....,.

_, II I

.,. ..' i

- '...... - I

... ..._.: '!

.. J._ .

F'OUN FO~'" 'TH'

R

,

'lB. Te'rry As,p1in

~IIIU stmted b,lhe aLdhollr

NIE.X,U,S, ,SIPECIAIL INT'EREST'S

N B:!(JUlS, 'S;pecCia~ ~!ntB Fe MSl ltd Ne'XtH~i H()u~

Bo'und!fjj'ry Wav

Hemel Hem,p~eiili!ld

Harts H pa 1ST

E,rtg1land

C ,Arg us eo oks ltd 19S4

A!~1 'riQlhls fa !±I,e Ne'd. _No pa It ,o~ ~thii pu b~c,adon_ ~ia¥ b Eli "I' __ replrodu~d. in ~nv'f'D~~,r b,y_ pnl~t., ~'hOiog;~ap.~y~ 'ml~r~I~lm or' IE!lrlY other maans 'wlthDut w nHe [11 [IJlerm ~SSI am"! from ~h ~

publ ish e ~,.

Chi!)l:p'tlej~'

1 A,1fl ifii1nKhJl,~I:iJ,fJn tD ~ hiB ~r~~

''!'Ii' A

,4

M ouTdnog san ds, Th e B$Se11'1~:ifl!' IrI ~a~'~~'ies_ TVp9S, 0-" s~'ntL S,~ nell rni';I(lUm:9. M'aking. - oils:-~ nd.llond. R eif-e:mnce to 108m til nd R'and~ ~O'l1 procte:$5l-

The ""fti!lsk"', H'OWUl mE!ld~ wo~d~rri m~~ld~'n9, COMS. lh I ·",s., IP'·'~ flasks. 9 !fetS's founrn'al"S' 'flas~. M,ef~8 ~ 1!i1I10U ~d:~ng b~i)J;'BS.

C'orelu!);~e:~ an d' Gor!l.t!!! nil a ki n g. If a'~nti ng 0-1' pa:ltte II' rss,

1M t1!k:iIllIQ 8 ImDu~d~ ~~01mi!i1~. 'VEH1'tH Ogl. P'fOvi5tQn of: runnar aifid d~gii'. fe @:d1fiig he!~d9.) R a:pp'ing'. Use of: P'i! l1i£1g ,powo'ers :iii nd IiQlild par~ing. [BIked me uldsl' R epl:firin 9 i3 damageri mo uld.

N @1~s. 01'11 ~,hll! ms'l~an,O cf' lren ,and a~:lJmi II1R um aifild cuprOtll~. alllovSl, SUnaifs. 'f!i'kimm~s an~ p'hjrlg6rs. FI u xes 9!Jflid ! InOCU 1.i.alll"litiS. iOfij Qjs. FlIe'fili"~ C tQ'~'Y washes.

How t.o bu,i~cl .31 mi ni~'t1L!Jl"'9 drop .. bettorn ell! pole for m1ahll'll giif'lO n, 0 pfua tion a ill d mill i n hHUJl nee. Lad~es.

1 11

15

2,2

31

~';ili1! ~;u'

14

93

lh~FJ i~ &pope' far 'tne .~ M'aJt~U'J' tc ~n dry'Il'i~" ~In the! IlHJ~r:U;;! ~rksh,op OfD illY SiZ@h T~~;fse' 'who pOS3l:i~S, la'llll!s, as :sm,id~ alii, '1 !fl cj~ci~lIy' and wh'l'lSS workshop i:!l'Ii· 'ful'thi'ng. mom ehil oor-ii9J1ie [h~1i! a Q uhu corner of lhe kiT[~~er:1, 'w;:I:lj rre1iJleirth ~Ies$~, Ifii nd a· llIsaf'UlI lallll'y III"! a. iNIQ. 1 cruC~b:~@l. which '~orr the mall1:inG of I1IU·lliiotUJim can be heated i'n ~hiE!' D.p en, fjre,~ ! 1111 such casss it: w~ n~ pam efp~, be, fQUl1PI d' ~rf!! IiUI.,en iEHlt 'to '~e'liJ' is :sm'eH bo,~ of -sand e1ilL~~lde, '!iNhre r'e 'til Eli m ouh;li ngl o,p.elFtadg'nS;!'ClfU, be caii'rr~~' DU'! m'i111 lUJ' ,1:my atUell1- dan1' risk 'D~ dem ~!5~(ic frritliOfll" the: mQ~ld5i, beifll,9 CiJirril'llGi ins;[,de [lInd placed upon the h:la I1ih f'Or plOudliT'lQ. II~ wH I SOlO., ile a pji}r ch!,t1€d ~:h:at th e 'tg(lid I~:rr ~ cSSiibi:1 hies of Jl~t'EI !'liM' .hlU m b~ i3' Wiorksl'10lP lis, I!!xpalnded ,[most b'e,yol'l1{] nn~~~sJ!Jll:le b,v ~:his m e~f:I s: sl thQiI!;l~ h 'th e "m!i::;e;e;~ ~"5 ~ss.r:ntitl ]IV SO s1mp'I~. and ~ri'm~'lhfe; !t ~s; rU)00 '[he Iless MracliV91 Eilf'l'd' '[he' begihli! fir .~~ seen atski'il'~; hit'iUJi!f Wilily he h8.s, not bie'en ~mf;t}vrng th,e 5emifi,' of i1' fiar l"e,j3rrs,AI tho,ugh I ~m i1:ed tOI .~Lnl'i'iif!1lr:ul"fil ,casting by' the r,e~u, .. ic'Uld millti~ hH:Hh~es~ such m8ted·al (:fOEls., ;aft'er .ell. reif~1 ~rrself :adlMifably to 'U'il'l IYP!i!' oJ '[10'01 to he Us.f!l::l in the 'su'biSeQ us lilt Imacl1 il"! IRQ,

E [g. .~ w11 ~ serv'e (,0 m L.fsfrB·re 'the' ,")t:1~f!I [ ~f lile' :eqJuiJ)melnl~ lrequtffid 'rnr 80 iln~t.r~1 :at ua'l'nt:a,n,c~· ~it'Fl thiS small seale 1\!)!J ndllf., 'W ~t ill d~:o '~X:C;B'pIUDn ,of th e

3{)l;c l8W/l'mOiW~r e'IUglnlJ ,hm .amareu, ~B~~in~'S. in lffm.., efumln'lum ~ml bronze. r~tai 'weiSlh' It}i m'llfsf.IN :f~me M\'Ci'ive j1t~undf.

crucible. A. W'"iri::!Ii m !:J1~[ be, 1:)'Il.1 rehased a !ilct of i!:lOllJl'ls:@:. d'u~ tmou'IFll'n91 ~and~ e (normaTlv a natural commoditv~. tho ru,mairai'flg h!8m'!5l eBn,~ CIlu'~~,e slm'!l~'V'. b~ Imacle !aft hom e. C ;£!lIre: tw~1 'forms e,f 'fet1l1 in.!Il' 'trcwelI5;. the on,!:!! ab o,ve Icei'lil gl i'n te ndedj pr;j:m ,e rHy. fOr cutting th,~ Inga res, The' low·ei' one ,ha~ m 11IDIlLY ,m ~'~lli ea{~c(E1S Cl,j' ;:'JI gener,ilIll ns tu re inc:iydl~g r!;moa11hl,flg u ~ 'th e JOI 01 'f~c~'s 100 U~e m o:~ld5! and pre,ss~ ng billck: IO(Ji~e par-

._, .. -r f AI D' -.... -. k f- r •

'r!! c 9!S, 0 _ :san~,. • I~ 'h:~e sue ter '~Ol"rli:lng

'~h:e ru nner, For sma ~I IBJI ~m'iniUlm ~ast1ngs, 'i~ should bEiI~ fe,ughlv. an inch in diame1elF, Sh: ij nehss 10'1' broktHl ,br~tOrm h ~ I1!d116; ~s· admi mble', Th e PilIfl'" of moulding~ bo~es Dr' ·~&IS~·~ at IE 00 me in ~ r' a h,d I d@!!N;:rip~,ton ~Bffer aJS do, F~ -'hfJ S:hai~ow ladl!! f,Q,!", :skj'rn Jird no th ~ dross from the: m aI,1 Ue n meta ~ ;and G. U'ie it rue:!ble longs,.,

The more '~orl'U nate OWOl~r of If8:rgBtr m~chim~:· reels. wid' an o~tdool!' 'workshop and eth sr bh~<$81I11g~~ w~n be ~ b ~e to ,go fu rth er ·Ellilid le~ t.Dip Ihimse~~ with 8 fui ~V ~ie dl~dI fou ndry ID n a srna n :S(;;allril!!'., ~ I~ wU I be ,al·b~,e to ~acljde ClIH!i:,;'ngs 10 at ''!fa ~h~ty ,at MB_t;a lSi.. inchJl dlng ~fOr!r. '[h e waiul'n a r1<C fown of ~hes8 bS'ing !;iov,erned ,cnly by th~ ,n M~t a~ his 'Own idealS a rid mqul,remeflts, MI!FJmber~ Oil' ~oei9Iie!i m,sl'if U k€i' to pOOl n~Sio~ mes and ,;li'od 'fouindry 'fllHl:111 it·i~,s to t~e k! rid 01' eorn m until w'~:rk$h~op mO~'iI' USUi!!ly

7

encountered. Mere eqLLIJj'plmt=lf1if ,eQuid run perhaps. to, iii ern aU eLI ~ohlor mlertij ng fron. ogle~ne~ with iii crudbie fum~o~ fer the nQn~f9F11'QU8 alUovs. ~tU!l' intetch a n!Je of 'pan' me be-tween Imemb~r.s would be 8 boo," and . e divh;,ioll or the costs be:twe~n them wou.d m'ake- poss1bt.e the PUrch,!iUi8 O'f ,orthodox rn (a ~ mc,u~d i rig b01rlcS and ot JHi items of' us't1rfull e.~uillJmEin't ~o rlne u~tlm'a'[e ad\!!,an'lllgI6 lof all,con~ cemed.

'the becSt of ei' cumstanoes lin d ahho ugh '~lIile nil ea·s/WJrs o~ €e:Jli3lifilfy can b'l3' impmv'~d to, a veill" great fil'K1ent by lh8'~er'ciI5IB' crf earn 'mN1d the gam~ngl lOT ex(p-8lri,!nc'9; hoI" is ;eJwavs ·61 kee I sa illS - Qif' ~c;tBment a" ~he mom·ern: when',ne mould ls :sha,ken o'lLIt Elmld U1B 51iH he t easfnf.) em,erge s,

True. one arrh/tirs ;fit the ;51'i!J9'e wMell"l sim,p1te p8tJeI'1Iil~ r:lilre. In 0 i!J~de.d a rid caSI wi'htu.r~ rnuch [nDught and a 'Jwastler'· comas very much a'S it SI:,U~~'ftse. in ere

Apan from 'the ObV[QUB I;! dU8n a9 es '~o !ba 'galn Sed from a ViE!! IMUnJ 1n to the SCience of 1he 'foundrv. he addEKI inrte·res 'ilmr,~JI~,e,d is i1Il 'iI- rv $tl'lo;rnll ractor 0 n i s tOWn. 10'" , he orh sr proc·esses; jin (he worikshop, rh'B: m'aj ority c n be' dirac J., control hut by 'the oplt.raIDr.. t), rOUlgh eve ry!iuIgle ~Ol comptet~ on, pr()grass be1 ng obs eI Ned, ~ss~'srwa:d Bnd mod i~ £ItJ to ul t~ mate, success, The f'9SUn 00 be '9l(]fJl.seUtd whe IfI a m,tJIIJld ~s o,p;em(id after p-our~ng. however, ~ 5 :Bllwavs Ii maner Oil' conj;a(n;u 8. A pelrfec [ C Sling lea n . ~t IDe' g ~all"af!Lrte en leVieiii' time: BVBn in

8

a~ wavs, ftlillil,;,lrIiS', ,,"-O'wevef. th~ oDCasiona' ticldi'sh J·ob to be enC}~;):Iul"oo·red which t'8SlS 'the Ingenu'~rv alf he a'rmate~lr to 1 e utmOc!i,t. 110'-"8 hits, ilnl·erfr!lt Is stlrnulau d anew ~nd.. as 'with ,oth er bra!'lche S 0 f . his rm:M)S~ Ilbs-orbl fig o.f h obb le 5... ~he dee oe r 1"1 ~ beoo me'S ~ n\tol'!.'\Bo aJfI1d 'ih e bl!!!' Ie.. h i~ uf'ldeii"Sulilutiflig of thel p~OC8S. '. so ,also ~ha degr'lle 0 h~ s· nj,i)·ymemt is· rn·mreased accordingly,.

~o'lJfi'drJWia,rk Is, IPU [ f'olrward as a f1 alrerna h;~'e to ~:'he I)' her methods oomlfT1o.lfIly· app1led. "n the h!lmG' worksho·p,

I[ the 'i,B'SIhion In 9 ot all lobjec't In me tal, Fabr ca .in'g. ~rom $.'Opar8tB ifl~&ce$ or hEIW~ 1Il9' ff,Qm a saUd I'ulmp of :materiall can both D .. (SSg 0 extril·m ~ tedi1UJm. On e hii:tnd# ame a Uttl'e .:ounc:hy has

be G'G m Ie. w·e,~ ~ fl. n d c'o n 'II e ,n ,E ~ nt III Y

rj:'hHshe!'d. eV8i'i1 iliJ' "one ~W· job can 1)18' ~C'lJted 'qui I.e expe:cH~,~ou~'liI ~ ce.rti8! h~ ~V 1Nlt~ equ ~ I if not more sat Is:hr ct~ 0 n, bv the £1~J.da preparartlon 0 -, he PtLttEim in wood, fo'IO edl by m'oUildling and ~sting ~n'

pa "ems. mou rd's. es Sllt$ 8'1ild maot'q i~s and, kl1ow~n9 h'f'S' OIwn hm lt~..-uIDi!1S~ and '~nosa Impo.sad by 'UUi capit~'jtv of I~"S wOntsho _. tits the lob aecording~v. The Haison [5 !J1ittJ Icomp191"8. He .. ou~ cl be a 'fOD I i _ ho w<J!Jld pr,o\lii-iI:Ie' hlms If 'with dr wi paltter-ns~ for 8~.a.m,P~ .. of an til - c, iu h~rge ['0 be aeeom mod a ·ed ·0,111 h iC5) ,own ma~11 in ee.. or- Whleh dema..,ded ai pf10ceti t,o complete QU ~'~!B oe,yond the resiOy!'CeS of his·erwlll1 wortshop.

mili I. :J!lhu Flattern 1ama~'ns 110 be used tlgaif1 if- raq III red and soom '~he fo unrymB '''llflds hrmSieU ~n Pos's;E:lS.slon o'r- ill -n:e stQ'~JI( IQf usefu I pat!t:l3!rrU,i 10 fall ba ok POn .ana ~s. eornes 'C;O re,gsliirl ~hern ,efs

nm f It I'S II!110S r va~ ued ,a$Si!!'~S.

. AnotJ1 er p o~'nl i!i hat t.he 8 m<a [leur D~"'dry offers Scopel flO the 1"10 bylst who e.ul~ Wi~h 1"0 work 1,0 hl'e r.'W"" ....ie;"'·g .... 'S·

, I . - . 4 Ii.!' - 1'1 Y !i;HJ!! J I. •

a r~partE)rS. h~'s drawing:~. makes 111150

fbe' basic fsqulrem'E:!nhi QI~ ill fOlJf'ldrv ar.e sirrnp,le. Fhs! ,~pat1'af • 8 eJoH IFs:preS'Hli11 'aJlion Qf' the ,objecl (0 be ca~a# '~fil Wood. Wood ~s; bt'y. ne means 1he c·nll' ml~a'nia'l '!IJ~d tor part~s ms, Cif eOU·Fse. 1iJ1lI for t~Je pu rpQSe lof the ~v.pe crf wo It. 10 be discu!i:sed h fe' :t :'s, probablv t.he mQS~ gelil'em'lly 'f,wo flsd., IBy means flO Ilt: outlined later, [hts, is emlbedd.e>d' 1'111 sand cont.i:]linBd in a moul'd,lng box and' later

wi~)hdrt!lwn tOI '~orm, IEJ c8~ily ~ W'll1'i~~1: is, :Sti ~1iI ,~ miPr,e~m~tio'U'i", but in, i:h~ neg'~!rniil'B., I~(f ,~Jhe, l~bj~ii1i)t t~, bs east, rI,Jhc!rta,~;, oomta,ined in ;HI 's~USlbie \J\e'5selj- 19, me~,ted in ,fj, furn;a:c~ ~tJ" irn an op~.n '~'nl! iEI[ii1d [~ ~PQI.d red ~ rrte ~he' mould m fil ~ 'the cavity, it r;emeins, I,r.:;rlg' IIU10Uigl1 ,~jrl!!~' 5Ond1'fy, whe'l1l ~he miD'i!.dd Is broken IiJP

3ntl '~'he, ICIJS~'ifli~ ,e xtr:a,~t~dl. _

,A typ'ical mlQulld. w~~;&l lUi! paItt@ m, 'for

proCiuci n~ ij m 011 II!.i S'efu ~ P IJI te'i! Wile el, iiS ,mown ~~n Fig. 2. lihis, ~heifl~, ts ~~ne: ~el11ce!. It' r~, a pi'loee:s:s which 'eEl n be e>DpSllilil'e Iii Or CO"tr.i!lIC!~ d ,(,0 fit 'indi\l'ii duall IlI'@qliil'i~un ents :1#1 III di;, ,1aJ! ihoug~ ml(ujil~fh!;d or improved IEiI,ecomi'ng lQ CirCUWi!lll5UHlce:s,~ funm 'lhG most pr'irniiUve '10 Uo indiust ry) ~he' m,~\$It h~!ghly'- m,ech,an~!li:ed and ,sefeJfUHie, '1h~, sa iffJ B' Iguidlng! p~rnciiplle's ,i! pplV [hrclLI;ghcul.

It f~ ':SWOQestEid 1!h'Ht dl1 e !I"f!;t!I (h~ r w;sh~'ng to !R:t,nedMent: wUn variA ndrywork 0 n h is awn SlrtGOM nl w~ U filii d th~t (ij,e best re~u r~ ,a r1ei (lIbI1aIIBel~. f1icjim ~he u sa of a. r~gu ~~r CrI1uHbliB; er m~ltin9. pot. There ,flr~ a1t~!Hinfl'l'i¥,es, 'Of' ooDdlrse. All irlC! n 5;[]IIJ[Gep-i1m Of o\lEtIi1 a:1'lI emptv 'CH n tll~lve boe'e.n 'kni)Wri 10' be used' fnr 61 h.rntilliium. Illdoed. ibn(! f'Ormer may ha\l!e1 in iEictual vDIIL.le: tf steps, are t~k.'e:rn to' prcue~,' the lnterler ~ or ~iil .. rJher! to' p m1i0C( ~he' RrllC1'en metall against UN' True rler of ~ pai'\'ll =. bV the use ,(i!'r ra reFracicry WElsh (s-a-ai ,18ppen'd fX) I' 1M ;any rtl'la.t.al:s; :ar'es@Juble i ill rn 01 t,en all:1J mfoTu rn, Iron panicu larly ~Q ,~nd its. aft'BC't is: not g,oodl, SD 'ti1'i!!Jit .bringh'lrtl '[h ~ m!lI~'{19d m~!m I' ~ IInO, dj re e I contact' with ~h81 ~f t~el pan ~,s li1~it recom rne'nded. Althou gl, i m~ POt~· 8 rlJ 8CtU ~ny used. u ndar cen;a'irl !Ji'rc~mst8nCe$l, in ~ndustry. the gr,u.1 d liSadV:1l n lage is 'thai!: '111 eo ~'nteIFf:l'i!11 !I;oating is S;Om a:W1~a't shlbject to l!:r1Osion ,a nd, if ~ ~elq~fli~le< p,rGtiS~ tiOfi1 ~s ;It~ be Imaih,'fai ru;!!d~ t~lI~ir'as· f,iili Fh~ 'f'r'8 QIJU~flIlt ue new,l!!t

Af'!lO'~h~;r dis,i1td~alr:vtage' t:o '~h S' uiSe ,af ,a n ircHl ~t. a nd '~h,tS' ti m~' o:f p.,a l1u LC !!Jlla u- i'mp~ Ii= t-~n~a ,to t:hll!e B'ma~ lelf to I!Jfi!t:hy, • is 'I:he rapid ~cc IlflI!ilI! iiiI~ com,p:llued w'~t:h the crucibl~\o Whe}lll til,el ch!aJf\Q'o ts rem ~lV'ed Irolm 'l~ 9 ~ I'fijiC(!llprior t~, pcu v1'~lg!.

hill JJ'tew o'f '!he faIG'r. then, l'h~~

C-

I ' . '_' '

are

5;j3,t:f.5lf\!:Jcto ry crucible $ are read! ~y ,c!'v!i:i!'i~ i!,b'le i Iil a wld Er. ran gla, Q¥ usefyl :s1:~,~s - eerta inly ta' sui l I h~ ama te!Jr - the: bt!iIi III neil' w n I 'fifntll it ta, h ls adva ntfj,g a !to, obea eli a sm:,1 r s.lIJ,p-ply a [ ttli!!' e iJi'rsilit and avoid Ih e ,sOm~'dm~s d:1 !leo IiJlraJQ ~fiI 9 eft"te ct of try un 9 lu JTIj,i1I,kie ao 'with arne k.e stu ~n. The lv,pe OIf I[:!U c'i bre most com manly used in '~he· 'foundr)l ~s d'lllrl: O'~ f~cecl iJ:~ m'iK~d ~ith pillilimbago b;moUu;H name fur gll"~phl1t-e or \'bbn~k!ead") and. U:Kcept wnere :s:praciil'tl rulr Iil.ace a jf"f,M ge !I1ltints, dern ;iU1d ~~ec' ~ I :!iihapes~ the S~m 8 l'<i nd 'win be '~C~r! d (;]011- v,effler!' 'for afliV of the me18'ls UKeJy '10 be t:IlnCOlll ntS1iea'• A no~heif' 'tV'l~"e. tlh e CalrOO.rllJlndll.Dml cfu~~bh~l~ has: !Soms adlvil1I'l'lI [.ages hi! tit! e melting of Mrt'-te'rfio UJl!i, ,~U,ovs ,cl'a~ m~,d r'or i~ by 111.8 J'ililJrraetu re,lI'$ and ~s WCH'"!l1!y' ri' eon:sldel'8iUo n 11'11 '~h 1i!It neid. Th e 00 rn men !pi!Jm bl8go v81riety w'ii ~ ghr~' fC!Iqu:a1 sa ~'~sfa ~ tirm fur .a,llil m etal!j~ inc~ydu 1iI~1 i ren.

The: sh elll S usu all, el1l QPU n15e~ed iiUlId 'the S~iei. m OlSt ~ ikEdy to f~rad ~lJOU rr' '~n fhla: ~ m~,11 fOU,[!'U,iiry ~lre nll!.llli1r~[ert with, dnmansfon!:ll, .. 1'1"1 ~~9'. 3 •. Th e 'u'<etdh may SIS rv.e .a s' a useful '~lIlrde wt:! en orderiili19' tha ~'t$~ ba H~:h. TIli',s :snQWS In.' ~tar'ldBrd sile~ :ii!1f:id l~ap,ac'~ies Cif ttlne SA lAJ\i'AN D E'n; crueU~~IB1 Bnd is de~c:::tibed a!1i, I~~he ;~A' S~ape~ A.i. a'l.~houglii net t:he sma ~hl~\SI~ sij'2)e. Ihcl'h1s alba ut.2+ ID!il:"

of m ~ I tl&1l brass and may be ¢alililil'El'llh~"''l 'fQ r bellnrn'ei'fs. At ~h€l' to,th~, reind of ~:he sooh~' A.5 can be u5l!!!d for ~IP 'to 1 § I bs, of ~s -, iron linidi. wile n a~: wikite he~t.. ,e-a n be qui'fa d!fflCl[i,j:r to ha Ii1d Ie bV ,one parson usirng ama,feu ~ 'type ,t'iIC:~~e.TI~e sa m ell ·s,hze~ ,of course. woy'ld h8rld~I'8 '~!Jit€ll ,comfart;eb'lry wh(l n ~~a~~]n,fiB ;alluminium'. AJ ~ e~U cible:s ooiflj~;alllF! ifl:ltll!'ilJ1,~,~U~in m etlilll sheu Id be '11"81318([ 'wi'tI, 'grtllat c~r, an'd res pe~t ,af! d I,~ rg'Sf' P01:S. tha n '! IfI i s m a y ea ~ I "fo r rn '~liI' e illp~ci i!J I':sed a~ Ul~ pment ~t'ld. probablv ~ aln as::;i-Sl:iiIO'(.

'Whe r@l d ~ff:IRIf@~Iil'~ melt-a Is a ~\e tH! i ng

with a, pl'lk8'f~hou:ld! b'9i CllIfoided. 1 t is better 'to make any rodjus'UlI:'JiQMt$ bif ~'i(1iI09' it s~igJtn Uy' wijtl'l1 ,the ton gs ,811'li~ opp1 'f6n9 tihle: p[llike r [0 c:he 'f\ire."

About th ~ worse r'lsk ai'&6ndi ng !ill pOt Ipan;i:cu~ i!lrllV in the IC~ $e '01: a,iurm'in'iurn. ~ s in reD Ie i11ishnnQ '1iho '~[iI tila! eh iil fge" 'whioh h ~5, b~com IS rmlol'telf1l, with oc+~ metal. 'IC ~tEi 1"11 ~he lall'grer pi~ ca.~alr,e! ke,pt ba'cWri ,ilJInrtH ~i PfI) 01 haa baen "~rmeCll wh In; nle he-a't cOliich.ll eria:n n~w beh'ilQI 'f;a:i,f'II\!" r.aiP1d"tihey 'wU ~ mle~1 m ere Q~iddV. The rr~pid cr.md~.IiJc;t~on of' the h ~'I9Jt". iIl'JDW,8V,9t. CQO !bE'- a dang Sf u: the' ~d'dlf!d II''Uu!'b:d IS iil"lJlllm€:f!1!!If1ld a.'rJddenhL The

Flo, 3., ,slctf'tM 5"'o~l\I'9 r,hQ rJ:f!l:l1ff)XfmB'tlJ relative cl!I''lIc.itlefJ ,01 "'S,s f,Bffl8nde.r· , CrUC:l"b18

m el'ted it Is g~a nma'lly ad'!lis~;rb I'i to i'\e't,a'~1'iI ~ Sfl ~i8 rate po~ fin r ea!ll:h ern e. 'F~r 'the Ime; ~ ulI!g of- I'll ~H,-~enlUJS !ill UO'lS '(.1, e U'fe of on !!I' of 'Ih e5e~ p1'ulmbaJQ'lJ' pots. ba uri"!] ac~~del'1! ts, o~ course, is a~most ufllllmitecL ,A~'w:iY~ Caire is IrlBiI!d~d '~Ii! 'tlil:e:lr IIh!BfLd 1ii1l1!ij1 Ii 6) :af1uj CD U Itt ~f ~hiE!l 'furn'aClEi', ll~e top is the weak,~s,t part Bind sheu hJ nell b~ su bj~e~~d 00 u nl1'18GBssary pr,es.su1re fflom the tong~ wh !~h. ilni an1 ,~se~, t,@ min imis8 tho IriSj( of th e cnJcibl ~ ~I fPlPi fiO '! h~~ ~,p and Spill11n g '~"he eo !I1lef!I~;S d tsaslrously j ,sit'u:mid a~,wilBjy,s Brip allout arll ~ ~~h~ n:I1 of fhe way down" The IPli'acm'l~e of; Is\!!,e ~'ng ~ he' CI]:iH:j b~e about ifil uhe 'ttl rnace

12

in com inti cha:rge expands ~ nd t he a'~ ... eadv m"~:' ad !;!IIllJm;lnllU rn, ~ oSil"l'g ~!iome Df its he at and '~in(nng U" sD~idii¥' sTmuh8Illeou:slv. ~s unljbl@ 't~, m:akd room tor it by Irls'in 9 up U~ e pet, It expa't'l noS it\-S forc.e outwa:fds;' a nli 8 GMlCked cruel b~'tc ls th ~ fUS,ld r,

Olit~ remedv is, to ~u~ve 'tnfl rnelte n m. util ~,t wei il abooe m,e~'!~ng po'ilnl - r!.()Il ahtv,ays 'tecomme'ndedi ~ n ~he !t~se' 0 ai utmi'rilij u m - befo!fie add Ing '~~ 1'[. ,A,nD~hei. !perhaps Wirst!: r, pia Wi irs ~o lowe r ~he adcntlona I Ime'ta!' vury 1913 lin I V j a~ IClwin g ij ~ '~IJ hatH up 9Ft.! dual ~v beml'1~ '~'o1a~ i 1m me:rs1C!n.

Used h~'r me~:~[ng ilr~n., the IUa of ~

'inJd~h~ ~s no~: SCi- 9 ~ulat.. Ne,..,eu1·he'l ess, ti1 ey M\I~ bean l~own t'Q !~8lSt 'fer u pwa rd1s of s M uti drld melts, w ru, ~Qre:a~ care. In tl1 F31 W,iV i!II f 1ilf.L!~,'rsil, ~omm 001 ti,e5l, till e pdee of c UiU ~ib~es illes, mc~e:~ ~d in Irecen~ ysaJrs 00 it Is p ~:tII'1im to' bel e~u1h:;l i!JIS, in theit u sa., Evan 511. apar1 from aGdd~n't:a I CI r G8rQI~$s dDmag~, 'tne ,oos't of a ,CiiiUc"lb!e· w:~U a~wavs shC\)1/U In BiJ~lnomv whe n lOOI]"l]"]'pa fll!td wi:!h ifrn8 pu mh,eH;~'~ ,ot c!!il,S:tings firom a 'found,ry.

lite: e:ffecit on the cruc::ibi'.g Clof iii ~g:'r.

Iu rt',IlIC8' 'tie'm ~e rat u r,~ I~~ mbiine,e w.it n tar-oed dr8'~ghl is! ene of g radtl'al em'Siarlt It '!jrozc mas 'thil!ill!1e:.r 'aOO tl1 ill"u'q,er I~n! j'! ~ ~ ts sd~·sal~~)B to drsG~rrd h hetfQfe! it ibacQrnl!'8i ,~ d JI1~tlr til h an!Ua' or bre2i:ks in th e furn aoe VJit~ '~ne IQ'S,'s (if 8 m~ If~. B 'if n~ vs 1lTIm e. Ih e t:ru~ibll' \i'iim IlQlV"£!I' biB eoms redm::.ed in ~aJnaC'q' lin Ii rrlY CIL5e' .. ~~ the ca's~~~r w II II bu 'f,!IliI-ding I1lm'SB'lrf 'sll 0 i1 Olf rn !3Jt Eill rorr the m~uhi

~'t ~.sc..-OO:metl mes iJldvi:;;abl'e 'Ln ILJi~'e so me farm Df OClver tQ the ~riJ,cibl~' ,e II1d pa rthn"~iI!I ~y wh>e'i1 m,eltimg ~he mere susespt[b'11e: m ~~~ is; i'I~lm:ifl;iu m, bral5s and :sa on. in

til ,,~~·.-il &'·.-:111 L. - - 1°1 b I~..;I ,

... ,.,,(ll Iu. ~'lYie~ .! urn it Q'i!. w-.!lIm .:i;!RQ,1d! rl.ll,$ 10 ill rt,

F;g, 4'. frmbJ;ng I~ gf."fNJElY bulk of metal m qa lnch.tdwl itt {he li.itisl ~~rytJ:.

B:e/l!:Jw~ P.lumlmgo cTiicfbJrs" 1m' ~'RIS Q~ lhti f(g-rtl ha~ nNJ'Cfled tb8! ,f/fUJl of it~ lif~. 'Th~,r. ,C'n' I~'e 'tilt i5 un~~~.d .

'13

'[he various ~i:r-;e of ~ot ~,re' ,a,va'nm'b~e. aJnd tJ'leh' calS~ is: relative', the'uf I'~fe :~s alsa a,bout ~he' sam a, :SO :~~ is, 'Cor'lNe r:d~nt to I~n!! ret! e,se p ~t ,a-nJi:l OOVEH' t\Q!g~1i:-he-r ~ l"h's:ir tI&E!J wtll go ,~ long w,~ V toWa rds, g) rnrect'ing thE:i molten 'mei8~ '~(TOm, :SQ m(e of !tle efl-eG~s 'of the fu rna ce ~rtrfllOSDhe rs a nd to 'II;X'C~ u d-e fo'reigll matter such as !i!llsh :and (;incl'erS.

An ~I'le-rf'l ill<! ~IjjU '[0 ilhe C1ormlS! Ii ,oover and wh'ic'h has. tlil,e ,added i~v,a n'l'ag!il' of parm il~i"g a lilJfger ~ nHl ~I ,charyge is s~., Own :I n F'i~, 4. ~ n lh is e ese B, ,seoonll t·ruc::~bh~.. 'wh i en ~O!J td, be- a Gr~.~k.@d O~ dalffi iElJg8d one, is! 0 p,.E!Jneied 01;J,El~' th~ nrgt wIth U1eJ c:h-alr.ge, pRe:'d

u'jJ Inside. 1 t '

The ence p ~ ~~,all,e lilt b@:Ue,f in Hi'a:

prsetlce 0" anne'tl!:Uiiii iii, ifll6W pot by letavTflIg

14

It 00 '~[If!ld.. IJpside dawn. ,o.verr!l!'ig ht ; ill a dy~nQi 'ru.rru)ce. w'Ou~d apPIlll!8r- to 'bel Il:I n rli !a~i~e.s-r.: ~ ry. R e' t UI -nil i!li 9 ~ he: em P,t'v O!rIJ~ibh~' l'e ti'M3' f1Urn,i!I C;0' efte F pOu rli"ng &xcepl~ r ,li]lf 'COB.!! rse, 'fo:if' a 'nfsh me u, wo u!ld ,iiIDlw seem to bel an OiJ,err!19 trad S'U pW'r$~h j:c iii. m ~I'\B'ry cant ri.bu Li'ng 'tOW,(lms a ~tt~rter ~r1!..u:dble' lil,a. it may not Ibo advisrlb~ il to ISo iJ~ '~hBm! '~oO suddeli,~V. howeveJ. aili{[ us ua~ ~V is! \!M;!Um sP01, can b~ in li nd somew,ne re taehi'ndl (ha Iurn e ceo 'The "kitche'n fire'· 'foundryml~Fl; ,may filflld 1'1 convenlent 1'0 1~J'~aee h'is pots, ~ n ~ he a~h{lan '[Q ooot ~ n ~1@P1~lI'~li tt IrlllliJ,y be :s;!:i'cL Ipi,ulmb,a'go crucible s wU i b~' ftuJii1cl 'to w1i [hstSii d a rl;un:ai'kab~e ,1lI:m!QlIII'H of fsir IiJ!SEI' and ~\ilEHi ro,ugl, iii in1 d~,UIi g.

CHAPTE'R' 3,

Furnace

,miaking, ~lI1e' ifJieCe8~'~ry mod.i:fioG3'!'ion to 'm: it 'for' itS: :I!'I~W rol~-

;F',ClI' mtaJkin 9 ti;i1I'S1.irtgs malChi~, 8ble on til e p{~puJialr 3i-1J la:th e, th e stove nt.edl b,e !ttll la rge.r tl'iJ.f!ln frffte~n to ,uiglhtG@n in ches hig h i ,A bigg;el'~ ~toVe wculd 0 1111, ~,se a QrSEli'I:er q !LIanl'hy ,of wel than :shoy ~d. 1l],1h erwl5Je. be I'll e~E1HiSiil N 81f'1,d notfil~ filg iSi to beg ~llned. bY' '~~.ril'l. lit ·'wiH u$uaU¥' b~' ~d"ii'sa'b~8 '[:0 u~,k~ BW8V (he Ic;aSI han Ie;!] to "facHit;ue '~he ,gr.!lby ,e nd remc:rva~ 'D~ th,e. e ru ~~b~e' a'nd~ 'if ~e 'fLlm ttl! ~ie i~ I~,O be! bu 11'1 i,l1't.~ a iffil,u~ 'to m ~k!e use of na tu r,e I d'f."811.!! ght some 'furtt'l er sHg'!U rrH):dilf!'c®!~!O'J1 wl!ll IJ~ requ iFl~d ~~S :s1M ow IfI in rig. 5) 'to admit title en d O'f the ,s1iow plp8'~ 11'11 [hi's ease 'rt:ne' YSIU811I'eee5:~ 'Hn tne !back !Of f1l1e stove; hes been eu t lower ii1U1!d th Ell ~ 1111"1) m'B d ia gar.J;d 'by the lJ~u IO~ !One c'f the ~r-(Jllrl€!l'~ary firre til!! ments, T"u~ '$8me ean be' pU[IW 'iltM(:;enEl'lilt use in rsnalring 8f!'I{ debmt~ Tn !he lining wh'ch m,BV ,~p·pear fr'Om Um~' 0 lime. N.eg:lecl of (~1is, poi rn wU ~ ~f\olb"ablv It'e~L!JII' ln t"hle w r,a pp~r t;-e'ir'Ag bo med til l''OuQh ~ as th~' I ~fiI.irrg of a slow CG mibu'5:th:m stove is GQ m pa rativet'hl" ~hin. A "ilJJlm:aC18, exa ~ thl ,~~ i l:IilIlS'l:rat\e~ !has olBa:n k nOWfi! to m~ k!~' illu Odf~ d~ 0" IIi!j;HiUngs 'it"! Ii uminium. om" :and h~'Qj!'i,

AlwQys\, w non 5011id! FIle I rs: U,S~j ~ ne tP~!ll\i'i5iQn Q'f naltura ~ dtra ugh t f.s ill reall :ad'UaJrIlt,i!il,ge il'n I'ight~ ng, ,ilJp. El()c~ Il»! for thi s.

O~ ll!irtm;arry hnp(j rtar:u::~ in ,!i3lri¥ fuundry , la ~.. or: :~m:alll.. !ll"e the: arr,a ngements for mfll~fi ritgm'81t:EI~. It !has lbe'l~Hl i,no KC2I1 t:e iii dUH" wl1ericw camJi "gs, i8lr8 '1[0 b ~ ~ im i'led ' ~ ~ srnall '~j~e ~UIP 'to a- PQllJJfJ d or 'two in we,&ght) '~n 8~!I!.I nlii'mi&l!rn. !ii0 ~Ille~'ia,l fiJn1-~ eel is fflCIli ired -at ;d R. The mj~n,p ~ melts at ,p d'~1 r. fed h'8'i!lt, " J.2Qtl,~ F Of the reenours 3(:cording 'to; 1 he' a1lQvl, iN Ihi!!:: hi t~iM ~a.si lV' b:e!' rat1:~inecill in a ki1fGhen ra nge., Thus, there' is Ih"t:h~ 'f!I'l::Cu sa, on g m II;IrII ds of ~ack af 'far;:i~ iti!!.!s; '~r f~i:~inB to av,a:i! Gn~Sl~H of t h~ ~~\i';a rn:~g~~ to b:gj gai rtEid b¥ :a mod is'l tiJ¢Q ua:frua nee· widl :Fo!l)!1pdrvw~ rk. ~ '[ Is USU.1ilI nV ,~dv~($able 10 make !jIS.e of' a bJii'ght. oh~jalnl fh'~e.[o arvcTd U1e h'u~~ uslon o,f $O~"I iii! tha C"SI,$,ting end, offen~ lt wij n 'be fiD uliII,d 'Eh at ~\he con'v'nt,r~fii ilii I 'fi'resid Ii1!I 'tlilngs, wm an swer the PUI'pQH' IOf h~nd~ il1,g the po~"

Hiilving prO,gI'\Ff5:s'~d b s:y~n'd I~he ,soo'jle I~'f tlie Q;pen r~!lflge. tlhe ~U1iU:l'10Ur fCHJ'i"!d'rym en

will FIi,o'D..<i tiI[~ lbiE!lcom~ ,i'io'ii'~ni!i-B:t - .-I .~ _ ...

.... _ :"!:!! __ J -- _. - !"~I!:;l"_1;;l _1!!I;y Ul !=!!

tJrniree of' li£l!rger capaoitv. AflI"Io''I!1!;\l 'lhe t-eadrv=mad~ po;ssl bmth!~ TiI11.h'i~s cli'~e.e~i{'!ilil is UtBl OT\:;UJ1U1rV Sllow IC"of1f,b~~[i'Oin 'S[O"V,!E)j. ~1 ~~ '~fJ' Iplll fC~ ~Ste: O'f :fI I'1~W one: 'fur 'th e't:

S~l:dlt plln')}Q!se ~oUltd Ihal!"d~y bJ~ ifeCOimrna l'il:decl en th ~ greu nds, of" economy. db'Ei'i1'e' rtltay ~~, thl e !(:hii!1in ce' O'f; p.i:clk~ng up a ~eebncl-h ~:nd ,:no<ve 'f'alifIV che'a p,lry. il,ln '[hi a t Ga. m 8!r,e !neled b ~ riO oompuifilcth:rl'1l ~boiJl :'

r;NN1m; t1AIJiJJ'JJNtIl' 10 PME PlPE~ rIllE.!) IN .liVEl WJTH FIlE CEMENt

however, exceUent use ean be: made. out in the' cpeu"I,. of ~n~' s:luV@1 a one. pm~ida:d an adeqUifJrtc tcrced dnmghr i~ avaih;lIble" Fair anyone n'Ot Vilishin.g to go-a t,-e ru j('j;P e fliS-;e~ of lEI b~,o,w e r ~ B 'V e rv hi g h le·mperau.iI'n! can be r,I&21:ohe wlith t~ 8; aid of a hlJliI'lIV ~el ctdmlm~'if. A~umlntU'm CEHl be m ~in~d with ea 51!' 3J1iI d ' -ne. re it ,iii possibil ltv of being abll I ro handla s'Om- - of t'e' cuprQilJ1S m!,UOY5, tcO. Aoo\.n. enlgh~ ~o U;, n fee': of Wt:l,f inch pl pe. wi! ~ h fO!bln d !it.! ttl cion i.

AI, 'hall - h the slolW ,comlbustion 'strove' has !boa n ptll t forwa rei he Fe is; .(11 'pral:~iCBI so,luthJn to th ' furni!,ce prob I'm. no doubt ,here are many (Ullin ~ossibiH~i@s whicl, wU I su ggest ~lt1emsal\l\es, to '~he ,~U"8UnU\ O,ne rather Q--viimJs at il 'r;ni8tiva is 10 builldili s.qll!l,lam s8ctlo,n rumaee frgm firebric._. The same is f8f'1dell'ed Imam' SB'r'Vi ce ii b lie it· ~ he' bricks an~' ancfos8d within a sheref-imn wf·lppe(, An e).l;i!rn~ht i~ ml~l!u:rB,t6d if!! P'lg.

Fig. 5. 510 W-CQM·bus r-lQn "lOve GOnvenmi ra. ii (urn ceo

6 and, beirng burl to the convenien diffi'ensions 0 t11e brl~~., has a rurnaCE:

Cii,vit ' 0 r rea~ ~y Qel1t&rOllts· c3lpacity.

A,II hough jn 1ht3, cndinary 'way Icruclbl~ 'fi1Jrmm-e:!!) are eqlu~ ~ped 'with '"r·e bars ~n d -:a sh pa n, SU C In refililtDmJill:rrts have b ~'{l:i deUbelr8t1ely om illed from The '!"I:ar:Sions shown. Whlil'1f8 the f'he is by ordinary g3S lCoilt;s', 'fire bars. could p:ro.ve S, fUJ~s.ancD b bec.o,mirng c'ta:gged wl' h 1C'link@i', 'These 'fu Mlaces Cia n rsasillv be d'eared. 'wh 1 ~e rj,e w'cHlk hii ·~n progress U th ~ "~ed ,EI ri'S~:s.

,A "'MonGrt-br"c~" Liniing

In lh e 'h'id lJSlry'J nowadaY'S.. rna flY fuma~e linings, 'hl!hlW tha t'VPI~ known as "rnonolithle," e term IS more d~scrip'ti\l . than CO'fiFe~t ;alne l'1ef.ers to the kind o·r ~ifftlrig fa mmed ~p on the 'i5p~H. hom sullable refrac;[ory m.a~ na,ls, wlfhin -,he cavij' fonmred os,twe·en th'!3' fu,.neH~e! WriBllper rand

9. suim'b~'v' consU'u,cted Item~Drgrv' fillrmer. R_. 7 fa; an ililust:ratran ,ot--- smel £!!lfampJ,iB' o-f slIJloh a ,t.gMflCo ma'ldng use of ,I) dfsused ~Ha~!on drum

e, ends ilnt ifM "e'movedl WI ~11 is t:hr~el apd h"Bm m e!lr a nd ,a ho,le C:Ut C~'OSlf to the I:P ·0 admlt the ~~OV8 JJip~. An ether mg, 'wl'1,ich 00 ~es., Co lie cf've'ty. as am ~Qle' an d for bla'st, is IOU tat. 1 he m. A use lUll forme r~ thl!!:!' diia m 'er of m u maQe ci!ll~,d~V. lila n. be roll d . rc m s Ie me 'a'I ~ and bra oed I nterna Uy wi'(h 'IN den smns. h should be t:onsmUJct~ 5fO flla1 wit n ~he wood suppa 1"1'5 mmONrerJ r -e metal win spring nwsrds to "aoUltate 'I rem: ~all .er Ih1a lin~ng has been mmme-d.

a ': al used for the Ulli ngl is Jir,~dBV rn~~ ~iiliboiln fi'hy-fifrvl w[ltn "grog'· tiu:}

term II.Hiftd to describe the fio 1\1' grolJnd lI!~ fi'ta -ic.k w rth which he cia, i's relnforood ~ 'lD i rrlpliO'MI'EI' [1:5 :S-1,~Q'n~Hl, II is reslsta nee 10 !'lig'n r.emp.ralures. and ~c edlJJc I tiendem::y W craC:klng. Th addhron ,. 9 9 else B IIQWS IO'~ ~he Ii I'iH "'D b-elng d I'~. d DU I more quiddV tha n wou rd I) eJW e be posslb1e.

'IIl'h ose liv~ ng in an i rrd ~tria I area wU II ,eKJl e rl I:tn(! Hltfe difficu ty III oin~m; ng Ii ~ nac.fl'S~8r¥ m8HJ:rial s, l' a n appr~:ac:h is mud to the rna iii age me rn of on ~ -of ttl e I Dca' bnCkworks. Th eo U eli n Ii tv rre q ui red is sma II .a nd. ii' eh alrged en al I. ~he cos I is negligiblil!_. The. qual1tv of -he el,a wIll vary but there is nnle doubr ~hin fur the ['Vpe '0:' fu rnaea ln quest~ on, resull rs wi II be q,uHe

.""'"

!i-al~~. aCto.,,:

~ n - hr:!' eve nt of: 'the di~! rict bei 09 rem 0 'e

'''' I

17

r--l.

- I

~ ,

Ii

II ~

I I

.,

'iIIII

~~~-~:==~---- '~~~=--"---~

WI'il i'Jil'9'!JS!trv~ i't wm bEt, found _PQss~b~e ~o obUl~fll ~ _!i'l!WP~f.U!D'f 'Qu~,nrv d ~v :froffi' Of!i,~1 af ttU:l,:oru,~t)te ma,l'lIu'fa-c,t:U!f'!erSi • ,_

l'hl!1i !Eil!~V and gr®g an~ rf:IC~ R~ed dryiilna :aiiirlal'g8Ma~eD' as 'thoroughlV ,as,_ possi~le' b¥ ~ ~ nll. Th~ maltell'11 ~d ts ~hle n 'miJl(ed 'with ~,orn f~' U~ tSill ~er ,ceil1~ w,e,t',~r '~o iPr~dUCi(ii a h~~ 1C"~'ary '~D aooUi [ thi sa me con~s:t81"1~ ial s' mou idling ;sa,ndil. i"e:.~ bOrlded bLl< t 1Ii1;£:D'i mI,f,!;! r'-'s;alulI'iB'l,ed. lt 'is 'Fed into l~e tSl}i~O betweEl ii1 'the/f(l!~!1ile.r ,B,nd the' ~1irn a ce wrlp-pe.r and r'8~medl do'wllI, !Sgn~HV. lh~ fuadTnj '~IA'd f;~ rn rrd~Q he'~fIIg c~rll'led out ti1 .a! 's~imt d:tIl.Jnd and r,O'iiJln d t,he furna oe' 81'ld Ill! ~ wntinuously' as ;po s~ij b!1 e. A bres I!t. in ttl e 9P&mtloiil rmliY ra$U I,t jlflj ~ cr;~ck. t,o obtain • Unilf'l-g of unvatJ'ed s~ren:gth tnmlJgltu::u . rt, pa rti ~ ~r I'rt.llf;'i,tto n sneu Id b i p; id to thoe rmJlMing 'liD, kG8p _i't ,oonsis!e'rl't.,

.e{lDrB kf!o,ckt1ng ,alW,lll:y lhe, wOod 'lIilipp:ij~ and removill'lg, 'the hHlmer i 'l'h e< ItrUiI or the 'flu e p Ilpe ea n be ~ !!lseJI1'ed a:nd IHe \18111 be~ow ogJ@t'i ~d, [ll~,.rt ~.nd el~ii! nsd ilJP ~J In I) trowel. Th 8 S a me' ea h be. alp p~:ted to ,anv ,If'aJg-gy p a,rrs 'm:D tid V rtH:!l ~ in ing t~p geofll aU". bef'Or,~ 'it is ~,ef1' 'to a lr dry hm'r .; pe~6d - 'not iess th ~r] ,tWi!ll1lt'!f'-fo!J If huulrs.

R~ht1gl U~a Un iflnl

ThB d liVing' OUI ':=-91" now be 'i:lic.sBh:lrateci by H!kt~ If.bl a :s'ma'il woodflre hii 't1!J e hi maice ~ ,~e~'Pli Ii1Q ~;t 'Gc~ rigl un til I OUi'l' 'cl'lY' has oea_s.~ed: ,t~,.stleHm. ,A glrnJ~jua~ ~nCJFeaSie in tt1~ tl!3mp€i'Fr~n\l! r19 can thel!1 be pefm,~lted !by. the Qdditi'on o,f COai~ ,~liId cokE!: U ntif. aher' P'9mifp$ Ell eo i;Jpl~' O'f hou ~'SJ. i"r i$ ~~ i,b~ e to hi'llnQ '111!t11 wool'B' IlJ'f til ~ iflrt,e'lf'j or of the fUmalll-e ~lQ red heat., Po l' uhIs, St8,gl~' h' can r; p"'d~, be blown U pi HJ worki fig tEl rw!jalBlrarrure ~Ind al ~owad to re ma'j,i'rl talt 1 ha t t~f 'tw~ Of '[h~"'8e ho,urs,~ Of Imawe if p~~s~lbh3'. F-flllliailily, it shou I d be, p.lck,ed UI~ wi,till oolke ~nd refit 'to burn ~eU out o\ller tnlgln.

~ f ~e,ry1hinQ h:;js gOll1e .ecce D"ding' 1'0 pr;n'..a g,o~:d.. S'O !illd Hn i ng slhould i'of&-Sl!ll'i. l"ap~ ~ti ~ ightly with lhe ri n~ 8n'H!'U it oS" ould

gh/e 'Ul'e o~·uJlraC-1.er'~~ui~ "rlft(( ·end ~he n~~our sDillould bo a ~i9!~n. '\I€I'UO-w IJroWfli.

Ha!l!iiin 9 '~On!l tiD a '0000 Clgal of ibrouble to mil k$ a rea lIy ;$ervi~jJble··fu II:naC8. h wHl b 0: weU WClJ rth c1b's8Nn n91 :al ~ rl~~~ 'c'sr8 in irs usa and, t.hIJ~. enjoy 'the' 'fu~ i ~d va ntag e O'~ at prolonged work ~n.g i ifa~ The rn ~Ifi an ern V Is. p',fC!;1!lablv. cl ~11'l<.ti r"" It 1II8U,aj Uy fDmllS PlI'"€!lW b ~diy' in t'&lb IOwe~· p an an d Ihare 'j s a Iways ~ s1;rongl 'lemp'~4nicf'l to aUG mpt its, rJEI moval by POl!.!! ndh1g wi~ n~he' ptJ ~er, N eV\Fa,rt_h,ele ~S. ,som'etum fS, [it m 1'It b-e' p,~uiTe! r,fjb~ 8 19 liEH1ViIi! a PI rtleu ~iElwlV ~ena c ro iUs lurn fl! ,~dhe mugl Ie) i[he Hntng ~.han ,to riB It b ri ng il"l'9 a piece, 0 ~ th.e sa mea WBy with it. ~'~ flO rei bl'V ill i,sledged. S ~me t~ me 3 ~ I ilS lJo~sible 'to clean out a g:ood de.ai of '~ne .eli nker wltUie It Is in a $eml~-$i)~ld sra te ~ii i,he' iii!! d ~10t: furnace, imnnedi~te~;y iIlhor th'iil' ·ffinal' rnslr.

N (I. 'J\lflf8r~nce' has ye ' b aan mad e '110 the' mlHhcd Of elCll.siflg the fumaos' mou'IJiI whlle' tli e m elt ts ~ n DroS ~E~. 1.1e liIelitti rly ~:t' wU I be 'to'IUnd 'that '[11 e: mo~t ;sati:sfactlor/ C:rJ~~r ~s ,~ $Iab (J,r nrlt::bwick. p8lnic~ lad V In &1,1500 wh ~f\e th 1!1 high S:if te:mperaJ11!JlI'es a ~.'e r,ela:n~'u~rl. T a. g~ve S C:!C8SS' it i~ U'fted 0:" or p IiiAthl1id ashijfe wJt'h dllil '~~ ng's.. The ,",,8th er olbvi:'~us id1eG of 'trh'~'Illgl U18 cover ba,c,kwami&~g'ain!n~ ~~rl"l itllPS, the foundry 'wall: ~.s. ~ falbie t,CI mast th Ell, ~,~erata'il'; When ti11f;! melti~g of i'ron '1;$, i'llI1 p,r,a:QII'ess 'tha 'cover liFh ad l[hiU $ ra;o ia'le~ a gel'!! ereu s ~f:I t dbu-'l'UClil of \iWhUe' heet,

IF urnalCe OQ<\i!8r'S ~f 'fir8b ri~k, ~ubj:ij;:cl: as they are to ~Qc!fd I'n 9iil'th, g. ;fI,I.!13 very pmll'1 e to crack. I~: is, a reel ,8d\mB IiItage ~'f 'they a fe' (!i,(tsUv ~ nd ch e:raply replaceabl'e<.

FueW

IEa~h jjf Ihe fum',a 1:185 S'O descrilbed is i'nt~nded ro'F the use ,of sand 'rUB I. This does not ,e:.:clud'l 'the' 'possl tdU t¥ of gals Of cui filrj~19, of OOlil rse. TnlBn~ ~s r,cOm for e;<perimern 'in bo!ih Elhes'f!' fie.ld:s from 1he am ~U·EU,.H' point of villZ!w. Ther~' ~3Jre'" 1':I'Owever. 'two rtif~:he~ $ttong: advaliirt"8ges 1;0

"9

Fig. 8~ Sf)ffl 1111IiCiJUm cleS'N91'tJ. sre f88.ifi!v aiiep,sted 8$ blowers.

the suggested USB m coke I . he i-ref is h~h ill tine fbrm 'Oli ,;,"ot.her~ it is, e romm(lldiw w1flnif:h is pretty u nnv-e moa!lv ~btai nacre. 'Secondly 'wh,-r~ ~~el miE!ilti'ng of itl'1Orl is i ntidlpatedJ, ~ is probablv poss8lbl'e 10 cbt31in I 'hl,r' grea1'flIr heat 'W i~h sim(:l1le illppamtus thsln whh elthe of 'he oth F,' twQ~ In Itl j,s res]) a~l. ~. curta:~nlly co,mpares weill with ,oTi 'firingt. whICh requ!r~5 a speti bu rner as we I a 5 Eli III S'loS of pro'iliding b ~Bst

~ t is weU worth thle J"O ~ble a· anyon e:! akiililg' up OlLlnd:rywork s r'ousllV to ffi't:i'ke

a n effort '[DW.eJ.ms; obtaii'll ~.,g 8 50 pply or ndl!.Jstrbsl fyrnac'e co. e. This material ctl!fl b!l!! l'ecognised by ~s $ilverv~g'rHY colour ,Iiird it 'b Ulfns with g !'€I'D he'~ t 'JrlIJ ~~ hour ,9 n

cess lof C~ltnker fanning in tho furnaoe.

A'n EutrCe Ile:nt ~Iterfil aJthre can IU IS II ~V b

Dbl'a~n from solid rua~ rnershants and

Imav corn,e UI"I e-r ttl ~ ti re 0 "Sunb Lle' scm other modem dg;sigl1~nr-On. The domastft: supplier shoul~ b~, able ,0 ht:i~p wfr n ,h kin d ot sm 811l coke hE! oe~ 2vun: for use' in dome1lJic boilers. The b~Dijnfler shou ~d not b de 8'fred hy ill ny di fficu I. in ob~ a in ~n.Q when h-e be lleves 10 !be ~ he rnost BY it~bl e fuel CI r 'Ill f} J ob. Some effa rt sheu 1- firs-I be made 1.1 shlQI T halt w hicti ;j s easHy aVIltable. A ftel r a It!. re a rl 'If feu ndars in Iron and bro rUE , us - d wood cl'H3Jr'r::oalll

20

IFore ad Dr,a u.ghrt

W1here b~ ~Sl JS ne Gfl;SStiry ~ 'l III ~re i ~ Ilttl~ douht th2!'[ ,Ble>c1rt:c b~Crwars of on 0. form Or another provide "n mos1 eenvsnlen answe r. Hand 'for~l'a, Ilio wern or 1:21 rg bell'ows (OU ~dl. o,f co !Ursa ~ be used as 3~ attlernativEI bu ~. si nee a Irorc~d dlna ug 'ITiIU.S;t be syg~in i9;rj ove iI' com parativel, ~ong peJliocis. it is Dbvlo-!J~' [mslt tlle hu m BTl lenlE!'F'gv 9)(pended will be rather co,nstd &H abre. Wi, III lhc: hEllrly ~ ig h lemp ~rltu rift. 11'1 ~he neighbourhood 01 -he rurnace he eHo r1 ~'s not going to be perro rrn edJ U"I QQmfll~.

~ n c..as! S 'where e ~e(r~ Iii & \" • ma ~n ~ otheMd,iE!'. ~; aV8Ua!lle 1l1en 11 will o'r..ualt~r be a 'great advanit.ag 1'0 ebtaln some' klnd or sm a III 'b~o r, Tns"e are rna !lV' offe r d bV Hd~ertis.·er$ of SlH'P~US equip'ment, ~1

,ery raasan~b~n pri~e5. tnr usa 019 10 .. • voh-agew C hD ass ,.' ~atr,g ,(brte for prs' oren n~ even i' the p resent fu rl(1~Cta Is· QrU ite srn a II A stllllJ1los Qr a r Is mora usehJ,1 T on to little'.

'Iio.~ - 'lib "

TK05:EIi ame U] . Cfr.OiW ;;Ii vacuum

, n r I om Ls mOore norm,~1 iJlnetulf'! will 119'118 an ad~qu aiM' SUpp Iy 'of ·air r'8Hd'ilv '(a d. FJg. ,8 5hows tl, e dap~,a:i1 @'1"1 of 8 eular 'lvpe 10 V81CUUm cleaner wi 'ch is :rofid . W!~ h ,EiU' :a rrangemefill f~r iLi,tW$il[lg d _ xh!8ust ss a s ten da nod htm~n t, A

II -acblif1l:E9] W hij'r;h, t5 adm irib[\I 5ly,i' ed 101 lhe Job r; the'. lew pressure type 01' pai nit s;flf Ing b10wer and, no doubt, t,l'isre, are I11IliIinv 'NDrksllJ'iops aln3lZidy equipped with &uch illfi a ppll aJliI Ct9', Fig. 9 is ao ex~mp 1'13 ,of

2.a voll blower purch:as d from Ai

M Hn]s try suep I us. 'The' rnetor i~ ~ ~.sd ii11' o riEl kdowa't'L'~ and with (9 'tW I'u::h dellv8rr p'jp:e of alum. inhJl m fle~·ible ltlbi ng.. ~t i 5 a b1e ICi s!l.!IJJ,ply. a 'iii 'ry comhll't'f)bl'e clrallJgh i.1 anv ot e fUlI1ni9JC0S di~u£s~~ The s mpL mfllhod of dirr,wUn;g U.e btast into Ih~ bottorn oper:dng 0 lhg 'hJrnac s i lh.:unrated in 'Fig, 1 O. A m tJifih. sh"~ Irom cowl s'SrvEiS 'to ~:r8'IJenit cinders and dust blDwin Q lou't· ~he W Dflgwary.

Anodlar kind >of bliJ"lNali SUitable for umaee work 'jis. ~he A.OOl Sndirlg val1~ lype. Fi =. 11. IG:enera IV "Speaking' j' "s [he volu me of ;a'I,r de I lvered which counts tor 'f:ou ndrywork. Pfessur-.e p IF 'SCI uare nnC!~ 'need Ibe no mere lharn l1V'e peunds,

Fi .. H)_ Sh"wing,how r/u~ b!nst is l,sd {nlf) Me bonum lOP. n'ing' (jf lhl: IUfifiDf:t1'.

Sa nd

"' - ~

11. eou ~d be thB'~. "from. ~n amateil.ll r pilli nl orf view. dl ~ :g~e.ates:t obs; taele il5 Nhe a equ isl,... li'om of a $UitaiblEi sand, for ~ B~ ~h 0 u!ij1h 'I t i s a lI)omrnod~ty wh'f,ch f~rms CIne' ~r: 'the mO!!ll1 abu ndan t n a,t ural d~'PDSi [S, om B~l'IiI'h. by no mea ns a U of ~t h~is th e: i r'd~'!il'r~!fIt prop Irdes; whi tlrh 'flf~ it tor ~he ij)tepa ration CVhl me u Id. N'e~enhelif3ss~ "1 iiS the ptMrpO~H!' ,of this :boo~, m show how~ ~malU fou tldlry ean bt!!, ~~embled wU.h the' ~fd (]if materta Is rnest r-e:adlly 'to hand and, in dl'ls J:'~$P8C't ~and is a p8rti~u~ar ease 'in !po if'LL

P\e(mtlJl:L!5 ,j ~hoice' of sand wm be ar~si stad '~,y a beUiEii'r iJf1 (la,rsrand ing of ttn 8 function fl~,quhfed ,of i't. To begin whh a rei SI ~{iJ.j~ Iy line rg rain size is (tes~ rab~ e to Fi!1Illroduc~ 'fhle delali~ of Iii e pau~rn., tJlJ ~edu !!liB: msta I' ~n8'tJrCli'Q'ion. :!! nd hl I mpan 8 8m oo! nand pleasing ,~,p pea ralt'Ule to '~he ~~ing. The s:a"dJ must IO!~ of' C!I r:MI1!I!ctOIl' n,aturl~ to withstand '~ne h]g,n~em,pe,rlEi'tyre wh~ n! i' !l)Oij:ll~ i~t~r ,(X) 111 [ act wIth the mi~ilt18n m81'~1 8'11101. in a mass, It mus[ 'b~ perme a b~ III to ~ UGW th i3l free pas~ge iDf' glillIMHi~ gene~a~J9d in th~ mou~d during ca:i~ ng:, AnOitlher lim,pona orl, ~oan.:J ffi' ~s' Ih e property of tine 'SBnd 'Ul hold 'I h ~ farm givern U) i'~ by whe p~te m. Th15 1'~ k'nnwn .a'S'

··b ... 1"

ILl nILI.

Exe.l!ipl. pe·tt'h:aps,. wne rtj !perm aabi~hv ls; ffldurced hv' an o'liet-BolJnd ~ nc~ [of cn~.y, ,t'he,

nrS1 thr~e of t nes'8 condltlert s a r:e U SlJI;a Ily i!3ilJi'iiCHjlllJ,rn t'e 1'1iZ1d iEllLJito m at k: ~ Uy in fa at Ui ral sa nds- Th~we i~, of 'COl:1 rSB. a 'wide varh~tIf inS raij n .s~·zi!!,. The: mau·,~rr c'f be ~d. hO'wl3 v,~r. ~!i a p r-o,p~ rty wh ~c:h :suin. one dep~\Si'E of rsa'nd to '(\0111 ndrywork r,1lI ~hflr tha III ItJnothaf 'l'~va'n a S3nd w,rdch~ ttl 0 Ulg h ~'~ckvn'9 In bond. 'f-I!JUiI s, rha cth'er COl'ildi'liorl s·~ tnt:r. lBtl1'.:ll rr pli'O pa rtv earn bri! ~d!jY e:['edi ,9)f1tll1d II II~ lil1l rne IiIV wa:YSr

M 8 r)V ~ nl~:~~ u r fo ulnd nrmen rg@~' OV@l '~h9 diffiGU ~ty, of obt_~,ill1ing i$!Jlt~bie" san d br rn a king a fr~iBn d IV acqu aln Ul nce with 1J()m~Olile in the ~nduslrv. wiho~E; a hUrl· t1 u~dwe'i.gh~, ,or SeQ II!; never m lssed, 0(19 e.rti will ~e· riC! !1:liJnat\e 'if!! ,I i\l'~'illG, ~n ra Ii arrea wh er e acklilow~ooDea d.epoiS'mts. 0,1' '(oli fildrv sa r.'Id (] bou,E"., .For the pu rp~~~ (;)f· tJh~ hom e 'f'Oli ndlry '~hiis ca n be ~ S"~d 8)'ia,C:t lit' a ~ '$~PP I ied from the :5i1:l'ndD~'~; Ahtnol!.ll gh addi" dons, of co~dduS'1[: or e\len horslFJI m U!I1 url1t may' bl!! r~comm,eH'hded b'l{ tha IOld HI!iIii,d there is no r~I,11 n e,cleSlSWf 'rlOf e:i'th er. p3't~ c: UII;a f11y th e l:;uU:U. ~fiI 1'he' h alf!ld~ili!g 'of t h ~ ~·,I!.th;ui\i!el'v s,ma~1 ca~ui"gS' involved. A qUBfUHV of Mansfl'eld :sancll 'which is u:sed S'ltensive 1y in b r8s3, f'au1ildil1 g~ wow Id p r~bablv ~epre"sen~' "a p a l1i'(: llJrla ~!V v,~'11[j ~d ~ .e~: 't D t'h'e SOl! all seal e fo Wlf!ldlry.

[for others'!!, who may nOit be so con:~ v8n'~ent IIV pllacoo f ~hera is; a caS:f! 'fur '!l.wT n~

~~d of u ny kind from p~s~i bll fil loe~1

epo.:s;1.~ imd ,~d'diflg. to tha qllJl~H~y o.f lts ,tJ(!JnlI; R:itld bu Udi in,g' san~ l!i; Iii CU' 'wi'lho'tft i'l~, f.!)S~dbi'li"l~lf~,.~~d 1'hi.6,_m~'v ~e stlrerigth~nad ~V the addnloili 0(- ns tu ra ~ ~~~V ~II" te'Vc8:n fi~~ an wh iliIE' 'fli Urirn~:s IBla rth., tOb'ta ilrll~Ma fram ~f11' chemist. ean alse be Pl!l:~ to good ~ot. Thil1!! taner, u nder '~h,e n:e!!m~' ot FrJlbr:Jnd: is; ~~Ippn~d in va ~k~ !J S grrade~ ,~a r,- 110ld !!artY' su ~u~d [0 Woundry re!q 'lJi~6 m~ nts ,B nm is ,also, v!FJ1h.JJQble ,m1 ~ ~I regeneralUrtg, is Wefil [ fpr used sa nd w nh:: h h iii 5 b eOOlr!i'lle I iii C'kina tn b!tHid. Sa,:a"'sh~ru se:l1Ids~ usueUy ~dl ~o as sU 1ca sand s, ca n, b er = and af'l! - u$~d 'rQr the p ~lrpO:!1i'i!il 00" mo u~d roi'~i"s.l fI'CJ~trillh~ r SrQ:L\'h'SM ij re ssnds a r.s lI!J~ad Ol{lS r:l!i~veilf in 1 nrfJ' m i'3ikin g of Sian d GQrK'~: 1~J"lg'eiy beeilu~e of' ~heilr' I~er'ml!ab~Urtv r~ nd bec_aJtfslB ~ hey P(UilS~SS IitU~ !£If no n"'atu ral bOfl d. The' ~ ilI"tt'EI f 'fatCt m:ey ·ppM"r ss 8 IP-aradox 'whl~~ the "UIUar of b~n~d 'is rll:)f s,lJlch prime i':mpCl,na'ru~,e but. ln m8~ "'Oa~' the ho.[i"I;d ililg ag~ 111. !j $Y.~IUV' 'iilITgBflIic. Ibums iOway Ollil castung and the· 1pr,M'B ~.P.rtij!9~ f~eliy When ~he meold i's, ;sha ~en a ~~ ..

Sea-.showe SoISi rtid mnst slUll:eo to mm.lldill!ll g lPiIJ~p05.e:s IS U~u8 nV of ~jlne ;"'wltld blOcwnl.' V::;Jwi1B'ty Whi~h: fowms, from the Y'ndhms Ir:OUf'l'~ eur eeasts, F,e'r the be:3~. fSSlllt5 u~ s:nO!lJ~'d be' rre,e 'frclm panl~~es of ,sllen~ which are not ~Ol rr~fr,@iOOOrv iEf$i -rt1e ssnd ilseJf:, Agahl i ~ n '11 ~'al n s[ze. 58:i ·~~o're

J:Sand vafi'rr.!r!S Gonshj i1n,a1~b betw,B@111 ,Illne ara-a 0: 00 1!'51 and ,a.not"he'f'. 0 rae is as fin e. lilrrlo~t. iI'!; pE3'Pp~,r and aJf'lI O,tlll ~ r m mlLi eh t::o~ eda~,5e _ tQ !b'~ ..u sred au ,iI U. Arnol1g ~ he· Ih~J i~;fe:,. reeoun:isl@!d as :sourrces CJ~ supp~y 'fo.r @M'..o mple, .. Bre S:keg:ness. S out hpOi rt . arfd ~Iresnnyt.. but the<Te ill ~e' rna lilY mo reo For ordl~[laFf gfreen s:e:nd mO'iIJ~d1ng ~n:iPeln~€!"' may bIB' made uS'i'rn,g ,sUiC8J $land mhcll3d [lIt the ntJr~)L! o:f' abo ut OI11IB 1 f'I twenty wtth '~U !B'r~:s ~art n. Whih~ if '~s lilO~ Ipr~tendad t'h~ u the' mould! IflQ QlJI ~I r~l~s 'wil i bfi' nioj}1. lit wm h 10 ~d 1 he 1 mprerg~ion VBtY 'W'el~

a nd, 'for :Edu,mi nlu Ml'I.. rWh~ m a little mOI'\B' ~'fH1)!'s~l~m Imay ID8 t@~,erated in tha sand .. h ~ nlll ,giva th e !beglnn ar f9V-9l1' ehanee of 3UeCO:sS.

M ois;b.llirs IContemt

Ell e.fr-ot,e ilJS;e f'OJ' meu hi ITI akJno 'I he sa nd rnusr !be "te rnper.e~·· w i ~ 1'1 we ter, I ,Ill fac'~. ,rap'ilul from ,rnDistE!nin~1 the borf]d~J'IIt I,gent. the ,~nf8ica It .. 8fl1,siof!l, of the 'W8f,f/lW f,o,rnls' '~In; ~rf ~ihe 9:rSe'n bg;ptut 'T1I18 qllJiillrfU.i'ty or' mols1.'!Jlre ~s' 1!!l tha rf.lgion of [WO [lints oi' W,I9[e'li m 'the hunj]'redVlrniight of sand b\!~,. as it f~ liI",1 ikaly 'that the elm ;[,Iiij ur w~ II wi::;h In 'wrcdgh IO'll! t h~:s larI d each '(1 ~lUi! the eornmeneas 'WIOt'k, it will pf\obab~y :bre more GOrlr'!/'enij',enl to jl;J(:I~,g.:fi!' 'rhrB tempenld s~lid by its; ella rae)U~t~~H~ es, ~ n tfm e, the ben IfH af hi ~:li: OWn 9X1J,'llBTirEHlte un 'the mIBU.e!'r wi iii serve as '~he be.s:llgujde .Jtn.J.t', ,as [BfiI !ndifl8='

Flg, 1.2. A ~'~£~' fOf ril;f!' pm,sl'lci~lf vI mflUldin,' sflrui.

23

non, orr b3~t is flO squee'ZJ8' ,a ha ntJlru I I'n the p~lm and ban .. Jre'8k ~e lom In WOo Fig. '12. The 'ff:i;lict LU'U s~'Ould be: cJea n, 'wilh(JU[ ·'dribbling,:· showing' sdequa:tiS'

mo1:S1I.He.

if an .a u:emp' i~ mallo 'to usa the sand '00 dry it wilt procatdy. resu~t in PrJrtS of (he mould ,6iJ!Ung aWf'V'. ottiEln at he me"men 'when the 00); Is being ID~OSlld 8gam a rjji the' removel 0 th pI!! . ern ~ commonty known as rS! ··droj.'}""c'~D,:' Very ,9:n no,ln i' a good deal 0' time and care hiJ5 !us~ belen S)l.,P€H1 ed, in preparif'!g Ihe MO uld., ,ia S ,often ~5 the 083'13' when :B dr~pow 0 COY rs. S iii n.d w "Itieh 'is tee \iV81 wi U u5ul:i~l¥ rave I ~u,el wltA en the mo~ I dI srupts, i~€!l a min10ture volcano ii$ soon as lh~ rm h! I en €Irs. 'S uch a c.Qndi ton CiI n, 0' ~OUtr.s.e'~ be dang:El'f'Ou5 .•

1M e hods o,t te mperirtQ th ~I mou1 dlllg ~e,nd wi! . of CiOUFS:~. V,t[I,f'V but one of jre.a convenij'enc~ is to ~pread ~he sand r£I:b:()tu

n ~noh hick lover ,a,n a res of filoor an d after sprl'n~Hn'9 wnh . vatar, mb: -:norougJ"lIV wl'!h I garden ~ake, h ~5 usuaU~ quh:Ker and mure effect~\i'e'ha'n u:sl, 9 a s:hovel Tine s SI nd ~ 0 ulc be pissed throu 9 h ~ [ijulinar-if'lch me-sh st~ve aHer mix·ing E.H1t1 i' NftU be' an added ,ad\li3nt:ag if hi's 'Ieft ~ stand or ha!f Br1 hou r or StO be for ~ moy~ding ,commences.

When ths mould IS p~pared [I us aru y sed '~n i~ s dlllmp state to recea\le the rn eti'!! 'he orecess i~ known Cli .Qlreen sand rneu Idin g, and ~ he s 'r,ang1 h o'F the sand 1- knowl'iI as its gI'\B'IU1 bond. Somet'lme-s howe'Ver a mou~d )5 clr'~ed, QlIJIllf slther "flull~' in ,a n oven, or lilflrttal hI ls.k~ n drie.dJ) bv 1Ji13

Flg~ 13. Tl1'fflpe'rln9 f1HJuldIffB sOrld whh (:(;t:e ,IJ',..,J st@'II'(J.

~ pi ~ Jon of 8 flame frem a 9~ 5 torch '0 II' a ,., . f, .A no~!he r' form o.f' ski il1 diryln9.1 Is ~h9 • 'sh I·j meu Id. a n I nd u:!StlFi a,1 applicQ'lion. W 1:. 1h' rneuld '~s rammed u an a mnh i 9 U ~dng; a heated ma'lal "plats" DdI[Jtil!!ilm, ~ The ~eHld oomi ngt into (on raer WI' h Ina p:art1e rn ls thus given a h,a rd skin or shea I. wr~h addftd SU&ngrt1n 'for resisting

h erosfw acuon ,0 lhe inaom[ng metaL

al~ 5.alnd

h m, I mould is Intended for drying eut by oii3ll(in g r'1 i s U5U a I 10' rna kll' ~\ homl c lil , I Sometimes [rile l!!in sand is used only

t facing! as i ~ comparativ,ely e~peFl~, and :~fII rh ~ case It I~ packed reu nd I p~n rn and UU! rest 0'£ the box Is 'fmad in with g roee III 'M i"td,. O'il IS4\! nd Is lllIl-se.d. :a15o.~ rl;lr ~~ remaklngl. parr1icu'hulV in 1:118 esse 0 f

[~a lof eore used ~ n 1fr1 e production 0 Uatn 'mach ine palr1:s an d modra,~ castlng!i-

At m·e' same !',me it pr,ovid'e~ a pa rticula r problem for 1,he' am:ar1'8U' because, \1]'1 :sa nd cannot ~~islac'torU¥ be mixed by hand.

Uauany [If\e. bas,l:s is :silia::i3 sand to whi,oh 1s ed'dtFJd a plI'op0f1~ on D~ a 5yn ttl aile ~ olnding alg I'll and! WB1er. ~ Inl C',i!:!lst falct alrhe ugh 'he des [gnu1:ion is. . 'ei'l sami" h!!il' prop'OrtirHl,of ail ilH:tI.HIIl, used ~n 1 he' mix ls Us,U ill I hy. e n h; a, au l h ~rll' , r.h a( of rhiIEI' m a'ksture con t'e rn ameli smal h~11' ,:a: I St!l. t~0'3111 the proportion 0' :any addiriona~ bondin"Q1 agant5 which !'lilsy' be employed. Having no natu v8.~ f3,dh'B sion p l~e :aU!"Ga 5-S!.,d m uS t b~ re l'lforce.cl wrth a m,at'ElriA to arm Its gn~en bond and. her baking~ i s, dry bond. In the FiOfmer tca~'@ the ad'dltit:m mav be m oh:. sses, de>xtrifl Dr B prcrietall'V core -g urn or c;ere.~1 b'unde r a "d. in, ' he I 'er. a drying n'U, such as OOil6d li'I!'Ull8'ad oH. is, used, SOfn,etlme:,s, a p roportijon of Fe d m(tUJId'ing sand Is, used with 'tlila.·,:ii1'iea $"illnd

,26

wi'th II view 101 'lJ~rying ~he ICDfildW 0111 1tu~d s~mngth, 'in tne' gm en {J r ~he - ry s~aft:4!' iillS UUIl ease rna, 'b-B'. and the ,a,m,al~JBiJr will iill&.o find room fOf ewpe:rTmenl In this l'1esp~ct.

A tvlPi,ca ~ 'forMU lei for oil sand wo uld be Tn. he netu,e of' e ne' h uruj,redweigtll dry fill UCB s.a ndj 'l-WIDI ~drl'ua, W,El~"9rr two plUlJn d$ dB"ittri'lil and oi'U~ plnt lin&eed oiL O~' nOlJr!i1!. '(he qu,emtlty rsqu Ired at any Sine time' in a homer fcur;drv WDuld be verv mu eh lre:ss 'than '[his and, in aU prL1b:abm~~ If: f'Qur1eerii peunds of' a.alli! d 'wefe til se.d. wIrth til e rem !!iind}&f of the ijngre.:dhl'lIJ [.13 pro rs [8, the bulk would be ,im~ph11. The mijxed. s31!:'1.d willi ke:S!p' fOor ,al ootnsidera'bl'e ~~me' in e 1L:'lcsed and aTr-tlgh~ ~ifll Bnd ~!fr.e sl~'gh' mouldi which ~orms. on ~'he c: rust is or rUJI datrlMelflt.

WtrllUe "he' r&mali'ni~g iflg,n2(;n!;i!nts are ,ccmmo;n ·e lI1o,ugh. ~ a); lTi n ~ S on B which m11:aJY be :scrmeli~~i1Mg Q' a p~b.IiE1m ~ Ip.N)eu~l. Ii a'ppeolD'S cUsguise:d bV ene 'name Of alii! oth~ r a.~ 1i!I, produc'~ of a n,L!Jmb 8'r af thrms $Po.ei ill iilslng ~ n '!feu I1d ry SUPI=! ~i6iS alnd. ! n hs usu.a I f'orm 151 ~n the nEl, ';IU)I'II 10 a slmn.g num (B ri~bli!h gu m 1- A V\ery' con'!lenient 'form of ~he hiuitlaf,UIII and orr wllle'h i~ ;ail'~y fes,diily olb·t~ijnabl,e is 1mB rketed' 1~liId9 r lhe nBme Dmn'rin~~ an d ~8 n often be pu~tha:sed, a I on9 w~n '~he Ibl&&sd I~j 1;, 'froml th'81 osua1' pca in~, s~_cu·,es. Or oil .shop. WUh iI, a \jIltV u'seNI form of o~~ S,IU'I d 'e,a n 00 '~repar,edl as; ~ono·W:!i.

An ,ulgluh Ie a pin;'1 ~,21 f~u:~d 01.~,J of l,tnBeed ani-51, added '~.o hun1Bl_fII pllHJl'lJds of s.~'a-",s!ru:a.'re sS!lnd 1Jh;lped en '!:he floor aJlildhe two oombirt9d" ifjS 'rr,o.ro,~g,nlv as pi)S$:'Ib~e. with Ih e aid ,of a 'lrowe1 0 smalll, IbQihn !h~\I!i!t 'The oil wiU ha ound 10 m'x (n l'ifi.adily ,anough. Hair a pouneJ; of Q,extJ'in,e ~s made IUp~ in aeoordan OE!' wi~h (he inslruc 'tijo:riJS 'lmn (Ill p,a eke l. with iii qua Iter pin.l, o~ wsun· and abo.u:r 11 J t -a re.,suJtant 'Quall1tity' or g~rn t~ added "0 ~'Ile sand and mixe:d 1n" A . his stege ].h~ 1r9SUI'l ~111 be

InV1hin~ but salis"f'arctory. being CGH'npi)S@d CJir elots ,of gluey :l5and 8'odi mU(ih looss SluFf very diffictd It to aml~ ga ma ta, T1h e am,ElOO'llJ)f 'wi,n begin '10 a'~iPrBGhne lhe valt..Je and lmpo tam';:e' c,f 'he mile" '\alnh~81 methcads, of mixing 8vaHa:ble tCI lh prof&ss;onal four! d'rym'~n.

It how~ver, ne po~s~9Sies an electric. half'Ld drililiof th e Wolf., fj'/fJ,ck and ,D'fMlter 01 simi~af i¥IPS, tte' 'has a~ admi,r,abll8 S'Jt] mUu te elose a hsnd. ,Abou half the abov<.t ~,ualr.rr.hy o. sand is e'Onve:ni9!ml~ de'fiI,1i wjt at i!1 time, wn,are ~t i~ corrta~ned n'n ;ti! small bNJ,d(et or empty pari',lI'tt: 'tin. Fig;. 14. The ~simphl' ibes'U:!r shown is: bent from a length of qUEH'ter-iliu::.t'n IIHamutef mild s"leel re and th.D 1'l9.1tolv~ngl driB is pa:~u,i:ed l''OU!f\'O and lI"oYfild inside 'lhe 'tin whan, 'n Ipe haps twa or 'hl'lea minutes, th,e send w~ r b,e Qu'le ~ho r,uughly IiTil xed. TIne second fo,t ea n be - re,B'Ii;!!d ~1iI ~he ~alm e wav andl. i'f i is, I:h en round hen lhe mhcur,e is lEI m 'lie dry., more of: the tJeKtfine gum ClSn Off ,added ~ndl the process r8p~ate~ UrtJl'U the corrlitC' ccn-

. 'b· ~ ,...... I '

siste ncv ~s III : t,8 finlSU. n ,E!! ny CiJJSjB~ re:pe'll-

ttO!Tl ,-G, more. vih,lI~bl~e rna" o'therwii"se._ The sa nd cannot lI"ea~ V :~o over,~mi3(led.

To, Iwcpl:a,l'n the mil Efi of: the eerreet cons.istencv Qlt 'oU $,i!Hl is a p,ob[e , ,Arnyon e who hIS, had acties,'"S '[01 ,e qus'ntlty of it fJ10m a mu I!1drv wn I have sorne ~dea wha tol el!!tl'ect but, !for loth~l":Sr j'l w~1I ;1P'I'Ob8ilFJ,~V b~ best (0 campa rl its C!li1aract>tl'r'~ ieiS W:'Ol those 10' common brown iiiugaJr, eX"cep~ of co ursa lha- ~ l' - ~s not S 'I ol!i:v . It 'Ie 1:I,ls :$0 and sf1if{un1n an. whan the 1i'Iaifld is prless,ed i11l1:to it. ~ ~ lhG~d5 tJon e f,o mJ!l. if i'· s.ic!k_s ~~ th Ie! hi nd at all altha r h18,ffschve mbdng or EI n ave rrablmIdance of m'OicS1LJ e lor gum ~s ilJ'ldlo;;c,ed. W he-rw fin EIII V t,Ulrnre d oUr af'-he can ~:Uet 'mixing U should stand IJP in a tOft. lilt firm cake'.

Sandi 00 prl&paroo Imay be somewha (Joking ~ n green Strength. I~ m rovelment in this Irlltpect c~rn often be e.fflEicted by rh

USB of' upwards:· of fifty per "Ca'n; of Ir,ed .-uldrrng sand wUm ~ he' $Uica 5 iii nd 0 t . 1"' ~rq tl've-hf. bV !!!!Smllllll a ddlt[,o , IQ' tuUef-·:S

sanh. Th@ ~bUind'rvm an Mn. oft-eiJ'"lj maika, , (ljJlj!5fments in '!Jis ,waif until he has a ms - ria I €r~1'lf,e~v' tc hi's J ikirng. On he oth-er trBodi _Ih~' dry :STn~j'ngIh Hfter b~kililg miliV !be

aund Ul oe {J1'i -,~tar. in the case o-f Ithe mi~l,u e [made IlJJP en~Jm~v rom ,silica sand. am ~ . - in ~he modJiJfii"ed "Il'f-,sion.

Q Id8 an d ceres m-ad B froml on sa:nd may be baked. Quite effHe~ vely. in arnl o,d'III1Bty do mastle ovan, For ibest 11"12 SyJ Ui lie '-b"m,J)~lI"Bl~re shou1d b round about h 4fJ.OQ' m,eik - S·9'V 200b C - the te.rnpe~r.'e u~e f,e'CiUli:r:ed tor cookJng mel!! -"

The Ib~kad C©'~OIJ WUII be ~s:omle:wtun da:rk;,er ttla n the: sa nd ij n its gr9:en sla~-·f!l and hesum~ of 'the tore should be qUde rinard wh. n tested with ti, e 'FIirnga rn 1.1'.

Where facHiti', s 'for ma~:j'n9 on sand 4iU

orrre are nor ,~,v:ai'ab'l'a. to the am reur .. lor whe~.f:I pa,nicuh;lriv f!'~tlIeting eora or fIf'j,ould 15 Ib 11'1'9 attempted. I~ rnav be an ~dv.ant~g9 ~I lobt'lil in a q uarr ity ,".eady mixed. m ther 'rrorn a Ioc II !fou J1dry or- Irom ~ S~DP iJr. At least one firm (see appiUl ixl, will ~nJ'pply B high QlJa~lty s.-and In Q!Ja~ ~,II r~ a's sm a II s' I qu artarbu dredweigh t, 111, IS 'I[,ady 'f.or IIJSlIl! a nil! wUi ~ I? 'Fe iEI IOfJ1gJ P.EH'k~d1 in, an ilIfni ,Ii ~ r~ce~~el .. a ndo wore n twenty",elg h'l po Il.Jnds wlU I!1I'rI e many. ,many 'oores~ ~t - 'C-I;i1,I1i:)'[ be Ii1t9B, lei as a glflfHU el:pelllse_ The meUIDd Qf df'li'n1Q out is ~'he'same lUll' tna'l employe.d wit h ho m·e III ix:ed 's'd'n,d S 2]ln dl a li£5mpEiltat1ulr.B of~ 400,0 F is eq~all,v correCt. The s.a~dI i:s baked I;JIn~U ~ ioS a.l1 eVEnit. Chc,Q ,tlt9 bmWl1'1 i n ~olou r.

Iboa f1Iru

CkrC!:!'lionelly the' arna~®ur founduvm'BIil wTlU b~ oon1rcnted wJ th iii refenm ce tOI :1 o.a m tQl'J)nQ~Q lailly • '100 m" ') m ou I dl ng= h is a

~1;1rurnqlJ.e outside Hile: ,SCOj!lE! ,~,.t the llama fGl.U"Ldrv and LJ$Ula~ IV da8crJb~cS the rn,a,~e-rllilrl

used in the ~:n',elJ'alr!l)tIOl') Qf m'-C1u~d$ iPnd CC1l!t ssccfiated with •. p[t"' mDu~dingf 'IN 'ich is c-arrmd IOU~ on lh e floor of ~he shop alnd deals - ith oa:sUngs '~O up'w,ard~ o~ many tons. 'loe:m rs a ,synthe -Ie mouldill'lg n'unl3:ri~1 ~.:tu'll1pQse'd of S~rid wh'ich bas bean ' nely rn lllad, and' an ati(Ufo of ,chopped ,s.tra,w. nG:HI''Se menure or WQ(l d sawch_un. Oec; sic; _ alliv. hOrsehah i's add~ d to umpN:Jv'e IS 'len a clt¥~ The work ~s i,ighllV sklUs and Mloulding IS li,irgely. carria.c 0 ILd. lb." hamd. Inim t em p'll·es Olf

.'. 'io ..... Il. n·· L. .

s,r~~es, :as I riey. ar.e caU,ed., rsrher I-h,~m

panem.s ill ~he. u~u~1 WE!y._

B,~le:ckilng

"The uSe ~'f po'wdered graphiite or ··bllaektng.t' ,iI'lso called p"lumb-ago. alPpUed to the S'urlice of th~ impr,e:s.sitUl ~tiI ~htu mould has 't!he eftcr of assisling th " f1Iow of m'9't·al. it als-o impaln . a hiQlhe- fini~h to the! ca~lil"llg U"l~H'1I would nC~lJr If t11e me Hli I we'fe broogh-' iliuo fn'[imat COntac[, w~lh 1h~' sandl. The tendency of lh,S! l19uer to adh,ere W the ,!it! "ace erf ih,e. oasUng is ia~

much reduced, Graphlt~ is nOrma Uy 1J51Sd as i31 mo uld dln~ s~tfil\g far i'Fo~ and CUprC'lJI!$, ~UOY5. A~uliTI~nium is 'freQiJali~liy pOYlr,ed in to UnaH3J11ltd m ~ UlldS:.

G re en $I nd moulds a 11"8 cluS1~ d with ,ltky p~urll'lbi»g(L w'lrd€h is fmn-n~U¥ ooif'litained in 8 Un le: er.:Ht,~t11 bag :fur til e!' pUlm-O&e. The 'bag is ,sir-aiken OVIF3'f 'tJ'; ~ m ~'LJld all lowi 1'19: ~he powder to "Bill 81ild petH~u.~:M~'8' (~a ~'!j~ r'~y'- ,A

O$efitll i B! le'm ativ,e ISO 3 fil"! e. k utl::1"Jisn s:feve 0 r stralner, which ts "~:p,liled lig~'u~y wrttl rile fi ngor 'to relea se (tu~ 19 rap:h he. When powderedp~ ulmba;g.~ is used :8 S a dr~ssing (lor ceres :irnd dry 'sand mou id.iS, It is usu a I ro mil( ~ t w'~th Wa.~'r iil'f'Id a;pp~v it wi1 h a son brU$~. Th e eore 'Of m Il!IlIJld its 'then drl F.1{i !Off' aga~n b,~ "0118 iit rec8Ji\i'e~ the m8~,at

POwd~ara d gra'phh,a' ;!oblla,inab~e from

2,8

S"u~I.'bJe rna nWllFaclu rers, An olther form af fBfraC1Qry' m Culd COB tilng is corn posed (ill l:raP!'ite or oth'itI'r _ ~ ~,te'rri9J1 sus.P~in~'(lid ~ Iil ~ ttq !J~a. ~S!\,Jha~ Iy ,a s~trlf!l;~ baS'~. TI'l!'S ~ 5 most dlmVli!rI ientiv a,ppn'e~, biy' s;1jJf'aying, and ls §.OIt;tde, t~r app~ iClI!:[iC:H1 to! ei rh EH" green s:iFld Vilf d r'!I~$~ nd mOfl$lds. iii nd co res. G'rd des; :S\Jl iiable ftJ ~ 'fe nrOYlSf ,a,nd no!'lfetrou~ m 9.H!II~ an d ngh~ it Uoy.s are' a'Jtt~~- 81:.10 ,fJ~d they ha~ the add'~d adlva n'tage of be f.ng ~l"ifia'li'nmI81bIe- 11'11 ey an;! ~g:nJJted after iElp,p!~icat'iDn a nO hmpart' a r;kin -d rie:d

" '

,eftem 11)0 ~1Iia mould.

panilfll ,Sari ell

180(1 wh idl has been buW'",~d ~o~es I ts bllOl. ~1ny s a :sp r1,nklfh91 ,o,f bluned sand irs. applled to Lh@ jo'int -[llce ,of th ~ nioutd" tlefoM nlmmrng up the Q(lpe' • se -Iha,t the! fINO h.e,h,es, wHi nome d,e.anly apart, Dry i€la~5!tr,!o'l:'e 'sandi mi,ly also be usad 'for th~ ~ilTI e P bJll'0!t~ whi la l;he ~ ~Si,. QccBt~k~nEl1llif. it C~!i'!1ii tar separnting a rn (]I~.dd by m'i8I~U~'S 01 5tfTp~ of newspfl! pa r,

SpEu-:ial P,i1i fting powd,srs. which j;lel'fDmtiil mOfU efticie fitly. and wh ieh may ce c mpDsed .of be ne du s~ Dr' PrQduCil!d h"mT1 gypsum. 3J1"e' avaHable .Bl'lcl it Is well wort;h rhHi~ tro uble to p roc iJii'8 0 ns of ~h:e se iI$ Wl.'l~ P r.'09,re5 SeS, § ~ mGt! rnes th ev ca h be fit PllrtLl:'uhlf ''II.ah.J8. whd3n dU®10d over 8 pattvm. to; assist in B clean withdrmwi!lll. In the ma~ingl of' 01 ~ san d mou ~ds, 3md cores '''V'J~d pln1'in 9 ~ rill ppll ud by Oro sh or sp ra,y ttl th~ p8rnorn (Jir earr~I)Q\t(. i s ~~@ p lion 811V Il!~fu I In atf,Q rid in 9 a c:"aafll sHi'IJ~ fh ~s' ilgiilitl, a wateir repeUen-u Ilquitcl~ can be ~altned from· firm s ,of fQU ndry su PDU'ers.. WMn s;p r8yi ngl UQu uC! pa ('"Un,g Qr ~ppl V ilJ'lLg

F,;g.. 16~ The ,ril1.'fJ! (Jf,g sprlJ'I gun {,~F 'h'lJ HppJlci8 .... itiQIl fJf mf\f;ii'tlb1.ry' dre'$~ings W thr: mauld.

~lql[.lid d re~a;ilrcg,s,t,o 'L~e mould 'ilfll the ~Im e way;. ~:t is 8dv;~~blla to w~ar s.'9m~J"form of r:es1liTB1\m. II'f ihl~ only ilcttJsl m ,trFf,~,C't, the lIlalS'ElI hrlt8tioM earr be \!'ery ba d 1

P'or.lJla n d C!i3Tmelilt

Pernap!h before II eaving til ~ ch f! p'r~r on m~uld~ng sands, cemplatalv, iii br,h~'f ret~tenoe ~o one ~ulr{~er tJee:1ru"I;ique wm ~O be liliJtt of' P~EI,Qe.. 'It may t;e' 0 Interest to SomJe'. nett' ve r:y COnvO ni~ nilv p ~aced with regs rd to the man! 0 rthodolt ,S8~. no learn that ofic:llnarv PG_rt~and C~fflMI c~ln be a'lfId Is u.sed ,~S a [gOJ1lding agent. Known alS thl B R,(1fi rfiu(Json p reces, h con cl3m~ th e uS1! of ,sHies sand mimd, wid'n ~i9n per can eernant an d. ,~p,l!JrrO'xi'mB le~v ll'V'e psr c:eln1 wa~,~r. M'mJlds slko ulld be a,ir d:r~,e;d ror tw~:ntv'~fOUf he urs a n([l rn;a V ~~, O!l"l b E1!~ dried ow: Imcu's rifllTdlV.

C HA,IPTE,A B

M,u ding Bo,'es

for 'tb e t~ nd of' wc rk Hkely 'to ibe I!H'QtOl!O'-' 'tered 'in rh f! am ~IU sr;;a,le ~ou 1iidJ'V" til e!' 551" d ~.s' r~n;nmBd into a Pail r af m Quldj ng bO~8S; '101 form 'lh'e: m C) u~rl., lh,s! lP~i Ii of: b OX'W:& are ~lno,wm as the ·"flask.;·· wihi(:n i's ,oompoS'e:d Icrt ,a, lower box h,n8··dr~g·~) and an upper'bo:tl; (tbli3 ~·,oo~e·i). ln iiOundwilB~. 'flasks 'oaln. b Eli of cast lre n 0 f fa'bri'cat'R~ -Fro ji'fj sh eat If'! il'tal. IN lave I1.he I'~. a ill el<CI!;lhEm1 s,~b-s'lh\!! teJ for 'lh ~ m'9tal b-ol!C c:an M m adB kom 'w.oodl and OC!'Il'ltr,a rv I' p!,![f'h~:p:s:. ['0 firsl jim ~ressiOliliS. '~h are i~ vinuall r no, ri~k of

sco,rehing. wan wbef1l ir@'1i ~s' pO'Li)'i"'eI d to witt1iin I1I3JI'f an inoh Qf the 'sidles: of' '~ih8 bm{ .. T hre' rn eu ldln g sii:lvild i~s 'stl!-ch ~ goo tj itl1ilSlU~,!i!ltor, B,eing mueh Iliglit tar i rn we-ight th~n lllli!1 metal 'fl;ask. SPGcu~1 a,ttaf:lUon must be' pa,id 'to wet,g'hdng tl" e i~~iP of t:19 ~ mould w~an ,~HlVthTil1lg lr.kE a substant i'a! sect-vorn 'o,f, [i;~sti ng ij iii, b~~ing pO!lli r!l! d. 01rhlEll r\l'!Ju'se Ih e co~e \i"liiU fJ,ro~bt.\fblV IUt. "",ii th a lesa of rru~f~:1:lI" (j,[!,m;a,ge ~:c '~he bo:!( and th-q waste' l~tf a rneuld. P'efinaps, h: 1.5 u'SafilJJ~ ~o 3Cq uij,r£j' ,i lihfl'bh, of weigh ling ~l~e, bO:KIS

Fig. ~' 6. A ~lY ~/mJJJIJI ~Yilflr fJf waod:e" rn'(HJ'dlft9 b tJjj( or ·'FIB5:1;:. ,...

~V~~ J1H,. ,At L~ ~t on~'_'po~lbl~ sou ree of f$lIlIflI1 ~s til us e II~mi fli3tedl.

A ,~irablo' to,r1l"rll of wooden flask. 1 s IIIUils~ra~)cd In Rg'. 11ft Tbis is o;F a rm,QS~: la~e=' mentll rv lfla'[Ullr~ a Iild slrn ~11:y naHed 0 II' '!i~r-e1N6 d tto,!}e:~he r h"o'A"j1 rOIUi gh -s,a 'IN n 1 n11f1i f" i!:ven if-fin 'im~t-ove!d appear,~nOf! is InlFtl!lrted te th e' OUlS1 de' ,bY' pl'Br.I irlg" it is sdl1 duimtde la 11~~ljJiJi the inside iF'(J U gh as ~ kiF3¥'~(J'lhe SiI fAd. Whef@' Ipls nad 'wood ~'i" used i1, ~vm ~, 'BclVis:ablra- to 'gouge greO'\l1aa on th~ ~llsk~e as an ,a I rem a,-i~'.e'. F:ug. 11

The sma~II~, iba'l1ene d bea rd 'U ndemea11h .. $ til !hl-ndt !!lfddt(tQ!i'i and1 oa:mes i,!n u ~efy~ 'for 1 rnfe rtJn 9 the m O'IJI ld, w h Ie.ilfl ,~tun: is Fie·'8"~rv. .siI nd "~o:r ,carrylng Iii e lITLould abOut.,

F[g,. l' 8 sh~ws th eJ srra ngement of d.pweJ]ing~ A beheaded 17181i I i s driven. inte Uie B,d,ge 01~ lhe copa ,and a c~rr@SjpDndifig ~ h~i ,'OO:iff,uj in the d rag to r,~i\i'e it. I tls, ,e iii aov~ Iiltiilg\8' if [n~s I liil'tter Il~l'e< ~$ bore\d eltiil'fi iii tth"€:liJ.g~ the woo ~ 'itO alloW' ,D!Il"f g "d. Wflj!ti~ Im~tJht othe,r.wi's;e c I 0'9 itt 'to d ra i'ra

'~jtfi9 ig:ht th r:oogh. 'Th~ [Plll fPC! S'e 1Il~ the dowel,s, o-r: ~:01U! rse, is to ~frOfd 1~Jl:,tU;;:t:

IQ~ tk~n to tho [WO b01l;, parts, ,~nsufino' 'that '~'hB 'twO ha~v.e~ of '~hB m~ul'd n~flils-l~ I~C 00 rBt'1I1Iy • Tn~".s m@'l'hod a:F dCrW181!1 ina is rendered mllll~e ~aCl a.nd les;a; ,5'Ubjecf '10 wear ~f ~e drag is. r'~~nforClld! with ,smaU meta ~ pl,ete .. ,fig. 1!L

,A, m or~ 9,1 alb 0 r:.a'bJ ~'~f.O ifli'li eif We od,en mIQ'!.iII~!di ng, b O~, ls ~hO'wn hi fi'g. ,2,tO., Ob-vi@us,IV'~ ~'S' the sb.'Ei' of the box is I rn~f$a sed, S'O ~ lso m !!.1st- b~' il~ ,stlf@ngr~h to Ciffry' 'tllla additiDIl!,ijJrl weig]'1t Qif' is and, A bo~ '116111 ~fi! dles squa re' maV:b f;I' IC.k~sce ~. h.'o~dJI!19 a qua rter of: ~ 'hiMlodredw,l!l:lgtn. :5Um ila rly', wh 1h3' lt 'Is: a ·s im,p~ e m:~tt8r- 1['0' rc~',o,se ern e of ~n8' ,S ma~ h~f boxBs bV In rst vlfi!~~l5tlerin,g an'e fdowel, lEInn, by IQwer]ng ~rhe oope' b.V deljrees, brlng'in.-g 'I:tn'e! otile,r d'QWI;~ ffirUo nn)1! 'w'i'lth Us. .so ~j(€I,r .. wbe·n (i S!lmlh~r' t'ii!'cnU"'liiq us i~, II!! mplo¥ed with i8 n@'ifl/iler' 1b0i~" 'the, suppc r1:in g Df the :1m dded wSiigiht ean be fatiy ~~'Ii'I'1 ll;.ilst at a Um,a w;nan ~he're i~ IiIUI@l 'ma rg'in fior elfll'Or. The :r.vPe olf dowel shQ"Nn he~e k'~eps, tillre pins. 'with ir'! rh m' range 01 vr$iofll of 1:n~ mouldier. wh ile. h,~ :s1~l"!ds lelva!!' the bOtx .IU1id ,g:: 1:0 se:i!~' f,tJ5;, mor;e COfil1cfortably. F.~g.. :2 '1 ~ '0 nee [he e.l'l!d~ (iif [t1u' pi;n;s ;!1! re tJ'~ gage-d ~.h i!! ~f3'9~ sr~ er I!S rGffec~ e.d 3 ~t~'madoa'lly as '(1'11 a CDlllB' is lower-ed.

Th ~ braekets holding ~,he p Ins a,irle eur ham a :s.ection ef a ngle' In; n ,ali'D d se CU nlId Ull t:he Ib~x ~:~cte w[th se~ews. A e Of!'VI!U'l 1'9nt :sIlO of '~l'"" whi~h wm ~robalb!v' bh!'~1 ~he Imost ~r uegu larr ,pa rti n~' Une II'klly 00 be

e:ru:::ounl9i"e:d. wOIJld be ,Bl~lOlII:t tw'O Inches ~on g and h.l rned I"Dim a pi ~~a of j N di8I1'11UJ't~r steel. A qUi rte r fnchl h D~ 9 ls drill ed ~ 11 the: cop _ bl a cket end tl1 Q i fJ 5~e I :rs, turned down a 't e end 0 fil it. 'Wi-h a Ii ~. Bddi1jonal I n U,'o he ·spigo· or ri;,t,e~'!ng. lccation wi:! be assist d b

Fig. 2.'0- A CrJlJ !f'sroel'M type af tJo)t far JlJf'ger moulds...

g~vfing a subs' eln, 1 IlIII eha mf\af to ,!he 0 '11 a. en d which, of eou rse. fh:5 11'11 to a . ; 'J hoi In fie drag b acb't and 'i~ ghren a (lij}mfQt~. ~ble e IceHrsn,ce. Fig~ :2 2.

Uft ng ha ndle!s can be' provld'ed' 10 QdV'~nntge. A simple 'ype of handle is mlJJ~b1iJied and talk<8'5 he tor cif' ~ :staple,

32

ibS'L'lt 'from qi.Ul rler' ~ neh di.2me.rtet s.til3;EI~ rod

I1d ~rawed at each en d 'bill" llIlU!ui 1I'I!lI-jUO the' sidM, of ~'ne !bO;tt:.. A uS:etfu I IOe',BI{iiJ'lIl for these handles]s direodv over '~he' pJns. ng. 231.

Thai tfS'nap ~I FI ask

Ga'~n~ng jln f8~OUiIi fn mechanised feundrIRS\. i,lild nip iJ b:11e of adfJ!pt[slioA on a Ii all sca',e. js ·he ¥p 0 ·m,olllJldirn'O bQ)l;. kniOlwlii as !he '~~rHHp" 'fla'Sk. In '(1115 e:ase thu ,bo,~. pins airo made' In such ill wa,y' 'ina • 131 Hor the rn 0 I1Jlld is .assembled ,a nd closed prior to po ulring_. '[he 'm'hllsk ean b f:)' -r8 move-d 1018lv],og the sand' mQ.u! d SoW nclln!;J on its OWI11. J . thi!,l V!!NlV ·he rnou d~ng be):, can b i,Qsedl over lEi nd ow r aga~n r an La nr liT'! ned number of meuld . b~iil'\g m4;l'de fim,m ,only a sin1ghe il.tt"i,r of bg:c ,pe rts, The econern V o,r bo>ces Is oRa " Ul, a certain 9x'en,t ,by he lftxt,ra 111'OU!'b~'e ena,nen in m,a'l('vng Il']~m: 11'l fac~", tth, ! ecst of such flasks 'when msta lones ~ret. p!lJr,chas~d 'mav be f'~lJr"itJmElS the ipxice o1i ~.he. ordinary tvP~'. b~~ me system is; ~nnlicylarlv ad~>anu~a-gecus when .fpplile:d to moulds which i~He to be drlred or biilk.~d ..

Sh'Own in lFig. 24 ~s a 'farm of we:oden' Slfiap fl.ask w~nl~h esn 8'11s'iIV b ' me!ld'!eJ a~ no'm@. The bQ ~':5 hil1g}ed It Ot"posiil.,e eernars. 0, e hinge 6f 9i1ch part 15 prov~ded Wll h ,e, r€! mo~oble IPirn SfJ tht~( !he i~des 5W, ng OU'[WSfC S wtum it ~s requjr~d to lI'ermnVf! it om 'he Il'fiJou~d., The fixed oomen; aTe r,eimrforced wi lh ilHjt _I ,EI ngle stra P:!I 0 Ii a :stUDllt II'ength of iron. fila . .gls,ter JlilAS 'COU Id be sl mi ~aJr te aith er ~f the e-:x:a l'ph~Si shown. icoofd[ng tQ the StZS

of't~ e ,ox.

Wh 'n. USillitg' a '~nap flaf&k il is advls~td.e to kleep ~.he' [patte·n wEd witlfn th "mOl!h:t The. hal "'-inC'n margin ~;meviDlluitv I'iBfen&d ro lSi r,1iI ~ er I ~ss ihsilil IEtdeql..u:n'8 whreril Ole sand ·a,cks tJH~ sUppO!f1C o:~ l[he' bem sidetS and fh.e fisi of br,eak thiliough i'S, i . orEu:u~ed. NOnfiJlEllV abo ut double' the wl'!!lIa~1 ,iIlm 0 t.!lfiI f of :maflig in i:s ~ Ikn~ed a rnd (lIbvlQu'sly c:ondi-

t'k~ ns wi'l ch!J1,l€lnd u POlrI UI~ wI9,lg!ht o'f t h ~ seetlen pi ~he' C8sl1lng and the rnetal to b.r:

DQ~ifiOO~ !I Is rl!lf~ll6.lr a matter fpr lOX"peri~ manDt, Perhaps the m(JS{ €iibvic:njl51 aDpl~'c~ tion o"t a sf'liap 'Flasi< ~s in [he prepalr~ tLa n o.J b~ked sind mO'~llds.. where th'V bo~ parqs aim fismaved In.d Ihe selr.ld ailtP-ne to!1\i'eye.d [0 the' d nllng O;YSlil. Wher,e rh e ha'hl'E!'s of lh~ mou~ L1. am req!lJ~ r'ed to. b~ h a ndl~d !l:eplr.a,tlely afitf!l'f dr\!tng. f'Or d'ees.S'embiy lof cores an d sO on. Ina nd t\o I'ds aw~ p:mlVl d,oo in the' mouilds ~'h@l mselves as (31~5Q ~ri3J ,~o ca tl ng dowels insert d in -'he ,IOillt faces.

When rna kin.g 1:1111\1 [dlild of m 0 Ii.;Illdi g bO:ICf i .ts wQnlh wh~ie 6~tai"ii'ingI8 fhJsh anrt ~moo;th Wtf b.etwe an he 'two hahr-es. 'The s'8nd VIi III thllJt. be rammed in saHd Y' ell mum:1 eil'lld '[he risk of .s1,rav pariLioles failing lnto 'thel me uld ts m IiJCIl r,&d LJced.

ft[t sk.s. foW' brass. 'fe IlJnc:H rig ~rllditiQna Ilv take a dfterem 'form. II~ that esse two backing. boa nis !II re' provided a:1"I d cia rnps ~,r~ used to hoi· he 'parts togethsii. An ·8)Calmph~' ;'51, dll.u5u'a'ted in :F~g~ 251 which also . shows, how the meta I i~ pO'IJr'ed tnrc ugh holes in one e 1101 cf ~e oox. Tifle' el.(te IIlded peu r'fng g~~e s~rves as a ~:r~ p fer foreign m:l\·· entcElIIr.Tng '~hemou'l d. and fa good "hem:f' Is pl'to\iided by 'h e Ie I"Ig t' of 'lh e bs:)t..

MreGll' 110 u'ldtilll1l II QJCes

In the ordinary wav' the ama'leur eUl,gineer w~uld nlfi,NJf napa' 'ItO m'ake for himael'f an me equ pmJ19 nt nEil e:ded te ca ny on h ls hob'bv. S,o f is, also~ WI~.' the roundrymar't al thO!Wfg hi' so 'far in th'is book, onilV cl'lUlclb~e6 h'ave be en refen:sd to as behrlg 8 ~. m U Sf" far purch !illS; og. An en erme S, a~ount of work ca n be dorn-e wifllfl ItA e ki I!1d of wooden bCljj)es; de.scI!11 bad. b ~rl ·t her» is. allways (h-s chance' thart pmgl~e:ssiin'Q ~o 'la' ·s Clg;s wiher8~ froml ~he po.im~ Q~ ,,'I aw 0: i !l1i1:01lE;!·St. 'm!J ndryw-:ork Ibecom!E;ts, :5Dmlethi 1101 of a 11 iI!'nd irill I~;tllt 1.tU3' 8lma'teUf n:mav teel' ~lne

po .' ~5<5hJ oi ~ number of iieg~ .. 1II'8r mG~ht.n~ baKes· wound be both ,iii p188SU'D'e and ,..,. assat, Such may be of CiJSJ[ 0 r fa - r1 Cated co osuu~tion Bn d, :in a~the r

I'll are IikeW 'to be oollll9what COSIJ¥'.

Wi oEm, We OOfflpiue wi lh lmactd ne "~,ools; !lor the arneurn Ilf 'w,o"rk ~hev re I~rbl·e. to do. he e;\I',t!!'r, 'j he' outlay in this reSpec;' wil amDUnt: "to 0('[1 IV ,e fra etiOJ'I1 Of tke 00.5'[ e , hlJ o h r e.qu\p mel'l'I. M~·tall bOilC~S w,Quld I.a·st a li1utlme' ln the horne 'foundry, Ibuilt IS:

liIV ij[e for l1 eavy duty 11'11 ~o ~ndUlStriBiI tXln~ml. an'd 'thus: 'the; ni:u:e,ssity ormpiilim t "bp". r jlils1 eu a t·!me. wtu!'n alii fs .. se'l ro'F:" t : 10 JOroceed~ wcnulCi np~ ,ari!i'G'.

FfilSks of at size U'ke1f' ~o find hrvay r in iJilI am ;te.lUr' :!I.hop ,~lUiE!' !not 'oomWHllFl btu . mpll,;ars, fiUed with lremOIrli! bJ e pins a nd1 be _ andles ,~f\8 s.J~p'p~ie:dJ I,. sizes from 8,1~ '. t 'with 8 Imfrfmum, ,stan,d;ard ,ejeop1h lof :We i nd a h fill' incnes.

Fig' 26" 8rtlt-51'S hJ~fldst'$ tia$ beJowj POurlflfJ .~ugh ami ~ .ri

CHI,AP'T'IE.'R,6

attern I

IM~tJe.riia Is

~ n(jj;ustti;fil~IV. tlindl dDljJb~11 ess a ~80 iill~ the it1'm,aJt:~UIF l,el'v,e,I" eJ \rar1'~ty Qf m.a:l~lhd$ eaa bi!' em p~ a,ved 'wr '~he ma~~ rig of f'OIJ ndry' plmii[le:rns. M 8;t~l, weod ,m! nd Ipl,a ster iOJ mefli~T,c'fi1 thre;e, und 1 he re is II nt'~~e doulCt thMSVTI~heitic mater'ials :S!,._H~h as pl:!fist!cs and 'fibra: gl,sss: can now pi~~ a P iiul. FO(f' ~ n~ pUrpCnii'i' of this b'o ek, h()w~\te r, lnit1J 'woed p~Ue nil is lfeg~rded ~·s, the ba~~s o'F '!JitB ,aim'al~eln" 'f'~ ~11'drv, 'fo r ,e'tP,en la, 1~:,u~\Se 'with lEI ,Umitoo kfll ow~ e dge o~ c:a~rpe.r'l'tJry ~he. ml~bnial ;8 sj m1P11I!' 'ia ndl citJnv'e n~9nr(, 1:0

h8.rld~e. ,

I n more me..eA'~ ~iiirs\l 'fo'Uowhilij' the, 'post ~ail' pemi'od ,01 Plfl! l'tiIi1its :a fild 5Qci ~1:rjl~5. t'i~ber O'f: V,!i!lry~'ng k]rndfl, ls noW fr,eelv' ~vali],.ii:lbl~. e ails2i.JW oed, ,of ,COY i"Si!9 l'~hoiJgh ]l: tSi ~ ~it'tl~ soft for P'!!nern making}. rem 11- blOllr'lided ph, ~;I'i! 'th1c'koneues rIDlrom ,iaOOI~l '1 /3,2 in. ra min .. OIbe;~ ;le 6!il'Idil sP'~u~' as weU ,atS; m ~n¥ otihers" I're nOW aVlai ~able "fl'1om ml:~del ,G~OpS and' • '0 Q;-'U'-vou ~iS'e~~~" s~:ores in oonVl~nigF:lI[ 1Q'>lJlt '5j;~\e!l and ij!i1~UmEH'abl€i ge~UDln~~, At ho:rne, I.e. illl I":'nglalild:. ~~ leas', 'the pimttef,f1l ma kl6'r earn chODse t:1fire' e~3 ct 'hlck!li as ,~,f tlm'b II]' he !lBqulres 'l"0f tbB' job in hand. 1!J!S\iralll,v whh a 'fu Uy pl;a,ned 'fin~s h.

Fot a pfI'ttem i n~ended tor a h)~g ."~!J v(' ;a herd wood w,o iJlld tie' !l::t.'i.@S9J'i1', Pa1,~!ms 'ifor th~' usu;il ··'!model 'sJz,'!t" jo~. Ican,

I

J

h crwev Sf • va rv co i\lVeliliBn-~'~y ba maJde ~rom r;lJer::he using 8' '~'lfru:uil~I""a irrClif3f[,"" tech l1i· Qtlle' an d· ba i$a c~'m e n t'. Th,i~ t i In b er, ~_nIl:Ki!ndF3d 'p'OsSib~V '~r m !'ld~! boat blLl~ ~d ~I-.s is ava~ iablre'. ~ ike Ibats:a ~ i" ~[r'ip ,~ndsJhee't. iCll"'i1 n1HI d~ hi bB~ ~r\led ,DJnd 'Ita lined .f nec~$:$ary,. ce'me:rrts 18'lsilly' a nd firm'l" ii!i nd ea n la'rElelv 'b~' cut with ~ knia i~Uldi ,i3i rule, Sihe,ets (bE' olb8ch~' a 5, 'lltJlrch:a;ad til ave a S!M:,a'~ghit' ,~·dge' :9 nd ill smoo th su niaCie', ~n w.hi'c~ the dJ~igJrn of tha CllcSuin g t~riI be· dn~wn 'w'ut h 9 I'lea't a ecu f!",ilGY + R,e ia,t~ Ve p!@'i'nt!i 'CHl ai 'fl'iIJ t surface e;a n be' 1~C!c;a'led wirt21il 'oofiiflid.e riIlOO. ilIUcwln'Q" of ~O~ rse, for sh~i'nkJlilge ~here' ihe si2!e' Df U~e ~s1'ing dti!m.~ nds 9n ,~Ul(}wanOe1. 'When:r "Sim~dl radii a're requ'ified 't~e~e CllifH ,ofte III be f.Oi!mU~ ~8tisl,I3 ctorilv "hom the cern ent 11:~o~,f: ,13 lid ~~811 derta~,r,~ an d even I:ettifl ~1 ng 'tifil[i1l be added 'with g;raa'~ f.eci1 ity. CeHulose do~e s~flIdi fIl91 ~iI3.'i!J ~~r prod,uce~ :a 9rood 6rn1 sh i~ ndi nard!l3:11 ~ tha s~rfaae~

'n-diS! is in ~h~oo '··'!aJble-'lopl'· !I3.awpl(!ii,fIl'UV" ,1Ji,

fiJ1lIE;:j s:aw an d, ,a er~~ knits ,ar,e ab~ut the cfii'iY ,tollllis, "ie-eaIBrl", ~'~~hougli ;a :sMai'l plal(18 'who~~ bl,E! da' h;e;s bee'l!l r;;areiul~, tHlflled fjIf11d ''!5:1"rop~ed'~ to ,n 'razor adg,e' c~n of~)IB'n ~IS an i9 sset. .A j[g-1Sa~, ~: fl n~ :banc'S8w (as: '~UXUI'1i'9!lj or a 'si.rnpl~' halnd 'het~afW' ~av b~ 111 i9:ed,e;d fCl,r' Clfl1Jng ~ Jiltrica~itJ ~lruap6$ in lhe th~ck~ r secUons of wooo. M:od'e'mng p,j nS'

liy. 2,6. ,PI1t:t,fJffl fflfJ.kl.1J9 ,f,'(jI' sm·.11 @!iJff~eritfg f/ittJjec,ts iGan (!)filfJ'fJ ,ll, rtJduc~d ri!l!1 flibbJ .. ~a.~ pr.()pmdcm~ ,~ t~ ,!he n1iii'flOet' 1(# aU').J IJih;f'ah: ,Ga"g,rtlzf:l;arJI.

snd ev,.n or-din.a ~ '~aundrv ~p:rii11g peg:iJ!, ~,ij1 n be p m~ed' i nm' ,g.euvi;ce roT" hi o.~dfl!lg pa rts lUfJfl![1Rer yYhile :l\h ,tCern~rn &e:I;S~,

TfiJ 18' m .Iltee Ii'" ~rr rn i n i a t U Ui: 'h~jlu n d ry llSU!ams w m, ,also i~n ~ useful a :S'.elec tjon of oi"dtna~ ,dlDW'e:ls u p ~O. p~ ~1l1~ps,~ h~llf"~f[j rt:1I1 Gt rliifme~ i911"i'ths, irllch tBlameter:. IU~S foil'

m4~.ei ~;;-a, :d'~ Iil' ' . .-1 -I' t '" ~ ',j;iI;.., . iI:.. ~;

~ ~,:""" '_'~.;p~1 h f8y iehB~' In lLuB 1iZ1Ii'liBpll!.er.

As: fi~' ,IH5 th'i!l a m'ii!11e Ulr is ee ncerned 'ltne goldsiCl 'rolle, is. Pf'f©bi;llbIV! if;(ii keep 6111 ~p tte rn $, a's, ,sim~"~e as 'P 0 sSfb~ e. 'The rllrE!!g~i'l!'Ilg'~ howe'Vlllii'f; shou,l d not biB t"akeilil l\1 rmeJ~JIi that ~'le. f9~!JI'ts gf hi:5 ,eilfforits shou Id ~Q crude ,till rid um~llIlt,er'ie.s:lil!Tlgl. On tI~ e I!:fJntm roy. the.re is IIilO f,eilisQf'!11 wily' a rilfiu~d~:11 buil'~ f'mm h ~ iiTf'i~~m;ad~ [;~~l'ij.1];gs shau h:1 "0'[ t)a jIJS~, ars Iha!i!ldso:me' es '~he fun 'S~1:~' pm~'l'fJIP~'. e,(iD:og ~o '""ory much 5m,~ne:r 'in Clh'l1liliS:io~~. hpwerl.i,~n. a part m'~v lOftan be, PfCd IUJC9;~ qu i~e, 's:olid~, f.Qr e~i!llm'PJre~, wh'e'fIe' l1rle g rfBSPfJ ridling' .P~nt bll ~IIII ~~~6 'mary b~ 1!1~~ffllel~V h~riI eV<:lom bed Wi! tJh cores. If a .core is f}ss,eFid'fJ/" US~' Of! e I Ome 1l'W~'5e. m 8~:e l~h8 pa ttern p 11~!Ii'n.

]I "11 ,safiw II'~ ilJ.sed, Em' e'l¢t!ili "f! ri'ij' bl:ede ~~k" Ihe UUil:ITa:I~e' firnshi~9 ,of; '~htil er'c.s:;sl" Cll~' edges. ;g good de~11 aa,si,e'r Hind this is

1!Ji~!lq~llliy inm p,-Ci1~'IH. 'Tho erlgelS, Qf' 'i'h~ paUll\'! rn are f'mqu entlv 'lite pa,rt~; 'wh leh mlJl S1: la:uu lbe dlr3wn ~Orm '~llMJe sanltL

A It I"! owled91e lot 'Cil!llPen~Jrv l,s; ~inlr~1 ~ n~9'Sfirv' for 'ttl i:s kjF! d' ,of Jl8'llDnn m iiI'k;b'llg., I nd~·e~. iElI,lm~tS"~ any Imed:tod B~ [peli"m issibllJ· pm'viicilin g the 'Iiln'isffl1Eed; objecif: II!! ,a (;CU rate BIII'Ujl mouidable,. Olfl-e 'reI~S-0irl'~~I' is good 'ftnishl; not,s1Q1 mUlch· lorn U1i,B ,p-oi:n1: o~ lIJiew' O'f app ~ar.eI1C@ ,~S, from '~Ihat ,ail: smooth surface wTl11 leave. [~e sand cl.eal1u~tr. More a'U;fln lion m U:S~ 'b B~ paiod to, is 01 me' pan~ ,o,f 1h~' paIUie.m, ~11 tim is fie~p-,e ~ t~ ~lhal'l!, Ito, (I'E'hi9 rs

Fl.,. ,2'"1'. A m~d fJ(j;iled t.,'(Jal l(fmpl.fJ'~Bd fo,. s~J@i,,!) p!~Mii! wood IlIhJls"

j!i1nd Hr1i this rna ner le:xperieTlce ~~'~IOWD~~, Oite n a pij!J{te ffi which i;eIRs to drr,aw clean~y !EM: nrst lela n ~e. DdJ~ 91ied a nd smoo:d'u~.d ill dtrmc~lt placfls untU ijt i~ ~~tte· 's8'tlsfam:ory,

PI E!is,ic wood can be used toO ~'@l rv 9 Clod eHe'Cl ~ n forrnfilil EI ii'aCm~ bli~hjilll1o' up d'e't()lU~ and ~ ev,oU ing ho'Uow~ a nldl IB' ,~,ood~ S[1['Oflg glue OIf ca me lin 'i~ i-ndl~pe 11$:.abj e. OrdfntIJf\' dr.e stm:al!i;:ets:" pins wi' ;jll th iBJ {J()lfl~S, ~f,.~ppad O'flIf ire' often ~eoo nka~y to sp,Ut the '~'I"iin wo.ed tlhun even ~hi:l! 'ffline.!ii1: gimp' pins..

Con l'flu~hl rru

Som~ 'l\fp'rcliill ~li;iillmples of ji~m~~e.u IT" 'paUi~m rn akl~g: ,are gi\lllBn ln lAgs. 2'8 '~D ~2~ The flr~ rs: 'Inel 'oon5lrliJjti~'I~ ril 0,' a IpllIIlU'ery whe ~I oa tta'rn~ fig. 2a. I't is buUt u iJ' '~r'Orn Illam'i"31~ ~ons ,gJl'iid b~ w]III, be' no~€!:d 'ah9ft thil bullk af d1&~intU ~s 011 O'l1e side 01 the vm ~el. TI:'I ~ tea~YrI@I i~ mot atI e'ssont]m' ~I!'U'~, but tt doas. matenal1lv I affeC1t ~b9; e [lse 'whh wni{;.h 'the Plltern can 1M, m (l~lded. Th~ po,rfil.~ is' ~hat the ~ore oD,m.pl€lJ~ 's'h:jli8) '0" til e: putl1l~ ~fl is

. )..

FIg. ,30:. ~,'Bittem fw e:yJ/nde.r rJf:.smidllf!i~onUJM/~ •

f! mb~~ d ~d i n the' I'ower be,; lea v~no prBOlic.a'IIY ifiI clean draw whell1 tna· up:per bll~ is Itf't'atl oft It viii· the kin d of ~'hh1g \\d"j'ch ,can [H~ ,embodied in tbe d!eisign o"f .~ m~:u;:l~!~ ·art the' drawing board ·stage. The at~ema'tive "foU t~ be t~ :s;pl it 'It! e pEI,ueu:l. i.e. 5iep(a fiB t8 'lhtt In iddll ~ I:a rn~n!ll [llnlilS, ,as i 0 Rg~ 2.5,"" ~ wid'e! ,pun~,v 'with ·'C'r,oss·· sec~~crl t~C kes. T'ne two P,E! rts lGa n be h aid togstihEif hl d1it. m·o Yllcl bV m'f:1;Jr:bS, of fne C!"tl~11 pe~1 Bf!lJ!:1 '[h f] '~'x1'a'a d ~we ~ to ~O~ ll! tire;'Sp!Dt,as.

'~t w~i II be s-sen thar, in the ,&:9 is e. of Iha' fOrmer p i;I~ lev j fLO I] rc·O!\(i,ioni has ba en cn.~ dll:B' foil' Q!5Un;g in ··'he g-roove, wnich, WOll! ~d re~urr~' '[hel U &0 (ji,', ,~ cere, lt i~~ a ntic'ipa.1 ~d th" s!tltl::'n a pu neV' wrlJu,I'd be em p~ove.dl with ,a n '9f'!dhass ¥~B r'!lpe a nd1, th ii! beJTng ~. l~ w'Outd be Ide,~raJb~e tQ tldJ,j'ir1 1t1 e g,q~8l '~i'iI the eaS[Jlng accurs :tJS!, ~o' !'I1e 40 ~ bgle and ~cn(;!B'.ntr~c 't:·o t~~ bOrlll'.

VfJiry O"l1.,e'n" where a IpaU~1I.1'1 is req IJJ~ r~1 mil'\ ,gBY.. ..iBI !$,tJlth31lm 1911l!l;f~fII'~ !Gylhlder or ifJ io1 m i~:a r (:()I!l1Ip e ct obJ BI!l:i t.. t he i1i18 tu fa I U~-derncy i~, to m,i;I'kia e'l ffQ'm a 50Ud piece of 'IJitO'od ,F] nd c·on/ie: out ,tlne de1.~n. NIBve F'-' 111:a l'eJ5s, whe n 01'11 B becomes u sed to the kte;,a Gf 'th e ~niU ~ up p~ue m. d,;is ~ill; D'f[~J'il ~m'!je 111 e mere sa1'~S~r'3 ctorv mEM nod, as WQI! ,s,s, pr'i@vidi n~ ('Or CO.ii'i'Slrure,tiorii o'~ ;al I'tI jl~h mort! iiI'G'ClU r,iille cl'1li~ract~ r, Fig. 30

g~\les, Icone;hiLictlonal de.latls Oif 8 GvHrHj~'rr' :sl!hab~,i2 €nr a mTo~e:Ujr,~ IOOOm(HhlEi'. Tha bas~ ol th e ICY~ inde; r, wher'9 i~ 'ir$ ~a cured 'IlOl the 'ffa m as, a nO' 'lh ~ V,f!J~Q: f~ e'8i ,a r~' plntl! ~d and g lu ad ,~1 -right a nglle~. The cvl1ilrlde'f 'i'tse'l f ~~n 'OOlnivel"lllen~I,'r D,e l,cU rned t:~ 'I'he d~am eter I!'e't'lI !lJiredi, wh'h::h w; U '~eave ]USlt [ne ICimtirec~ am 0 unL c:f meta~rol!Jlnd ~he bore'. Th e bob b n is tu rned [0 the S1 rn,~ leulgr~ih is ~~e ba!5~, and ,e:sch eliid fla f1g,>e' is ~ mpal~d by' a Icor'l31p-1fi nt. Vilhan the! pie.c-es 1ue i!iS&e'mb~'E!ld as 'the: ~I!IC li'lon :shows:,. pl.a:$~i e wood ~s. ~lp:pHeda,t thai [plscc-els 1 ndica'~Bd ;and the' Da,Uem is :5PU;~ thmu:gh WfitWl the ~:id of a nne SkilW te 5~P(i;I ra te 'tlh e ha I 'V:es for rncul dIng,

F9g. ,3' 1 shows the iCO!1i$tt'UC:itOrj 0'1 a 'finn'ed eVil I11der pa U'S'fIi k", i! :-n~ CC, '~WQ 's,t~ke ~etm~ ,eng1'n'e!, Th!8 m,Eilin bu'l k (~;f' the paUierri &!i' '(irSI: bu ~U U! P of I,~ m'irNil!tl~ 1i1£ sa.w riJ ~'!Jt to 't'f1e' cress seet:inn, Tht:! s. 'rhe !n·.ange m me D!lS@' 18 8 sq ua'IiEl' pieCEt 'Eh~ cyllin:!:ie·1F belew' the 'finri:ed portion ts iii ~rieSii of sma'ill disos and ths !lJPPSIf pa rt is Ibu~ ~~' Up of la.rg I;tf d!·s~. Oth a i datai ts, such 3S 'Ir!i n~f9r paf)Jn~g,e ,C!lnd i3lXmlltHrt a nd in te1 sn.u'bs ,are add'edl afterwards, whelil '[111' ~atliE! m i!has bee n '~l"II!lIJed ,ancil ~I~e' ',lTiins ~um@ld Dill tiho Ilarm.ba. Thiii Whole' ~s il'lhen SpUrE d'~wn 'Ih e midd h~!1 w'fiU, a if.i n~st'a,w'~

The 1~ll!.!lm'berr 10,1' discs Ir8·qy~'r~d. 0'"

,F/9- 3'1: - l:8:mf'Jf1~l'i1ti iC.or1~ ~r,J'I;Jc.~fOfl llf 'iilt~t>Sm 'OJ cyllm:ler..

~----,-, _ __,......-- 00;0tf.P.NNI

'I;.-~~-

SPi,fl'"

-._..."......_.~. tt_ FJ~ ~_~"...........-~.F~·

Mtros tNt J!!(1W.S .!JEf1Jl. fJ}',fJft/:t{ItJlbi:

eeurae, depen@s lJ]Jlon till e 'thickRl&ss, of \he 'tTmlbar and. for t he firiHl~d P'~ ['1Joln of 'I he elfl htd B ~. 'Ithi:s wU ~ b~ m-c:si conve nl~n1 11f it is ut:tU~,~,BI ~erv~ to '(!he dis;tance betwee n dl~ InnS. it' 'the Is m'~na tilo illS a:r·e ·ri nnl" g~ ue d l!JndEH pmSSlUIl'Ie, 1'!iJW@V~f,. and a~lowed '10 rse:t bemrll!j tlJjrnllitg~ It!~e ,abov\l!il poj',n'l: i~, no'[ ImpOR!lnt 15;a,ch llamilFunion Is drill'l=dI rhro ugn its Ie.@! m(~'. !,fiI, an d the 'whole'. lot gllu a'd ~rI d bolted! t,oged~ er. A cDC1i\i'Elni"~rn 'rerm o~ beg! ~ I wh 8f'tt til e turnfifil9. ls ~o be 'C3I1i'THed IOU1 en a Imet'l~ -w·e rkin9, l,flJllf1e. hi;,

:shoWIi! in FrI. 3,~ .. 'The lEi!~P{! r or U.H fi1ll5· IS so mre·wha'i 6'~aggii!!,m'fedl ij n the dWB_wi ngs-

Af1iQr ~hle tUJr~'ung has be~n com ph;~ t.~q and "he' fln~, el ~illri ed !U~ wr~h QI,a~spalrraf b:h~V mq!Ji irs 'vary ~(lJr91u I ,~'[telilfion in ttl r5 re~pe(rtll thiS bolt Is removed and ale ng'h 011 dowel g~,ued ~ n ]~S p~aoe., Oeud ~s, ca'n IJ-e: arMlilied and ~~ !BJH!~ic wood' a ppU ad. w~u:fe nHa,Cc-eSSI rv, to form ~adiitJ. A lUI., iar 'nack,5.aW 1!5 u se·f,ul fo r s.I'ittling til!! 'l;Jar~·em an~. if tJ co iJP!e of t;-cdfs f,o,r dow·eoi p~n~' a'il't! dril I e.g GI~8 n 'til"lu)u:gh 'the cvUru;ii'er b~.'fo rehan d,

Fi{j. 32- ,p(l~rr,tJM th~sdBd ,~n (J brJJr fiJr: r,Clmili!'t/ fins.

4,2,

~. 3-3,. Pa"~',e'l'n '1:0." ~ltfkC{JJifJ whh f)'"qr-J,ulng d/mlk.

1 . Ire wil ~ be f'lO cli'fficY ~tv 000 t' obi:a'jning ! U'P is! mlll rcatle ~9gisler crr th e1 two hahJ~s. Wh1:iii the pins, hs-ve bon fitiLed uhe tfcJI'~ s' in t no eutsld 9 'orf' the pattelF.n calfl be _s(D~~J~-d wtth p'~aJSltic: ~o-cL

A.f.I Q~he'v' fQrm of lpa ttarn wh ich c~ fit prpve"Quhe 6l plrobl,am is that '~cr [hu Ii gh~ :Ii ~rli!Y ~.sdf'il'g ,C1r' .a IIJfEul'ke8Sla. When 'th~ h~ mil11af;8rj form liZJf oons.'[rUc' pon I's app:lled. howe~er.. it resolves into qu iit!!lI! ,3 pt-acdceil pfb~ogi rlen, 0 rae ~B m p! IB ~S' Igirv~n in ,F~g_ 33, and. i1e:re ;:lgS1 ill' '~t W'! II' !be -te.8!n tb e ~ the pill1lem 1 s IOu iI t u,~ 'korn ,i! tile rieJi af min.gs, a1"Jd db~§. The tWOI '~riIg:£,." 'wh'bGn flQJ'm 1_he' Ciljntf;t' 'Ill ang~s b~t'IrIJeen 'the twa h~~V!ellS. ar"G best CLbt OUI 10geth\fii:!r~ 'Thi!'5 wlll iUll~U.H6: a p'e·wr~,C'l m~l!Oh Wrh~n the ctislin !ls, are yllll rna Ie hI Imachin ed, ! n the' mtse of sm ail~ tr mod>e'~s II ~ wi,11 b:e 'f,o und IWrliVtl ni en t to CIlJ t 'the m'~ddl ~ sect~~ n of each h!;1l111: from I sj ogle 'rhickn is! sa of Wi!) od ,~:nd ro se t Oilifti'~ 1he '[~ble, of: tih-e saw 'h~ 11 r,ovid,~, t ne '~dr,~u~hf' all1E1II@, and taper, IFlg. !Mt

Ve;ry imlp-ortr31nt on ~I c Ira nk~a,s"ei:s; tt.1:e ~~sion of 'th,e bolt ·"~a~$~· 0111 the perlphary", ,~Jhr,(j1!lgih wlil~'oo '~ass, n~18 Ibol't:s for femllTlif1Q 'fl!1e' 'two ha~\i!'tI!~. ClIJi't,e 'Obvious IV • tHey m uSit ba' i n ~ in e wlth eaeh OUic6 r on the PEa tteFft' if aJ g@odi ,d'Bi~1 of 1 mub~,e. ifl' inlO't Dom V',m!le1e diSi:llppoi'ntme nt, Is; tio be (JI~Ol rd'ied whlliF'll ~he c:asUn,gs P1r~ pa:~re~ up "or rn;~(t1;rnif'!:g~ a n0 ~ugg"J!StlQfi. w;rd~tn wi U Qu.;iiir,I!UUse IIi~sull!5.~ is: '10 els m'p 'the- ha]ves of [h~1 p.ernerrn 'u:)lt)\Ertlher ta mpora ~U !V. and i8dd 'he Dads in ~ h~. "'0 ~m of ~p p'FOiJ!)riatta,

'ten.g III s of d~WEl'i Qf t ne dialrme Ie r re,qui:red. Fig. 3'5. 'Th'~~' can b~ seeurad wH"h rglliJe a lfid !pi'ns and. wh en h:ard~ ~al'M\l"n thrO~'g:h to seP'9 rate: ~ihce pans, of 'the ~a'n ern,

Fry: 34. $~W' faiJls $.e;r, averf,a'f formiffJg dtl1Yf~lt IDff!JI,e,

With c rank'miiiSeS ~if la:rQ eo,' ~~gines. up 'In 30 or !50~~, c apacl tv ~ 'ntt is qluhe: ~ pj,a;c~loooll ll~O,po!iltt~ ill ~O (:01',8 IOU t. die 1 fiI'tlflf'i0r fiijll:Y, using:. e ~tne if $911 00 ras, wnalfe

the pattern is holl'owedaccordil!19ly and leilV0'8 a greem;,C!! II1d C(U',e in 'lh'fI! maul d Ib.e.'I,f. ,C~· sepatats 'cores of bBked fSil3i1d.

Wme Ver p'Fact icabls·. 0,1 OOtil rsa, h'

forme no p1Bn 'i s ,p:r.:efrel ji9'bII~\ \M:~h 'ffngi nas ·()f sma Ue r oap 9 c~rv ~ howev,e.r. w.~f1lerfJ I. walll 'Ih~ckn@ss of SiIiV, duel!! SE:K'U~"iU''fhs or , qYf~I1IE!'r i !itch YJOuJd b,e 8)to&sstv,9. ~.he' tram,case. [panem can be made' elth er pa.rtlv oomd 0-11" qu ru~ ~olid.. Tih.e wan thiD1<lfle.s.s. may then be red~i .. llood Ita as nule as a S'~te,-efiillhj if !I'lU~uij red., when th. c·astln,g ij s S]ubsequeunly' m iii chi! ned.

Fl ~I. 36 shows ~ h e p,al'ltSIln 0 f a 'Cramk.ftEl59 'foi ,I {V'IIn cyUndar. four-strolke on~i,ne', lin th-~s ease the pat:t@m is ffu:u:le tmf ow "D' [leave 115,r)WW. cere ·;and the use of ,,[I sepa:l1Ite cor.e; '[0 'Clf&ar ttI!EII eamsh iii' r", i 51· a~t:dded by prcvidklg fu rr cam shah clearance ~c he machined f1l'o m 11'113 ICi'8nlu:: asa wa U. The fly::wh,e.el hOlt&ilFilg' .Si sllO,Wln 8S a s;er~ mteptu:terfil designad tOI inC'oirporata the f\elar mel" b-f!,tlr'ng.~ fi "hi, CiilnS18' '~he matn ;x!I'Ii1S1ruc'ion 'IS ba~~11 k :. with el!'t(l bn,e b ~~rers ~nd cth er detains. addcdi. The 0 I '~II'II:f stuh is shcWl1:"i es a 100H pa'M 1!~ be! wi.thd r8WO Ihom insJd@1 'the'

pa tarn befcrre r,epping. The iiI"Ld~ntationr. ~11 the sand On 'Hh'i!!lr side of th~ pauem show how tili1 lit. lp.8rUng ~ in e 1119151 been I! dj'usted tn take catre o.r ~ e Ib~,a ars.

As, ,(!i, cha[ng:~ rroml 'he ria mimned 13m b ui ~f.~!iJP O(i)Tl!s.tl'ucti an elf a part e rn, IFig. 37 "helWs, fne pan m o~ a hanthMnee I" o quiroo' mod 8·m desig 11. wlnlQh has b e:!f! n re-arv8'd ,i;i,hinos'( iB1l1kely' from ,he oolid. As

jf Neme it:1 .It :lace nomul't ," OIJ{JQ$(MJ slaw IJIo[ar. 'Cstif1P we:.re In l{g/!J~' alro" {melted dawn

pi$tansi (In,'' an. imn r~bg for f:JYII."rJ,el' .liners. .

1m ceniU'e o'f the wheal i$J wen "id~stredl" 1h~s: 'Ju':cbably Irep}mSel'llr~ ~'hl9 ~im,~~'l$t file hcd. H ere 'the wheel 15j, :fbrsot 0" ,all rued 101 HC'[lo'li1 en thee la'll ,f! ,e nd the

_"okn dirawrfi Oil ,~uuil p~Eercgdl ' fI:arwtmm~.

. ben 'Iuming en a 1111'if~ta~, worlfdng lat~e., I behe,aded wOo-dS'C.TSW is! [lJIl~,d. I~u:dd in the ttl rss-i'aiw 'ro,r mh.ueldn.g Ths a ta ndad bess ~ 8' lonlv 'iiuidl~I'D'Iil.

1,g. 3 B is 'Hle ftvwheel fiat a horll()nIt;a I

am enghin~ and, in this case Ehe laminated form o1fi oonstflJrt!rI'ion has been .. d;e ga irIJ. A dl"l'ferern l festu ri'. h·Qweve.r, .a ib ws ;in Wifliich th,e C~ffllnt dLSt. eom~lst~9' tho, ~poJ(os.; •. h~ b0€1'n buill ,up froOTll iRgMenrt8 ~Ol a.void B ~rcg g raln in ani\f (i;

hem, The [method i's, quite as II!! 1feetive and a _g'~o.d d B,alr mora slm g! e thil:~ ~h e

F~'g: St; P.stiem Iw tmglfif:! Rr-wltsel.

46

th_il\r/V EJIf@' cut !lut ·~S ilf froml a·5~·l!'Igll~' :piec~ Qf wood .. Th!&i s~Qki8is am .a'fte'mard'~ 'C$I.fV@d sind ·'sa ndJiui to, @Vtd ~~~lk~lI1l, .

,A sitfi!il~ i1!Itr t~h lhiqIJ,9 ,I; 0mlplo:yed 'whl'l lhe n~JH:t e~alm p~ e, al 'ill~>omDth,~\E!' wh ijel ·s,nGwlI1 illil F~g", 39 .. Illn ~'hhil 'C3S.B ~'he :3POk~, 911'19 'fi1ll'a! Dnll';.,~ ilII~ 'i'h.e, ':f~ln' 'i'tliii!i· b r.!I ~IL., .n,. "l.-

. "r - ... _ .""".". ~ .. '!i!' '!a!~"W! .nf!

'wh~ el ls nat .. IBiOt~alll~'~' Wl!!~~ C'iln be' ''II~ riled Olii dHf\:;rElr:.t P~~f~ of whe-e[s" iJf n·eness.ary, by 'the I~S!81 ~f' ~oo:~.e IplB~E!!~. Twtl, are, CU'I ,5im~lai" to '~e :S'.,agmeHl1t S nown ,ltlr'wti' ~ hev '1i8'~! ,cl'lJmrpe d t'ogeth@J ,~t thH~ bep:~ and front lo,f' thiJ wh.eel b, m eans, IO'~· W'O Od s~:r.ews. p,lllssad b'm:~!Ij!l;;H31n tbE!' !I3p~:kre s, P,ararMI'1!' wa:!(. er m>od.~lllIng Wb" is used 1''0 'lim inl awnlj! radhJs O'~ 'Ie mp.c FjjJri~V'~ 'Ihe ~pace~ bl3lhN,eO" websi ~;"d apow,

,1\ ~ulte dlffel~nr~ form of c~ns:tn.iution fB, i UiWfstmtF: d in I! hte!, dlFSiwi ng51 of Ihe drlll ~,eadls~~k s'hown ~n Fig. 4,0,. The [bas;is or-

. , .... -I ., ~ d ;OlL,., • •

t~ll.:s, ' S" a p! at@! O~I 'Wo@ . ~ UI; li'ie&--sj!!(teeW1I~'f1ls af

In 'in c>h th iek. sawn 1,10' tlhe 0 IJiIr1 ii'ns ,rJJl A to r~rm the: wfd~, I t 'h,a-s :PI"OJI8Ct'io!!ls, ;~I. band c; which are nnsertm1 ef1l~ Ihu~d hr.o ~I015· iJil' th e comp@,Ii'n~!rIf~15 B and c. &~'eh of t h e.

Fry. 39~ Pall!eml 'Ial'ltJcv wkof1./. a~efil!ilibhl (if' a wh'~el fnom ~s;epa!ra r~ :5po:ke~ ~n d fell DM. The, sag mle nt$ are C1i..I1: 'o~~, firS'll' and gh"a,e d is dge' ~'C edg)9i. The riml ~ s !ferm ed by 'tno addi:tion m Il tin g on e~t!hers id.e and IDO' hub by' lV!.tD dl~ I n the ~m'fr. ~ay~ Thre' I@~ ~~linB of 'Ih e ~;O'kJBS ~5 dJiaW\li1 'Q in ~h~·s e'gmiG !Ii tedl ,(dn~le ,aftJlf' the '0 ~ue halS set 8r!,d

r h;~' ~;Iilllrna;d to i"cI:t:n:~le (ft)mJ !Ji1l]rlI Is ln lh!!

Cltne p ~ece" TW':C! ~HJljcIS of 't11 e ribhifn 9 ;a ~\!!' 'CUi~ .QII1., sllm~haii1I[1jOua~y ~ o'n til li i ~,g "IS3W 3 nd 0f2"It hi gl ued Dn e;rt'hler 'Side af '~he 'web, lh e

. . D I' is 'til 1hUillilt up of ~H!lics,. ina: .B);;1;Un ratl)~ 4'1own 'was made as !B ooUd pattern, Mt!!uldilil'lJg W,(HI~d be gi1efa~'tv facillitated by makillIDQ t, as ;a ;sp,Ii't pa'Hgn,~ al,thtHu-gh thij,s ViIliJU~'d entaU ;ifiI good de ~ ~ m 0 r:~ wor~ in Ih e pattEffl m:a:k!l fllg _ ~tage; DJls~ably u_ niUi!].l~fied I crlliv 8 very Illilm~liIlld '!ilUrmb18f '!D,f C~S1ili1g~ WI!rE!i required.

Fe!' f\e~,erU~~Clli1 wo,rk~ p.Btt~rns eli' 'lh'~s; fltlU fB' a ra uS1.J1811V made I;IIS· "pl ~te·' pa ~e r1Flis., Th~~ rs~, ~ f1I11.1f pac tem ~~ mo un ~'oo to lregister' '9:K:arctlV~ on eij [hoI" 'S~'8 of a n~t. thlr.L bo. !lH'rl. Th'il! dase u1'!~lI:iof'll '"'phUe''' :[,s, pe rrh i!.'·s mOf,9 .IPIP~ !eiilb ~e Ito mem ~ IpauJIlB r:ns f'I"tliirla· i Ii'I lhis w;~.y' :aniDI a:$soti~ ted. usua'illy. wl~h m,eJ~ln~nJc~11 methoch;, of rnou I](s i'rlIg. The d1iM<ei!lllty pr~a1ilted by the () ddlside ~~ • tmwe~8r", 1Ifli,f.Il~d~d in tiffs, way ,~nd s'1gu:;h '~

. . . "! - ...II - "'" .. . -- in u - b·

p'8~ern ,ns yO!llStHleo, ,Hn,l!!!r r,amITil.:g - P', : V

rapping ~he' e~pnsed Ii! rids, 0,1' ths' pI a ~!B' . ,tfm opEIlJilli[lG, ~he, !bOil.

As ~t ij S an~k,ipil! ~fd th~'1 '~~w a m a teur rtlull1\'d u~ es;, 'wU i flIOII'l'JlaIU,', h~lld I q r~,p@'ti'l'h~uit ~ th,e Ii~lidl jl'i!Ute.m 'w'U 1 p.robatb~~ ,pr>ove'" Ib ,el ~ I ] 0 t ~ III ts . 'ill n d pu r po,~~es~ qllllii 1 e S8~iMaGtlJl ry'. V9ry oifte-n 'tihe m 0 Fe dHfi(: hIIllt.

~'

c

,~J~·/~rw 8'!' (AO'IJ GR.JinWNG,

, .. ,.;iIi~ "d· .;. f,,'bt,m ....JI I' - ...JI II..

iOuu:Sl: 818, ~''''HQ, 'W~lU 8 usee nere te

O'e'ScrEi}a' [ine ~ype· of 'p'snern~ w ~elr~"a's im: wO ~id 'b~ m'all'"J9 oo~c;UV ~ ppli ed 'ID ,he' m C!,uldln!tl: tech nlqiIJI e'~ e~n bo rn 0 iJldud' m~ re lu'a~ ~y b, !he IIi!ISe o~ a r.ouQ n' wOilldefll t)emp~I'aJ~,~ suoh IS ~ S $hown i rr1i Fig. 4 ~. H liiS lr is u:~ad ~ n ooniJu n~.tiDn with ~1he pa't~,e'rn for he: Ibod,y o~';a :'i,praiv gun, wh ith ils I'tser] f ;8, paJrtl'Cl~la r U h,lls,trn ti~ U'b o~ th~' \fa I UI!9' of the arrrs te 1M' 'to ilJF:I d_~" An U'llJl:stm,'~c'lil 0: 1tna

sa m e QlII n i'n uri "Of Slifr8yinQI rneu I ds ~~

. . .

diep'Dctad inl fig;lJf·. ~!5i.

The' p ~ftern is placed on til ~ m-o I!J1ld! filS boa m :a"01 made 8IPpm):im.I'Ul! ~ IJfl!.iie·~ bV pilC~h,g !!.Ip wit1ih ~ m,~JI :!l'!'1i'p~ of' w()'(]d .. '&h~,. TIl'E! temlp~Dt\e ls fflned my,nd l~ ~nd thls, a~'so., iSI p~GkJed IJ pin 1[1 .sJm·Uallf ow ay '1001 b mlng ~ t: rou'gihlV iev·el w~ th, th e centrL'! ~ in,e IOf 'lI:'[i,e: !PiJrU!alf'li')~ The ~ n V8 rte d cD r 8 g bo:tl: ; 5 superimposed ln 'the ilIIsu:al w~ and r'am m e>d up. Wh an' 1'1 g:5 'I U fined over. ths "[em pbill't)~' b!il 'rra'mov~ d~! errd th e [partln.g ~ ~f'H9 f.e'tlled jlri wi'th ,Q '[r"'wo~. bflfil gl'09 ttHa' mould 10 the LJS:llJa~ s tagl8 wrner~ ~~ ~s dusted wl'rh p,a·ning. ~ncl er lPt;lwder. !C,rior Uil the addition. 0 f 'the! 'Dope.

'La ~!ir'~: cyl.ind r1ce ~ part~~·ms. ,Ciln be bu lU, UP' 'In 1:110 m ill nn~r sh~wn im lhe' drawl 1'19 I Fig. ,42 ~ wh lch ls 1 he pa nern fi~ ~ a 1~,a'5t a~ tlm~ll1h.un petrol :tar¥k~ such a~ m·~v be 1Hle~ '[0 a l:i,Wln mOWer cr i! snltlOf'iIIUV i.!C·. eI19Jr1l~'. The dernee en~:; alra a sarJes !Of ~ a m'i mnlnns, as prev~o~s~¥ des~nl'bed "f.or mallY of th~ 01hGr patterns. The ·(!~lf1tr€!'

48

:uction iii! bui[1 ~ lUll) o'n 'tWOI h 9xagifJorJ a I '~Ol1F'fU1!;rS a nd. lEI~ 'Ie M QrII dis. skimlm ed ofl' 01'1 the lathe' \10 U,e' df~lme;e:r r,e:qll,d'~ed. Fi~l~r n:teele. o~~h~!'t bass ;8Jin;l][ bra:c·ke-'~ f(1ir m [}Unlli'P'lgl ~m ~(']chad ~'r1ifl'l'W'.Il!! rdS a nd '~~I ~n~u"Sf Q;~.s. ,ii! r~1 fil ~ed i n wh~ plas~[c: Woad Tine rH~nerfil L~. firnall[l;v S,p~ it whh ·a saw: t~ ~ M'O hal\li!s. eiftemlrtjs. b eh~gl nrtiJine I with dowell pins,

C·DIi1t1!i'la(f.t1ing onl Co'o'liing

A lPoh,~ abal!.lr~ p~~.(tiJ m~ of which no men [i'on 1~:EJSl vel Ibo18n m~ diFj· is .~ he: narm a' p:~ct}Bdul\e· for Ip;,tr~idJ ng ~m a Uews nee in ~:ne m'e'EH!!l'iJi I'ltm,ents, ~'Q talke· c.~r,e: ·of lc:ol1l'h'a enr!)'fl :~11I th~ c;alsti ngl wh I!!:ln lhe ImEHs~ leO" I s, [I n the ordililalrY wa.y a castIng In ahlmillliuun wil il caiil tract at t ne ;tare ill€' up 1:0 ~ qua n_·er· fnc'h 110 U.'!3~ ro~ [ olr' pa,t"tern 8ccoxd'ing to I h~' ·Sl!Iction. iron ,iii ~ the ulte of on ell eJiQIi1th inch to the: 'roott,wim rn ®·s~: ether iiUoys, somewhe ra b~:~ w'ee,n thai two. ~ t w flil ~ be ,apiPre~I:a'ted mat wihfii! re cas~lngs for model rna k1Lng a nell se on' a ~e onll ¥ :a fraC'~ion of (I

..

TeA q.ul.r;e an 8wA;'L41Bl'd {J8ItM'(t'i fa ,i!:'1il51.. A, dtts'C-r.1rJtlan oJ ;fle. ,retlmlqu,fj ai'P1Z~ t3PP.odl'l!.. Loww ,Q~.~ ~awS' IC:8Sfi"9& (:ltb!tilln'>Sd fHm ,tJi(: p8Nu-m'$. to' pmduf:,fj iln ilJum:/niym hJ.elt4-II'iJr:

Fig. 4'.2. ElKlfJmpl(} r.!.1 ~ /fN.r;e cyN"r1,iml p~",tMl.

1:001 I" anv mleasUre'mBlf"V~ ~ the ae.tu a ~ alii @wi nee d~iJI~ 'W'U ~ I~nly be Qrl!1it~ l~lm~~~. IFreqla 91'11tlV I' 'the relQts. ['I wlU hiE! h) uri d d~ a ~! wtl ere ,!;I Ci;131iii"tg, ]s 11(11 be ~atef maehinBd. th 0 ,19l111 raws !l11l.'i9 .~i" m ~ t:h~ ni ng, I'r made On the gB'Iil'er!llJlS side~ lJliiU b a fn.rrfloi itti'll'!' to ~8lke ean:r (¥.f shrinkage 2Il~ w~IL Ob'llio !!J~dv Wli'~: dl~mJ1E$a tJ of' th 12 p [oe,1 em wi'lll b.e' G;QM€U'noo to a g~eat 9:ICt'err.( by' the fot'fI!P1l :a nd d ~s~gn of th~' cas-dng oofl temlpla:[ed and ImOf\i3i analilrl~'oli'l wTlIiI hall!l,e '[0 b,8J g,i1v,en te tile mau:~r WhB" iI ca~~ ng· has, 9i1. 'lWC!' @T 'thre e b@lit bosses" to tM~ s D~LJJr.er~i@ ~V kniantd~ iSJ~\a~!ld sam e 5[1: illl'llch~s, ,a p.a lit. A

FlO. "'- fJ'l:JlItlJf.ig fJ'P ,!'J f;t:f:iiOfiJ wfrh p/8lSll'c wood,

Un ei~r oo~tr:aetion :i!lIowa nce wo IlJld til ~ Il ID!1!i' iii I'iI'M~Js'shV", but ~~ 8 IrrTi;ll la, 'D'h~' ~fS;' ~ffulQt 10,' \:iOntlr~c~~en 't~ 1F~ 'tlne hom B worke>r willi j;!I nco un:taf' is tlha Ikff:nd of Jo~8J sh rinking QJ dlinlpU ng wr;ij't.i:h Ic'me'lfm,G's, hl~!IaS IPlac.~ n Ui the 'thicker ~.e~tlons 'of a casting.

The fau! I becomes m8nffetif in c~,s(i n 9S inl ~1~lm"lni!:jlm: ,~nd eu Pf;'DU:S ~U ~V5 wh~r.e' i; ii; a problum which CQ'rIDfrtHllts Ipr-.oi\~~!1l10 n al 8f1i~ ,a,m\aDtJ@iu~~1 ~e.. 'Jh ~ ~hdl1~age rrn1$T toke place siOJD1ewher'9 whenl the m:enal eo@ I's, I!i.e! ~t ~hOl old ~le, 'tlhe 'lI)oU c.v a~' [~ifJ mlOu~dat. whara pO:6~lble:~ 1!~ Icause it to 'Deal! r away f'flom lilli:!' rn ai Iii bady Dr' 'the ca stirEg .. Th'i:!' provh.iol1l of ;) ctOWin ran nu r or ~ a rQe di'iilflfiuner ts a 100 I'll tlr'i,butlon in 't ht~ d'TBcUon 1 'Whlile !he all! ~:s'ide ,c~· ~ ne moe ttl I In lIMe 'run rae r .solklUies th. ee 111'1 r~ rem ~irn:;; UfllliLid ~O'!ilgl enough ~o ·"feed··' lhl!E!! ,Cf'a51~l"Ig 1M et:nod'Bl 'ef I'~.m un g" ~~wev,e,r. belong 10 the ch,a'p'lsli' en maul i!Hng. As 'fBf ~S' the problEl!11 C01fl~8nl$ pat:l}erruTul~Kn'Sll it mllll! ~~ a or: ,som,e ,al!lig;i:s,[(u';C~ to b~Ud l,i p ,siLJlZ:h cl'(I!ub'lflll,1 pa'rts; 01 il j)'4ltiafn 'tilll 'maiktl /Jllo'war..ce 'fc~ th ~ rs'tiuink]n iI'~ A"sngh'l o~,ijl~~y 0'111 Uu:! tlIp:pe-r sid~ h~$ easd of a (Oylhldric:al 5~~lH on of pane m. fo[J' e~.5iI m phil ~ii! ~ oh~1'iI p,rQ-liJla ,~n ,alll~~ll/iter. lFi':Q~, 44. 'I n t ha ea sc' cd 'wh~ai hubs il nd othe~ hea'vy Ilosses 1~~ls1 'wiith a \il'f:l.rlical axis an dl wliUilDIlJ ( ~orjng til e oo,m,~ dy i~r nhBn. :simp~y to eJ~te nd the 'boss Uv' the 'micknas;i !!lif, periul[ps,,. OIl1~' Ilamii ii"hltiorh Thlllli$, t h€!' IIli1cma liar 'mtJin ~on'lf:!cdO'!iI fJ~'arw, can b~ milch'llned' ftway at~1.~rwi:nds ..

Refe:ron~D has bee n made a n IiJmtJ~ ~ of tirn~'Si 'till eeras, COrl:a boxes an d ,coreprin~ s. The rQUQwij'ng chap{1f!'[ deiJils wuth t h~ Idnd ·Of' OO:ii"e 'whT'c:h is Imade QU i~e Sfi:,pa,rately ftwTi' t iUJ m,ould a 00 Is 1:1 ~al0ed in ttl fdi rr;.i1!\i! f\'y

t~r th,!' mOlJi Iding prooess ha,s oeEHil 00 rnplt~:e:d~ I T'IJ :S~ n d rno y,llcH'ng and 'e:~iI!'n. e Hlona,III,~" hl sO,me' citllssms o~ die ·cs~Ul1g. 'wh ere a penn a,n,!imt .. meta II m 0 1LI~'d is used", rOOT-e~ a ~e, made fro m '6BiI:ld of ,a ;s,pa;~ i~1 mi)';:. S ~C:h ;as bss atl fie\Fl dV b@e:rn d(!~l!ibgd under lh:e h!B!ludinQ" "Oj~ :S~iJ'ld.·'

Sand coms a ira prod ueed i'n cli'ff:e~ent walts. By Ie); trlJs'~OI!l1~ 'fof' ,ex:a mpll~.. b,V mfmil dIng IIIi1 E!! !Cor19bnx ar;d bv' bu]lcllin 9 up ~vet' a Im€Hail forma r, I rn [h e class, !Of wor:k u nderta ke I'll Ibv' the' rEI m atQ,1lJ II' fOI~ndry, h~w~v'E!:r., mel m oUildied type of co pe wl~ I al~ e.st cei1a in,i¥ pi'\(Fdomina'Ee. A ~or~~bO)t rl"!l~ I~e ~h ~rps, its mo~ elle'm'''lll~ ry fa rm,. ~s shilWn Itn th III i~ Iu 51 Ug lionl. Fig, 4!i lihis :i':s l11adB ~n w1iJod. in two p~n;s\. wtn r,al1 Drs r~is.:teredl 'l~glB:th9r by ~'h~ 'Pegs A an d A • . nd lPH'lod~ ~B is ,a S1,ra ig,ht, cvU il'i{;kl'tt!iB'1 ~ii'e sueh ,1i!I;$ m,ey b~ ~ rmplor~ in moulding a ·~1eiiim, or petrol engine. CVHiliTu1s:r 1~1r fow the .m rm hi eaasrll@Ck ,shown in Fig. 40.

l'WC!i' r~C'tangluj" r :pi'!lH:;!e5 of wo~d are il!ll t~ of .~ ~efl 9 th 'J;;!°qiY'1l t'il' ~,hl€i!' hrn4l~h 9f til! ~ eo~, rlfeqIY]fie-d. 8Wi,t;'I ofo ICE'J,pti'n 'Ieil a iii ow fuil' g~~g itil!g ou~~hl8' se'm~"'"cIretlllia!l" 'U'D!!J!;;Ilhs .. Th B

9

-

~,WO tec!~'ngl€tS ,6n~ m8 rched ~i"ild d ni (lad ttnlioiU g h ,a'lt~'he ~oi nis. indi1i;;:°ated for fi'ttllng 'E:'Ille ps.gs. A c~ rels ~Si s enbed. lof a p propria te d h~im eu3'r', a t e~ tlhef enG 'Wh I'le the h a ~,e s !BIr8' ~eg'I$(e red: 5'ecp~ rEned:. th e ci rcles are '(lon IUHH~d by ru lad per! ell iirH3:S ;8 ~ rOSs t!hl't 'moe ,of 'I~' E!' wood. The (iFi!·mpla tE! B is '!J5~d ~S"~ Qulde m ,gouging.

I n u~e, [he two h'i!lllvelS of U11'1~ ,ihox, are brough,t '~:og~the\r and h ~hj by th'~ ifililg8rs, Oif lilfli e ha rid ~Iliil!'., in 'llii8 case of 'liEH'fl0 (J If U ngillilnhl' b{JlCJ3!S 1 b,y maar! is O'f' a ciampI. 'IfiI1'fJ ne th e ~C'reSia nd ts p r.e:st.ied lin with t~e O'[~lfW. Th~ Ibo:x j~ h ~Idj \forti CiQ Uy I On iJ "1 tii t is UrfaOIl, 'for rsrnm in g i so tha t th (Ii hl'Wel~1I' en d is. closed a nci1 th!B1 s and 'is fled in IitE~e by' ! ~tt~,e and pScUd clG'WJ'1 pmgf\E'ss:i'llEi'ly. rOI Ir,ele.e!iU' thel oo~e'. the! b:Q1t i~$ r'apped vig:a,r,Ci us:I''If an a:ith,llr sld~ 'Wh'!lm i't can be l~fI!9d '~r IF()Ued (J,U!l~ 'Dn to na~· drying plale.

,51

'Wiheril (hey ar:e ba,~'ed. ~m\E[1I U'l!ldl ~dl~pie CiC! r;es wi n bi!! :st~o'Wig ~'nough 'to ~i!JPP!llrt tjh~ mselw$ aWH;I". IQiFoil'lte ra~ IV ~ "thtEll wm Ib~, :;~mcih;~H'~" pE:i~rme\a'b~ a '[~I s1:low f~ ~ t.he' e3~a'pC! :D'f '1hlfl' gGISiE!;5. N e\larthe.le.ss;, '~he! h~bl![ua'~ reirllfotCeMent a ndl va n'linD of ,~fi rooms. liEu",ge er sm'e1III. i Iiltri~31~e or .:5iIiiJlllh3'~ 1~1!i1 be a \is ~u a ble in Sli ra1!l~~ a~~ains.t ~O$Sib'~ '~'a~ lu re on eHtJ er eo ~nt~ R ~~riJrfoll'Q}em,e,fnt t8Jk.'e~ the fe Ifll!in Df: wiwes:. 01' reVIE;!:n iii a,'iI:s. e:u~l!le r placed in ttn,e bQ~ dlWll'lfi 9

flg. 4~ $ FlOtrfliiit_g haw e ,sJJfld r:fJ~f: C:~f) /J,e V'~lQd lJnd al${J 1J1JnflJfCBd wUh 1W1:t&~

ra m rnl n.gl Dr Ililresl ed ~'Ill HJ 1. h e e 10 'r~ ,~f!el'\lV,B rds, Th e 00 rn (':~rIi 'be "lien ted \1\f.Ul n 'I~e aid o'f a pointed 'win:). ied:)o'~n all1J e ighJ1:h ,of ,81F1j ! neh thi·ak. which CDn 'b~· l(H',elS'~1 in and ~:h!:n withd~wn. An iilltemaliw i'~ a lifitngl~ ~ ef W1B'1I WfiHItiI ~Ord e mlbed'~[e:{I in 'the sa rid dluring' rim m'llng. On ba k.ing. of CiI)ur,se. ~e WBl'I: 'loia ~Ris@s a! od Ie ~1ijIe S 1i:1: (lillY cavit~ r'll:1IlJnd the cord which,. lin any 'C\aSg', 'ra prQbib1v als'O charrnH1 :awily. It IS a I~ l:ihnt~:UB wb h::;h is ps,nfcllJ la rly U~~W1J I 'WhiftUi deaUn; whh intriC8'f'9 ii11r ~wk\i\t.a relly 'S~I~P em:! Clores ..

5 ometl mes coms,. which are '~G,rlmed err a IH,rge body o,f ~a nd~ Dlnd wJh~lc.h may b:lil mou~de.d in MU Dr mOIEl sepiaJra te piec~:s and ]o;in~d rcg8lh!!r, sheil" b~kinliJ. witih COile' mum" deJdrinle: 'Or e'ther adlhr~i\\'e'. can

be '!Ie!ii1!ed by ,~.Hggiiff1H al holl'ow in 'ihe di8!ep Iiilf s~c~'~(J n1; of' sa I11ttll ,aif'lid OOI!:1r11 ~C~I:itr"!'Q thhr ~c ou·'le.mfi0>rlmed by me.3u.s ~~, ,slll!l83dr describ ed. ~n e;x,aJrfrpl'~' ,!Of 'a.hls; h;, shoWlil jn "'I:h~ ,d,r;et,W'il1t1 ,~If the: haU OO"-'SlDO'X., USli11: d '['Or ma'k~ ogl UUEi, Mfe 'Ro,r d'U!~ petrio'l Ullok. Frg. ,47'. 'Lh"ljv 8 sh'Jg~~ ha~'f OO~ wacs, lire Qu'h'ie d "f'O;f' 'mis com', both Si(ie;s beung ldern[ielil~. The: ha'~r cores til us 'h;)'rrrr'!'ed, by vlr1u e of ,t he rn bSlng made li'uJ~~Qw, alse i,ffor,ci an economy ~flIl oore~a nd.

When 11 mauTd i;, in re Iildec 'Folr' 'Jittirl9 wh:h IOG~e '~Qr,es\1 ,plrD\iision for 1,0 f:·~ ... 'ing ;1 hre m n'8i uSti!'allrliy made eml the pHtlern,. 'ifh£! C!1re' "pr~nt!;,:" !el~; [11 ~y ,ll;!lf,e ~aJITelX.f. '~a!k,Et U-'il~ form '0',( p ~o,iectiiM 9 p 1 &OOS, IOfl' wood r1M,e~ ~o 'th e SiO~ id p~ttern ,1I't 't11e pohns, Whei(e the core d ho,~ ~ ls 1() br>eak thl1o!!Jg,n ttl€: c~stli ng 1 I ~ is, oft"ff1: po~sjblle '[0, Ermbod1y' 'f'e8tuire~ in the d@~i9lfli O'f iii m Oide~ ;0 w maehin~ palrl whl>Cih 'wj~ I a~ ~GW o~ th e (lores rt:.e.ing adequal-elv' supported In lI'Qi's ¥!fav wltl'1ow l"1La'~1n9 to provi~e ,a,dditiDlf1~il p rii nts :ttl iI d eOfriiSpO iildif1tg D ~nje;e·I:lor!H; O'n, thl:} ee re pm'l:hJai'iI'l~1 hol,~ in '!.hre, ,!l:;a~t.ing othe r Hu~n lho~ aetu,i;dy 'reqUir;ed" 'The praetlee ls ("'.om'mon in ~:he [G.a8lH~~1 of foull!, sl~·e water~ j'~ck~ ood c:v~ pnde!l'£, ~1Ii~f ttl e pl~!l'gs us~d for 8881 un 9 thu h~!le:5, ~f;e 'in eviden C~ ot! ~ h F3' sides o'f d1f~ ~~'a.ck. There ~r;t!' @t=CiBsl0nallv, hD'wi!ver. ~:Hf'1 t!lr mala!.-.$ o~ 31fililihoring ia GCI re Whl c:'h iEl, Dths'~ sa Hilh @f III"I!~li r4ffi elan tl\' SIl!!'PlPo'lited by Its pfi'nt'S. IFol' aX:~lifilll pl D, 'in, rhe carse ,ef' me petrOl 'rank. $gali fl" h, was

fig" ~. U'g'e 'lJ.1 M /ilef,s, I/tjr df:~lnttlg " su~tJ~'lflil1.d c-.a rioJ,

ffl!tQ:Slf!;9Jry ['G m'a ke lUi S-1I!a of 8 e'D uple orf rltai1 s to (lIleven t ~Jlhe 'Gm~,e iffiro m floating I' lifle· e.!:)re In ttHs, caS:e b~ rlilg iI,ii',~rti!.!i'~n "I' baheJ n~ed UPIlJil ~ts c:an~'n-ali ~r;n, The, a~aliii;gem~nt is htCl1,c;0!~)!3ld' in fi.g., Jl\S. 'The use ~:d' , '(:h~!I~t~~hi:~ ir'l thi$, W,!13 V rlS ill ~ha Drfhoda~ prat~'irCe ,g nd wrh:il!lis 'f-orms am ~1'11 usa ~ J1I roundries. 11!'l ttfe' ,~.sn~ion5: ,~fi1 'wh~c:h ,the nai is: are p~a~ed there is filO detrilrn~rn 'mi@' '[he caS:lirng ~ arlJ3i!!ie r, Of'!~· of' ~ lila m i~, ~ ill ~ hI€: lCe:i",~ re Df$e CUI ~~ et. b Ulsh ,3 nd th EU wi U be d:~rlled o ~l fur tg ~iPll!il'O urn ,tlf'!¥ C~:S8., Tha Gther j':s plabM ln "1J18 cent r'(! of the moy n'ting brack~t wI; eirQ. In thi!3~ un ntke1y e~ ill'!: ,of ~O'~ ~kr,erge ClccuHilrllg" lhre:lt"~ i!S" 9Jmplil! th.ekna;ss af metal' toO 'iiiIUrC~W h~r' t!he i nS:'9'U-" 110 rIl of ,iii '~~~p~d p~1 iJg. The fl!ai~'"s: are lnbi"~d 1.-. 't!ne '!l'nollid from Iln~ ~ll1iSnde. ,and, \Yhen U'U3' biQ:IC. is d,@sm;J alrtef' 'fi1:dfllg foe ~ra. the h EI'~d5, C~ m~' la-riO C()fII,UJe'C' with the h!fuer ;a'nd eV1dence of theml IHit'trnQ a 1it1 te' 'iN iin. 'iii! a car~~ Ii k@ '~h~'s;. be appaf1en't QY al ::;!H~:hl ~isb.]!Iilancdi!: Otffh e UPPfl'i' (;f'lJJS\ Of ~8 moo[o'O

.OG{}ils,j'rPna! Iy., tl~e 00 reb ox CGlll1stitu ~Jecs thB m.ost ~ m:pDrr~n.1[: part I)f ItJU~; patM:Ir~. Ali 6-l.;a~p~iIi 'of' this r~ the p'jsron f'of. an unternall Ql~bll;st~on 'tingi'Ifi@. The, pea ~:tQml~ shown j'n ~. ~g is a p.1 aJin. cynnu:lric~1 C;Hile whh ~

181=t"er@d ,cllreprin [ ,a~: Ii"! e bese 81ii'i1d' ,8 8jJ fgOt'. !'Holt IiIIQ!e:ssari IV c:f: redu C:ed di~mje.mli., at 'the! wI' fo J $u'b&,~q llJlen~I'~ tClhucki rig th e c~sting fi~W m~chlnnng. It may be made' ifi twl~1 JU,~ rts .. r,etB,ined b~ a can [~I drOw@~" EiI'~' an a~d to ,simph:!! r 'mou~ d In!]; by I: W hat ~Q,B'i~! is a Imatte·r of' c~ oilo~. Th,a ctne. 'Of1 th e other hand~ earries ali the inte-rnalleetufes

of the ~TS'to,rri de.siEllII! ae~ rtiin,g to the ,sim' !1! ndtype' .. of 'IhE'! e nglir.l e. A ~~st~on 00 I!"e b 01(' ,~~d oore p~'Oduced iBre: ~{)wJI1 in ~,~s. 50' and !i,1.

S a~!f.~ra IIV. '~he iba;.( is 01 '~I,~e ki'n d 1II1I!Jstr,iII~e:\!d fn Figt• 4!i D ue 1~~ 'th & va:ryi n g dI8Tniii'l~'di"8: 'i3,f threl oom ,~liId '~o the tEl1J91i~d

print. hiow\i!!r~:r~ mOf~ '~Itlan one t,fii)'mp~aitJtt!!: lmust beBl IJsad. Wh'l9Jn 9 oug'un:g ,01 I;j:[ 'th ~ biJ~ it i~ an adiva n.tag;e. to i1':J! rrv ~hlB' 9 rnOV8 rig ht 'thIFO IiJlgh andl to fit. f;he [!FOWf1I den~! ~s,~ kfll 'the 'mnn G"f a spl i'[, 'lilli9. ,i!;ft~rw~ rdiiih F,ijJf flu~ ng thiEl'GllU!dg:e:on pit I ibos5i!'cS, ~t is d€!!slra bte ~o m~rk. 'I~'elil; €'ernrss aCCU[l) telv :s:nd to drill ri!;lliu i:l1':bfOnJ gh the box" ~mlai II Wei ~den bC,sS915 a fB lhlfa'n lumed. 'to ittclud ~ a 'S:P;lg,~:i!'( to "lil' ~~iille driUing" aln~1 g~uecll'll p.l'~ce., lh·eir a~ ign m~llilt CBn ~hllls b:e l~e9u ~aJ 'eli W~di rreas,or-EaiMe lea iitainw.

~I"iotha,r ~~ p're of a Gil reb 0(:( ,i:!,nd CO re 19 thaJ:t rm ,~, '[[_'IJl.lXl9trdke cyl inde,rr' 1 n figs. 52 '~Ind 6,3" ~ n 't flis t,a'$~,. it w1l'l b~, see_:n. ~he CQre e Ilfilb~die5 the e:w;halt6lt ~ nd tJfan!;i~Ei f pi'5s-a.ges al!1d~ fo r till a,t: re'!! SiD 11, m us! be ~,a;9ign!Sd with pa nicularrr Ica re'" ;;Ht 'th eSe 1Jme the' ~!I'iJe ,e~erU5 of tbe: eng"oe<.

Alth ~ug:h ~h~ ift)fegoi;ngl ~~amp)~ 1\10 ~ch ,only thel -hiiing"G Qf the 'subJ'@ct Ciif cored - .... u~...".. 'iiik,t;,. mi'flliu!' -t'lIiV'oi:'!; 'i' ..... il,;4r"'SrM ID'tIiE!

m'Y' __ ~~.. ~n'l;;;ly __ !I;!l'~ ~ __ I!:!' u.. If'i!)y .... _ __ _ _

gEni'i.~rall i ~f{! es U pen whiCh wtJfk and' elpeJ~. me n~, cain ptDCecEi d+ ,A!< ,!Iii ru 113", p'~lhaps~ 1 h~ am 911lE! I!Jr f'OIUlm'l~C!!ri(eit willi El~ni!l)V 'h f1! grle--B1est !S I:.DG@E!(ss: bV ths ImoatS rate use oj ih:u)~ OO~:ei;, pant Gultalr~"I Wlnen dea r I"'~ wilt h 'I;ompe ra'tive'lrV ~'l~rY' model comp{]na lin s. but th~m' wm aiwrtlys, bel' the IDcpa ~'1 ~,n wl~e n til car:e ls nfilrlhij];fl'f!lSiilMe to the jab or will ~ rle!' 'ttl e ~a'Vij'rnij1. a t the' I ~ler lii1arCit'dnhil~' st,age',. mOre '[han oo'mp€U"lSl1t8S ItH' 'llil 9 ad'r~Rlrc;nal VilrJrk 0 F pal~Jel rnm'81kio!3 iii! nd rneu r,d h'lg.

F~(J':!' 52 .tm:ri 53. Corel;ox end C,fil11' fbr nw"'(~t-to*.e crllwdlf)F.

Pa~n'timn

Slj!i,f(:l re ~eaving the, :Sl:U bract 0" p~tu~ms ~od CIO me boxes ill'loge [her:. h will be 3!'; we II f!iJ deal witlill ,the, qu i't.stiOfill of paiJl'Ii n:g ttu~rn P'a ilrll~ or v-.almh~h 'is a:p~l~ ed' '[01 iJ waoc!i£:'jl'l pa Ha rn for t.wo re a!sons. One- j Si ~" prresefV\e h 'from "the' Ifl'Hec,ts gf mo~'SUJri:! which ~s ,d'e'h~1:eriil)YS tOI thle; wood!, ralisfng thel grain, ctllllsllFigl w81rpin 9 8W'!td sahening th,@: '~!lilIO'~ Th~ '~i1t1i'ei' r~aoolf!j [~, th~~: ~'hf,;l 1)1:1 1.,:1

ff11P,lJrt5 a ~~~oh;" ha~~1 ,lAd ewn &unace to 'me p~tte m 'whll a:: h IS ~hUs~ alt aIiH~! and d'I:s' sa m'!l!l '11m e:., teisie ~ ~o A'to ~dd 3InJdle8ve:s, , ct~\iffilil el" h]mpr.~S&.iiO'lfl.

Th e kind ,pf lpawn" 1)@ ibe; u ~ed :is not i!1lponi~u", so IOrilg ,~S, u[, dries haTd tIlnd Is 1iP11-tackv" iB Ii1d~ 8'S a ruih3i, :a glossy f~fiI t~h 'ps

'_ rrad, all bo LJl1d piliin~;s., '_~rr~t. she!llla,c' or ~e1hJIG$e, aile l&:3quallV efle(ai~~ and ['he ltSB . ,~f one. i~t: ,a mather by" n'lle a ms't'eUlf wll ~ jJ~'i.f1i!IUV be dictated by lts a\lailabUhv, i~ Ts, Sti -,aldiva ntaga. ~ rid] worU1'{ o,f I~Of1l SiIQ1er~~li:cJ ~ whr13'n cho o8~ng" ]f t.hl!;!! l[ls'ln l is qu ick drv~ng. ,A, slow dl"'(ing. P8Pf'J I 'can le;als~~v :~pin out a s'f,mp h;!: job over a ee IW1pla C~' t~.r'@i8; d-II\'!.S IbV 'the: dma the. ~!O>od has be~,n

~ td~ 'fi rst, to a pr.ilm er of utildoro~~~t~ ng, wh rchnuJl5t be iCI~~('e dt~V' berfortl ~~EISS,pi!lp;errl'1lg 1,01 r~Hll'liDV:a' the ·'wh~sk&I'V"· ~ffe'ct. Wh,BiiI, oo'llt wood h ~ ~ b68r:! used, a mel ti1:f3ri t,~ iii, 'ifilflis IMng ooar~ IOf ~ ross, w hl~h must agai'rrl be, ~,U~t0 ,d'~ and ha ~d be~'Qr~ a I"oV' .eutempt ,is made· a,t, mOLlildlilng.

Wh e re it ~iS, des.~li8id to cut p~mi1 tiflg, rilmE! to a m'il'll imlLi m the're IS:el ~'rJod IdaiaJl to, be, laid 'ro Ii ~he' "'I~~' of b.rushting (If' ~f~Vilfi!,g oel ~ulc!Se = pau1j~cui a:rlly' '~'he' '~B ner ~ 'when a co,uJil,le of coal's, ean oft e fti! be IBppAried with I'iI the tm~r~ !'11ll fii"!lalf'!j\l' res.~!..1ts the m8~el!'1al h~ ideal, CI~lhJI;oJN!1 jFUII'er' ,is e.m:fle,rn,~!V 61llootl'\r'8 tn rna kii'ng til e. ,SIJ rfaCa Of. th_~ pat~em e~Bn,. 11m e~ If 'me ~11Ie'r is -Ip'pU"i3:d ,~'tI ther 1\00 lib~,~irly th e'C1!1 :1:£ ~ 18dJd'ermy ~Jilwa,~d:s S iJrflce cr'!!ID~k:tng 1~ iJppaer ,a f1'~f is OMe weaks '0 r m'Or:ll~J~$ but.

ulSadl as it 8!nOiJ hj, lie" till ~ua' is '!flO n!il'!i!l~OIrr. why p6!ft.tilffl~ 'fin'h:~heer in eel hJ to.se Ip·si nfs :siJ'lO,uid no,t 'Ire mafil1 as ~eru~~e~b'~ aiS ,ElIlV mhers.

Althalll gil 'itlne ~Pj'8V <08 FI hsm IV be :benare d f,o'[" 19le'iFlQ ra~ patt:e rn 'pahnH ngJ tner'li J);I re' ceca :si'crr s wham t 118 1lI se of.a brush IS :~I'iI~i"r~p e ll1i5abhl. The exiuiFllil'a given ill I~I g., S 4 ,s:n~w.; w,na I hel p;PU!I1ii wh'~n ~ iii' i;!lu~rnlFn hi made I'~: s;pray Ipfdn [ b ~ twe;e n the· f!n.s of a cVm]"u1er~ ,OrdinarrUv. ~iu~e or no df~ught is: l~~~Vei:'! EO 1:h'e'm' In the' :1ifrs1 place allild~ Ob\l101llsly. Uie:ir Si~._W~t~ ,mus;l be' 'lJery

FIg~ 5:4~ ''(Jro:.rJgh$~ lon' flnncd ~y,I.~r"de, pfi[~etn WJfJl/tJd by g/~r/;wlei$ tJl p8in'~.

sm ct)'lh :a rid Il,JlfiI imp8!'if~d D I" ttn Ii! ssnd wi,! I ,cJI'h1r;. Th e pa[f]t h'tifrli!! has bun t UP reu rid Ih~ outer ~ges of the It!'n$; giVl~li'im them' Wtha'[ aLm e !iJlril:is Ito a fI€J(Jllllv.e 'ttapew and lm-akingl 8 clea n, s'tr.lp wm possibll e. For work of '[hfi~ 'nalUlc'lJ' '("Bre is an 'am,en rag~ ·fln lhil\!! u 5-e' Oif ;EiI s~flr :sable lor ~l.firf1~l brush. 9:ru!ih H \Vie'ry ,!lllJIilab[e ror .e II '8Irfnil~ ~ I~-a~:rning jobs! are 'th QSSl rwhf,~h 'falll ~n 'the~a~tJegorv of i'wriTtiEI ~' 'i!llliid wh ~ch 8i re' 1J8uraH h!1' ob [ai na'b~B llill I: v:a ri'lny ,of flsl ,aJrnd rou!rld 'sl~e.s ftQm artu sts" ,oo~'oUrm'B'Il1~ or "1"'0 ffl ~ he khld IDlW ,go!llfi 'Djl~hop whlch c8'lers, rolf' t~'1le requ ~Il!!(ml~nt·s; ~ff ,iZi pr~'f.&SSr~ na~ d e,ooratilll.

ICHA,PTER 8

.AllfiYi n9 now at the stage wh:a rre. lin us suppoefl. a medest by iUlle'full oollaction of Fo,ulldry jimpedimenta has been ac:quired. ~ne a mateu r e ng ~n eer fin ds hi m~~lf ij n "e~d 0" OJiU~~' Cit twO ex-ltn:~ ttarns lof equfp~· men in his w·c['ks~oiP. A small rnaehtne ·yice.. shalll we! sav, wlilicl'rI 'w~ Ulld fi1@m, 81 ~v run 0 aibou- -'101 [0 plJl'it:hase!' but wh"ch he bel i e'll~s. ne rCliln . ake for nims~I'f at a loom'P~e~.e saving. At the sa me time h fJ wll ~ b~ abL to embody such jdea~ or spedai fea tu r.es ss may be 'to his own fljki i:lQJ wh~ Ie nOlh~ng !':lee b.e s.ald fer "he e"FljQym:erf, 'to be delrived hom til e nursul , I [ '::5 also true tha r hEll can aften mill k_e. his OWlii cas·t~ ngsl" allowing eve for I~a[em making as wiB~l, ~III ~eH i m e Ih,EI n it w,tJuld I'ake '10 ~d~f bV post· fl'io rn :a, supp1 ie:lI".

The vict ~ilhJ!5trated in th ' dntwing. Fig'. .5 5,. ~s In.ctuded eUi an exa.m p~l!!! .and mor Wi1h Blf'lV elalrn to spiec.li3l1 merit. It w'Duld.

,o·wever. ii1iDcordin 1 0 the size it was prod uced', form 8 V8 ry u.sefld I addi'ligl1l tc the: aecesserles Ulj,fJd with any latha up Eo the popuhu t ,r'Be or fouw inch s~er., hs con5~ ru e,lian 'csl -i fer th Sl making· af n~o patt8lin '~ an . for- the 'fixed J,BW and bed of 1tl1e vi.ere· iI nd th'a' arttrl er for th1e ,movin.g ~aw. The 'f:astlngsalr,e 'lDI be m~d:~ ln iflQn.

f,·D" 56 ~hows 'the Plf"tGltns sepamte~y and allT80ged on ·the turn ~ng ,0Y€iI r bcOBlrrdl

u:adrv 'for mQu'l ding. ·90th h illv'a ~ nat 'bas and fillill Into thl8 ,e'.ategory of' baing the Sl' pi est ·itVpe of pa11el'1n to m 0 old. Th '" a ire placed basQ d,ownw"lI rds: ·tiI nd SIJa:eed SOr ' filB~ 'rhere is- room fQf Them wi~.hin th - drmen;s.ICD'nS 'Qf 'niB ',ask - ~nilCatedr her b,V 'ne do~{I Unes. - wi'lh sQm~Th'rng In e)C.C{1.SS of han am {ncb to spare be!twe~n the f'I'E!l9re 5t pain IS oif 'the pau.arns ii nd the sides. 011 ~he boX.. due f,&QilI:rd be,il'1lg pai~ ai SOl to f}sition i ng the ru nll1 er 'clone ci rcle ~ whre re tIS atte GI-nrnelill to re+1 her C8st~ ngl will j1i(i1 b.e iii n inc·onven mnc@ b t1' w1'lIr ne'illulhiSl~ss, assure he mould berng comp~Btlelv "run." Th ~,6!lSl poi"t is ena whh~ln w;~1 I'argahr be· dict;a ed bv th exe~cise' of comlmo:n Hense .not un·,mllied with e~peJ!ll enee, E:rnlrs in lnis l"et-sp$C"t w i11 eecur wi'lh even til most IPlI'actis(Jf1 moulder when a pauen:! fs someW~rtlt au o ,ttl! e' ordina'ry bu. w~ th the Ie'~a rn p I J .1jJ11ld@f discussion. tbflre should be linl! C'HUise 'for hd hJrn"

'fh a d rag bo~. ,nve r1edi. is PDSitiOfii ~ roun~ the patterns. [In tillS ease the· d a!g is ~ he pan, 'Wi1'holil t thu I~~ ns a nd thus .~ Ina OOl< _Jf Ii~ '-lal' U 00 the' beard. ln 'some ins.tBr! c-es the box wilh the pins is fi1 re ·iiilfS' .... ,d~,pe ndirn 9 01'11' the Il!u,efeiFe ness, olf 'II ~ Imoulder,. €lInd lh~s then be:oome~ lhu· draQ', but Un~ Ni!1 ~5l no. ihafd atnld '¥8~~ rule:.

, - .

rig: ss: A us.elvll'WblftC!l· 'or In ,110mB IDundry:.

O' rvioush;. i:nhe laUD!' c:as.i, allowance hn . c b,e. made for liue p ins. I~lt'ha r bY' rovh:Un 9 h alles to rEl'CIBivs them or for .hem [0 cvorh81lg ~nB brN~ilrd, Some C.Om'fi:~al bOX'H, ~lrB prov rJ'ed wlm loose pins . hUB lh el'1e! is 1"1 0 p:rob~'em_

The sand ha;5 been prepel'ud by \ern,p~rIrtSl with water and has beelf'lJ s,;eved reedy Jeff use. Fhnn mnng cernrnences by C#V9J'{Jlg lhe· lPan~m and. ~ertll::l.ps. ·the - osr Bffec.t~ve way of deing this.

~Sl)eciid ~y wirh cbI'E!cls wh lch 'may pr8se rr~ ill more in~ rica Ie con1jO ur ttlriU'iI ttl eJ oille in hand, ls bV takingl the s _nd UJ1p in handfuls ~n:d throw ~l1Ig tt. vi rUU;l rly. iii! 'he pa u·er n. Deeper 110UOWS and cr "flees wm recei.'\le more p:alf1~cul'ar --ention ro efl'5lU'e' thiH ths sand rJri!·funr,iIN!5 . u~lv and 'with v@n dens} '_ San-d Is draw IUp to the sid of lIn~' patitJe! m by hand a rid prsss ad ~ he ra ·fir;rnly. Aneiir~Jl o.n [0 I' is de lai II w m enSlJ re a smooth fJ'r finis,}, to ne si des o'~ di),e eas tnQ

C8s[ ifrJn me.chlne ~tCfi of ths' 'rypfl!J .$h . .,wn llibo'lJ(!! - ,stwsys B We/COmB' _ <.tIdifllm tiD fh,fJ t'fJt:;j ,iJd

57

ilian i t~e ~and is JUIS,! pited i1ft and' allowed, 'to take 1~ own 'wurse. De aHa can be .~lnHnded to by pin chas 10 sa'nd d~ fe~tBd at IhlB:m I!Jffid I the mou Ider is sa t1i s~ eft ~'har 1 he whole area 10 ~he patlern has Ibeen dea't wi'rl'll eJftective1,. ',1 may be wenl .to mention tha~1 1n 'pro'''erssion~'~ moulding pf'~cdc·e, ·'facing san d ~, te .• n e'w 'sand stmigh't from

ttu:! miHO' is UisuaUv em~ploved '" direct Icontact w·;-th this p'ltrern. thlil! ,remainder o~

thiS bo~ !bailng nllll'd ..., w'i]:h u'seci sertd, whIch 1'H~'s been r;-e :E!'mpe'~ild, of: !Course, ~fom the floor of the' s'hop, Il !Wllt tek,a' a k2'IIlQ) ;~Ime. for the dnd of' 'the ,2!m,a't'eur 'fQLJlJIld'ry~ if h _ as be.on aequ frI!d '1Ilf!W" 'to deteriora-IQ kJ' 'tne. extent 'that it ts 'unfit for use i9!9;ESI'io51 he l71"Uelrnl so, to -a large dUQ,rE! Di 'lh i1ft pmtitul.a r d 8.t~'d ellllll '0 e igrnofimL

- S,and c:a n no,W be' 'scCloped 'into th,a: box 8 rnrreJ ~ibove Ipettern' epli and the fi~$l lave.r i' IlfQund thii p8ittllf1n~ ue.ated to B "Slmmifili~ ,Q_u-w a useful rammilf' lik-e that ShOWfilI ~ n If~ g,. 51S e~nl be ~a'de 'f,orn iii! 'sh o·ift lo'ng(h of bii'c-omstiiCk. SInd i~ ~ $~ add.ed in lavers elnd ~he rammhlg canied IQ'I!lII~ in stages ulm;U (he 'box: ts 'Iil led. J'i.un the ssm,e, ~I I'S un,wis,e, '(0 :sepfJJfarte: th '

!51

,FfQ. 616, P/8ltems jjJ"8n.g~d Drl moulding bo!Utt

ia~ers; 1hll!!IY should be 'well ~.ey.I!Hj tog@' hlE!r bv cHgg~ fig in, t.hJll rammer or sand is iablrl:i 10 Ire U DU l whenllile hO;l( is turnad Over. The dragl ls 'f~ 1i"I1~ ~'f rl di ad up brv ~urictdin 9 I,wav 'tha' surplus s£I'lild and ~ev,~;IUn9 th ~op. F;g~ 519, The f)s-e~ed bo,- '5 now venle.d by m~ans 01 if po Inted wi ra driven in a Hum be'r Oil times. abo'lre - bu [ Ina,t $.0 d, eD~Y' - S, to ooUrcn - ~ne patte mi. Fi g~ 16'0. Wire of about one e~ghth of :;an illlch in dlam - r irs slJI)i'tabl and often. al fi ne "radte" 'type of S'cmwdrivel'. w~~cJh may haw' eutl h/·ad ~ts tilonl"nall "~nc iJon. w~ II C91rtv OUI the work adrn'lirsbly.

The draa box is 'IfiOW tunn3d' 'over. Illf i1 he,s- bee lit ramlmad ef11Bcf1v.e IV th erie sho uld b no need ta S1LJp~~iOrl 11 h1 any way '(0,00 ,~ s, h should be pos:stb~e' ~c li11 a IfT:'Ifou~d q .... ~~" whh~U'- risk ef the sand felill in g Ol!J a~thou9h .. wtruer.e thlt! ,~r.ea of is! box ts \f~ Ii)' gr,ea' ]" wei arUo~n 'to it'S. depd1, it i5 ILtlSl!Ja~ M pro'llidle it. wi~h reilllfQrC'lna biars across Uie' m:icb:He. The surface no,w UJIlPEI:rJf'IPst V8~lnn9 th_ undersides, o·f 'lhfl' pa 1'8 ns, ·ind baR,nQ 1:h~ john 'f;UH'il' 10' th! mI)ulld. is ghien. a ~uslin9. 'w~lh 'PBril:jng sa neil or powder, FW9.. ti,'1 sh owshe

preeass lysing ,11 corNe s'[rl'in&t. Plas[:tc on es liTe qu ~1:'e ~h ~IP a nd dis dbu tu 'h [poWder ilIerv e~ell'lly.

,. B·efo,~, ~ ddi illS th _ 'COp.e CHI" GP f) n 1 h'e :Stmck. Qrf ~!Ljbe "tu· urm n91 tIiIe down mnl,,"-er !S, pool r e!rn~tt ~or lton-. 8: short ran· r of braSS' 'tube, .iDen.f' ~alf all mch in dI~emet.er.

w 1tI~ pl1adu~ (I n el(O€i1l enl IiUrme rand 'i,e p05ition of Ulis. relati'iil'E! 10 hrE' Jhif tams. Il5, s'n.lWnl lin fig. 62, The: tlliJbe is prBSl:!H!!d into, I he sa ndl ,i3lnd wiil .$Up,Porl ~self va 'icall~ V

,~'l"iIl ~I!U

L

uf1"li~ thl 'OOjJl hiiS, b'~ fil'l" mmm~d. 'Som~ Imflb,n'111 c@, C!a~1 be iEft1sci'u:!!d 'm s@l'et~li ng lust '~e riGint',spOil fhr the IIfU ir.-nelf and! much wfll depe nd upOln f:hec shape of ~he, pattern, r~ :I~-' ususl 10 p(HJlr 'into ana' of ih iB' IG'a~t' Import8fU ®e:ct~t'f!!s .. O'f ~Jhe IG!i;lS~ ing a nd, ~rII 'fi~ C~&B of' C[lurse. 'it w~U be- inlol th ~ bas.e

. ' .. _.

flange. The' di!S~,a niCB o~' ~he rtlI nnef 'fflam

~Hsc p'~'narli!' s,'ncml'd b'6 a comlp~ornh~;e: not !So' dG.se ,as ,to ('.l~IUSe ,d;2irn,!ftg,e' er weaken th~, nt~lUld wh~i1 'th~' ~fig~U~ is eut and n~'!

~o 'far ,!;lwary as t~ app.raciablv Fie'd Uloe 'lhe 't~·mr;;e,r,el~re af ~he IfIII"U1!!tSII IHIfo re it If! ntees, 'The IC~I'~ rs, n ow placed ~n P05i,'dcn 3nd. ra'mmod lk:Jil ~!il Ihi!E:) mann BF de~ribedl [Or t!1Jle drag~ u: ~ 'UTfil91er ltS Ip~-a''Ded U PD n lh@, IliIlfil nell" 'UJilb L?J' iilfli Ih 8' J~Blilier S f:!l9~!il. to stead~ i't. f1,el'iBl wHI b i! n~!hm daJrlgar of it shihl ng whne ~Jhe''!box is 'rmed. Th e top is 'st{ickl ed Ufff and ~~m'ed as before.

"Th e ",ext 6ulj]e ts to w~rthd ~aw the: fItJll'1!'f~8r tu'be:. I' is, laos'en Ead by :a ci'fcul~aJf IlH.tia:mj as ;sflioliU'lllfl i IfI IFitO. 63. wh'[a'n alhio '5erv,BiS, to widen il s>omewlia,~!, "rhe mouth I}f'ithe runner i~ '1:h~n ~an '10 a f!!Jf'!n~i s.h~p~'

FitJ,. 64. r~~, ';m.tJ/1~ dwir;8:$ fa.! W.idBld~5J f'hf!! fUnfiii5il hr.t!1'Ufh

wiilh ~he ~Iid of a '(r.oWJe ~ o'r mDul1 ded with ~ he Iffiilg li:!'r:S. The slmp,lu oper.til t:j:Orll is ca med e ~ , ~~iI1 1E'.~e:ll '9]i'ei~Uer fa c:m (y !by lh B II!J Sill! r (Dr !BJ:ampls" Clf a srna n p,'as'tiG' IF WI I'iI nel A (frgl. 64: II Glf 'm~ I:l en of ill Gta'ild's: di'~.c.a rded ~ ru mpat. B,. F,aln ~n g eU'ther of th es I! ob:j:~cm b e;ing oorn'ilen'if!iI:1t[ly t,o hand Trt m,ey be well 'wot~h WhiJ'e nn akllilg Si,:u::h ~ ~ool,,, bV ~'$til'liil ,~ sim i! a r 511 iiip ijl' in sly mInilu m and ~~ I11Q illH or 'polf-sill 11I1i'J 10 'Iln'lsh.

F~g. IFB 51 'II hJlSlraf!eS 't~' e form Bfii d i!:.nm,~ pa ri':so n O'f ~v,~j'ta I ru nrn fJf'S, fmm. on '~hre' J'eh ;a n hon C'Istin:g ~ni!-d, 0 ill The' r.lght a casti ngl 'in s'~!,Dm~ni'lIJm. II n 'lbB liilttQf Giese' ~he' graater bulk malkes to [ seu 1',,11 !;Jasti rlQ!s £llnd a, mmril]miljm: of' shrinkag,e. There is, some

82

C01llpansatiiOin Mr- h:i!vlu'I!Q to POlW "te Will.'" :SU en ,a h3jfig~ wI um_e' 'of met8111 'in lhl~r lJIery CifhUl~ the ru riln~r esn be put 1l~) Q'P~d USie in tlh'B w©rk~'h.CZ! P' if!ll ~:h!iil! tu m ~i'i1g of ~,an parts, T1hat hii. lo,f 'COUf,sll!, w"en IfI~, 'fis; not, r'~Qul mel ~Ol put ba:ck iii mn th e po,t 'Ib(n' f'lii3!kin ~ u P th~ n ~x~ ,mB~ It 1"h e ~ai'rn e can be sald (rIT runma rB F~d1Ffi bm rue ~nd '9 Illilfli m'l!ltall u~tirngs which, Calr,l. qlylj t~ iH~hia'!".~ ag(i!cOU:s~Y'. btl' made 011 si mlla r lawgJ€' S$Oi[~O n. Cl'ften. H thQ Il~n ll1e:r is s>oundj IIJI silfu~' b~sJles. aClid :se ClI1 can b9 tu med 'from th~iS9,

lhe mDul1 d i~ now ·spllt awu~1 'the cope, wJiich hi' tf1li~ tase re q'L!iin~~ nO fu nher iI n1trrti'oen bevornd du st'ing or spmvin 9 w~tn plu mlbaso,;I~ ,S toadl ,aside! '0 11J'!' of 1iI:61'rim~!S wa~. IBerore withdrawing: the; ~ tterns froM Ih'9 ~aficl h ts!, tisu~1 to moi'SitiEfi th,~ sllI'Ad' Imm'E!:dl'alte~v :suwnJ'lLiodinQ them, Ufi.unQ 8 aa me Ilh~ If 'b.ru~s.h 'flor 9p~1:vnlilg '[he wajl~r. TMs ~s to gu ~rd agah'l$'( 'mille pCJl5i;51 bi Uty of ttl ~ Hdges o~ th~' IIlmC'U~ d &rumbU!ilg) as ~he pi,att~m is fl"8mOVl;!dt, ~an: ifrom loosen ed Illln d f,a U Ing ~ ntel '~he imp FiE!'S5:rQ n to ,spoil' 'm 8, eas'titng,th,e; pfi. ;se;rv,~tion IQf 'thil1 firm I~dg~ 110, 'rhij! tiavify BVQJds sWCill'ssi'lle '·'f~I;1!Sllti·I' ~ 'U,~ te 111'1 U;Illied :t.o rde;sCl~be 'I:tH~ th ~f1; ragg~M: we:b o,i metal "$o:i!fi'Bdmes SIE!Fe Iil rau nd! an unr~et t ~ed .ctlftilll,g a t' 'the Ju nction lof: '~hil1!' two P8'1n'Sl. avJ!l:h:!'If.ce ro'~ ,an ~ lI..;fl~li1 rag mou'fd.

rr\low _, a'llso! thi i ngatme:s, ~8n be cut 'to ~ IIlnec! the ~mlp.r8s8ion ~ eft by' '1[~8 ml!l9Blr 1ube with ttJ!9 'e~g!E! o~ 'tl~UJ' pau'!:II!il. "Th!El,rre' is an ad!va:ntage In CU'l9I'i!19 ~he' ~'ngat,es at ~hi'~

"(g. 66. CfJmpfJ#~'6;' ~f fliUnnm, Inlrn imfl lJn(j ,BJumlnmm '~Jlulin9~~

S\'[ag~. ]Jil$[ iit,tl! d 'of ~fter tha patterns 'ha.ve billl'iln rem oved, as, '[jhe rJ',sk. '~lf oaJrfI'iIIIg,in 9 'the Im-o LI'ld ~ s th us red uced~ A ~in.lbl'~ a nd eas'Uy m,ade' t'oG'11 -for eu l1'in g ,in g,a,uls is sh iilWl1I I'n Fig. alSi A. 19 is i!I 't'¥;pica~, com,bhunion molli Id'ifil 9 lUG1. One end CiIJ ts irggi't~~~ e.te.,~ w;i1lte' '~hifil' I~,th ~r Is a srn ailll trowe~ O'f much g ~n,,·rall, u·l'i'~ity". ~ n a home 'mu ndry. WM i1I!rB ,~I casUI1~ s~ssi 0 111 OC(!,U [5; ,~,[:

Ift1'eg 1iJ~1 r in'tBN,a Is.. 'Q7rte'n whh el'1l ,app reetsble' lapse of tint119 i III liUHWiI1a;EI'I'i i R'l!Qulding 1.0-011 iiil'i'i~1 De'S~ m,ada of br,~ss. St'0el. tends; '~!il Ift!fst aUI'[O~1 qu'h::k~V un!e. ill! cant~ rn] eus La sa. Th Eli kirm 10 wlhlch 'th 0 Ingate is ~ut '~, i~ h-H~~'!ratedl in In!)" e '1. lh~ !a pe red see1:icHil of h: !3IU,CWS a hiir b~dy O"f me (a~ eo be bH~'MQlhi Iclose 'to tt.n~ 'f:a,~atv wI til ClJ'~ la"5Tng h,!!!'a t ,md the fHrftlWiet fl'~rmwet.r "'throBt" makes. f.e.('tI ~ng lUISliFJ·rf_ 'If th:.e "1JJ" nerr' is 't'D be Ibrrokan C1lff' It wUll . snap pJieci-sel'y ~~ th ia1 rhirnrU!!Sf DE:U1 Dr. 1rr 'to be eut itlhroru g h with a ~~cM~W. Helem' 'Is; a Q()nvEiif1ji,~ rid., sm aJn' $e~ion 'ru~' 'lh Di purp.ose. Th e di mernt~c lI1ii of

iIii:!"lii' II!.II!~J

me ·ingl!:U,e 'wi1 I be Ire'llBtled bJ U,., 'bulil( a~ [lila .-s,Ung. IO{~ ce UU"S.i!\O and 'it ~tS!; l~lI'c!baiblv saf~r cO 1Q;r:rr ,somewhal~, ,on ~1he 'gena'raYs ,side. U800riaus 'f9t~lllng 'irs: m!!.!'ch ,to b~ prefiEiffOO to ~ m ~~i-ii'lLiln eeu red by' ,a ces~ ri'cted ~(lW~

lin e p lerr! to' r n 's ,a f'e 10 0 ~ e ,iii ~~d by .. rBp~j'ng," A common fo rm O~' r1lppin,g bar l~ i ~Ili ~l'r,a,t'e-4 in Ag', e I 3111d r f'9r sm atU pa't~erin5i. may be made from q~ aiM F 1101

hill,llf- rneh di',amle"[!a r steel rod, lit itti 'gi Viall al 1'9h[~ UI1P' tlUl drive 1~11 i;!! poi jfU.Jeo @incl vfllto th e Genne af th e pa tt~ri!1 an d ,8' sec~Tld ba r, Jc.nQwn as a ··striker.·' 'i~ ,empIO'lted ,~S in FLg., ·IS,9, ~ t ts ~m'p-oI1Bn1' 'wh~n 'wlthdli'awi'r,lQI tflle parl1\E;r;:n thar~ h sheu rd be lirrH,oo at as n;gaU' as Ipass:~b~e '~he I~oinlt of tJa~ fllnC~;!!',. IQ lI1frnim i~se, 'th IB' risk of: dr,a g;gi,ng tl"l e mou'fd. A

IIlJ~ihd ac;C'..essory ~fII ~his <II ~l'tfBctiton is a

... ",," I I. r h' l.. •

'P ii),~' l!l:ii ilJFio ill r -S'C. IBIW eye.. 'W ·I~. ~ i is.

~ ~,(\UW8~' i n~~ ~h e palla rn ane r mppifilij, lecClmi'ogj a'C~II.iI~f,omGd1 ID lhe' ~e.if;Jhnl'~lVj~~, a moutder 'wl~~ be able to "feel" if a

~

Ili'S.'t'tem is Qult,ei.~leaf III DIjj~'r Qji w,l'lErther il"il

llEl·1!d of 'l'iUlitlh!BdI nr~pifl U. W1lh ~ I f;ar ns h8V~ ng' a de!lp h!IJlk~w on the ufildersMe' [t1 a~ Is ~I '[sl'!Idmcy f:O w the! CIOf8 of ,sand 1:,01 adli'terli' ln ~he: spa~e IiInd OrJ88k. i3lw,ay flJi'(l,m tha m ~'L!Jld. A ~lliW is l'1orp taps whtt t h~' ~Irik!er QIi! ~,cp e Un e ~ ~flin 9 hQd.k, [ust .iLn ~ne 1i!1(lfment tl~ F3 'w,eigh n; '~s Ita kEl!'1j w~ II usua ny' li!ijW d~ ~ des irye~ e.ff;ect and.. whine the:

C~"OOUF Is pilrdl:Uila~iy deUcr,ie" aJ ~~ght rs PfJiilg ICan be oornnnty;~~1 ~n ti ~ the patt~'m is bJlr'~la'~v elea r,

With bO'lh P anems DIE! mov~d n'lI~ motu ~d f,o:l" ~he mil I!:'hi'ne 'vice ·ap;jPc>e ~s €,Us im Fig. 10:' 1~'08dV, "OW ~ for dlJ'~~ uog wid~ p'~u mibag,a b.efore tina'i ill I osing., lh iis is th 9 3tage' wtl ~rlEl,. if anv. CCDU!l8 'wou~d be 'ifiI<tlcd1. Th e m Quid 'comp hne~, W"e,ig'titer!J lI'",eady f;Of peu ~htg it ,!ilh~wn in Fig1. 71. Th e ~efgh~~ in ItTi hii ea5e. iii r~1 Eli r.louple ,01" ! ;w~s:terr5'" 'from

flQ'.. .,.,. M,owri. we~g:ht,fju/~ ~dY ~, {!(JunfI"B'

~adie( ioyndrywork; 'Th·fIi caeniq'igs fUl~ t'he~ machine 'vics ,all'il~ ItO'OS~: i'aw. w+t h ru oner BlU9ched ]US,1 a(3 fley' ~'8~ve 'l:tHl m 0 !Jld. are s,1i1own In Rgl' 72'.

CllLa en Idy prose n~, a d i'Fie r-~,lf:"tt ki!ltd of preble m. Wh ~r,~ Un eSs' ~re de~h. with _ bv sp Utting the~m at ,eI, COlll'Wlfilient pa Min;£! Iline ~'h!l;:V; too. ea 111 be tf:8!;;I:t>ad 'rr1!;).m ~he petm of ~l!iW' 011' ra nl ming up '[hee.d .-,sg" as 'flat 'sijderl p-a:uurns. ~ n this 'eil'S~ 'the parrn I@f the [p~n:@m with Q~~ pi n~ ftS rnou'l ded in, th Ii! bottom b.~ ;a nclJi bG'hliie ra I1Oflrlin:g d1E~ oope~, ithe~ 5!Blcond h a if or "he 'llJiti1i'ern ls wl!3:g1S'leJed over 'tilt. 'FtrSl'~'" 'llhe two 'Sre~1.ions o.f IpaUem di\l!~de' wi~ h the Imou~'d Bnd ~,iiC h ha!lif has ~,Q b I! rapp I!Id au L ~epafiWt~ IV. A P@1TI'l [(i b-!E WiI';:li:hBd i ~ thal the d o~)li pins, da nO I: Jbecom!9' "0 Y! it!'d w IIUl sand W ,pte,veiflit: them wi1 hdr,iliI,will'tl aa s.Uy. 'M af'!'Y ~ mO uld hiil':;' b~el'll ~Qf!2l,~'ped a 5 a fle;s;u'l,t of tt\e. pal~t8'f11i1 f,iii1iHnIQ to' s:pm" ptdUn'g nut of' i!hB sen d ,a'nd Ir.uirnifll'g 't .. he ~ m Illre.ssi(J Ii'i 'wh~ rt the: cepe, ;~s, li'l1led I~trmof rs i'-'P~ ~·gl.

R ere r:e n R nas Ib~':HH'i m adel.. hl the cJ~a(l't)er en 'patt8Uima[h;j'ng, tOr mE!thods 0'1 m,~ yldlr!ilgl S'~1.id~ ~:dd$~ded pa,'tt'~rAS, ~~!]nlg a iJ:IDugh'iV milld!J U!:mplat,e,_ WhUIf,;i' '1t:t1~ ~ll'ilra~g,lre m-ent 'wU i b ~I sa'tisf:aotory wherJ

o dcWsi,d:as

Th E! f:creg:o] fig ha~ de,a ~~ 'with I~he mQulding,

'Q( piu1e::rnSi ~iving ;ene flat side., P,!9uell'n!S whtc n hi!!!v.~ ani all r'il:'-llJnd Mn'ttJu r very' ~r~-

Ff!/, '1:2. Im'l1l C;ijstl1"t!J tw' mtJchiofj' 'lItre wlrh r.un\P'll~F ,Btf:,s--chfld i4!5.i Il .IetfVer lhe m(Juld..

86

ortmn, mar;1Ji-me'4f ir" l:.epBt:r'l'l ca~t' In "~'n'. PitJ. 40 maw.$ r:11f{t Qr:msg-u.(Hi.r:m' of fils (leDdsloc p'Dtcem and 'lHJ'g1J$ 6\~ 61,2' ,I ,54 .sf;'g,es J(J i~lJ!gr.m,g,

de!il,r.ng wMch il!)aU8'rn~ hal(ifl!Q m'c-d8lf'~oo teJ~ e-i, i't is ~orrn'mlf[~ mas n.~OO5~ ny' 'to dea~ wi'lh deepeiF S(tG'I_U~ ns fn a differUfiI t 'mann er

..... 0.1 'i~ - - __ ...I .......... , .. 1 '1.-11 b. ~_

8n~ U II e weh iIo1 'WI;,.IS~!;.!I@. ~ n 'liliJIUI ndPf

j ~~J!lon. i iii usuall V iill(i1 pi red Ul I~he: ~~ nol IOf spe,citi3JnV pr-fi!!'P"';lHOO Ib8d1 made to, rBlo!fl:i~e 011:9! ha I'~ O'f !:til Fl: P a Uem wtll UIIl! 'the finn, bo'X p ~ rt is ra m med u ~. S(HTI~tf irn es: the ad<ds~de,. as: a te mpcrery ,mBt~!Su re for "on ~

'-Oft""" ,~obs .. is ,made. in ~ r~ens~n d., A b01{ P8wt is @r~pa red ~V Hillin Q' w:~th sand ,iilll1d ~ 15:~6U~ fn-g t'h iil' '[OP" A Cllal\<lity j's dug 00 t O'~: ~hB :saft~ 10 rece:vve the p Ii!! Marri!' !WI pi [to 'Ih e '~aIM'h'l,g I fl9. wl'1m'iE!i 'i;~ ~'s [iill)in~'V ~mbeddecl flf!ld -Jhe sand 11"~~,n ed ,il11'bi91l1 t '~1 U) m 8k:~ ~ ,ch3a IfI 1(;1-I,n1. _ 'Til e. w hole is du,~rHi ~~ ll"i p~r1;i f!!g powder' and ~t.e d~agl box, i !1'IJ~r1'fJ!d over ,~t ra rn m I!~td U.P' '~n the u sua ~ wray. For ramevi r'Jg 'the od:ds'f de. Ikmdl bO<XBiS' ,BIlle' nJm~cl loveli' to ~te titer a nd ~ he II:J I=l~ew a Ii'i.(i"

'(g. 73\. 1i:e~' blJJ' pJ'8t:ed In fJ'8'fitiafjl ,~fl' at/d'!;j(Je jl~ne-m !;efucfJ! CtilPIil' I:; m~erJ.

8m ~Ued, Is ,liepJ1aood fe no rammi ng fhe oope.

From m:h~'~ s'tage OlniWB res ml!)lIJ r:Ung Ip~0ce:ed.s 8S 'with a SiPI iii[ Pi'~t~ m" e\llli~e ~t \I'Iiu~t. r1@'Q3Ji1d tc th e. US:~' ,of '~M m'tiPPUfil 9 bar wlh'ich,. ~n this caH~ is !1UiIIlehed til) d~:e' pi!.nter,n biBf~fe 'th.e lop bO:)il; is tffii n~ d. Thus 'i'lt pro-~lT\!Ide,~ f'tiO m 'th e cS~nd lEU ~he ~,oP of the' m a Ulld. a~lowlll"tg ~ho ~'a ~Ierlil t,O b fEI woe n 100 Sl,e n ed w~ I h,'ij n b eiDIr. fit 'i' h e b,oM i,s' ,sepal~ll€d. Tihe: ta,\!l~r,y I eft ln 'Ihe cepe 'wh&1t1 !~he ~ap.pjl'itg belf js withdr3wf:I (:31f1 re ma~'111 to 'farm the • 'n1'~er"·;t

When ilJIl m aii'D p ermane n1, IWorm of o~ds~'de l~ feqljJ~l'letd in a cai$~ whei'i~.a F8ir rep'e~l~~'illi!ll ,ef 'lll1e G~I~;alng i~ ;JInticip3'ted'. U

• l • .'~

can b~~ m~i~t~ ~, \I!!8 rIY [C1Qn~e:l'nil!!! rlllV. .n oil!

sand land ba:ke-d h,j!!,rd._ 'SILlLoh a n tnfd~id~ 'wlnl, i~ USi;~: with ca ~'B. 5'B,!f!!IEi: as ':iii! basis; f,~ f f'ii\! ore 'thalfill 0 no mould. Of an e\le n more ~erm8Jnen~ n anmfe. a.n odldsiide !1i1 ~ ~B Made fl'e.m 1D~-a!!i:ter o~ p,[j£'11s.., ,lind vamlshe'~ ;a,:ga]ltst: c~osh:uil. lillie s a_me m,Bry b~ u s~d [ta15ellf 8~ i[( p;j~~e'm., flQr r:itSling s: ITIHhlf11 'Qdd!S~de .. 1~~11[ a 'job ~ Ikelv to ~,n '~or on8' S'~ p~lIma nen~' ;~s' ,f.iI!~ [ rfeQliJ9 n~,hl ernComlt'9~ed in a n ~nleltJeu~ 't~tIlndry-

fnS9iiS

Exoept: 'with th~ rreife r~nl1C1l! 'to ;g r~sell ~n thi31 Pir~gmpn ilIIb ilve, \11 e fle;~id!}r has b el'l~n IBft 1)0, ~S$tB rna '~h3't ·lO'he' 0 iillV l!;onmGotiQn 'w'ith till a; :~ff!te'miid ~avHy c~ ,81 m@'lIJld 113, 'rjjjll~ the nil nmer'. Thislf 'wi'l't~ m<ga1rd, 'to 'lhe kin'd 011' rsmBI,II~ n a:t sJided patter.n in 'li'n:c reM~p~e of m oii.d d m Ii! kJng a I rea d If dhil;CU sS!81d.. i:5 I~,rgelv ~ru 9'- Whre .. ~ 'th'!! ~lp,lj)ew Ipart 011 ttu~' Cilvi'I'y liS;: i'n I~ ne with th e loi nt. of the mo uid. tn~ p;pud ga,ses, wh;~ m f!~ o:llI1&wwise! im p~da 'WI fa] ffilow O'f' Ih Ia' In e ta II. wi~ I ra Ii!! d ih" d I:ss] p\~ne~ lilt h~ wh en' Ii pM tl€!! m ~ei9Ves deejl

FIg. 7S. Ma'l)f& ~i~h fooWn'9 himel' tu' t;,l'nQili'H :soun,l!fntl'SB in tite. Icr~ii1~'~' '$~Crri.Q!l';

. ", - - .

POc~~ts in 'l~l:e t<ape thar~ ane'fdiorl mllJst 'be given ''[JO !rQ~'alB5if!l:9 'hllIU~leti g:& RS by Ipravi[Ii'Iri\g1 eEl riss'!":; 'lh~flB is'1I1 0 n~ed 'for '[h.i:!Z; ,to be mDre: [han" ~ sma III .hole'" made wH In ~jnlE!l v,enth'Qi laO I, whT or. is p us:ned lil m~IlJ~lh Irrr~ m ins!ide' tha moulrd" I { ij SO not ne~es.sa.fY 'th,at m et~" shcm1d ~i se' up .~[[ ~10 in cUc(!Ite tha t 'I.th ~ ,m0U Id ~~, "1I!!J1111, as ~h~:s, ~t;i, US1:Hfi~hr ap~ r,efl'~ by the' 1\iillUfl1g g:' -line RllJlfHlel:r.

IFI88:di'n,g Hleads;

Som8ltllm'lB IS, ihaw!'¥BI' j wh~ re lEI P,i)ttl'ern h,fi~ till p~ri1 ~i!Jla:rly heavy 's-e ~tion liiJka I V ~(i b~ diifficlii i'[ ~o nJ1'il1 SOld ndly. d!!,le to eontraef ~ n, 11: tIS, desitable' ~o C!ilmbi nie '~e' duty of riser 'with thM, of "'m:e,c:Hng ne'~d:·' 1!1 'Mi'~ case the riser. 'WIl'e rc" H OOll1lrleCU; w~t n 'th e cav;ty of ~he m'~ ~Id. is 'iiTH;lde of In lUoh more sub~il ntla'i section, c~mp~ m'b!1 ~ with '~ha runJlEll{I". l~lnd it is op~I1I'ed out abo\ile' \iG '~orm a w~de: fu nnel. Figl, 15, Wille IfI ~lhe' 1!'i!"UJ uld is poured m'!B:~8'11 ries, i 11 the fe~diE!lt 'whe r , duel 10 its. larS,1 \l'ollil m B. h remal ns Irq 11-! id w~if:~ ~hie cils~tng is bll th~ Iprocess 01 S(J!ndi'~Vil;ng. 1M il)JU~ m ~m ~ ~:a n 'be 'addfld~, by sh'ifti n1QI ttl e JpoUJr fro.ffl 'm fle rum rU3,r. ,9 nd 1 he neck of I. h e' 1~:e~d8 r kept O,R)'i! 11 ~ Y "·pUlmpin~·· slowly' wu~ h 06, plungl ng rod.,

Whl'en d(3~iiI U'ngl with c3stl ngs of 'I'll i1H natu reo to~', rl' 'if" ,!;:i!f'ten desirlb~e 'to ~ nC~HBSie 1:ftel' h 9'lgl1 I :~f 'IIi! ~ ru !1,iil8 r [l.r sp~ Eli head. '0 add ~o th'e pu~~uwe ,oF mlet:a'~ bV o·ravi IV ,EI ndlf, W'~e FE - ~ f'!e e:de ~ bs,e mpIO!lf~d, ~Il e 'rlEHgh~' or' th'is m UPaI b I!' ij itlcr,~a5ed w oorm;Sljl{1rtd. A 're~erenC1e to F~g. 7 e wH I III !lilkf!1 '(I, is: . pOi'lfit ~~ea r. WMer,e ,5 blch ;a nllnlll·~r bu Sli'll is ~m p10,yad til 1:1' pay ~ fig C.1!Ji~1 t5 om 11 ~d "rom lillie moU'~d ~ [h'lt '0 ~1l'I j'5 pro\l'ij(jed In 'tihe ~:lftelf'llsij'Qn. Co'l'lven ten'l b:J!Jj:she~ carl be: m ~d e ffom 'gll"eunsa nd r,ailmma d 'inl'O ra meta I' ring .a nd one of i he fI:~~te r ~IIllS of !focti can5, w!'tl, b.o,th ~nd$ cUI IU u't, wU ISUfVEIi ,edm~ rHb~v ,. A f~w of 'Iii as!! 108 In be ae~ 1),11 ~, ~'n '!I~lri~!!J~ sl.l:e.~ pe,rh<~,p<s. at '~o eOSl'tr forrnwng ,131 ~e ry l!iSieftJ! iilec;J~ssont '~Q ~,ne m o!iiJilldi irigl :sh~iP. Fe@ldirl~

'tJ~BS m~H.lllded 'from ~~cli'a!1 compounds; h&\II'In.g a '··th'l!3 rml e" (he~t 'I' rC1;h~clng;~ !}H;~ct tiA the rn ollnu'll rnetal, a f-e obtlll in~b~8 fl'lO'1li1 fOundry 'suppU ers,

. itnrl'dS T Mil, A:rJ9 D r:f ad

Wl1iil\e. b~8:UC~mV. fha, Salmi e 'tech nil!'.::lue is 9m,pI'Oy~d ,11:1':5' 'tor 9'1le~'n$'il!.ut 'ttlt@IIEH3ire Oril~! a I :rwo lm !J!orta fit differ1e:('ij,~,~S ~n the II¥! se .'011 oHs8nd, 'for m'OiiiddiWl9 pU~OS8$. ~liI'~id:~ cf g~,f;:e:rail eere mlQklngl• F'rom thofl' PQinll o~ ~i:ew Qf 'the home 'rc·lUln d IiV ~)he Igi~e3te;~;[' G~atair:~ eo i'llil II he' way ml ,onn!1!d meu ids [$. ,h;f!1J' liilGcelS'!;lfy f1f]f baki:ng th em QUE Ibefore use. Su.a]; ,moulds, Cia P1i1l~it be, uiSed d<a m:I!J' ,~I!"' :even iB Ilow~d to ,iiir df\ll', ~~: tiheir ~'a rtleu laf' yj'IU'lli'iU: 11\1 the i,H~r t~i5Iit, baked W.al['1d ... dU!I:ir stfe'nQj~ h is ve~ much greater tli E! n tI':Iial~, IOf a g'n'Q.sTl~i-a mel moolld ,and ''[h~y can ba u:$edi fmi c!ast'ings IO~ a V8fY' 'iruri'ealE! ni!;lU..IlLfe" ~n wnich du ty the '~,~ruj of an orid ~rJ,~ JV mDU~ d wau I:~I prr.;b<J!! b'l y ool,lapsi!! ..

Wha m i;!'f!IJ a:&c'asiQn-a ~ oitsa Iild mou,~d, lSi, ~QMlhed bV ~:he a!malu~!iJr it wUI b-e!! POJis,lib1r:e to ma~e, h in Qn'!l1I: ,~"t "~h~ us;L1al WO[!!de'iil b0:k@.!; ;a nd ba~,e, it, box and ra~ I., ~n, U,.e dom estlc '~lii.ftetn~ The ~eimpeN!"~u lie requ'ired!, as ·for cores, ij's ;~ro'Ulnd the' 4000 F mark afiid., ,~Ittno~g h th a wood w~ II eha 11" a Ii tIle' I~ wllJ srA n be quhe seiFviceabJ i. A m!i:)U ~d

mid@; iln !box i"'ia ru e8ch (3.a' ~iIl :li_' ..

,""" .--. II;iI! X. Or

~ 1r\fi&~OOU lS_ w~llilta k~' ba-1we.e1n twGl ,ii nd a Ii al1 -a,nd ~hf.ee lite IJrt a'[ this I~.em,pe [i'stu D'U' It eO koalQD OilU, 'thO,knJ ghlV. A ,pre.vih:rus< '~P'lBri~ rnelf!!lrt, 'with '(he, oU:sal"l d ttl, tiff! u~ed 'wU ~ in:dlICSr~el brv hs G!D'I..~ lin 1 wh~ nil. ,is CltII he

~~Q !!Jcrteh, b;!jl.k~d., Un£nr(UrrI Bl:@ilrY", tJ, e bakii'il'Q ®-f oHSca nd mc~ Ids i n ~jds way gi\l'1B~ ri to ~Om it!:Hdng 01' aJn od~ur - IPa1rtilY from the wood >i3 nd palii~ly 'hom. ~h ~ ~ndlirlg ,aga'l"i1 - which may make 'the Ind~eg8; db.Je'e1iof!Ui!llb1'e ifm',om' [he do nnesll c a - - h~' lbi.!i~. pernap-s~ ~'D'e:f"ulll 1lIlttern;iol"ll ~~,o v.e iIlfil:a l~'nElI 'lh ei kitchen. ooup.~ed w1th ~ he choTGJ!! of a 'OOlf'liv~rn:fJent oppontlnity, IIl'Il'iG",

, ~ ~Dl]'ig 'lIN,av ~Dwafds ,iill Sit~u dlon Of 'the

p'mb~!!!m $0 rai's€td. The :~dte.:rna ti've of ,eqlLli'PIlJn.g th ~ i[OUl ndrv w,f~:h a smaU ICO~' drying ,O\1len is; not 'to be @lJell'loo,ked_ Ani IO\,f$rrIl ~un ' o~' brick behind] th~ h.nl·N~I~~ and heii'tedl by' the fu mlBce 'e ue wou'l d! Ibe \r,el'l' 'USlI!I:fu~ ~'lruteed a rid nc{' at a U a ir:os:tlv add'il'h,n. Much. of COUr:5e~ d!eparads; U!pO n th eo size lfild ~Uu.!i~itm of ' 'h e afir1lat~u If mundfl land' IhB illi'g'!:rn~ilv err tlhe '{tU.!I!:)dfV~~Il. If 1;h B I,oh:lsehc I d coo~e~' i~ must bfJ, fl8rl'la;p~ sam e: IOO~ so~~Iili)n C~FI be g~ine~' from ~he !f.a'~t 'th~'l It i~ vet w~~ ni n

,FlO. '1,", Palliflrn af "lineD Jcljlmf1.filf' lor ,m'o'l14difltJ in (J~"i&I1n d .

I iving me mary' tha ~ 'tne jobib~ ng fe undiryh aJl'i!d tock hom'e his ~oj'e5 ~or be k.ilf1Ilg !

ih~! I!ktS~~ Df ~n~:~ fla;s_k~ 'fo" ~hi~ kill"L~ of wor,k; h is In lo~to 11.1$ aclva,ntage 0lv~r d,;e St~lrld1~rd ~~rjety ,fI!:S,. i ill I[hat ~~e. on ~y th~ s~nd of nH~' Imoul'd 'is i!JctIUJa~11y oOj"j.iv~Vi)d ~o the lovBii1. Thoa. '!i~'mpl;e.~1t 'way' Q.f doilflO' thus ~ $ tOI m'fil1U1ld. and 5'lrilO'l [he '~aJnern.. :21 pplv 'th B b~~a,~ung'" fit th e cC)lres 8,m:!! ch:~i5~' tha Imall rd ag:a'~'n ~ Ii~,ad~ f,O!1i' ,iJo.u n If\'g~ be'ftne l~em0V]f!lg-'~llne ·~hu*. ~ln Lilis way tlil'!l~1 mould '~s' tl"8~,ed1 intact 8f11d Ib~em'~!i no rll;~ed, f~u' ,tullF!!d ting th~! ~epiri!l[\"eft@' parts ,aa8i"' 'Uley ha\l€! b~,a;ri1 d'~~lrt'lied of rnl!' BU ppo r~ of '~he 1]011:.

Whefii1t ~he parU; of tho m(i~ Id ''1i}u:st' be ba!li(.ed :;epia r,liH~ ~v ~ it 'is' usus ~ W 'fit i,oc-t3llinD 'iJ)@Q{i: to th ~ H'1!ollJlld f-aces thems ahies. an d 'U) insen me"(a~ pi'aces n, 'Iii! a ea nd tU ,t ne sidas of 'Dine cop's: ro r ~Iaridflf:!,g, 'The ~and irha'f [E)akin!]r howew r I 19; ,~an¥ q u~te' hard ;£\1 nd fi:rm' alnd ~nerre n eec:fbe ~ Hh~: t;:hl n",BI' o~ bfeaki'ng tt, B'!1!'fc,re pouring. U: is ~,dV1T$!abIQ '['0 JiJt'U)t~tEU'! the send reun d tha ,mou!tid ,Bit 'the ]o;rH Ii nJ0' a~ ill pr,e~call..ni'otn agali ill£:t La fill! """a;w,!rv. M,etoi 'wn ~ch me'v' pen ~tr~te '~~I$ joint w©,~~d :soHd ufy 'fahilV uip,idly hl C~ ntac with ~-fli1e 'moii5~,llJwa a no thereby :seall: Its~ I:f. N ev,enheles.s". r,a1her m'Q ~e cafe shou I d Ib;a

Fig. ,18, ,RU;fl~sr Wbe' pM~~l.rml1rJ clo'5J1 ''0 ~ (hmUI1•

Fig. 7'!J", St:rlppifJ.!1 pI;aj'i!J~

e:)l)ero:I'5ed in we;[ohtill1g to tO~1 ,af .a~'Y moo ~d l~mlil'V~d 'from ,a 5(naJ;lI '(;Ii~sk.

M o!.ddil~gl

"l1l"r3. lUI a: . of a ~iqu'id pI! l1i'ilY9, 'SIi.!!\~1ri as

.. '~ ~ ,. . . II ... d l~

b ep.anl ~s' I!:H::;fH1tCIB'1 V reeemmen uec '~ur

oH sand rneu iC1l Ing. It is a"PJllil~d ~~ 'lh 8. ~Hi~U~'rill s, b, bru sh er 5pr;tilly, befo 1f1~ ra mminQI .a'nd i't atfbrda ra n extlrrerrH~jly e Ileaf'! ,ii~ rip. F~iilm th8' ~oin~ of: 'lIflQW of eeen ern", me oi~sand is u5'a'~ o{l1ly in a~tuCl~ centaei w~th [he pa'r~1~'m, 't~e. Irema1 rider '~:D"r tha 'DOii! ~~rrng 1i~l~d up' wJ1h (:!:le' no . mal gl1i!! ensa nd ~f" the foy ndirv. The e·ltB m:p~'r! Ie" osen j's IfiI filnn~ d, cVI~ nCief putt~rn, !Orf is tYP ~ uliill\l'@l rsa~,hi 't::ji1U~t inl ,111: drV~al'\1d mouid, Th,e :Pii~t€ml, ~~if .OOlLllrS€t, ,is s(pn~ ,~FI d 'the mle~:hodl or mlO~lldiil'1:Q de.scrilbecl EHJ'~lie:r wm I~e ro~nd Il'HlS'! le1i'eeti~e! W~'U~I!i"i de:a~'~nB' whh ;~ hI! 'fin s 'The' ~'m:~alcl fora:!;, the san d 'we! ~ down, b stwlS an 'Ihem a ndl .fl' I [t~I'~ IPW-S'SEi Il;Um D~ ~he h and willi m'ake 1,nlBi :sand QuUQ firm. 'Wil"h the' patttem C\~varrHd 1)0' aJ depth of ,abol!ll ha1ll~ an hiHCh wr~n lons~'n1dl~ tlil e; box e!aJ1!I be flUed in ~ncl r'almmed' 'in the Ij]rdill'1~U'l' way, ~f verni ii1gl h~8, become lSI ha b I'tl w~1i an d QiOod~ tun it [lS fiQ;tt re iilU¥' t8,~S€lr.lt~hil!1 i!f1 t:hQ GiH~J~ a~ ~ery sm il!j,n. d r'iil!3d ~~ nd m'c'lJ.ld!3. The drag 'is 'fur nedl IO\liE! ii :Ill ndl i'l wi II be Stu~n trom 'fig. 7,B thei'~ di!'~ rllI nne r ,~s 'pa51UOiliJari CIQ8~ ~o tlhe bas~ flarl ~l~ of thE!! cvllin del.

Aft~,~ .r~llrrllmhJ1g YIP ,:th,e· 'oomph~tif1'l' mO(j I d lh,e: p-'.atteiffllis most b.e fe moved, A ~piPi ng wHlhiIJva '~IO' 'be fhorough but th~! ~,c(;e FI ~

1ilhou He be In li!le d ~~tdol1 of "the 1lJl!'S rrath 0r !ha n ;fH:l"{i'OSS!; them. Tha SlliI ijgBSltij'ofl D~ mp~.ifiQ \tertiCli Illy '!i]0 UUl ~ iH:ing; ho~k at. ~ ne m!;Jmlalr1ll of wlt~, d ra:wa I appli~, hen~. An(J~herr L:.Fs~,fu ~ ,11 dce~sorv ~n th 9i ··dif.ec:'t1a n of ill clean d'raw is nhe • ':st~,~pi~ p~ff~e.'· fig. 19.,

~f tbe Ih~l~ of the patulirn 'W11thout ~he pin~:s ~'~ laid 0111 ,a ·she et of 1 tdn plywood] and a 1ps'ncill II ine ~ri1:l,wn c~oselv' r~Dun d h~. ~!J.tli'nle 'the' r{!l:!iM!JJI t_ w1i1e iii CiI.iI t IClWt 'wi'I'h !iiI ~ t~aw ~ wU I be· a stJriDping pla,to r! ~af' en~ WI g h iOI pmcth::a'l Illil r,,03!13rs ~ar!d", 6I~' ~jhis Tfi.pj'-es.~'Flt~, ~ll1e w~ rk of QrI! ~if a fiew nt~ri !lJtes~ it Is Ii wonhwh'rle nns IlJf,aI'llC'9 .ii!lta;~fiIl51t, 'Ih,e Jl~~ibn'ifly ~f ,Eli d'ir"ffi"olC!l:lt drraw'~ Wh,en '~h'~ PltI!em ~;s ll1~jn g. l~iftGd~ on Ilry 8 iSnght

:a m OU fi! ~ D F -Si..uld !ld~'Jje ri 11 g b Enwe.ef.il., ~(jrl:1~psJ ~~ of ~tFe -fins 'wil ~ run.:n 'lh~ m e I!J1ld. Wit h 'I nIB: s~rl~pirtH .plate h ~Id down 110, the S~ fild wi'lh OrN E!' hsnd, 'w['rI lie' the patta m is dralwrTI with the ethe r ~ r.rsk oi d'alm a,g~ i'~· v:e rv much redu cad, A nathe.r ~dvarltfjg e' is '~hat. w ~(h '~h~ D hi'll~"f:. I1H!flly an pC]srti[g III 11ne p~1:te:m C~ II1lFLc![ be I ift~cl 01 the 'wr,ong ,muIIgl:e'. lh e Dlata~ f\e"'~rsBd. S,f;i wes equa ~iv ku·- e~1he r l~a ll~ern half.

,Evewv 'e'ffofl shoul~d be mBdre te withdr::alw 'the Il1att~m 'C~'lilfilIV a-t U, e ~irst ,it'~€!'mp~. An urr OU dhetll mOu Id JSfI:lwa,ys

"'~ - - Iii',..,.;,.,.., ~ . ~, b. oi; ,b. . n' . - ill It"· 5.; .. - inn

,!li~.@ !h~ V!:1I1j1@gl~ ~ !.!.h. ~ I UlrrlF"" I'll Ii! ilh IJ.L @i ~e.,:;!

'wtila;t '~~ .il1',~ IlU"UJ.s~: m@D.d~lh~rG' will Uv '~tl ~flIec~ a r:epaill 'm a d'ra m:E!'ged OOClouid mth;er th~n s:(;r~p, It .i1!lnd :st~rt ag~f;r~!, When i~ t.'~rO$ '(HUt.

il~om p~ Bi~'j S:!tlCep' f~tr a tiny 'fr:a,g me rn ·j)f Win! wllrliich has corns aw·sv wh:h '~.ne partam r th-e' t~mp~'ii!i,Non is" \i'ery g[.~elt rn n'Hllly!Such as:es success rna·v bE!! Ob'D:aJi'ru~d ! n tl'ii Ie 101 ~Dlwing wacv~ Rt'MO'!/,e: th'!B' eMMdi ng ~lli!d ~F'O!ifl the PiJlUl@Im ii3Jnd 'i5!~am~n.e th,e doubtful 3rea fear .~:ny' sug~lestion (r.' re Ughl!"llB~~ which m·i1BY have been 'I hie sause, A ligh I touch w ith SIl"!,IQoth gl:as~p'a ~ fa r will pn:lbably $l'iJD ~ he matter ngh'l ar! d a fresh ~~p~iC:8lion of pa nl nGJ m~dh.~ m - IP~rwdeT er 'I iqul~ - wm .hHl!'~P· ~@wa'l"d s £II 1t:!~le'i81f'l e!]' ail' aw •. A p; ncb (.ll" oi~,.salfL!)JI 15 ~hen fl"iioltoe<l 'into ~he ~r!e~ in El n !BrrpiJ U"t' sJI:iShliv In a·~C~$s· (:~f th~ m,iuing pari and the' p~tts rn rstu ~n,ed ea ~e'r-ull hi 'I'D the· ·fTii~Yld .. To mske sura that the 'l'~W $aFtd rim ~'inls, in pTa (;,e th]s 't~ me. a d IFflict rapping (lYE! u the spot iU [11 ~ moment of I~;ft]rlg is {lgl'llin filoomm ended., If: the: cper,a'ljv n has

bee IfI sueeessfu ~ the repSir 'wl n be ha rdly v~·:sible. A I utt~ e eO'i!.~or8 moisitllJre a IlIpl,i'e;d Ito that pan: wUI hnpNJ~e the "knlt" and. afU!IF b-akif'l;QF '~t wUl. be ~ ui Ie' a's, ~~ r.ong 8S" r~~ e rest,

The ,empioyment tOr a ril5.er~ sruiiObly pia rOB-d from 'One O'f the !.lOP e r PflfUi ,O'f 1h;Q c~vi1l' - the p(;!sltlc'lIl a' the bo1r~ pads at the to!;). ~f the ·cylli rldl ii;! t Is a llke[y spot - wUil flelea'se 'gSi&.es, gen era ted' in ~ne mOl.! Id ,0 lIifin 0 TJiO u ring. before, oil bUJ~ ~d-up o'J pru!5'Sure f!E able '~o eause dama'9(ij'.

If' powd iE'red b rackJng is te be' 1!J51! d "l1'lg, sJ, il1lWlld b:~ s,p p~ led wh'~le ttl E!! motUl d is s~i U ,green. ILiqu T d' or p:as:r.e Irnou I d w~shle5 ~ re be~t' app I'ied BIle!' b~king, probabiy c~IHn g 'fel ,a. 'fiLl'rtti-er short PO;iOO in rhe Oven. Spi rit ba·aed m!!)u~d'C(JfJ~'~ evapowate' -railrty ,rrapidly in the elr or can b~ fiFf!d. From neu!~ th e process, is as fa lrea dy dasa rib El:d.

CHAP'TE!R ~9

,8 :ing Procedure

Of th~ man, 'stagJE:!s, i n'!J~ilYe>tI in 't;ne I~floduetlon o~ a i(l·a 6; fifilig I' 1 ne m ls 'lirUe' doutn 'flat it' ~~ in the m,alting ot ~he: n,!'~etal ,iI nd 'lh,~ plOY !lIng ,oJ the mould ttl a~ 1 he' ifirttie'Yest runs h1.Qhesl. Tll,e p~oe'~ss ls s1,mpll~ ~no~gh ill'1 aU truth. but h rs a'~ii1o rne 'I~'~at I't d08$ ,can f,o ir: 'som'e care and f'I cn e Unle ski~ I in lih@i !iru~IIilI;p.~ iadOIil of th~ 'fUrJ:'ulJC€I and the metal iff the n~~llc~ ,6Uif3' ~ifj be' '~u~tisfact,crv. Whe~hef tha fotillldrymiflill p~r.5l lQ m,~ku ~I ~ ~~~, m ~ ~ld5; at c ne tIme .fa nd ca-S,l: i/l:l .a ilothe r.. OF wile th ~r ha' dD9S: h~5l mouh:lillftg! and Cia1S~ling iE! ~ the' salmne' session,. I t is Blwa VI< ,'he ,biJ~~ p-o~ [~v ~o h ~;lI!el tr{~5, mOlllld qunJ8' ~eQldv ,iligf,ore oo,mmencing ~o ImeU, me met~1 fer ir. It is Q lBn-tffl Uv ~ckillowledged to be dUfi~!Uih [0 do two lhirl~s, successTlI.iIUy :mit crJQe ~nd. in Ih e rna Uer ,of fou ndrywQrk~ the f,aGt is Imore' l:haift par1ttoull,!;jIrr~ 'Wi.]e,

Whhuu t be09miJll,g deeply [nvolvec in tlil ~ ~ciemc~ af mend iu rtJiv. Il}Im II ~ng (nr an iEinorrmOl,l!ili ~lJIl~ 9;V ,on Dppt r8'tU S a~ 'wel'l, 'Ul! er€:. is lit~le' pros,peel ,of 'lItll am aJ1J~U.ii" beIng ~b18 'to reg'LIJLa Ie 'th~' o!tl.rnp03~tion o~ his ITiI eiads, to itl ny fine d~9re.e., F® r ~;r!ile thill"! H hl:s ctHl! rgBS Wil~" ,a;llll!JmoS1 Geil1:,~i,nly. be m,a,de UJPI of' BUSp. i fiig;ot m ~~:a ~ v~rauld Ibe~ e1'tp(Jlir~ive. B ILilt by 11 ~, m SBr:! S ~hcuj'l!di th;!:~, !be' 'ta'k,@rn .as an h,dJ~lul(i1Jil Hlat amat'81iiJ1 f ca'~rUn gs W~ II be., of IiIBCBS,s:i'['V! a,n\f~tf~rng b\M~:

seN~~-l8a,'bi~e. On 'I;he Cloil1Hanv. l1i"dj i'f one d8~ve5, ,CI nil V a short wav lnto hhil)Q!1Y. 1,n€ evid~i1e-e, :is, ~Iaa r tnat, u rati I ,~om pa ~8tiv@!1 V rreDa HI times .• fau n.~wollk, ~ n orU1r. fortn. m anoU~ er ha s, !been carried eu t, 'f1j'\Q1 m the very b~g1'r~ning;s' a~ ci\ti~ i~i1itro n with OILl:t tl; e adVi~U'illage of meta n !lJfl~W j ~I~ a s~hnH~'I! I

d 'T];. • ,t ~

ibeilng' p£!in '~y 5p_e;cte . I~ II! (lin:!: I$~ ~fiI ract

1~~1:deJ1ce: th~u in the 'ila5~, Sy,p-ers.ijt~on aki~ 'fO 'Wtl roh.Clrrafl hallS b.~~ n aS5oc,iat~u!~: w~t h !fl] LJfildryW;Qfk, t'cll the 'B'~['8fi1 t ~,f add in g 'f!ri9~IS:· Ie 9s 8J1i1d, m,~1lJlsas· '8'arS eo '! he mehin'g PO(, ~(} ooa~ ~he me:'hd '~Q b~lre'\.i'e a$ me caste r wiS!ne(j n,. W~ Ih t~e '~xen::l~~ of ,~ U111e Ie: are, IP(rnil!l nC~ a nd ~Om m'QfI SlQ'n S,~ pe'th~.cl ~Y' ' ~'(l ~ f'I d Cil.:S't i If:"Ij 9 Sol' i rI Ipr~ ~ica'Uv ifI ny metal, OiJJ[1 be m~d'e ,e i!ld ihe' w~ ~owing C~f'Ii be u~ga'm~d .fJ~ a fl ~!ildiC8tion or- somo of lh ~ m aiar ,pain [s' to b~ WiJ\lctu:ui

III''am

-rne '!irs! ,tOr! ssdelf8tlon ~s 1 h~' ~Oy fee of ~!l.d PiP1y.. I ron. f,ttJrI'UJf1li!!~!!:dy. is, 'Very arb ullda nt !BOO -a~ m05't lEI lilY old c~9:tlogl can be 1lJ5red. lin as much ,elS 'ImO"SI: olf the plBt1:er1fMti I ~k"ly [0 be mlOtu,lcled wml be of ;eil co'mpatlr~tiv8lh~ '~ihill MC'll'Il)[i;"Il" Tt~ m'ay bi! HS weU toO 'C)~Q:oS'a s~rsp' of ,!Iiill li,m~~lail1' na'[I.lI'rs.. USluaUy. dlis 'wi'll be OM ,[I' oompGJsltiofi1 clt~sem origillflal'hr f,o ~ i'lS sul:~ aibHiil¥ t,o ~h:Bt cIa" IO'T' '!lltork" Ano'[h,gj r

o~rl.si'deliTadon lSi" of ~:o~rse·" '(h~t: fhl nner ~rlaJil Hi m IiJI r:e iij'aSI~fV brc!k0n up; f'Or fil Ulrtg ttu~, cflJi.oibTe. That ,dC~8 net mean th~I' the, sm'aU&<s1: pos$lbfe pi[~.c:&s iiJ m ;d~a,l. R a ~ hell'. ill is :SIO medrnes an ~dvant'ig €I 'to u;se a~, ISlfgle pi'~~F.Hi as· een be. cunVE!Hlltfi El'lly

~m~;o.dal:ed i111 the' pot, The rea~JQfiI is til'a~~:i In. U~ ~ e a rJlie'r' SlUil gas af iii m,~'I'I. COfil~ 5lider~br.~ lo,;jd'lIii1ltlOm 'lakes plac~ on '!'h~ 'St.uMF:aee of eech f,rBgm'ent, glndi tt1e piF'~IPOr~ ripn of' olll;ide'. cQ,mpared Wi'd1 m~,hen m'er~:e!,1 relii78,!;edr wi II be greater the sma U~'r the pieces. Ei'tther way. h eWeVifJIr,. 'it ~'~ oos'iJr,[a bh~ 1~ CliliS rge 'th.:=' ptU hth:ia~ ~v. 'Wflh as Igf,e'ait a w~lg,h'l cd imeJa I a~ iI' win con ta~~n I 'With ~ ut crafin,rnilli'g ~~: so 'light~Y' [h,B t uhe fe' ·is no, nH~irn fO\r 'el!:~CI FlSron-. '~1 Is mere '1DD'ni~en~er; l to 'd~G so whi~ 9 d'fl.e' C:fuc~rbl'iff is ooki Whr(Hl. CIiIII'~f'llI Uit "fjiJ[e d ,!7IIt: 'first. on I,V 01 ~h3 'f:Uritlner rep~.J9:rlI r:shm e.n [ miRy be' ~'eoe$safY W obta in 8 port 'nice:1 If 't\j!PPF!d whh rna i'ttie'n if~ 11'"

a In~ 'adVanf,i!!'Q~' wh ich m'ig hi be c I ~i med f.Qr ths ~s~ 'lO,f a b:fUoib1',e- tQr mehi.ng ilI"0,n - .c~mp~red \IV t~h ~'h~ no rmel pmeedUirre; D'f (UpO'~8 1!Tillell Hng - ls that [he ~h'Brg e is not lnifl ue no~d to .a n.y g uea't extent by 1 tiel picklip: of 'f!lJlrnac~ '~FiiI'!1ie:s. Nlebhre'r ate HI~re i8!lflV

~~reciable IO~e$ll so rlrliU 'th ~ ire n when m e'i~ed' C~n b 113' reg,i.u:ded. ~a all l'rnenl~'!;', and pMJl:po s_eSi. ,~Si beiny In close sjmlJiari'IV '101 Hs

origlf111!i~ !€om,posJ;tJl'on. Th us. if a' me'lall '~S: eh~S'en for lEIWiV p~ttn(:il::UhJ ir (;hiU'RO~Jitlrii'~'lics ~ia5 liill'ii ~m ~ ~e - ~. ~ernp c~'1i no 91' block f,o r re!~~asti'!ilg rei 8 a Irwd "i,a [Ji)rlEl' cyJ If:! d'e rl it tl~ln be t!ikitl1l 'U1BI[ its !!Iluit!lbii vty 'wi! II ba, l I1)rgely. Alitaln (tdl'.. Nevenh~ ~ess. Siiilms Genu,,1 m Q~ hal d~t5irable ;!E! iIld Itt ~:H'Jssilble4 ,ab~~t 'iN hloh m.Qfe II~tef.,·

I t I~ c"F se,mls' I mp~ r~81f'll(l '~o ~eat u ~ lile' metaJ as riii,~:~d ~v as p ~'.ible' ~nd, ,~O tlii is, '~'nn:J'.. 'lhrtue' i',s, an ,~di!i.li'.e n lo!!e ,I n hSJ'I,jiiin,g, ~h6' fum II a::~, at cl'ou' 'rIj w,hite h€Nil~, tl-el,fo Ife' r:ntrodij~j'og ~h,~ pet, U5iUaiUV U itS ~IS YLlell ti9 blow UI[l II hi rnaee, 'f,airrly fu U of ~o'ke. to fi Q©:Q~ heat befiof\8 tryingl '1)0 Ime-lit a nyU1lng. Thhi chI ~e ItivbPlg bftf!'Jil p.a ri;lv b Ulfl!'U!d dOWill. tha rem a'i!!iling fUG ~ C:~ 0 b~ r~mmecl -down 'r-airly denseli, ~~ Ule bouom t,Q iIQ.rm '111 solid bed 01'11 w~'lich to rsUj nd the GI'iLl~ible~ N e~~ect, of- ',hils, pcfn'l willi prob:ably reEIiJ~ [ ~r; ,B hols tle'pli!D blown rtgl,t ~ nr,o LJ G,h ~'hlS f\J'el ;i1iU ~!n '~8wIV :st3'g:8: ,of [he melt 'wnh {I eenssq!J ern: r€:du ~tkm of temper~'t'llJl~e r "S~ a d of a n in(l:re~[s~", A:tt tlhi~ '5"talgel tlne l0;P of 'th~ cryciblt6, sh o\illlcl be juS;[ below 'lh'~' levall o~~ lh~ 'fum iiBJca mO!.il~h end ,!jffi~~ I cake siho wid b Eli' packed! we II r1l~fiId it. Wr~t. ~U'le lu mili08 ~vEui;'lFeph;u~e.d '1'hr~ blast I~ ~p,p~ ~ed.

T 10 P'edu ii:te '[he iran to ,8 'fu lIy Imol'len ~tm I~'an be' B1xpe:.c:ted (0 ta~EI f,rom' ['illn to

~~

~,tb\'rE~~~~~~

FJg~ 80; Dlagr-mn fJl' small 'C'iJpmt~' 'Of me/tins Iron.

.lweflll). Imi [llY te5j iI.c:co!ming to -,lMle ~~e IC!,f il he vessel used. Prog ress Caifil b's oli:!r~ rv,ud, bv 'th,~ Igra:t::J Oa:11 ,dnaWiQlif1lg i 0 co I (; ur oif 'the e;lil~a~:U f~ S'm!3', 'from. blue ttl! ve,ngw. whe n, with ~he Ibl,ast 5,li11 0111 ~ ~he ru rnaca CO!jj1~~' Can be Irflt:ed sU'gh1:iV and the prog1r€t'SS nOEd from ~l~e aJ'Pe'~reui!oe' af 'ttl 8 - pet, AA though th Q eru cif,bl e· it self m 11, be Jl~~[!11ng whilllill hfJH1't lt ~hCl.!lJlld ~ ,aU'O'wad 't)(l 'irEHi"llla~o. nJJlflId~turb~d" as ~Otn9 as 'Ih~ 5paOE: m:unw-eelf1 Ittsel'(- and 1:~~ ~Iidl 'shows, dal rker rh~fiI the res,'l. 1'1 is rrI 0:[ ulFrr'U rhe interior 0 : tne 'flJl1l1'1rUl ~e :a,l)pe,il!lw.'S ~i!jlse d hl''tO cn!iii brill ~~n[, whits, rrr~s~, 1:h~ [ the ,hi"n ea I!'II be a$S!J mle,d to hD~,e r\eBlctH~d a ~emp. ef:a'~ldlre 11:1'( Whicl':! i ( ell n be ,poured.

I~f 'tt1 e q:ua nti'lV 0: m e-m II~, s ~ff]c~Brni~ iFior tha [eb wa~ I and' ,g'Oo:(l,. but, in pe rhep s the Miljoriw lof C~I~es.. mo~' m'et~1 wi! I' bEl' lil!tq ilmilred th a rr'I Ihas rasu Ite~' from fhle' p n'ma ry Ichatglng Dilhe cruoible, '~f so, II:;'HJf'~ (fIT the dr.i3 ugh! t, p'l.Jtsin balck lhe, Iruf08~~' !tOwr and NIt fhe cmdble I.$d~, The rue ~ '!film ,;31~!3~ h aJ'IiJ Ie 10 Ib,e ir~ p,llen:i'Siltcd ~ efore p~c aeiIB rr:mng i~Mld. d~!li'rhl~ 'th a' tfll~ N8~ wh E!'n the· pcu- i g, !lifted :9 li'n:I@' wh i'~e ~m eU ,ooke 1iai pack'8d unde1meath :~nd 1'0 Ij nd h. ~_n~ 1m [) IU~~Wl s ~a g~, wh h::h 110'IN '0,0. 'i/O r.~, d~ llIi tll"uai1bII~. 'wi U have h ~ MDfil;fJd sOrr'l'~w.ha1:. This we u~d h &\f_e m,a ch~~ th e: lid \lie-ry' drin~uh [il ~em O\fe 18 tElf. F r,~sh m.:n:£l11 :should be add.erl wilt! lea ~e .. ~t rs le~1ril m elv d~rriijerOi.H~ 'to df.l'Jp.. p ~ee-@.s of' ilron ima '~he, plOt SUg;'lfU d~lmpneS's earn e;Qj!.lU!fe afll 'et~p~o'!ion and. in iil!iY l1:E!lSB. no, c!IiI e wa nt~ sp~~.(!'A$ 'Of 1!i\1'h'~~e oot iro'n flyingla.Oou t. ;0 ften h w~ n 'b-e: found 1 nat i'f ilIl 'fairl v ~arg8 pi eOB is pJ'aced if'll gEl nfly fi rsl: I' 'wil ~ '1)i nd 'to :sl@'1 ic;mv th e top ~f ~'he ml~~t and flJr-herr ~ddhIDns can b18' !In adel' WiuhDU! ri5: Th Ell Isss ~'~m e OCCYjl1 ~d vrn re--ch1ri:rginSr ~'hiB sm,aUer,the ll(!l'~ of hEl~I'" ~ rid U SUB,U V h wiJl ~ b@ mlUlnd ~ nten ~fua 8e(;)ond' eha~e meUs !BI l!lad Id+llii~ q)u~dkEir

th Iii n i~he 'Fir~,t, -

~ n. fu II sea,le 'found I!l IltalM i'C"G it'he chi a'f9ilF19 oif ~ C'u,p ol\~ t:alkes' ~ he '~'!j! ~ of

telk@. :~ror'l' and ~ 1m IB-·S1.0nB addled: f.f!11 ~ay,erS". The' UmeswfIle mel [s ,a ned fOrms a liQi..i i rl S~i3Jg. 'wh'~ch n UlC'es away the I'm pUlrll~es and I at I[h~ 5ia'm~ 'time. '~~OOt.s, t3iJ"'i! tOjli' i9f the moh'e'n ~Iron pmvid~ng ,SI pfiltecti iijiI~. CCHilt1rng. I~ n the' c~ucible m~~11Ircg gf if a rDJ Ii rfDIS<SltD ne ,~5 not !JJsed. A II iquTd sla 9 Clan !be obtai ned. however .. by the: use of a m'aterial such ss Fetr-oFluJ.f ,ga,d,ded '10 ~lhe d18'r.-ge ,~t· the eemmlEnil r;:e me'nt ij)f m~Ull fiG!. Th is ha~ the same pmt!!cti'lilo' 'G'fliltCt., Idvspenslf\O wid,"' the rHiJ~d '~'Qr a n'd itlllI'u;;il. at ~1h'e same [i'me', bri'II1QI'ng lha' C ress ,!)WBV wi~ n it wne:n it is ~!dm m'ed ai'f iprior '[a pt)u ri'ng. Sucl:! a ddition~lul~i8;rru;. wh'ille: net TndiSiPensable,; go e long way ~Clv'tard's tlt~ il[1l1pr()!v~m'8:rrt of smateu r ceJJs,tin g~ w\hi1'~ th;e,ir coot. en th,!! Ic1ner hD I!l~. Is nl0'91 i g ~b~e.

To en IS 'IAI we' the ~ ,e.istf:I'1!,gs o,f ~ ~ rnp-e !l'8'thre1irv 18m e[,1i ~f1C'[ijiOli"!1 a r~' ~arsi!v rna c:'hi n,8b~e i'l !-s ,~m pOrilanl ~G' keep [hE si licc n oonla 1i'1~ '~if ~'he i~D n 'fa'iriy h~ghr. ~i~gh Sl~ icon f:On[e,nn ma,klE!!s, 'fIn' a ~'L!Ju~e>di ~!ffirnd1enc:v ~lIJ C:;!hIHllI1g, whiic;h is; [l1!E1! eo em,y of ~he 't~ r,ne f ill nd the ruirna'riofll (Yr' 'hils; tools. E\I'1d~ nCilt of a::hi~ I [n E!ill"i il't~n castimg i~ d~sce[fiI i b~e in the 'ff~ ct'u~' whlB'n!' the mn nef is bnJk,en off. likewise. when an £Ii Ue mpt, is made to :saw off the 'fU IIlner ifil$U~'ad, ~ ha' h~lck.'Si~~ hi] a del ~ s b~u I"i'la:d b e:for'l~ nHll' sUg ntv!5 i' f1m p r~$io., ~'s m fI de' on '~'h~ m st-ail. Wr~'1'i1 [11 e ~~!UJS~ of :scr~p !l'Aeta~ the :sHilCon 'conte rrl i ~ ~Ol' Ilke!'v m b'e known and. as a guard ~ g:rdnS't Wa:SttSd efFIfon. 'l~r-Oi!J gh a e:asU~Q lb@~ ngl difficu~~: Oil' i ImIP®B5ibla W mach nne. i l L~, 8' ~~ rnpi'i9' m,aUer '10 m,a~k~: :sma,i I ;a ddi liot:ls '10 the molltJe.rl mlrir.taj ~n 'Ine clFu'Cib~,e Tm medla ~e'~y b elftH'f!l pouring,. A m ~l~rtiIJl i'5' o'bUjij !i1ab~ ~ u nd lif' the fn~m ~ ~'r i..tldef/{) y , wihlcl, Ts nQrma Ul' P I ~~ed in '[he oot tom of the pOUl Ii IilQ IllfdHe ~'n w:hic:1h mera't i~ carrled ':frOm 1 he !ou ,u,'i a., IFor m~klng 111113' ,~ddition to :til ~ru Dlb~e" a sms'lll qu,~ Illity ·i~ dm,ppl':!d on 'm:,op @f th!:'li ;r!fIfi~t.al airier s Ili:~'rn m[!lQI and :s.1~ ""ill i:l1. ThIQre i',~ el Sll:!g'nt tl"1:srm ie nn~C'~{~o'lIl which t~ r.10'5 'ta, [rmrease 'lha

lilt'n,peratu r'e' o~ ~he' rnelt, FI ~kntv ts a'Usa JrnpfOIll~~, a co"di,t.iQ~ oF: e~p8iCi,~ I v,e h,,1! ~ wfia·e,~ ''IiI'ery ':llihi'n sec'tt'h.'l'nl~ afie baTng cast.

That '~he ,e:fta et :31:J~ta oi Ilily of "the i ren flOr ll'il.' ~,Qb 'Oi!l ~~nd II's, di~r(:;uh 'to G~!uge· hU:!<5 -haem s.dlm~tt'ed 'bl:!l1~. witih du e '1P~9ard 'f~r '~he. 'CQ.n1clitions eutl UI1 ~ ;jij:bove, i~ 'wi III be 'W'tJlli!d

~t a:rticls1i; iCrudlb~ ~ riilcSV, in dl~ rrfjilt'!Ifi!tE! r deSicrib"ed, w~ll, be' eerneesed 'of I8J 'f) fiB gt11lin,ed. gji'ey ~ ron' deU,ghtfu ~ 'tOI work with in a sm alII fiI1I aeh in e: s;nop.

a DSQI ~t,e Ineces,sity wh en dea'n ns with iron. Atld.~dl G"Ci..Jr-i t1' ~$i;' IJsln,~itl by Ii h~ y s!e' ~ ~fiI S sha peel lI"irt:g 'O:r' ~ in~ be:twI8l81'1 Uq,lt ® rm5. ~,~ ls push&d down w'he,n til e ,jaws af8 e loaedi 10m me, cnJelbl~:, taldfl:9 so me m Uile S1J':i1I,ifll ,off' ~he' c·; st,~s: wr!'$:1:9. 'Ag. R:2.

Wh'lle: ~uC:1h longs, cQt:I be llse:d kit It ifl.!I ~rb~es, of !If, ryi illm Slil'Pl;i s" II n '11.1':&81 to rm of: ~.ofil 99 ,~S: ~n Fmg,. B~ ~; mad, 's"nJ:cUically f,Q't'

i!r;~,.,I~·i-'- - M """1-\.0.... n U - ,bill

1Ii!!~,,!u~lflg 'Oi!! liLa u __

tylpe' af s'im:,p'~B erl!J1cible' tongs. ea~jUv made'., is $1~w1li'l In ~]g", a't. 'the' 'I~ample' n!usfrn'~~d. wa,s, lTI'ajdJe 'ffoc'~ flf rer,nf!rj;r.;c;ing ~. el, fh~'l:ttened' at '~ne' e~ntiJ'9' te Dht~ '$priml!jJ 1~ ~me: blOW :8 nd ,iIl1 t~e lends. 'to ~orm thie' j qws fo Ii @lmbrilClf1i,g tlt!!ill DO~:' Ha!lf ~'fI1Gh fhn tmlll wou~d III ~I\!I'J9 be!;ln ,~q!Ua ny' eHa c'lh!'e,~ The jaws liu,e be 11'[ '0 utWiUfd:s W an ,~n!J~'18 wh'h:;h I~ IIQWS ieJ l~i!iU;':.,a BY 1i"8' .of pllirchase 1[0, belt ob'Iah1edi o Iii' '[h,e c!f'uc::I'bj,e in U,e r-UII'fi1I~,OO fi\GM ,B ~G'rti(;CI~ position and. a! - he sam~e LimB. perml1'Si' '[h@ hand lingl I~,f ; hit. pot 'for PO ~Iri,,;g., 1ihe ~e Fclg-U'U sh auld b:e' .tiIlt I,~a~[ '~W'O f>~,et, 3nci. i~V8n 'lhl8:0, 8 pak (~ir' gltrv~s is ;a n

IDn~ ~'izs :0,1 p~L 'This [p8't1JBf'lfl ls adm ir,f!:'b1.a For l~ijhhng ~D~ 'F1'\t] m 1he 'hJm,ii!CiL!!' bur~: ,~~ r~ usua II '~DI us~ i'~ ffin. Ci®nj l!Iln~:nion 'w.'ith a t'~l1g shan'jjj;., !Mig. @:tt Th,~rt: wUh one handlle fS fc'r' .sMal ~ p'O't:s ·a,rnd "ibEl! 'CD ~U!, wi"d~ fWO h~ln d~ es I'~ inlefr'ild'a.d lei be cail'r'u~d by mo a'nil!lrl wh e:n 'lh-e ~~'ig'ht ~f Imteta!' d8man~l's n, 'The c-nJclble Is 'tri Ilseffie-d' from 'Ih,s:: 1\olrI!IS '[10, th'!i' s nank lor p~!.uif'ilg.

Stirre li'Si p. ~u nlfl!rs a rid Sikl m m~n.g 'liad ~e5: shay ttl, IU, b'IiJ arf' ,good ~efii 9lh ,~nld m ~de 'from In 6~ ~I~I ijf mild Sh!l gl 10 . H'OIii Wir.e. o ffle! and :shlO~ Id ba p~~ijcled 'with ~ ra~p, f;Olr a 'grip and, 'Wor e pmh:mgecl In'S,., "lh~' bUJ Srne~$l le'rid sholJ'id be OO<;;B t'Eld w~th :t!'

Fi,g.. ,32. 1his S' $'h'II.P~d ,Iflg i'.Q*~s th~ ~'f'8in fjf,W' M,e iJ'{j'f'jds,

"1'1

re,frac1,ofii wa,sh,- ~'n .~ !gl. fj,8 th Ie sri'rrer ,t:." 'I,s slmply a !i!tr.iJigl'n red, II!!. d~e plucngcr h~s a cup '];um;ed' fmm Imi'hl ,stge~ c r be~'t sn fto m Sit:8~~ sh:e~t The iafUe C hi'JIs ai spODn,sh8pe;d, lextrl~'mTrity al $0 C.lJ~, ~lf'~ rn mild st;eel sheet iEil nd rivated On.

A ufflli'ni'um Alia,

The ~DW melting, pOlin t - so me 1 ,20.0 C! 'F (1560° 11:) - ot ~h~ III h"'!!~um mind, :~~, iiUlloys makes this materia ~ .of grell,t gen 8ra,1 IJ ti.litV tOI tt'he ,amatelll r 'fourid,rym im n, II t oh@rt u flablfi~ him 1~ 'malk,e !e-3sthlgS wh le h" in arne If 'meta ns,~ if 'Olrd, ,0111 aCQ~ ldifilt of th air ~ize~ 'WOU~ itt be o,uts~de h; s scope,. At 'the same 'time' ~t cali'll be rc haMmed kif rna lily ,a'IIO'ys of;' ,i,j,lum'in'h..am ~'n Ulse 'tOdlly 'tha~ 'tlii'elF' str'€l n~Ullh I~ ~qU:~II~ h" many wafYs. 'B~ '1h ~, of irc'!il DU' 'VI " $te~l. EX{j'e~ft whe re' etthBf IO~ ~tu:,' ,other mE!l'ta~'S, hIS, ,iSl f[jn.mion,~1 vailu~~ I~gh~ allI:D¥ c:~lr'l 11;11 f.a (;it be :s tJbstttuted for mcallil,y lOf ~e ~ iU nt m"Bchil'!l:e'. jobs t;yp;ic~1 iI):~ tille' mClde.l1 ma~9!r",s, 'wc~Hk5h@lP. lengino b "platers! Ipi um iin'ar block:s ,lBJrnd bsafin~: btaekeu" QF8nk'iCBses. pu~leys,. 'haillufrwnaeis

Fig. lUi. l1wn ss,r:::r/till'$ ,(If lrfJn roruUff$n Th1"J right IJS ffWi Ito'!n ~1iIii. r;f1.fj' kif ,tJelN$ ~vJtkn~ fjf chiJJJI1f1.

to rnenrlcn UU t ~ f'aw" Often .'0 c, wbe m d:u'tV, tPi;!Imr1litsi• a I u m~ nh.Hi!!1 ,oomip On91i t~ h eusl ifig ~tal~ing !iihafis. ca n b ~ u~.ed unbush,ed,.

Pure a~'umi niuml ts neverr u s.ed 'Fur ca$'ti ng~. As ~efla'rred t,CI h~ f'SI' l~ e m eta I i~ invarria'bi,\I' aJl,I'oyed with. m'a'inly r :l!i nc 01 rop:pe[ ~ IQ meti mes w'i'lb Dotiln ,il!I Ad, s:om e'I [[ne8. W~'ItJ~ !5 rna I il ~u:td1fttQns c~: niek,~d ,a I1tl ,o,:lher m e'~'al(S. The actue ~ a! II'oyin!Ql1 'hQw~!jJer, is 11 kf~nV "'0 coneem dn~' srna II scah~l' 'r(n~n drym an VelI1f lit'Ulfi 5i nee, agaiT1. hi~ most 'PrQbi3 b~e ,source of su pply 'willi b~ ~~r,ii!Ij1.. Very Dhi~~ I flOi'lU9' the Ire ~\> he wU i b I! able to eontre ~ tn~B co m,po$itiof'! of' hi£,

Fl'g, ,86. r,~5 f()t' sthnrlg:. pl~m,in~ ;;J~ rJ siffirnml'fJ!l ,rb!!!' iJr(JSJj"

f'~utmg lm"n~ fJ~OM9fi1Ph,'ed Q.n~ ,i!w ~jh.llJhr ,wm' the' f;~/"b~. Nor-a f'hJfl. fmll W.ffr9ht:~ fQ PfiliJ'WlfJ'i tl\u!' C#JIJll flf)n"l. Ilfl:fng ..

Cfi~1Ii'nQl5, by B ~~uefull choice err $t.dit~ bf;e cmp. lh e. m~ltBr '~:r fte:E!J'lmS .: ~;o III r'Oi'llid'e'. wilen breken 'U'~i perhaps th~ most Gbu ndlilfil't ~l!l!i;P1JI, !J!r: ~Iu m'~n:~u m ,iU1d II~. is 10 ,I,i.e Diepalill" ~:~llllif8' Of ~'11" b FB.I;! k.eu· ~'h'iin 'm'eJ iI ~~tgU r lWeCluen.t~¥' tu m5. Th e itJSlla~ hg h'l 81h~i' ~om'ponen'ts willi '~lej w~ ~I knownl a nd1

PI:StlO ":s. i1n 1P'!iJlrtic !.IIIIlla r 8 re Dl rernel 'if ",~litlI ~Ijb~e 'fuu rs-rn ehlilfl!IJ, iff' O~ Iv on lIiI'inCQIJn1 of th!ll3' "aet ~h:~n the: sm a[I'l:er one5) ca [;1 be! popp,eCi strliglu ~'ntQ 'lihe p en iiHit~o ILIJt b ma'f(;~ illg.

OccaSiOrH! Uy,-, ~ alrge piSlons 'h'a m 'be'fry and b us ~,ngif1les; win be 'Fo IUn d tJO Ibe ,50

'r'o ~glh tljJ, tQ r,~stiSt ,j1gII~ efFeR'S ~0 s.iTIa'S~ 1:111 em IJP w~th a ham me:li'. Tha Eln"5W'er in th]s, pa r-i'iCU1 alf' case ;$ 'to h<~a'i, ~ he rm wp in the fumBC'e ijd'mo~,t' to, red. w'hen d'1l6V -wU~ bree<Jt w'ith 'eaSI,

Unl ik,8J iRH1! ~he:re ]6 not 'muon advan ... nt~lJ i n ~I::I ~rbli'ii'i~ l1he e ruc'ibl~ b'e~ol'ie Iplad ~91 h iflll [he h.ilrrUICe~ Wh ere til tel dmugh't {'O lne' 'fire f5, what, i'l shoull.d b~ '(~ eliE!l' wJ n be nQ Ilieed 1-0. ,elp ply bl a;!il~ aru:11 i l is a DQDd -Pfjl,ioy to heal' 1 h It! :~ot 1"0 a ibrig'h't red b:ef:'Of~' ehaw:gifr!g it Bi aU _ it IS M'.adlly ,i!~f3s'Sible ,I!II the 'lim~, so H i~ qy i1:'e prr.actJlcilI,bl'le to '~9P ,iii dding lPi'~~s as 'the me mt melts, Once ~ ~oClI has be,a'n mrlmed 'in th 0' bottDm. ,~dded n'ileJlci!11 'l9fu~l~$ lOW ~ t

, • ...11 ~,

W i:'Y r-9Pllli.l !f'!f~

AI'I.hQtj gh IQO hIghl a t,efflpernl~li.brn is de't'lFimenltal to ,iSI':~uminil!!'m~ eo ~:5 .a ,pl·o1Io'Flge d pe ~od ,of' I'fifil'I'tiIFltg'. '; St:ewij ng" :ail(u..!Ill(lJ1 be ilv'aided] at it~l~ eests ifll~d 'lhlEi polK~y of hli!,Vl~n~ th ral rrqQ1!.lIJlds, Tn com ~ll~N,ot: re',a diness. 1 5, parr~ ~~u~ ~rlv i mp@'nant wh 811 Ide\iiJUi'\91 wii~ In ~he Ime ~al. 11, e besl' ,iii n '~ou!"t~ resulrs i8!1~ obta]n~d Wl![Jrt 8 'trbrfi'iace th![ID1. Is he,!:i ted ,iJdIlQ,ulJ~'ety - ~iI'igh t f\td ~ so ttl ill T ~~'he a~ 10\1' m ~Its qu ~ck III and th e friil'sh il~ace s. a CI:ded a It 'fre qu e n~, ~ fl'terv ~ r.s, p rave.n t [1110 1011l1ptri t lJi1UJ r~om rising m ueh ,atb'O~e m,eh-n:AB point Tint "W,a:rn~"ng. in Ch,apt;er :2. a!9l~li~s,t cam lessl.y drop,pi ng Ie r(ll€l pbaClilll$ I n'lQthe p,crt ~ h en J'i8'1,:d~n~Bhir!g', is, rBp~ated. T,Me meta~r. wihell1 rtght 'f,tD r pourh~g; sho<u~d app,~aJr. .Ill the

A rI IJnr.;/l1tfi.re'd IJfNJt' ,'Slid a fjPM ,;5tf8flU' afJS ,~so$(lmJa'l~ wh\el:) mOiling ;Jr:r.rI,pfJWI1t!J' ltJ!l71f,en mf}~~

Ah'rve~ fils !mpIessio'nl in ths, d'ili with (M}r(j,'S in ptJ,rSi:'liDfi. 8elfjw~ 'tnB' r.mpn!&(l.iU!fj 'lie r;;fJpr1!.

82

S!htldow. dull rsd :eu'idt h .. the litght ,si~!jjI\ery.

AI" ..." .&o._;~ ...II J.....

I~'um 1Irll!l,lim casn ngs 2! re enan 'Sip OJ Iley I!J'~.

1M ~n(:'h,.!$~,O" Qt fore;ig,n paNI:cies., so it is wal. worth the' e'XfJific'ise [Qf a llittl~' care ln -;;~!Hijng off fhe, crudble Ei[fij,d~ WhBH!l only FIle [pah 0'1' h iii nds: ~'5 e,rlg,Q,g@ld ln th,!! UJ\sk.

,hi ,QS ohen carr.~ed cu I wUh h!~~ ri~1(. wh te , ,B p~11 ~5, m in thot ~1lJrl!1aiQe',

:StirfltHS. ski mmi rig] I~Bd1Ir;t5. etc, ~ ike' - 'o:se ,8In~adv !slilo~n 8['e eq I!JI nV ~uJ tatd e f'Or a~umi'ni,Llm but hate. Ihe' provision o~ tI rc,arta1ct:afV coatingl is: deshrab~16 as preteeIon agaiim;[, metell ccntarnlnatlon, SDe(;~1 fl'I[JJ()es til n b~ usad liimdrhas'e 81ru 'cd pllll r;ciJ~,a,r 'VII ue wtuu',e dirt, er Oiil,V SGr~ ~ is b,~nng d',I!\al 'wi"lh~ while '~he' type: .of ~lunlHn II ~us~irtlted ~5 :5lU i'tab'~G fu r ~'he manlpull a' ~on e;f certa in degass]ng ,a nd grahn refiln]ng medii. S;Y ch ~~em s ~r'EJ' u ~efu,ll. Ie t ii be noted. an d may be aCQ,ui red 1'0 ad\liI fltege as • foundry grows by the basic I!e.qubf\~merl!~s rem ai n ]u,st I ,PQ~' 8lnd a '(lire'.

, ' _ olt '11 all, m iniulm pnsMs~:s :grea r 'Flu idi~ ~r]d~, ~ihererore! the'Slilnd of - 'i,ns' rneul d snolU Id !be plC:k!e,d, lEI nMle more Ii m Iy. ~. any,hj'ng. UfJlfiA fot ilJ'on ,to avoid m tal pIJne1 r,etiof'ill !res.ul mling In !:II m IiJg h ca'st~ng sidn, tt ~'s ideal' for mQ,de~ work ~[n'na'l '8.ct[ons' do,wn tor 1/1 E'V cufIJ be poured in 1E:Q,nain ea Sfl9i< !RI&8 ~i~!'h:; deepnnn\l'IIg. 'r~r eXam,p~'fi[. can b ob181'ned on a mini',il'- !,re eyllnd It-he,ad casting, 'evG'O ~ n gfil'~rnn~n d, proV[d in'9 11 rs ~\ed bv ill fail' bulk of m B.la I. e . ltings ShD uld ~,e\i!lMe ~'ltil may fd whhe ~fi! d e~ean ;Ilq nd ~lIJln ii'n~fS and ris e B rncst be 'wn-off.,

IUim~i1Iil,lm alloys ~ria' [not 8.u:SV 10WQrk; ~- '~~h ~' 'flh~' unless '~UifP Ii! ntine is used as ,ill I~lbrh:~:.alnt. 'For fettUng and ,~~eil!ning Up eB.s.timg,91 '9 B3<J'ili'f8 ~IV, Wi" eiJthe" p_o'Ush! ng or'

,pa~!ir~'In.gi' good fesol1s, wUI be obU~linedl wUh , IF~~xlbl@ dlec Or be 1 grinder, The o:dde~ 'wh~c'h !OO I'uadll V ':0 rms Of'! ~h'I13' ~ulFface ol the metiiit malr<es suOtU5:rul p8in~'ing diffiCUlt. Film~hiillgl i1li)lJld b' pm:c.eded bV rr:l~g.hinQ or "~evflnQ'! he' su rf,ij,f;!e f'o II owed ~ V ,~ eeat a l.m~ chromate pr'~m~rp obmainab~e from s~m~8' any ,good plt1i'rin shop.

SC1mp Ipi'smr!r5 halv 'bEl: n U1, fOrwSltcl,a-.s a uSierfu II sou rICe o'f &IJP P~'V The' lila -use of p,inon met,at ho '_evur. dGe5 Ina' ensure 1inBt the chara c1eil'is~ tcs, such as. Sl"fBng,th. ~jQu,ghnress lf1d 'so on~ wlU prIBIIJ8mli [n ~:h8 new ca~ngs. II n iu~ o:riginal 'for.m the rnetal has, been s",Jbj~ctsd to cloS'e'~v een~w,~ Ued he,at a I'1d ,Ei:gti:~harden]n'g trre'i;!llfm)e nt whiG·, is, .. ~,erv' :Uke.IV. ,outside the: -S~Q,pe off' th e SVifjlmgs' hume' mechlil nh" IN eVfJIrttl 8lass. ca:Hings produced from) such all~ov's, w'illl usually 'tu rn "I.n; \I'!lHV sarUs,fa ~to~. lt ;ns, p~ob9 b~'V 'I rule '[I," ill ~, whUe 'th~i mechaln'~cal pmp.ertJ.e·s lie: not 910 goad nelth er a~e 1l'he conditioru; under. which 'thie, PeJrts. ,Ir Iii krelv ,t~ !be \JI sed a nythin!g Uk,e sO alrduou_s~

CnW'Ig:s in. gunme'lal. brass and bron:te ,elm IJSl!di 1-0 ,a' very Larg'£!' atent in scms br oil nche S IOf Irno'de ~ workj bLJI~: eVE·n '~n otlher.s 'lh91re. are r-E!!Ia'tive.'tv 'Few ceeaslons wh~n OOEl Of a noo;nor of th,~ CXJ1pmu!S ~U 0V$ ;s tiiOl used if'll some me,i;a SU'fe. I ~ ts, :~ndeed. , il asse' 1:'0' he home: worksh OJ) 0' ils' in a 'pOSJU0JT11 te IC'-E! !lii'~:. al 1&18 t, b rOIlZS' (p:'r gUI" metal stick mr 'bU'fIl ing bushes anc oth[EtI" sma~ I po ns .. blC8U . hE! P U1rchss of suet! miBlteria~. ,@!'sp6ci1U~ ~ n :SeCII ions of upw,alms ,lOf Slr1 ;I;n eh or r(1cu"e. bect! m'eJS [eli:c~edhilg~v e'~pil!n18ivl9.. M,oilreovar~ N"il8 c.&ls,1 matGlI'ial1 irs o,ften h.arde i11i1'~d m'ora dUljrabl~~ whe.n used 'f,or wearing is LJrfilces". th,.n the drs,wlIl 'l\'OOS 'ffetjIU[elltJy &UPP U>eo.,

83,

Ahhoulg'h copper itself: f~auifes' a uempa fa tum f'Or m~'tr~ll1g !!1lom8Wh 6r~: 11':1 @::;ilj~S$ of iron., ~;'~$i aUovs' haijJ9 I' mel t'inOI Ipoin-t hill '~lhe mgLl'!I rl I~f - ~ .0001(11 IF ~'el!l ~·C~ whic;1h is ml.!lrDh Il'owE!r~ lUke ;alt!l,mini!.HTI~ 'I] li'ilSS •. lOt ex;a mtdiEl1" esn IJsl.J.a'Uy Ib;e, maUed 1m ,iI frumm8~e W~1h0ut l'ne uSi: ,of ml!e:ed d'f~IUlg!ht! 'but 'Ih ~ ~~'mlPerra'[Ulre C~HllI orl'iv be

fl@aehed with ·dimCiUlty ~I"II' an lC'peil1 !lite. SOffiiEi1I1TimJ6lJ. l;alI1i3lst whrtl!,n ,8lyeli~eib'hi!'~ ,e~JlII b~ II!!~fI ,to ;adw mal!; a mrr' qt!lliaklv bwing!!filg up tR8 h elit' :1HI'l iit s'hoy'nd b'u 'careru IIV ,oon~ ~iIi"DtllBd 3;, here ag~hnf o.ve,r~Q'a th'l"g tC:alll"ll he 'd,e:!eteriau!S. Thi91 aHnyed zinc 'va~'I~~li~e"s and lis, dJ~ive,11'I loff ~B, a n ilrif~leMely' 'wn~te '¥,8p~ur ..

Wh~'~e 1<111 '~he maJ n1 thls booJk. htljs dlea~ t with the' rJl.Elih:in,g ,;lInd 'manipu ~atiiDfii 'Ci·f m tl',a.ls im 8' erueilbl!B'-itype 'IfiLlllmace; j -, rn US! ncu b'@!, 19n1Oif'ed' tharm'j whe,re, a gfoeular by~ k, 'of iiftet~1 is re-qlll'ir~d1 thEi:!JJ'iI, Ci3Ul OO~\!felil rent! V :ba' h:alndled ln a crucilbl~. i~ ,hi, a, l'eri:eG~frv yta<;:'t-icul ,pmpoS1i~'io III b::J1 mel t 1mi'll bll, a eLI pols of iQ'llJi'le m odes:r dimel[!lsi ans,

'f'OI iurq1lJtia~'nt '~he refa,de,ji' w'lth thfEi' f1J!.Rndam'en t'al p n1nc'ipllet~ of ~UPO<~9 p'faclioe., t7!h; pter N~lfil ~ C8:i!T~@fj ,3 bri;ef d,~@.~~,tlon

:i:lt, d ;:;; ~.:i; .... t;""FJi "" I ..II_'IIIJ·~''''i!'!Il 0' ..... h "" iii '" m· .... ri -- 'Ii"!'.'.!_ Y "',,",I!o! ~W'-'I'IiI! ~ 'U~ !!i!!'M-M'_ !\.; .. ~I'!I!'" "l!IIfll I!!!I ''0'1),11 n ,150

m a srna III C!lpol iii Dr um.pei<!!!tlet· ~aptlble, id' sup.p'l vilng if1C n art Ithel ~a Ie' ,mf IB'bou [ ~ ~5 ~', per heu r, Su Dh s fU mace WIO!:lilld :be ~BVOf'i d ~hE! ,re-quire!m'!!nts Icrrr' even the m!l];Sil a~bi'~,'iGUS mOlh~~' engi'ne~r a'rid I~hu$' th·~~ fa-U'D).W! Ie! tH~'~f d~:scriptiO'o Qf flj 'liny~ d'wpo!t]trom eupcta. Ci!lp~,b I'e of meet! n!;il much ~!11UIII !s.r demands.

let ~t be adlmh:ted a t. '~he OUI~~et that. a~ Iho lJig'h a pemc:'[ly \NO mabie· Cl;!ipO~ ral tIn e DILiI'U [ 'to a \t~ ry small s~~Je. nl'Jl cl'a'im' is m~d e 'th,~ t j'[ ean be Cl'tp'i:ct,oo h~~ iJe fform ase-flii,~]endv ,fJ:S, ~it~ fy~ i-sl\Zle c:o\.il1nl:e,rp~ rt, Win, t~ e m~'f11 ~~ W'(t 'rurna~~I. een tJl'nuo us worrking' Imay bel I im he~ m., at rnosr, 'two or .-ree '~t!il,p~i Illgis."'· 51 at 'ten ds ~:o ~ondi'fy ~pidll'v' . b®h)w [,f) a' .tuvGr~ h~U"'0!10UnC2l!\d tw'e'~ r")~ '~hlB! helle: In rh,li!i su n"b~.'~' wa II thr,o IUlgh w hi€h 'th IE draJugh! or ilj a~1 is;

,iiiidmi'tte~t ln 'til,,! 1€ilUpomaJ 100f small dialr:ru~,ter and "hil.ilr$ ;'hE!re is 'iii m'ililfQ:d tende nev roll" tlhe ironl In ~,he' we~.1 w, COQI ,~ ,iii rid 'solidi'tv - as 'the ,~'Ow' oofi~ifilUe$, Nlsy,e!1lhel'ass; ii, is, a '~m:iii n' w£,U :indeoed whi;QU, G@ IllMliiins. !~e~ w.hefl IliU ~Jhlliln ;an irllitiall, stlpp1 V' Clir; f~ft,een to 'twe~ntv pe un as O'~ lren .. If 0 me' cubic: (€lot O'~ [ran we'ig'lh~ t6'5 Ib,~ The; m'8W~n91 o~ ~ :$lhni 1!ii1U' q,u elJ'h tltv in I~' eru ci.bIlel would cal ~ 'f,orr.,ill fum'i C4!I d:ol!Jble '~he' Galll!'aolW of a nvthmng desc.liibed in this ooak as weU as. ill1~roduc-· ing a cOMtdsrabll~ h~l~rd :in mallilip"u~BJ~I~Jnl1.

COIlil5'tJiuct1h~1i1I

The . rn,e1lfio d I~'f' by.U\i;U ng 'fmltl!'i.!llf.OO by 'U'J~ write,li" ern oodT~s ... Oru:;u ~'oa 10" ~ fiiJte-g~ UO~ dry m fn 'th a saime n'tS,f-If!j er as t~ e 'clrudbll e 'fu m~ce tilll u!S:triill~,e£I 1"I!1 Chapter Two ~ Fig. '1. This, ,O'r 00 I!;hrse· ~ imi'ls; ~he di:me1i"ils Ions Dr the c(lJPo.ia, to til! 050~ i5how!1! ~ifi f[g~ 81 .. but It d05fl S SiC liVe 'It!! u prob ~em O'r· a sU]l 11bJ ~ w!rapp~r~

Rammin.g ~pl 'tIlIie lining fOUCW5 'the mll.'tllh@d descdoecl 'fio r th iB 'fu maQS remrilfedl UJ. Ap ertu res fb rr 1&1)1 h ole '[II nd ~~~ti'~ shou Id be' eh r;s~11Ied eur ~ff1ef 1'he! ends 'have tu~~n 'iI'fJ,mO''LiiIOO h''O m thl!!! drum. 1[)!Jri'ng the ~amming: td til e II ining, wo~dein plil.d gs shaped '~Q $uU 'G.~fn be Insafrn.~ j'ln tlhe$iE)' holes In-he wraDP~~, ~o' tha'f '~hey ·18'bl!l1 iilga"liIs~ the' ~fHl'1f.e I mWm!B:f. 8~ ~owirlO' It!!'fa:

,_

Fig. 8'1,. Sea:~lgni"rJ eJe ",etlan 01 O-UpQ/8 $btl wiRy CM.sflllCllon.

pa,c.kinn gf 'me d'ay to b-1J crliIlrmi.u;d OU t solidly - a,' an pil)inl~. Th I, 'p~ugs, shI!J1!iI1 c bu' nil I!II de: tJpe'reti in fc r'm liQ lha t th,ery Ita n b€!, rem !Jived ;e2tSJi I~ 'horm th.i ght~v pacJu~~d clay and le-iIIv·s I alE! 111i, hOole. ~or the' r,e:S?t and 0.1' bumi ng, IOIl.!! t 'tlti! li::m a V', Fv Ih)w the tnstruel10ns a ~f\eildv gl V'en; In ,CJbapte r '_ . WO

I't wil~ b'i3J nQted '[hilt 'Q;ne 'Ul¥aJia' us' 'i::u~Qv;ded. (life ~tIl pledl piracJ:ice inl C - palo design lI'equires one luyen~' ,ljlpenUiie or each tw@, faet o~ in~~ ... niJi fiullinaCi~ ~(Ua meter so it 'wil~ be -s..en th8:~, wfih a1 diamei~Jer 0'" i ~u~ B more than :six inch~cS! Oille vsnt would ,ElPpe,zlrf to, be f9daQ'~ine. A secolild. opposlng ori(~',c_i£'l' ooJwd be tried 8>rperimentaUv, but, while! 't'ru~' addhu:,~'n~i work entaned 'in blJJiiding the 'CHpohl would 0''EI qruirtefcr' Idable. It is d-aublfu~ if amv appimc~ BbJI a ~tnpr~ve-m~rn in op e~at· on wouJdl be: WftQni#'est In 'rIC\i is, mU be sllo~wn later I it' ts a m uch g~8&.1ier I! elva n~iElg6' to be ,iI b1. t.o IImi' 'lhe :su PlIlly of al,r'.

~'111 ttn'js de.'signl a .r·d'rap Dl:Htom I,; 16- provided. Am altefni'd~[e way d D4B I'Q stand t:h e 'fum~c.e be rrel on; ,a, brick 11!l~ in,th, h,s,\! ing :suffici,&nt height 'to' i\lrMord ,c~earrsnc,e' 'wr the ladle: urnd~f '~'lne spout S filch iii ICY pol a '.oli.lld I'i!Qui[i!' t'OI !be Bi~ltOlwe.d' to coot !before clesii1i g out and de~~ink@rin:g afiJen" the me~t~ 'The hingred bottom. (Jill 'the other hand., 'pe:r1Ii1l;ts me rubb1ish tn, he: durm'ped imlmlscU: - [ely' :~he- final" m'ould has kU~~J8~ pouredl a~d while '~jfle ifl:ter]oi of the ~\H"fllaCB -is; ,stUll md and thle c;HnikJe'rso1ft; The drojJ;jOl ng hlCi Ilitie's 2llre arls.o, of v,~ lu e r il savin,!;) the fu mace f om com plete e-trtas;tfo~he ~ n '!lhe ev, n - DJif 'I hs me tal $o'Udifv~ og, h1Jilrll;ve Ulan~J~V r r~!il the weU.

A convenient form cd 'con strllnn in n -a 1he b~,Sla legs, is, ttl!l i;,i :neeil i!l1f'lQlte welded t'ogettluf. The' l~ h~nge bar may a~sa b 'welded [[0 'tti e -I . dli,ck ~teel p11i,ii'te flClrm'i~o th e dWO'J) be' -tom. A no-1hbr- y. be r, wt~h a loop, 'formed on One ra'nd~ provides

Fig, ~,B. Thf1 if/top4)oftfJm shr;wfng felt. lnfjl wfHking prJsltlr;Jri; and right, dRi'pp8d wilh pin' r~fflli) I'i!' Il'd,

r-

,

f

IIf'ON' ,& lIMlr,mm

. ~rl.I' ,~

Fig. Bll ID,~!l1grem of ,fhe (:,upfJi'a 'When c:hBfgtJd .fa'T' WD:rldng.

8'1

Fig. 90, ~:t,fJW fhs' $,(JfI(/ bed of ,hlJ fNt11t Is pr.8'IJfJred bel'OfiI e'8.ch ffl'elt.

dr~w' ~i'n, wni''Cih 'hQldG t.~1B P ~ate ln JJOs~ ~tcn whij ~e -1M '~llJiI'n.ac@1 is; i!i1 usa, Fig. 8 B,.

101,;u~rati'D n

The me _ h[ld of e pfjH':atiln~, the cupola is

:i,U IlJSlfini;d ;n the d [!~g·r.a m IFlg. Il~l. W~'~lltl 'th e tU:!l,t~@lm in poshion j bed ICif' Qlr~l3iri m 0 UIlldiri:9 ~nd is fa m med over lila ~Ia re 'II~ 'i;i depth of two l nch its.. irncli'inmg iral"O the: back, td the ~lJlFn.a,~~' UJ, .a dlepttih. c." DQugh I,V, 00\9' In~b whe re Ii ~ ~asse~ ttl rOlll gh the ta p h o~e. The grid ~J~Q'i.dd be! dra ~n YIP from the bod! til mrrn a IglF3d U3 ~ r,&l~ ius U)' '~'he ~i ni'ns. ,M Olfie' :sandi is r~:m m,ed Ion t tiU] spou'l in (1I0rvt: of the tap hO,'[!8' :~ n'd B n El'~' . chan nln, is m 0 LddlJd by hand 'W con'tinue 'the grti01'iJ!lil ta~ I 9f lWle ~arld tmd ,rligh~ to t ne nlll. i~~gl. 90, :shows this, 'in ~'cl~ar!. ,AJtw ,~~, show n th ~ 00 !1iQa~ 'woodan '~aUII'r!l'i 1"'0 Uri d whh~h sand is ram m.e:d 'in ~he t:aIP' hol.a tw~lf,. I,Baving ,is neat. ~c!~uld o{lifice 11uough wihich the! m B~ 9,1 wlill fUn.

,A 'ilr!3' !is ligtHiB>d tH'i the' sa IIld bed, iLb9'ilng 'pl'~rlL[¥ o~ wiQQd i!'Ild ~m Sill o~;a I or • '008 rhe· •. ·~ p~eif,era111,y ~,h~ ~ ~Ue r •. S~ 19 1rr1 dm !J..IgJht C:'~ n be SypplJ ied lhrrough lhfJ' CJip~JI1 tap hole to a:ssi-s~ c!O,mbu stion a rid 'FtH C'U]GG _cok,e, can !be add~d gr'~cduol ~y Yilt; I lh ~'l'ie i's iii good,

'IS

weU,-ngh uld Iblf1!ld, sern E! Ave or Si:K . in ehes abOMB ~he tuye'F,!I):. 20 Ib of i,f'on i!s ella rgecJ alb~fv~ thts ~1!1 '!.\Mc '~a,y,er.s sepa'lI:~t'IEd 'bV 'eok~ II!! nd ~"id, crllJs.~u!d ~ am l3i~toll\B:, ~ i"loS or b I'~c~ ch alilk 8dd:ed at the rs ~le' of' 301 :l'~' 40% of ~he CQ~ eh iHy~d. Th e slag whicl, '(0 ~ Fr1 s sh tJ1Jlld be frilJU Vin,uld .. A • t'g Ulmltr'i V"· 51,;;! 9 will be IfoQind qlJ,ickly tOChDk,e ilJjp f'h~ f,l;JIrnace lpart~ C UJII,a r IV a'rn~ut the t IIJven;!. GJie'(ll€~t or !esser IQ u3mJ~ies 'O'f ! ~m.eS:!OnEl' rn,ay be IiJSed Itlp~dm erlilll'Uv !lJln[ll ti1 e; sla~ flows 'he ~hl

a l.a,~t hi· the'~ :fIjp~:d ied thrc IJ~ r. '[he ~uy~ i'e an d' 'I he fir.s! d rap ~~tS, of iron sheu Id arPpe:~r 81 d,,~ tap he ~e in f! ~e Or :sJx min Uh;s, An £NiiI a1 ~ef {IIPP e!iHlrElliiCB then thi $ m:elV be '~8'ke" ,a $, an if! d iQinO n 'tl; i! t t h~' b I'ast I S I~O severe and SliPS ,S~olJld be 't~kcJil to cul down !he "'~ I,u me of ali IF. Onlv It: xp r:3,nen.c·e wI:! I·show. whh each palr~t~ I!JI a r e.ilJ.po I ~., ju s[ hew rruJch d rau9n~: ~$ n~eded til obtai n 1:1, Ii besl r\6,sul'~! COF!\I~ r:&eiV! Cj,t' c:ou ffi~r i~ ~ hE :el'rJPEl!;;u~J"'i,e,e ,of. this, iron ]~ dl~~;:Iiy'ed aJP'Pi'lllH~~ably lJ-~~on lEI this" i1' rnay be t a k,e!1 1h8'( th e bla ~t, is toO' we liB k.

lilro ril :sh 0 !,.hId 'be a~ ~o:w~d tD n.a n 'fr,Q m I h~ tap hQ~B untU !t1a frow bano mes OOIfl~ d!nlllot1)s .. A ~'iUln;hf!lr ch~ rge Ig f C~ ke. roll ewell by tle n pO'I,Jlnds of ire!1 with 'fly x, can be

1""E)

"~ "~9w "ttl" .- .. - --·-nn"W± ,- .. -

~ ~

j-~I!II,""". "

,~/g. 9 J. Ai "'.bo' "" stlt:k wi~h g {jOl~9d liildJ{.'.s,lltlR ,(II r,1m' JihBP~ r;f t:he ·~tu ."

,~dded at th is s"~ ag Ilt !. 0 •• ke,e.p the !pot sboi I ln g'" a,nd rilOw th ~ ra P' hole ea 0 be p~ ~Q'ged w~th '91r:e~nsanilt

Whh ~ m ~n'j.atlJJ re [;upoli;;J it is. III ot di'fficu ~'I [0 ~ u:dge 'IN han ~ he bu~ k, of the :r,nT'tij·al eha rge is m~ ~t e d and! !Bom'e ob serva'riOfl! 'may be ffiadu:: th rDugh rhe UJver~ ·qf '~he ,bl0W~.1f lU'~e is: rem olJed morn E! n lad~ V~ (:h~ rgi rilg ef'a tt,eJn~u) ~ a VIer'S of c-oke a illd t:lile'U311 eali1 cO'!Hinue IJIrl1i.iI i1: is iii! stimll:l'~'lld that :$lliffilDisnt h m! S Mi1i'fl coU1eCI'ed fn l'he well. HIe:T!~' a,~-a_iri, e::~])G li,el1lce' j'!i th'e' on~"v p r8cth~::~11 g LJ ide.

1ih~ mq'ta~ IS ru Iii from the well! 0'1 [he If:: IjJpO~ a In [,0 a ~ a,d I e '.'0 r 'POU Uilrilg me mould. F'or ~ he 'Ifl tsl ~a:~ [he pl!!Jg of Qi"lae.n sal"! d is pJ'EHcod wi~h a poker and; when ~'~a ~B~~e IS; 'fi~II, [he 'lfI~w' ,of metal Is stemml~d whh ill plug of rn OJ'S"~ ~~~'V t'B1f]:'u'ir!ied in,to m'e tap l!lore. 'ThJ~ plliD ls tltnown as iii "bot" .find ls

. app ~ied Ion ,t he (@ nd ~'f ill m f!1tal rod!' shown ~ n '!f'rB,' 91' .. j,!l reinrfon;i'og wi rrEl' i~ sui tabl13' for maki ng a "bet stlck" il!n d ~t Schou lei. be' rlUed with 11) dlsc ~'H~ad ahout 1 j-~ d ~~m el,er, wnh~~ rn ii'lf be rive'let! On. The

I,ength - abo I!Jr~: lwa~\iie' In ones. R'ed eJI!Bl( cen b~ uesd 'Wor die bet and ttrlis Colin b<~· rnoulded en by band, rougniy c~nli~a~ In shap e~. I; t is ussfu I ~o h~\!!a twO or tbree· bot: stleks re !;iIdy' a r th Q com i1'Ii1enC8lme,n~ (:If e,eli Irne~'t. A S hal ~ow bed of san d shou ~d be Spf'G aid on rli! B 'floa ~ im rn ie'd la'l ~Iy u nda.r '~he spau I to Icol:lec~ sIJ111h~'d meta ~ a ncll also

:~.~ 5ft!e~dv thli:' ~adlle. '

A crucible ma\1' ,~!B LJ sed, as ~ ,~adle:. [by [:

U., i S sheutd be p reheat eO ~·'to 'I"'EH~1 il pOSisiblej i~'1l tt1a e'l~dhaIlHsl: 1rO'1lll Ih~ Wn.!!fi!!13ce· hi ei'Oil'9 meual is 001 ~ect!ed. !Eh.Jt a.G'::cTdre nts alre' V)f10ne to (J C::CIlJI r and, if ttl e metal ,sh-o uld co!!Ji in ~h8 I~O~' be~'(,'n~e h C~j'!I be pou rod. tt m a'\!, bel di'ffic1uh. I'r IilO'1 i'mpiJssibl a.. W re move WI' hau t d B'm a.ge 10 th e: crucible, Tilrds cou td II~la d Ul' aif~ ~nr[DleIable wa$~e ,d' ,good crucibl~s iSl'l1d, i IFi nll( Q pi ni 1!l!ii1_ rt ~:S much b B'rli!r [-0 90 ~C! sorne length re rn ~ke ~r procure a me ta I J~,d h~. The m 1!'1i1 ~ I ~ die itsel'r ts m,~,d e o'f t:OII"l'1(J ® re []ijJcly th ~n SU:!!@II sl1e,e·f and ~hti!l lnsl dIS is p ~Ote.{,';,ted before l;Mse with ,1i!!I Ir;oaling 0,(- refractory ma lertia:l. 'Ih !;S, I iJl1jlll~ is lie iJlBw:ed ea_ch l'i me befOf1~

I

t!:.

J 1

fig. 92. A COfnmf'J/'iCI'iDl, SeiUme'5~ lad/fl. CQf).DCJtV id"lU'lmin!J~ S,p:pflf)xtm(j\r!fJ1y 210 tb.

flg. !l3~ i.Mle' fiabrlf::FJlfJd' b~' w.~lt:Jih,g from sliee.t staB$. Approxim(l,teJy 1,2 Ib. ,~~d~YI

WIlD rk CO'1i111 men C'E:':S :9 nd Is t 1"Ii,I!! re fi;'J re mija ~d I1d as elfpeil1~!a ~ 1,1 ~n ~f'i 'i @a!'5~.

Sma II. S,~,tH'n~ B'Sh'3i rrl'gtf!J1 1:8 cUte:s 81 Jr~ o'bJilai'i'HWle 'from, 'trou nclry 'suppl iell's dDwn 'to :a Ie a pj:je~'ty of 2 B ~b; These, less n;~ndie Of "sha nk.·" ~r~ f!lD1 oV8rlv rtl(~efl;shle. btil~, Fig. S:1 sh ews jJ 5 m:a~ I, hom e-m ~d'ie ladle' w~~d" t,oga'[hBr fll"o lin ~ 6 QGuge 'S~i!! eL A C@TIvenie'n1' h~n d ~h:EU,'k '~iC s'lih lfl'i!1dl made Jrom -1:11 fflund hron is atso shOW'n.

Norm,ally "galiils.terl'" ~:J' used Or I~dl~ U'nings, and this :~s apD~i~d. in a 'moist 's:ti~'~,~, by han do !lnd· d ii',ecl, out eom!p~e~eW bemr,(!! use. t(ja ni:str£!'r ~s' de~erfbed as a hi ghlv ~ilttious r\&rfraiEIO~' mateii'lall !Bnd hi usuaUv com posed of 2:-.3'% clay. rno re' t'h~n ~96% .$l~ U~OJfI., 1 % lron O'~lde 8'[ldi nU:!l re.m tali,r;d er 1 rm,B' an II muglll e-s~'a. like 'I h ~ c~u.egb~Eil~ wh~n deal.ng 'with sm 8111 tIIllJlalntTties; of i ~Ofil" 'the: '~!laidie ,Sll1tiuld ;~Iso be Warm,!!! d up beJnn~ tapptng.

D ue '~O 1:1':1 e re«ec~' of' 00 mbu $'1iO'11. wlnere the m ~u!ll is m tllt'ed in ill1th'ill ate co 01 act with tne 'hJ~~j ~h8~ m!a~ be iii -'r.iHlIdenc'V for '~he' sma n r:;t~pol~ 1!a 'produ ~ ea:~ni~g'S wit~, :B dlill1 led s~ln. 1M ueh de_pe'nds en ['"Q .q U ~HW lof {he ire rI wl t h wh~c!11 lh e ctfal'ge ls m ill !l"~' U,D. I" ~h'I!!' cnar:g e is CC! mposl!?tj eill1~flel¥ of scr:ap~ as wHI mast Hk.@h; be ~h"f.!' ~:9Set i n the 3m.rHel!..!ll'" fio Il.Ml d,ry,. a Cf;-rl~ ill a:millU fit 0 chlU U:ng, dUIi! to ai!,icon ~QS5" C8 rt be ",,,ectad. Th~ refer~'nc:e'. therefoR,. i8i11~8ad1 Imade in t'h~ pm£!Bdn 091 c hapu~ r. ~Hg\tlr.dil[l;g ths ~dditiofl to me moll o,r sman Qua illtities of ~·smG'on Lad'~U 0'1" me rl 18 ~uef]l~~ ~ n,

Anv of the devioes iii'~re~dy dis~_LJ~~d 10 Chlip1 ~r l'~io is s~itabl8' fOr ·il m\l~di;ng i~ h@ 'rorced draught to !:!l m,inis'tlJ r'e eu po! iii. ! Il ls, a~m.ady &tf!~tlG!d. an ,adv8:l'lt~g'E;I' ~D CIi[ sol,e' to v8fV tt1 e vo~ ume C1if' alir UJI lhe t uyere. ~ n dl1s rEls;pe¢t. fls:su m kl1lg 'IIi ill sn Ii;! Ilec.t!iii Gla!'ly

drlrv:~1'li ItiJl,olwe.fl' is 'Used unci where 'tlhe el8t1lf"ic motor lS o~ a s'UJi'labli8 type. i'l ls proba'bl V ~ m Or,e pr,1!JI;;::tica'l :80 h.U[on 1.0 va trV the speed 0'" '(h €I! meter than '[0 (I bS:l1.l!Ict fhlB,f]IOW' of: D~'f by mepha,n1Q~1 m~ii:Ul~. A ~e;n U ~atinij' mn oontroU,et h ~:6! be.en used ~r t~ni~ PUlrP:OSE!i. ln C onjlYln etlen with the ~vpe of blower- SiIl1C1iwn h"!!, IFirg, :9. with gl'1i!!'~~

51lJt'il:'6'SS. Thil:l oontll'OU B r has a (Irad'u8 led paTIl@'1 which, allows, ttl e blow~r t~B~d to b~ ardjustled to that gliving, bV 8~r.U~~ni;rlfilC@~ 'the res wilt r'equill',edl. r'~ Ih e j mpl3il reI" ~s: drivel"! by a mQ~\Qr ,~1' the OOrilst~n't speed! va rie't:y, ~'[ w,m be fO~rJ d s s<1ti'sfaC{lOf'!i "to in~ Ef,rpuse a, bUIHE) r!f~y~tyP'i! orf ·t~fio,t1'h~ in th-e de1 Ivery !\'t!lb e,

Eac1fl lof th,~ l~a'nnll-r:aCnnl~~r5· II"Sited below' w~ n be· f,ound to bt in sympmmlhv w'idl the mo:d'ili!~t: reQ1\liliremUil1!ts O'f ~he' amrate~r 'mund~m~~u, :ll'1!d~, (J~efi!, to bestow a m,QaS~.re 01' 3,ssiMan~e: quite iOlIJ:~s'id1u ~at i'5, g8111'Bta'Uv rog~rdi&11 ·i;ii51 '~1he flOlima'llnJI n 'of b.U~~fiI elss.

,8 R,ITI SH FOU N C FiY U IN iTS un

A em" W'orD. Ch,e:5Jte<meIJd" lD'~'~y~h ifl~.

M olul dl'rrug BI{J~es.. F'I'ux~" IC 0 fie DrefS!Sjh"lgs.. Biinderrs,.. CiDa'ld'u:st~

!lands.:. MC'"

FOR:OAlllH lTD.

IBlrand\Qf'Il W.i'f j Wast B,r~:n:'!l1~',ch~, 91'0' ,$JL IN 0 .. 444, C'fe~'m 'foli cor,~! n1allt:i'ng"

F. 'lIHUNT" CO.

[F'OLII "dry It M i~ I Fli rn~stH3 rs,

48'...,50 'Ch~p~1 Si~lIiee'i., Salford. M.anehe:5t>e'r" IM:3 1 AA~

S:~1;9Ima Ild~J' 'Cif\uclb h~~8 IP,1u5 .. B wid8' FlUl gel 'olf USMU I aC'O~ofi as. i'ncmudlirl10 G l'o.VElis·", Jl"I'u mlbt1go~ Pamnl IPDWdl' .... ,~ IFir,a el,sy. 'FlltI~Qe~ 'F,BDlDI sificO!Iil" MO!l!llldiing T'oo~~:an dl Tfrnl1}S.

so U N°[J.'RV S E'RV'I css lTD.", and J 1!:'IlJ\OD rtn, iDlrarvto.l1I M,f.!lfI!(lf'. Ta imwonJ'iI. Sta'ff(j,rd!!ijJhi re~, B183TL

Fhil~I&'li' Dt!I'.g)BSSIll!r.S, f~'r f~l'ml!ll~ afilld 'n I] 1i!,..,'fielliiliOIWliS i - ~IO'y8, of. ,a~rn l!drn d.s, 8:s we'lll ~ SJ much U:~6f~11 hi1lllP [em dI r&ldvtCII h e1'!f !iiIl~~IH1~ Of illS rlicw II t v.~Ugl ~ :s~hall UbIJ.

92

Alr' suPl'lh~ AJI.QW.anas AI!iuflIiniiJJm. !l;E!mirJI9 AlUP'iil~jl!lm ·~rt1$Nnli1

:201 001 "J. Hi, '18 83'

C~!jJ" Cntt1lt~ b!i~~ Cmlr.IiICllllil:lnl Coc:!n~ Co~.' ~IU cal-e~~ l~iQ' '~liIii11i IGGhq:iffrm:

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