics, Los Angeles, $588,136, fabrication of a hydraulic system and fabrication and installation of a fluid power system, Saturn V. $589,537, R & D


-48Goodyear Aercspace Corp., Akron, 0. $514,804, R & D of materials for Saturn heat shield curtains and honeycomb bonded sandwich structure. Aerojei eneral, Downey, Calif. $511,959, study of deto-

nation of solid propellants and exploding bridgewire ignition system. Minneapolis-Honeywell, $501,540S, fabrication of rate

gyros (Boston), fire detection system. for Saturn (LOB Angeles).

-49Apollo Command and Service Modules Thirty-one industrial firms hold active research, development and production contracts totaling more than $500,000 in the Apollo program. An additional 11 firms

hold contracts valued at between $100,000 arid $500,000. Some of these contracts were awarded directly to the firms by the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, which has management responsibility for the Apollo program, while others were awarded through the principal contractor, North American Aviation, Inc.'s Space and Information Systems Division. Major contractors for the Apollo Command and Service Modules are: North American Aviation Space and Information Systems Division, Downey, Calif., Aero jet-General Corp2, principal contractor, $934I,000,000

Space Propulsion Division,

Sacramento, Calif., Service Module propulsion motor, +22,200,000.
,A Lronca

Manufacturing Corp., Middlatown, Ohio, honey-

comb panels, `4,000,000. AVCO Corp., Research and Advanced Development Division, Wilmington, Mass., ablative heat shield, $18,000,000. Avien Inc., Woodside, N.Y., main communications an-

tenna systems, $2,800,o000 Beech Aircraft Corp., Wichita, Kan., super critical

gas storage system $8,700,000.


Bell Aerosystems Co., Buffalo, N.Y., positive expul-

sion tanks for reaction control system,


Beckman Instruments Inc., Fullerton, Calif., acquisition equipment, $1,000,000.

Collins Radio Co., Cedar Rapids, Iowa, communications

and data,


Elgin National Watch Co., Elgin, Ill., central timing

system, $1,,000,000.
Electro-Optical Systems, Inc., Micro Systems, Inc. (subsidiary), temperature and pressure transducer instrumentation, $1,000,000. Garrett Corp., Air Research Manufacturing Division, Los Angeles, Cal:f., environmental control system,

General Motors Corp., Allison Division, Indianapolis,

Ind., fuel and oxidizer tanks, $3,000,000.
General Precision, Inc., Link Division, Binghamton, N.Y., mission simulator trainer, $12,000,000. Giannini Controls, Duarte, Calif., reaction control

gaging system, $4,700,000.
Honeywell, Minneapolis, Minn. stabilization and control, $53,000,000. ITT-Kellogg, Chicago, Ill., in-flight test, $1,600,000. Lockheed Propulsion Co., Redlands, Calif., launch escape and pitch control mctors, $6,400,000. -mote-



1'iotorola Inc., Scottslale, Ariz., up-data link digital, $2,000,000. Marquardt Corp., Van Huys, Calif., reaction control motors (service module), qll,3O0,000. Northrop Corp., Ventura Division. Newbury Park, Calif. earth landing system, $131,000,000. Radiation Inc., Melbourne, Fla., automated telemetry data processing system (during vehicle testing), .p2,000,000. RCA Electronics, Astron Division, Princeton, N.J., television cameras, 2,000,000.

Simmonds Precision Products, Tarrytown, N.Y., pL7opellant gaging mixture ratio control, 'La,100,000. Elkton, Md.,

Thiokol Chemical Corp. , Elkton Division, escape system jettisoi 'ransco motor, :,2,200,00C.

Products_, Inc,

Venice, Calif., telemetry an-

tenna system (research and development), 4i1,000,000. United Aircraft Corp. , Pratt and Whitney Aircraft Divisicn East Hartford, Conn.,

uel cell, 4J9,(7'C, Aer.space Electrical

El-c tric Corp.,




s.atic invertcr conversion unit,

yu,OOC,OOo. Douglas Aircraft Co.,
mcdiication of the C-133,


Long Beach,

Calif., aircraft


-52Daystromr, Inc., Weston Instr'lments and Electronics

Division, Newark, N.J., in-flight instrumentation for Earth orbital phase,


Lear Siegler, Inc., Power Equipment Division, Elyria, Ohio, test point disconnect couplings, $500,OOO.











I,530,000 LOS.

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