Chapter 06

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WHAT WE HAVE LEARNT The valency of carbon is four. Carbon forms covalent bonds in its compounds. Carbon atom can form single bonded, double bonded and triple bonded compounds. Carbon forms chain compounds and ring compounds. Carbon atoms exhibit the property of 'catenation'. Hydrocarbons are divided into 'alkanes, alkenes and alkynes'. Different carbon compounds can have the same molecular formula. This phenomenon is called isomerism.

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organic chemistry regula the rules and regulations for naming chemical compounds.Eth C 3 . hydrides drides.Hept .CH3 | CH3 Write down their molecular formulae. Unbranched alkanes You know that uni.Hex .naming and isomerism ORGANIC COMPOUNDS . This chapter deals with the rules relating to the naming of organic compounds. Surely. In organic chemistr y important have for organic it is important to have a clear naming system for the 40 lakh organic compounds now known and to have suitable rules for naming compounds that may be discover ered future organic discovered in future. classification urely for more than hundred elements. 2 and 3 respectively.CH2 . general proper operties oxides. organic are more are about 40 lakhs of organic compounds are known and more are being discovered.CH . IUPA (International formed to give uniform names to compounds. Therefore they differ in their names also.NAMING AND ISOMERISM Y have that useful proper operties ou have seen that the periodic table is useful in studying the proper ties of more hundred elements. hydrides.Prop C6 C7 C8 . classification is essential for the study also. bi and tri indicate the numbers 1. Understanding the naming system of organic compounds organic chemistry is the first step in the study of organic chemistr y. Studying the general pr oper ties of oxides. is a different compound. They are C 1 . Not only the classification. of compounds also. IUPAC has made certain rules for naming elements and compounds. An organisation was give uniform compounds. Naming of Organic compounds Examine the structural formulae of the two compounds given below. Hydrocarbons a. chlorides and such compounds of each element is a method familiar to you. Surely.Oct 71 . Are they the same? Is there any difference in their structural formulae? What is the phenomenon of compounds having same molecular formulae and different structural formula? Each of these chain isomers.CH3 CH3 . formed due to the difference in the structure of the chains. IUPAC (International Union of ure Chemistry) international organisa ganisation formula ormulates Pure and Applied Chemistr y) is the international organisation which formulates egulations for compounds.Meth C 2 . The howev ever follow ollowed organic same method however cannot be followed in the case of organic compound since discover ered. CH3 . The confusion that happens when the same compound is denoted by differ erent differ erent organisa ganisation different names in different languages can be imagined.Organic compounds .CH2 . Standard 10 Let us now examine how these compounds can be named. Similarly some word roots are used to denote number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon. but the naming of these compounds is also a difficult task.

...... CH3 ... The position number of the carbon atom in the main chain from which the branch arises should also be written at the beginning of the name and put a '---' after this number.. Compound CH4 CH3 .CH3 | CH2 | CH3 Chemistry C H 3 − C H − C H3 | CH3 What is the difference between this hydro carbon and those which we named earlier? 1 2 3 72 .......Pent 1.... How many carbon atoms are there in the branch? If there is one carbon then what should be the word root? '-meth'.CH2 . add -yl to it.CH2 . Now add 'ane' to the word root and write the name.. consider the following..... .... For example..........But C 5 .. ethane ... position of the branch + hyphen + the adjective denoting the branch + word root + suffix Try writing the name of the following compound.. CH3 ... Such branched compounds may have more than one carbon chain.methylpropane Word rood ...CH2 .. Try to write the name of the following compound...... the number of carbon atoms in the longest chain is taken as the basis for writing the word root..CH .....CH2 .. Branched alkanes Table 6.1 given below. In this compound the number of carbon atoms is 3............... This may be added as prefix to the name written above.... to get 'methyl'.1 Write the IUPAC names of alkanes with upto 10 carbons..CH3 Here there is a branch in the 2nd carbon.............. prop + ane = propane wordroot + ane = alkane Now fill up table 6. Name .....CH2 ... Therefore the word root is 'prop'.Dec Select the suitable word root based on the number of carbon atoms in the chain. CH3 ... its name can be derived.. C9 .. Of these..CH3 . Suffix .. 2... .... The name of the group from the branch should also be a part of the name. ....CH2 .CH2 .... By adding '-ane' to the word root of the saturated hydrocarbon......CH2 .. ........CH3 b....... -ane ...... .. The word root of the above hydrocarbon can then be written as 'prop' and when '-ane' is added you get its name......Chapter 06 C 4 ....Non C 1 0 . 2 .........

tetra etc. In compound I the methyl group is attached to the 4th carbon but in compound II.2 below.3 CH 2 .naming and isomerism Examine the compounds and their names in table 6.2CH . I.2CH2 .5 CH-6CH 3 | CH 3 b.ethyl pentane V.7 CH 2 .4CH .3 CH 2 . 8 4 . 1 3 .1 CH 3 | CH2 .2CH .2CH2 .1 CH 3 | CH 3 Write the structural formula of the following: a. The compound is 2 .3CH 2. 1CH 3 .ethylhexane b.3CH2 . The numbers indicating position number should be separated by comma.5 CH 2 .6CH 2 .methyl butane II.2 CH 2.4CH2 5CH 3 | CH3 CH3 .4CH. So the word root is 'pent' and the suffix is '-ane'. Standard 10 CH 3 .2 CH 2 . 4 .CH2 . 5CH 3 . 5 2 .4CH 3 | CH3 CH3 .4CH 2 . 1 3 . 1 CH3 .methylpentane. While naming a compound as specified by the IUPAC.1CH3 | CH3 I and II are the same compounds.2CH 2.3 CH 2 . were added to indicate 2.2CH2 .3CH2 .1CH 3 | CH 3 IIa.5 CH 2 .4CH 2.2 CH. 3 .3CH 2 .propyl octane Consider the following examples. 6 CH 3. Therefore the naming is done correctly in the 2nd compound.6CH 3 | CH 3 b. 6 II.Organic compounds .2 CH 2. Find the appropriate position number for the carbon chains given below.2CH .4 CH 2 .5CH 2.3CH . di.4CH2 5CH 3 | CH2 CH3 CH 3 .methyl pentane IV. 4 etc.4CH.4CH2 . 1 CH 3 .3CH2 .CH3 Table 6.5CH 2. The longest carbon chain has 5 carbon atoms.5CH3 | CH3 Ia. 3.3CH . before the branch name. tri. Hydrocarbon with more than one branched carbon When molecules with more than one branch in a single group is named.3CH . the branched carbon should be given the lowest number when counted from either ends.2 2 .1CH 3 | CH3 CH3 . methyl group is attached to the 2nd carbon.4CH2 .methyl pentane III. 1CH 3 . 73 .propylheptane c. I.

. If we number from right to left.CH3 | | CH 3 CH 3 CH3 | CH3 ....2 ....CH .CH3 | | | CH 3 CH3 CH3 Table 6....C ..CH .CH3 | | CH3 CH3 CH 3 | CH3 ..C ----...4 Consider the structural formula of the following: 1 6 2 5 3 4 4 3 5 2 6 1 Name 2.trimethylpentane ..CH . C H3 .3 Now write names of the following: CH 3 | CH3 .CH3 | CH 3 CH3 ......... Chemistry 74 .CH ..CH ......3..............CH ... then the sum of the position numbers is 3+5=8...........dimethylpropane 2...3..CH3 | | | CH3 CH3 CH3 Table 6........C H3 | CH 3 | CH 3 What will be the position number of carbon atom if we number from left to right? The sum of the position number of the carbon atom is 2 + 4 = 6....CH -C . Compound CH 3 | CH3 .......dimethylbutane 2..........3 ..Chapter 06 Analyse table 6...C H .....C H 2 ...4 ..CH .............dimethylbutane 2.... ...2 ... Here we will have to select that option where the sum of position numbers is less............CH3 | CH 3 CH3 ....C H .....C ...C H 2 .CH2 ..

..............CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 → 5 ..CH 2 ....... You can see that the two carbon chains are named in two different ways... 1 CH3 .... And select the one where the sum is less. CH 3 | CH 3 ....CH 2 ........C . find out the sum of position numbers. As there is a double bond '-ene' may be added....3.... The IUPAC name of CH2 -..C ..propene 3 Observe how the names are written. The position number of the double bond is shown before the word root. ..... CH 2 .... b...5...........CH 2 .. the name of the compound is 2...propene 1........CH 3 b...CH ..CH 3 Eg: 1 2 C H2 = C H2 Since there are 2 carbon atoms the word root is 'eth'... 4 ...e...CH 2 .CH 2 . Naming of unsaturated hydrocarbons a.. Name Compound CH 3 CH 2 ...... Add the suffix '-ene' to this. Complete table 6.3 .dimethyl heptane | | | CH 3 ..naming and isomerism i.Organic compounds .......CH 3 .2CH = 1CH 2 2.2CH = 3CH 2 CH3 ..CH .ethyl .dimethylpentane.CH 2 ....... Alkenes While naming unsaturated hydrocarbons with double bond.......... Standard 10 75 ............... In molecules having more than one branch... The position which gives the smallest number for the carbon carbon double bond is to be chosen.CH 3 | | CH 3 ...CH 3 .CH 3 | CH 3 Consider the following.... when the position numbers are different when counting from right to left and left to right..CH .......... CH 3 | CH 3 ..5 Now try to write the names of the chain isomers given below: a.. Table 6........ CH 3 ... a....CH ......CH2 is eth + ene ethene c..CH 2 ...CH ........... the longer chain with double bond is taken as the basis.CH 2 ..

Compounds with functional groups a. chloro.Cl CH 3 .pentene or 3 .CH 2 .pentene? Justify your answer. add the prefix halo ( the word 'methane'. Write down the names of the following: CH 3 __ CH 2 __ CH = CH 2 CH 3 __ CH2 __ CH2 __ CH = CH __ CH3 CH 3 __ CH2 __ CH = CH __ CH2 __ CH3 CH 2= CH b. Name the following compounds. The names of some compounds. to get the name of compounds in which hydrogen atom of the hydro carbon is substituted by a halogen. CH3Cl. These atoms or atom groups are called functional groups.Cl CH3 . CH 2 __ CH 3 While naming hydrocarbons with triple bond after the word root '-yne' (alk + yne) is added. CH 3 .CH .Chapter 06 Which way of naming is correct? Can you explain why? CH 3 __ H H C H H H H C H Cl CH 2 __ CH = CH __ CH 3 What is the name of this compound? 2 .CH 2 . Alkynes __ To get the name of the compound in which the hydrogen atom of methane is substituted by chlorine.CH 2 .fluoro. name of the functional group and general name are given below in table 6. The rules for naming double bonded hydrocarbons are applicable to triple bonded hydrocarbons also. iodo). ˛ ethyne CH − CH − C ≡ CH 3 2 CH − C ≡ C − CH 3 3 CH − CH − C ≡ C − CH − CH 3 2 2 3 The atoms or atom groups that get substituted for the hydrogen atom in the hydrocarbons determine the property of that compound. II.6.CH 3 | Cl Can you explain why the chemical properties of chloro methane is different from that of methane. functional group. 76 Chemistry . In general. Write names of the following. Halogen compounds Consider the compounds CH4. add the prefix chloro . bromo.

CH 3 .6 b.CH 2 .CH3. Since it is a saturated hydrocarbon it can be called ethane. i. a.naming and isomerism Compound Functional group -OH -COOH -CO -CHO .CH 2 . Since there are 2 carbon atoms. Consider the compound CH3. The CH3.CH3 is meth + oxy + ethane = methoxy ethane.O .O .CH2 . CH 3 . How will you name the compounds with -OH as their functional group? For naming such compounds the following procedure can be adopted. CH3 .CH2 .CH2 .e.CH2.O ..CH2 .CH2 .e + ol Alkanol Ethanol Name the following compounds.OH. Alkane --.Organic compounds . Since this is a saturated hydrocarbon the prefix '-ane' should be added and 'ol' is to be added to indicate the functional group -OH. Alcohols c. Explain why this name is used.O .e + ol Ethane --. Ether Now we shall find out how to write the name of the following compounds.CH3 can be considered.OH b.O -NH 2 -NO2 Name of the functional group hydroxyl carboxyl carbonyl aldehyde ether amino nitro Common name alcohol acid ketones aldehydes ether amines nitro compound CH 3-CH 2-OH CH 3-CH 2-COOH CH 3-CO-CH 3 CH 3-CH 2-CH 2-CHO CH 3-O-CH 3 CH 3-CH 2 -NH 2 CH 3-CH 2 -CH 2 -NO 2 Table 6.OH.CH 2 .CH2. eth + ane -. CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -OH Standard 10 77 .e + ol → ethanol. The CH3 . → Consider the compound is linked to the ethyl can be named as meth + oxy = methoxy.O . the word root can be 'eth'. The name of this compound is ethoxy propane. Now the compound CH3 . The IUPAC name of CH3 . The longest chain is the ethyl group.CH 2 .O .CH 3 The longest alkyl chain on either side of oxygen should be considered for determining the word root. Here there are two alkyl groups -CH 3 and -CH2-CH3. CH 3OH c .

Based on the differences in the structures. A Methoxy propane Ethoxy ethane Ethoxy butane Methoxy methane Methoxy hexane B CH3 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ O ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH3 CH3 ˛˛ O ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH3 CH3 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ O ˛˛ CH3 CH3 ˛˛ O ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH3 CH3 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH3 ˛˛ CH3 ˛˛ O ˛˛ CH3 CH3 ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ O ˛˛ CH2 ˛˛ CH3 CH3 ˛˛ O ˛˛ CH3 Table 6.7 Isomerism You are familiar with compounds with same molecular formula. Such compounds are called isomers. CH 3 -O-CH 3 . Do they have the same molecular formula and structural formula? What is the functional group in the compounds CH3-CH2-OH and CH3-O-CH3? Are they the same? CH3 | CH 3CH 2CH 2CH 2CH 3 CH3 . Now can you write out a definition for functional group isomerism? From those given below find out functional group isomers and note them in your science diary. Chain isomerism Ethanol and dimethyl ether are examples of functional group isomers. Functional group isomerism CH 3COCH 3 Find out the names of CH3-CH2-OH. a.CH3 | CH3 78 Chemistry .7 below.Chapter 06 Match properly the columns A and B in table 6. b.C . isomers can be classified into various types. Butane and 2-methyl propane are examples. CH3˛O ˛CH2˛CH3 CH3˛˛CH2˛˛CH2˛˛OH CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3 CH3 ˛˛CH˛˛CH3 | CH3 CH 3CH2CHO Chain isomerism occurs due to the difference in the carbon chain. but having different structural formula.

metamers etc. CH 3 __CH 2 __CH 2__CH 2 __CH 2 __CH 2 __CH 2__OH CH 3__ CH 2 CH3 _ _ __ CH 2 __ O __ CH 2__ CH 2__ CH 3 _ _ CH2__ O__ CH2 _ _ _ _ CH2 CH2 CH 2 _ _ CH3 CH3__ O CH2 _ _ CH2 _ _ _ _ CH2__ CH3 What is the name of this compound? Write all the possible position isomers and their names.Organic compounds .4CH3 : 2.butanol Is there any difference in the carbon chain structure. position isomers. Metamerism The following compounds are examples of position isomerism. CH3˛˛ CH2˛˛O˛˛CH2˛˛CH3 CH3˛˛O˛˛CH2˛˛CH2˛˛CH3 Are the alkyl groups on either side of the ether group and their molecular formula the same? Here are some examples of metamerism which arises due to the difference in the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl groups on either sides of a functional group. $ Isomers are of different types . 4 Compare the two compounds. functional group isomers.butanol OH | 1 2 CH3 . functional group and the position of the functional groups? Thus those isomers which differ in the position of the functional groups in the same carbon chain are termed as position isomers. CH33CH22CH2 1CH2 OH : 1.chain isomers.3CH2 .naming and isomerism c. but different structural formulae are called isomers. Position isomerism d. SUMMARY $ Organic compounds are named according to the rules and conventions formulated by IUPAC. Write the names of the above compounds.CH . $ Compounds having the same molecular formula. Standard 10 79 .

dimethylheptane b. methylpropane c .CH2 . CH3 . CH3 .CH2-CH2-CH2. Write the name of isomers of the following compounds and to which type of isomerism is shown by them.propanol 1 . Write the IUPAC names of the following: a. $ $ $ ethanol methoxy ethane 2 .CH . 5.CH2 .CH . Cl Cl | | CH3-CH2-CH-CH2-CH-CH2-CH-CH3 | Cl $ $ $ $ $ f.CH .propanol 1 .butanol ethoxyethane 2-methyl .CH3 4.1-butene. 3-methyl . Write the structure and name of the isomers of chloro propane (C3H7Cl).CH . 3.C . Write the structures of the following a .1-chloropropane c.5-propyl nonane d.CH3 | CH3 OH | CH3 . Write a note on isomerism. 2.2 . CH3 | CH3 .CH3 | CH3 b. 2. d.CH2 .CH2 .CH2 .CH3 | | CH 3 CH 2-CH 3 g.3-methyloctane e .chloro butane 2 .CH2 . CH3 .Cl | CH3 e.CH .CH2 . 3-ethyl . CH3-CH2-CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 $$$$$$ 80 Chemistry .2-methyl .Chapter 06 MORE ACTIVITIES FOR YOU 1. 2-ethyl .

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