Activated carbon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Activated carbon
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal is a form of carbon that has been processed to make it extremely porous and thus to have a very large surface area available for adsorption or [1] chemical reactions. The word activated in the name is sometimes replaced with active. Due to its high degree of microporosity, just 1 gram of activated carbon Activated carbon 2 has a surface area in excess of 500 m (about one tenth the size of a football field), as determined typically by nitrogen gas adsorption. Sufficient activation for useful applications may come solely from the high surface area, though further chemical treatment often enhances the absorbing properties of the material. Activated carbon is usually derived from charcoal.

1 Production 2 Classifications 2.1 Powdered activated carbon (PAC) 2.2 Granular activated carbon (GAC) 2.3 Extruded activated carbon (EAC) 2.4 Impregnated carbon 2.5 Polymer coated carbon 2.6 Other 3 Properties 4 Examples of adsorption 4.1 Heterogeneous catalysis 4.2 Adsorption refrigeration 5 Applications 5.1 Analytical chemistry applications 5.2 Environmental applications 5.3 Medical applications

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sodium hydroxide. the raw material is impregnated with certain chemicals. lignite. coal and petroleum pitch. Classifications Activated carbons are complex products which are difficult to classify on the 2 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . This is generally done by using one or a combination of the following processes: Carbonization: Material with carbon content is pyrolyzed at temperatures in the range 600–900 °C. Then. coir. Chemical activation is preferred over physical activation owing to the lower temperatures and shorter time needed for activating material. It can be produced by one of the following processes: 1.8 Fuel storage Gas purification Chemical purification Distilled alcoholic beverage purification Mercury scrubbing 5. respectively).wikipedia. potassium hydroxide. 5. It is believed that the carbonization / activation step proceeds simultaneously with the chemical activation. or a salt (phosphoric acid. Physical reactivation: The precursor is developed into activated carbons using gases. strong base. the raw material is carbonized at lower temperatures (450–900 °C).4 5. oxygen. Chemical activation: Prior to carbonization.Activated carbon .2 Other regeneration techniques 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Production Activated carbon is carbon produced from carbonaceous source materials like nutshells.8.7 5. peat.5 5.1 Disposal in the USA after absorbing mercury 6 Regeneration 6. usually in the temperature range of 600–1200 °C. or steam) at temperatures above 250 °C. The chemical is typically an acid. in absence of air (usually in inert atmosphere with gases like argon or nitrogen) Activation/Oxidation: Raw material or carbonised material is exposed to oxidizing atmospheres (carbon dioxide. the free encyclopedia http://en. zinc chloride. wood.6 5.Wikipedia.1 Thermal regeneration 6.

presents a smaller external surface. the free encyclopedia http://en. clarifiers. This image of activated charcoal in water is at a scale of 6. A 20×40 carbon is made of particles that will pass through a U. 95–100% of which will pass through a designated mesh sieve or sieve. while ASTM classifies particle sizes corresponding to an 80-mesh sieve (0. Each particle in this image.Activated carbon .42 mm) (generally specified as 95% retained). 40 sieve (0.Wikipedia. PAC is generally added directly to other process units. surface characteristics and preparation methods.1 mm wide.7 mm. has a surface area of several square metres. PAC is made up of crushed or ground carbon particles. 20×40. Notice the fractal-like shape of the particles hinting at their enormous surface area.1 by 0. PAC is not commonly used in a dedicated vessel.25 mm. the entire image covers a region of approximately 1. However. such as raw water intakes. and gravity filters. despite being only around 0. owing to the high head loss that would occur.S. or 8×30 for liquid phase applications and 4×6. Standard Mesh Size No. active carbons are made in particular form as powders or fine granules less than 1. surface to volume ratio with a small diffusion distance. A micrograph of activated charcoal under bright field illumination on a light microscope.297 mm) and PAC material as finer basis of their behaviour.84 mm) (generally specified as 85% passing) but be retained on a U.236 pixels/μm. Granular activated carbon (GAC) Granular activated carbon has a relatively larger particle size compared to powdered activated carbon and consequently. These carbons are therefore preferred for all adsorption of gases and vapours as their rate of diffusion are faster. Granulated carbons are used for water treatment. 4×8 or 4×10 for vapour phase applications. deodourisation and separation of components of flow system.177 mm) and smaller as PAC. GAC can be either in the granular form or extruded. Standard Mesh Size No. AWWA (1992) B604 uses the 50-mesh 3 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 .wikipedia. Powdered activated carbon (PAC) Traditionally. some broad classification is made for general purpose based on their physical characteristics.S.15 and [2] Thus they present a large . 20 sieve (0.0 mm in size with an average diameter between . Granular activated carbon is defined as the activated carbon being retained on a 50-mesh sieve (0. rapid mix basins. Diffusion of the adsorbate is thus an important factor. GAC is designated by sizes such as 8×20.

with 2 [3] Carbon aerogels. have even higher surface areas. and are used in special applications. high mechanical strength and low dust content.8 to 130 mm. Fe. while more expensive. Drinking water can be obtained from natural water by treating the natural water with a mixture of activated carbon and Al(OH) 3. 4 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . Due to antimicrobial/antiseptic properties. surface sieve (0. The most popular aqueous phase carbons are the 12×40 and 8×30 sizes because they have a good balance of size. Properties A gram of activated carbon can have a surface area in excess of 500 m2.297 mm) as the minimum GAC size. The resulting carbon is useful for hemoperfusion. and head loss characteristics.wikipedia. which are fused together and extruded into a cylindrical shaped activated carbon block with diameters from 0. Ca have also been prepared for specific application in air pollution control especially in museums and galleries. the free encyclopedia http://en. 1500 m being readily achievable. Mn. silver loaded activated carbon is used as an adsorbent for purification of domestic water. silver. cations such as Al. Polymer coated carbon This is a process by which a porous carbon can be coated with a biocompatible polymer to give a smooth and permeable coat without blocking the pores. These are mainly used for gas phase applications because of their low pressure drop. Li. Zn. The "carbon cloth" for instance is used in personnel protection for the military. a flocculating agent. Extruded activated carbon (EAC) Extruded activated carbon combines powdered activated carbon with a binder. Impregnated carbon Porous carbons containing several types of inorganic impregnant such as iodine. Adsorption rates for H2S as high as 50% by weight have been reported.Activated carbon .Wikipedia. Impregnated carbons are also used for the adsorption of H2S and thiols. Other Activated carbon is also available in special forms such as cloths and fibres. Hemoperfusion is a treatment technique in which large volumes of the patient's blood are passed over an adsorbent substance in order to remove toxic substances from the blood.

Tests of adsorption behaviour are usually done with Activated carbon.wikipedia. mg/g. but an electron microscope in everyday terms activated carbon is perfectly capable of producing the Under an electron microscope. Physically. Activated carbon does not bind well to certain chemicals. iron. separated by only a few nanometers or so.000 of an atmosphere. lead. strong acids and bases. formaldehyde (HCOH). Activated carbon can be used as a substrate for the application of various chemicals to improve the adsorptive capacity for some inorganic (and problematic organic) compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S). In fact. or up to 2 nm) by 5 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . liquid water from steam at 100 °C and a pressure of 1/10. and boric acid. Individual particles are intensely convoluted and display various kinds of porosity. including alcohols.Wikipedia. as viewed by nitrogen gas at 77 K under high vacuum. Activated carbon does adsorb iodine very well and in fact the iodine number. by adsorption from its environment. metals and most inorganics. (NH3). ammonia 131 I) and mercury (Hg). often reported in mg/g (typical range 500–1200 mg/g). It is a measure of activity level (higher number indicates higher degree of activation). glycols. These micropores provide superb conditions for adsorption to occur. [citation needed] throughout the web. such as lithium.Activated carbon . the free encyclopedia http://en. the high surface-area structures of activated carbon are revealed. fluorine. activated carbon Contrary to a claim repeated can capture gaseous ammonia. Iodine number is the most fundamental parameter used to characterize activated carbon performance. arsenic. It is a measure of the micropore content of the activated carbon (0 to 20 Å. it is utilized for that very function in many diazo copier machines. sodium. (ASTM D28 Standard Method test) is used as an indication of total surface area. since adsorbing material can interact with many surfaces simultaneously. there may be many areas where flat surfaces of graphite-like material run parallel to each other. Iodine number Many carbons preferentially adsorb small molecules. activated carbon binds materials by van der Waals force or London dispersion force. radioisotopes iodine-131( This property is known as chemisorption.

it is not a good measure of the worth of a particular activated carbon for a specific application.Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia http://en. The ability of a 6 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . Iodine number is defined as the milligrams of iodine adsorbed by one gram of carbon when the iodine concentration in the residual filtrate is 0. the use of iodine number as a measure of the degree of exhaustion of a carbon bed can only be recommended if it has been shown to be free of chemical interactions with adsorbates and if an experimental correlation between iodine number and the degree of exhaustion has been determined for the particular application. the molasses number represents the potential pore volume available for larger adsorbing species. As all of the pore volume may not be available for adsorption in a particular waste water application. 425 = 85%). as such. this parameter is used to determine the degree of exhaustion of a carbon in use. Thus. Typically. or larger than 2 nm) by adsorption of molasses from solution. However. It is the standard measure for liquid phase applications. A high molasses number indicates a high adsorption of big molecules (range 95–600). Frequently. Molasses Some carbons are more adept at adsorbing large molecules. Frequently.02 normal. water treatment carbons have iodine numbers ranging from 600 to 1100. this parameter is useful in evaluating a series of active carbons for their rates of adsorption. Basically. Due to the size of color bodies. Tannin Tannins are a mixture of large and medium size molecules. and as some of the adsorbate may enter smaller pores. Molasses efficiency is reported as a percentage (range 40%–185%) and parallels molasses number (600 = 185%.wikipedia. this practice should be viewed with caution as chemical interactions with the adsorbate may affect the iodine uptake giving false results. is an indication of the pore volume available in the activated carbon of interest.Activated carbon . Molasses number or molasses efficiency is a measure of the mesopore content of the activated carbon (greater than 20 Å. Caramel dp (decolorizing performance) is similar to molasses number. the one having the higher molasses number will usually have larger feeder pores resulting in more efficient transfer of adsorbate into the adsorption space. It is equivalent to surface area of carbon between 900 m²/g and 1100 m²/g. Given two active carbons with similar pore volumes for adsorption of iodine from solution. Carbons with a combination of macropores and mesopores adsorb tannins. iodine number is a measure of the iodine adsorbed in the pores and. Molasses Number is a measure of the degree of decolorization of a standard molasses solution that has been diluted and standardized against standardized activated carbon. The European molasses number (range 525–110) is inversely related to the North American molasses number.

5 ppm. the better the access to the 7 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 .wikipedia. Soluble ash content can be very important for aquarists. depending on the raw material and activity level.Activated carbon . Ash content It reduces the overall activity of activated carbon. Hardness/abrasion number It is a measure of the activated carbon’s resistance to attrition. Carbon tetrachloride activity Measurement of the porosity of an activated carbon by the adsorption of saturated carbon tetrachloride vapour.Wikipedia. or 2 to 5 nm) structure which adsorbs medium size molecules. The dechlorination half-value length is the depth of carbon required to reduce the chlorine level of a flowing stream from 5 ppm to 3. Methylene blue Some carbons have a mesopore (20 Å to 50 Å. which measures the chlorine-removal efficiency of activated carbon. Dechlorination Some carbons are evaluated based on the dechlorination half-value length. A lower half-value length indicates superior performance. Apparent density Higher density provides greater volume activity and normally indicates better quality activated carbon. etc. Particle size distribution The finer the particle size of an activated carbon. Methylene blue adsorption is reported in g/100g (range 11–28 g/100g). The metal oxides (Fe2O3) can leach out of activated carbon resulting in discoloration. There are large differences in the hardness of activated carbons. as ferric oxide can promote algal growths. freshwater fish and reef tanks to avoid heavy metal poisoning and excess plant/algal carbon to adsorb tannins is reported in parts per million concentration (range 200 ppm–362 ppm). Acid/water soluble ash content is more significant than total ash content. such as the dye methylene blue. a carbon with a low soluble ash content should be used for marine. It reduces the efficiency of reactivation. the free encyclopedia http://en. It is important indicator of activated carbon to maintain its physical integrity and withstand frictional forces imposed by backwashing.

The methanol vapour condenses and is stored in the evaporator.Activated carbon . and the charcoal adsorbs the methanol from the evaporator. At night. Examples of adsorption Heterogeneous catalysis The most commonly encountered form of chemisorption in industry. the liquid methanol adsorbed in the charcoal heats up and vaporizes. a condenser or heat-exchanger and an evaporator that is placed in a refrigerator box. The activated carbon can adsorb a large amount of methanol vapours in ambient temperature and desorb it at a higher temperature (around 100 degrees Celsius). The He is adsorbed onto the surfaces of the carbon at low temperature (typically <4K). the free encyclopedia http://en. The adsorption of reactant/s to the catalyst surface creates a chemical bond. the sunshine irradiates the surface area and the faster the rate of adsorption kinetics. the reactant/s.Wikipedia. which will affect energy cost. Helium gas can also be 'pumped' by thermally cycling activated carbon 'sorption pumps' between 4 kelvins and higher temperatures. The liquid methanol in the evaporator vaporizes and absorbs the heat from the water contained in the trays. so the collector is heated up and the methanol is desorbed from the activated carbon. The refrigerator box is insulated filled with water. The inside of the collector is lined with an adsorption bed packed with activated carbon adsorbed with methanol. occurs when a solid catalyst interacts with a gaseous feedstock. In vapour phase systems this needs to be considered against pressure drop. The adsorbent acts as a "chemical compressor" driven by heat and is. the "pump" of the system. from this point of view. the regeneration of the pump 8 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . In desorption. the collector temperature decreases to the ambient temperature. During the daytime. Careful consideration of particle size distribution can provide significant operating benefits. It consists of a solar collector. the adsorption refrigeration system operates in an intermittent way to produce the refrigerating effect. Since adsorption is a process of releasing heat. As mentioned above. An example of this is to provide the cooling power for the Oxford Instruments AST series dilution 3 refrigerators. Adsorption refrigeration Adsorption refrigeration and heat pump cycles rely on the adsorption of a refrigerant gas into an adsorbent at low pressure and subsequent desorption by heating. He vapour is pumped from the surface of the dilute phase of a 4 3 3 mixture of liquid He and its isotope He. the collector must be cooled efficiently at night.wikipedia. altering the electron density around the reactant molecule and allowing it to undergo reactions that would not normally be available to it.

sewage treatment.Wikipedia. smoothness. Their excessive build up can adversely affect the plating quality and physical properties of deposited metal. Analytical chemistry applications Activated carbon. For example. metal extraction.wikipedia. water purification. Systems such as this allow temperatures as low as 10 mK (0. If more than one pump is present in the system a continuous flow of gas and hence constant cooling power can be obtained. it is a main purification technique for removing organic impurities from bright nickel plating solutions. Environmental applications 9 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . ditrisacchardes) using ethanol solutions (5–50%) as mobile phase in analytical or preparative protocols. the free encyclopedia http://en.01 kelvin) to be obtained with very few moving parts. Applications Activated carbon is used in gas purification. organic additives generate unwanted break down products in solution. air filters in gas masks and filter masks. Cooling occurs at the interface between the two liquid phases as He 'evaporates' across the phase boundary. medicine. by having one sorption pump regenerating while the other is pumping. Due to passage of direct current and electrolytic reactions of anodic oxidation and cathodic reduction. filters in compressed air and many other applications. One major industrial application involves use of activated carbon in the metal finishing field. is used as stationary phase in low-pressure chromatographic separation of carbohydrates (mono-. between 20 and 40 K returns the 3He to the concentrated phase of the liquid 3 mixture. etc. It is very widely employed for purification of electroplating solutions. Activated carbon treatment removes such impurities and restores plating performance to the desired level. in 50% w/w combination with celite. gold purification.Activated carbon . A variety of organic chemicals are added to plating solutions for improving their deposit qualities and for enhancing properties like brightness.

and other decontamination methods such as ipecac-induced emesis or stomach pumping are now used rarely. A full scale activated carbon installation was built at the Dranouter music festival in [citation needed] . the free encyclopedia http://en. gasoline dispensing operations. it may be given more than once. but depending on the drug taken. Activated carbon is usually used in water filtration systems. 10 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . and other processes.wikipedia. In cases of suspected poisoning.Wikipedia. In rare situations activated charcoal is used in Intensive Care to filter out harmful drugs from the blood stream of poisoned patients. the activated carbon is in the fourth level (counted from bottom). West-Flanders University (in Belgium) began research in water treatment after festivals [4] .org/wiki/Activated_carbon Carbon adsorption has numerous applications in removing pollutants from air or water streams both in the field and in industrial processes such as: Spill cleanup Groundwater remediation Drinking water filtration Air purification Volatile organic compounds capture from painting. Dosing is usually empirical at 1 gram/kg of body weight (for adolescents or adults. usually given only once. In this illustration. medical personnel administer activated charcoal on the scene or at a hospital's emergency department. In 2007. Activated charcoal has become the treatment of choice for many poisonings. It is thought to bind to poison and prevent its absorption by the gastrointestinal tract. next 20 years Activated charcoal is also used for the measurement of radon concentration in air. with plans to utilize the 2008 technology to treat water at this festival for the [citation needed] . Medical applications Activated carbon is used to treat poisonings and overdoses following oral ingestion.Activated carbon . give 50–100 g). dry cleaning.

Binding is reversible so a cathartic such as sorbitol may be added as well. such as with the [5] use of toxic herbicides. it comes in plastic tubes or bottles.g. 11 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . Actidose. or a petroleum product. some evidence of its effectiveness as a treatment for irritable bowel syndrome [11] and to prevent diarrhea in cancer patients who have received (IBS). and flatulence. into the lungs) results in pulmonary aspiration which can sometimes be fatal if immediate medical treatment is not [6] The use of activated charcoal is initiated. 5 to 15 milligrams of charcoal per kilogram of body weight taken at the same time as 170 ml of pure ethanol (which equals to about 10 servings of an alcoholic beverage). commonly 12. Activated charcoal for medical use.5 or 25 While activated carbon is useful in acute poisoning. [9] originally as an antidote to flatulence and stomach trouble. an alkali. Ingestion of activated charcoal prior to consumption of alcoholic beverages appeared to reduce absorption of ethanol into the blood. Charcoal biscuits were sold in England starting in the early 19th century. SuperChar. and Liqui-Char. over the course of one hour. Tablets or capsules of activated charcoal are used in many countries as an [10] There is over-the-counter drug to treat diarrhea. It interrupts the enterohepatic and enteroenteric circulation of some drugs/toxins and their metabolites Incorrect application (e. it has been shown to not be effective in long term accumulation of toxins. The trade names include InstaChar. seemed to reduce potential [7] Yet other studies showed that this is not the case. For pre-hospital (paramedic) use.Wikipedia. and blood alcohol content. Charcodote. the free encyclopedia http://en. pre-mixed with water.Activated carbon . contraindicated when the ingested substance is an acid. indigestion. but it is commonly called activated charcoal. that ethanol blood concentrations were increased because of activated charcoal [8] use. Mechanisms of action: Binding of the toxin to prevent stomach and intestinal absorption.wikipedia.

low volume environment that would be much more feasible than bulky on board compression tanks in program.missouri. http://all-craft. while the filtered air passes through. Gas purification Filters with activated carbon are usually used in compressed air and gas purification to remove oil vapours. Activated charcoal is also used in spacesuit Primary Life Support Systems. The most common designs use a 1 stage or 2 stage filtration principle in which activated carbon is embedded inside the filter media. The gas may then be desorbed when subjected to higher temperatures and either combusted to do work or in the case of hydrogen gas extracted for use in a hydrogen fuel cell. low mass. odours. Some carbons have been able to achieve bonding energies of 5–10 KJ per mol. charcoal is also used for bowel preparation by reducing intestinal gas content before abdominal radiography to visualize bile and pancreatic and renal stones. including the Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology (ALL-CRAFT. As of yet all of the goals are yet to be satisfied but numerous institutions. Distilled alcoholic beverage purification 12 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . The large charcoal beds adsorb these gases and retains them while they rapidly decay to non-radioactive solid species. and other hydrocarbons from the irinotecan.Activated carbon . The gas is attracted to the carbon material via Van der Waals forces. Gas storage in activated carbons is an appealing gas storage method because the gas can be stored in a low pressure. The air vacuumed from the condenser contains traces of radioactive gases. The United States Department of Energy has specified certain goals to be achieved in the area of research and development of nano-porous carbon materials. the free encyclopedia http://en. It is then filtered out.wikipedia. The solids are trapped in the charcoal particles. A type of charcoal biscuit has also been marketed as a pet care product. Fuel storage Research is being done testing various activated carbons' ability to store natural gas and hydrogen gas.[12] It can interfere with the absorbency of some medications. Chemical purification Activated carbon is commonly used to purify homemade non-dangerous chemicals such as sodium acetate. Activated charcoal filters are used to retain radioactive gases from a nuclear boiling water reactor turbine condenser. are continuing to conduct work in this promising field. The porous material acts like a sponge for different types of gasses. and lead [13] Activated to unreliable readings in medical tests such as the guaiac card test.

and in deep abandoned mines at an estimated rate of 1000 tons per [citation needed] year. Passing an organically impure vodka through an activated carbon filter at the proper flow rate will result in vodka with an identical alcohol content and significantly increased organic [citation needed] purity. [citation needed] However.Wikipedia.S.wikipedia.[citation needed] If the activated carbon contains less than 260 ppm mercury. and odor. Disposal in the USA after absorbing mercury The mercury laden activated carbon presents a disposal dilemma. Regeneration The regeneration of activated carbons involves restoring the adsorptive capacity of saturated activated carbon by desorbing adsorbed contaminants on the activated carbon surface. Mercury scrubbing Activated carbon.Activated carbon . waste containing greater than 260 ppm is considered to be in the high mercury subcategory and is banned from landfilling (Land-Ban [citation needed] It is this material which is now accumulating in warehouses Rule).org/wiki/Activated_carbon See also: Lincoln County Process Activated carbon filters can be used to filter vodka and whiskey of organic impurities which can affect color. taste. Thermal regeneration The most common regeneration technique employed in industrial processes is [15] . Federal regulations allow it to be stabilized (for example. the free encyclopedia http://en. medical incinerators. In the Netherlands this mercury is largely recovered carbon is disposed by complete burning. However.00 per kg. as judged by odor and taste. trapped in concrete) for landfilling. The problem of disposal of mercury laden activated carbon is not unique to the [14] and the activated U. often impregnated with iodine or sulfur. This carbon is a specialty product costing more than $4. The thermal regeneration process generally follows thermal regeneration [16] : three steps Adsorbent drying at approximately 105 °C 13 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . it is often not recycled. is widely used to trap mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations. and from natural gas at the wellhead.

significant carbon footprint Other regeneration techniques Current concerns with the high energy/cost nature of thermal regeneration of activated carbon has encouraged research into alternative regeneration methods to reduce the environmental impact of such processes. increasing the processes already [18] . The final step aims to remove charred organic residue formed in the porous structure in the previous stage and re-expose the porous carbon structure regenerating its original surface characteristics. Thermal carbon bed is burnt off resulting in a loss of adsorptive High temperature desorption and decomposition (500–900°C) under an inert atmosphere Residual organic gasification by an oxidising gas (steam or carbon dioxide) at elevated temperatures (800°C) The heat treatment stage utilises the exothermic nature of adsorption and results in desorption. Per adsorption-thermal regeneration cycle between 5–15 wt% of the [17] . some alternatives to thermal regeneration systems have been employed in industry. Though several of the regeneration techniques cited have remained areas of purely academic research.Wikipedia.wikipedia. Current alternative regeneration methods are: Chemical and solvent regeneration Microbial regeneration [20] Electrochemical regeneration [21] Ultrasonic regeneration [22] Wet air oxidation [23] [19] See also Carbon black Carbon filtering Kværner-process Onboard refueling vapor recovery Sumi Zeocarbon References 14 of 17 28/08/10 02:49 . As a result it is common for smaller waste treatment sites to ship their activated carbon cores to a specialised facility for regeneration. regeneration is a high energy process due to the high required temperatures [16] . partial cracking and polymerization of the adsorbed organics.Activated carbon . Plants making it both an energetically and commercially expensive process that rely on thermal regeneration of activated carbon have to be of a certain size before it is economically viable to have regeneration facilities onsite. After treatment the adsorption column can be reused. the free encyclopedia http://en.

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