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programming

problems

1. What variables or unknowns are

involved?

2. What quantity is to be maximized or

minimized and how do I express that

quantity in terms of my unknowns?

3. What constraints do I have? How can I

express those constraints in terms of my

unknowns? (In linear programming

problems, this step results in a set of

linear inequalities.)

Example - potter making cups and plates

A potter is making cups and plates. It takes

her 6 minutes to make a cup and 3 minutes

to make a plate. Each cup uses 3/4 lb. of

clay and each plate uses one lb. of clay.

She has 20 hours available for making the

cups and plates and has 250 lbs. of clay on

hand. She makes a profit of $2 on each cup

and $1.50 on each plate. How many cups

and how many plates should she make in

order to maximize her profit?

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

Example - potter making cups and plates

A potter is making cups and plates. It

takes her 6 minutes to make a cup and 3

minutes to make a plate. Each cup uses

3/4 lb. of clay and each plate uses one

lb. of clay. She has 20 hours available

for making the cups and plates and has

250 lbs. of clay on hand. She makes a

profit of $2 on each cup and $1.50 on

each plate. How many cups and how

many plates should she make in order to

maximize her profit?

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

P = ($2/cup)(x cups) + ($1.50/plate)(y plates),

so P = $2x + $1.50y

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

so P = $2x + $1.50y

Time constraint:

time on cups + time on plates ! time available

Example - potter making cups and plates

A potter is making cups and plates. It

takes her 6 minutes to make a cup and 3

minutes to make a plate. Each cup uses

3/4 lb. of clay and each plate uses one

lb. of clay. She has 20 hours available

for making the cups and plates and has

250 lbs. of clay on hand. She makes a

profit of $2 on each cup and $1.50 on

each plate. How many cups and how

many plates should she make in order to

maximize her profit?

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

so P = $2x + $1.50y

Time constraint:

time on cups + time on plates ! time available

(6 min./cup)(x cups) + (3min./plate)(y plates) !

(20 hrs.)(60 min./hr.) or

6x + 3y ! 1200

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

P = ($2/cup)(x cups) + ($1.50/plate)(y plates),

so P = $2x + $1.50y

Time constraint:

time on cups + time on plates ! time available

(6 min./cup)(x cups) + (3min./plate)(y

plates) ! (20 hrs.)(60 min./hr.) or

6x + 3y ! 1200

Clay constraint:

clay for cups + clay for plates ! clay

available

Example - potter making cups and plates

A potter is making cups and plates. It

takes her 6 minutes to make a cup and 3

minutes to make a plate. Each cup uses

3/4 lb. of clay and each plate uses one

lb. of clay. She has 20 hours available

for making the cups and plates and has

250 lbs. of clay on hand. She makes a

profit of $2 on each cup and $1.50 on

each plate. How many cups and how

many plates should she make in order to

maximize her profit?

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

P = ($2/cup)(x cups) + ($1.50/plate)(y plates),

so P = $2x + $1.50y

Time constraint:

time on cups + time on plates ! time available

(6 min./cup)(x cups) + (3min./plate)(y plates) !

(20 hrs.)(60 min./hr.) or

6x + 3y ! 1200

Clay constraint:

clay for cups + clay for plates ! clay available

(3/4 lb. of clay/cup)(x cups) +

(1 lb. of clay/plate)(y plates) ! 250 lbs. of clay

.75x + y ! 250

COPYRIGHT © 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

P = ($2/cup)(x cups) + ($1.50/plate)(y plates),

so P = $2x + $1.50y

Time constraint:

time on cups + time on plates ! time available

(6 min./cup)(x cups) + (3min./plate)(y plates) !

(20 hrs.)(60 min./hr.) or

6x + 3y ! 1200

Clay constraint:

clay for cups + clay for plates ! clay available

(3/4 lb. of clay/cup)(x cups) +

(1 lb. of clay/plate)(y plates) ! 250 lbs. of clay

.75x + y ! 250

Non-negative constraints: x " 0, y " 0

COPYRIGHT © 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

Summary:

x = number of cups the potter makes

y = number of plates the potter makes

P = $2x + $1.50y

Constraints:

6x + 3y ! 1200

.75x + y ! 250

x"0

y"0

1. What variables or unknowns are

involved?

2. What quantity is to be maximized or

minimized and how do I express that

quantity in terms of my unknowns?

3. What constraints do I have? How can I

express those constraints in terms of my

unknowns? (In linear programming

problems, this step results in a set of

linear inequalities.)

Summary:

x = number of cups the potter makes Step 1

y = number of plates the potter makes

P = $2x + $1.50y Step 2

Constraints:

6x + 3y ! 1200

Step 3

.75x + y ! 250

x"0

y"0

Farmer planting corn and soybeans

two crops: corn and soybeans. For each acre of

corn planted, her expenses are $50 and for each

acre of soybeans planted, her expenses are $100.

Each acre of corn requires 100 bushels of storage

and yields a profit of $60; each acre of soybeans

requires 40 bushels of storage and yields a profit

of $90. If the total amount of storage space

available is 19,200 bushels and the farmer has

only $20,000 on hand, how many acres of each

crop should she plant in order to maximize her

profit? What will her profit be if she follows this

strategy?

COPYRIGHT © 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

Farmer planting corn and soybeans

A farmer has a 320 acre farm on which she plants

two crops: corn and soybeans. For each acre of

corn planted, her expenses are $50 and for each

acre of soybeans planted, her expenses are $100.

Each acre of corn requires 100 bushels of storage

and yields a profit of $60; each acre of soybeans

requires 40 bushels of storage and yields a profit of

$90. If the total amount of storage space available

is 19,200 bushels and the farmer has only $20,000

on hand, how many acres of each crop should she

plant in order to maximize her profit? What will her

profit be if she follows this strategy?

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

COPYRIGHT © 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

Maximize P = 60x + 90y

Farmer planting corn and soybeans

A farmer has a 320 acre farm on which she plants

two crops: corn and soybeans. For each acre of

corn planted, her expenses are $50 and for each

acre of soybeans planted, her expenses are $100.

Each acre of corn requires 100 bushels of storage

and yields a profit of $60; each acre of soybeans

requires 40 bushels of storage and yields a profit of

$90. If the total amount of storage space available

is 19,200 bushels and the farmer has only $20,000

on hand, how many acres of each crop should she

plant in order to maximize her profit? What will her

profit be if she follows this strategy?

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

COPYRIGHT © 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

Maximize P = 60x + 90y

land constraint: x + y ! 320

Farmer planting corn and soybeans

A farmer has a 320 acre farm on which she plants

two crops: corn and soybeans. For each acre of

corn planted, her expenses are $50 and for each

acre of soybeans planted, her expenses are $100.

Each acre of corn requires 100 bushels of storage

and yields a profit of $60; each acre of soybeans

requires 40 bushels of storage and yields a profit of

$90. If the total amount of storage space available

is 19,200 bushels and the farmer has only $20,000

on hand, how many acres of each crop should she

plant in order to maximize her profit? What will her

profit be if she follows this strategy?

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

COPYRIGHT © 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

Maximize P = 60x + 90y

land constraint: x + y ! 320

$ constraint: 50x + 100y ! 20,000

Farmer planting corn and soybeans

A farmer has a 320 acre farm on which she plants

two crops: corn and soybeans. For each acre of

corn planted, her expenses are $50 and for each

acre of soybeans planted, her expenses are $100.

Each acre of corn requires 100 bushels of storage

and yields a profit of $60; each acre of soybeans

requires 40 bushels of storage and yields a profit of

$90. If the total amount of storage space available

is 19,200 bushels and the farmer has only $20,000

on hand, how many acres of each crop should she

plant in order to maximize her profit? What will her

profit be if she follows this strategy?

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

COPYRIGHT © 2006 by LAVON B. PAGE

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

Maximize P = 60x + 90y

land constraint: x + y ! 320

$ constraint: 50x + 100y ! 20,000

storage constraint: 100x + 40y ! 19,200

x = # acres of corn

y = # acres of soybeans

Maximize P = 60x + 90y

land constraint: x + y ! 320

$ constraint: 50x + 100y ! 20,000

storage constraint: 100x + 40y ! 19,200

non-negative constraints: x " 0, y " 0

Example - Aluminum and Copper Wire

pound of aluminum wire requires 5 kwh of

electricity and 1/4 hr. of labor. Each pound of

copper wire requires 2 kwh of electricity and 1/2

hr. of labor. Production of copper wire is restricted

by the fact that raw materials are available to

produce at most 60 lbs./day. Electricity is limited

to 500 kwh/day and labor to 40 person–hrs./day.

If the profit from aluminum wire is $.25/lb. and

the profit from copper is $.40/lb., how much of

each should be produced to maximize profit and

what is the maximum profit?

x = number of lbs. of aluminum wire

y = number of lbs. of copper wire

Example - Aluminum and Copper Wire

pound of aluminum wire requires 5 kwh of

electricity and 1/4 hr. of labor. Each pound of

copper wire requires 2 kwh of electricity and 1/2 hr.

of labor. Production of copper wire is restricted by

the fact that raw materials are available to produce

at most 60 lbs./day. Electricity is limited to 500

kwh/day and labor to 40 person–hrs./day. If the

profit from aluminum wire is $.25/lb. and the profit

from copper is $.40/lb., how much of each should

be produced to maximize profit and what is the

maximum profit?

x = number of lbs. of aluminum wire

y = number of lbs. of copper wire

Maximize P = $.25x + $.40y

Example - Aluminum and Copper Wire

pound of aluminum wire requires 5 kwh of

electricity and 1/4 hr. of labor. Each pound of

copper wire requires 2 kwh of electricity and 1/2

hr. of labor. Production of copper wire is restricted

by the fact that raw materials are available to

produce at most 60 lbs./day. Electricity is limited

to 500 kwh/day and labor to 40 person–hrs./day.

If the profit from aluminum wire is $.25/lb. and the

profit from copper is $.40/lb., how much of each

should be produced to maximize profit and what is

the maximum profit?

x = number of lbs. of aluminum wire

y = number of lbs. of copper wire

Maximize P = $.25x + $.40y

Constraints:

y ! 60

x = number of lbs. of aluminum wire

y = number of lbs. of copper wire

Maximize P = $.25x + $.40y

Constraints:

y ! 60

5x + 2y ! 500

x = number of lbs. of aluminum wire

y = number of lbs. of copper wire

Maximize P = $.25x + $.40y

Constraints:

y ! 60

5x + 2y ! 500

.25x + .5y ! 40

x = number of lbs. of aluminum wire

y = number of lbs. of copper wire

Maximize P = $.25x + $.40y

Constraints:

y ! 60

5x + 2y ! 500

.25x + .5y ! 40

x"0

y"0

Sofa Factories

A company makes two types of sofas, regular and long,

at two locations, one in Hickory and one in Lenoir. The

plant in Hickory has a daily operating budget of $45,000

and can produce at most 300 sofas daily in any

combination. It costs $150 to make a regular sofa and

$200 to make a long sofa at the Hickory plant. The

Lenoir plant has a daily operating budget of $36,000, can

produce at most 250 sofas daily in any combination and

makes a regular sofa for $135 and a long sofa for $180.

The company wants to limit production to a maximum of

250 regular sofas and 350 long sofas each day. If the

company makes a profit of $50 on each regular sofa and

$70 on each long sofa, how many of each type should be

made at each plant in order to maximize profit? What is

the maximum profit?

Sofa Factories

x = regular sofas made in Hickory

y = long sofas made in Hickory

z = regular sofas made in Lenoir

w = long sofas made in Lenoir

Hickory sofa limit: x + y ! 300

$ constraint at Lenoir: 135z + 180w ! 36,000

Lenoir sofa limit: z + w ! 250

regular sofa limit: x + z ! 250

long sofa limit: y + w ! 350

non-neg: x " 0, y " 0, z " 0, w " 0

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