wujf mm^ a.v. D. Price 90 cents (cloth) .SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 93 PAWNEE MUSIC BY FRANCES DENSMORE _/-^. \ cb i i930 ^n ^%'o.C. Washington. «osev»'t UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON 1929 : For sale by the Superintendent of Documents.T.L.

Smithsonian Institution,

Bureau of American Ethnology,
WasUngton, D. C, April
16, 1929.

Sir: I have the honor to transmit the accompanying manuscript,

"Pawnee Music," by Miss Frances Densmore, and

to rec-


pubhcation as a buUetin of the Bureau of American


Very respectfully yours,

M. W.
Dr. Charles G. Abbot,
Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.



Portions of two important ceremonies were witnessed and several gatherings of a ceremonial character were attended during the progress of the work. Swanton in standardizing the orthography of the 1 Pawnee words. The writer also acknowledges the courtesy of Dr. The ceremonies were those of the Morning Star and the Painting of the Buffalo Skull. Chippewa Music H. especially by Mr. 61. 11.. John R. 90. Mandan and Hidatsa Music Tule Indians Bull. Bull. Northern Ute Music. 45. which are a part of the latter. Bull. the writer being admitted to the Morning Star lodge during the former ceremony and witnessing the Buffalo and Lance dances. Smithsonian Misc. Teton Sioux Music. chief of the Skidi Band..FOREWORD previous studies of Indian music ^ have included no tribe in which ceremoniaUsm is so highly developed as among the Pawnee. 77. no. who explained many tribal customs and who wrote down and interpreted the words of the songs. of 75. This research was conducted among members of the Skidi and Chaui Bands near Pawnee. V . 63. The gatherings included hand games. vol. James R. Bull. of the Music. Bur. Chippewa Music. whose songs are here presented. Colls. Okla.. and Panama. 80. and dances in honor of Pawnee soldiers upon their return from the recent war. Murie. Bull. Ethn. Arner. Papago Music. Bull. in 1919 The and 1920. Grateful acknowledgment is made of assistance rendered by interpreters.


Mandan. and Papago songs Melodic analysis Sioux. Ute.CONTENTS List of songs Pago xi in order of serial in order of catalogue Arranged Arranged Phonetics numbers numbers xi xiii Special signs used in transcriptions of songs xvi xvi xvii Names of singers Characterization of singers xvn 1 The Pawnee Tribe Comparison of Pawnee songs with Chippewa. 7 7 13 14 18 Rhythmic analysis Descriptive analysis Morning Star ceremony Buffalo dance Lance dance Bear dance Songs of the Deer Society Song of the White Lance Society Songs of the Raven Lance Society Songs of the Kitsita Society Songs of the Wolf Society War songs Hand game songs Ghost dance songs Man Chief's songs Chief's songs folk tales 24 36 37 47 49 51 53 56 59 69 78 86 91 93 i Roaming Songs of affection Myths and Story Story Story Story 97 98 102 103 107 108 120 124 126 127 VII of the gambler of Coyote and the turkeys of Nuri and his brother of the little rattlesnake Unclassified songs Melodic analysis Rhythmic Index analysis Authorities cited . Hidatsa.


c. d. Buffalo grazing on private ranch near Pawnee. Okla Sacred bundle. Bear medicine man.. 4. a. a. Dog a. b. a. c. b. Good Eagle Landscape south of Pawnee. 5. Structure in which victory dances and hand games were held Costumes. Okla "'Buffalo wallow" on private ranch near Pawnee. Entrance to earth lodge in which Buffalo and Lance dances were held. Okla. Mrs. b. Woman's Ghost dance dress. Tipi in which Morning Star ceremony was xviii 2 2 6. showing "altar" Miniature group of Pawnee Thunder ceremony exhibited in Field Museum of Natural History. c. Dancer wearing "crow" dance bustle. Framework (probably sweat lodge) near ceremonial earth lodge. 24 7. b. c. Landscape north of Pawnee. 8. b. IX 24 68 68 .. John Luwak. a. War leader. 3. held Exterior of earth lodge in which Buffalo and Lance dances were held. Chief xviii 2. Mark Evarts. b. b. Interior of ceremonial earth lodge. c.ILLUSTRATIONS Page Plate 1. Okla. a. a.


30. 7. Song " of Morning Star village " 2. "Beloved emblem" Raven Lance Society song 1133 1083 52 53 Songs of the Kitsita Society 26. 15. "A woman stands among "The horse is shouting" the trees" 20. "The Lance dancers" Lance dance song (a) Lance dance song (b) Songs of the Wolf Society 1124 1081 1093 54 55 56 29. "How near is is the morning?" 22. 18. Page. 13.LIST OF SONGS 1. dear father the buffalo" " Yonder the smoke was standing " "The woman imitates the buffalo" 8. 4. 11. 3. "The buffalo are coming" "The waves of dust" "Unreal the buffalo is standing" "The band of the dead is coming" "Mother is coming" "The bear is pointing at the sun" 10. No. 28. 14. 27. this country wide " 1103 1 106 XI 57 58 . The herd passes through the "The buffalo and the crow" "My 6. 9. Arranged in Order of Serial Numbers Songs Connected with Ceremonies Serial 1. 5. 19. "I was lost in the timber" "I am like a bear" Bear dance song (a) Bear dance song (b) Bear dance song (c) Bear dance song (d) 1162 1114 1116 1112 1109 1110 1115 1113 1111 1091 1117 1119 1118 1120 1121 1149 1153 1 150 1152 1151 20 25 27 28 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Songs of the Deer Society 21. "Old age is painful" 1078 50 Songs of the Raven Lance Society 24. 16. 17. "The whitefox" " It is mine. Catalogue No. 25. 12. "Spring opening" 1159 1160 48 49 Song of the White Lance Society 23.

55. 46. Songs Catalogue No. 65. Song Song of affection (b) Song of a warrior's wife "Other girls are as pretty as she" of affection (a) -- 1136 1135 1100 1101 94 95 96 97 . "The yellow star" Running Scout's Ghost dance song Song concerning the Ghost dance 1146 1147 1148 1107 1088 1102 82 82 83 84 85 86 Man 60. 52. 42. " It is 67. 51. 57. 64. 37. 70. 32. for returned Pawnee Brown Bear's song Women's war song 1108 1128 1086 1125 1104 1134 1085 1082 60 61 61 63 64 66 68 68 Hand Game and Ghost Dance Songs 39. 60. 44. Hand Hand Hand Hand Hand Hand Hand 48. Page. 40. Blue Hawk's hand game song game guessing song (a) game guessing song (b) game guessing song (c) game guessing song (d) game guessing song (e) game guessing song (f) game guessing song (g) "I hear the sound of a child crying" Hand game song concerning a little boy " You came near finding them " " 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 _ 71 71 "The crow" Song concerning Mother Moon Song concerning an open grave Ghost dance song (a) Ghost dance song (b) Ghost dance song (c) Ghost dance song (d) 1142 1143 1144 1098 1097 1095 1087 1084 1094 1 72 73 73 74 75 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 81 145 56. The thunder spoke "He comes" quietly " "A woman Song welcomes the warriors " soldiers 38. Chief's Songs 1123 1122 1129 1130 1080 1131 am exalted among the people " "The heavens are speaking" "O expanse of the heavens" 63. 41. "Power is in the heavens" " Our hearts are set in the heavens " 87 88 89 90 90 91 Man Chief's song Roaming Chief's Songs 66. 36. 58. 45. 49. 47.XII LIST OF SONGS War 31. 54. 35. " 34. 53. Song concerning Iron Shirt Eagle Chief's war song 33. 71. " I 61. 43. 59. good where we are now " trust is "My in Mother Corn" 1090 1089 92 93 Songs of Affection 68. 62. 69.

Song of the strange little boy 76. No.do. 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 The Httle rattlesnake "Old age is painful" "You need "Our not fear the horse" hearts are set in the heavens" Lance dance song (a) Women's war song Raven Lance Society song Song concerning Mother Moon Brown Bear's song "The thunder spoke quietly" "The crow" Running Scout's Ghost dance song "My trust is in Mother Corn" "It is good where we are now" "The band of the dead is coming" "Father gave me a pipe" Lance dance song (b) Song concerning an open grave "You came near finding them" Chief mourns for his grandson Hand game song concerning a little boy. LIST OF SONGS Songs Connected with Folk Tales Catalogue No. Folktalesong (a) 73. Song as the boys flew away 72. Mad Mrs. Blain Song concerning the Ghost dance do. Folktalesong (b) 74. Song of Coyote 75..do. Blain do do do do do do do do do do do do do do-_-do do do do do do 77 23 78 64 27 38 25 51 108 50 109 90 37 33 50 58 67 66 10 55 68 53 80 68 61 79 85 93 92 36 115 56 81 85 28 52 49 86 48 47 83 70 71 78 119 77 76 113 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 "I hear the sound . . 85. of a child crying "_. 80. XIII Page. 79. 1079 1127 1161 1126 1105 1099 1132 1092 1096 109 110 111 112 113 113 114 115 119 Arranged in Order of Catalogue Numbers Name of singer Serial Catalogue Title of song No. 77.. 81. 86. Mother's song for a dead baby do Song of a warrior's wife do "Other girls are as pretty as she" Mr.J "The white fox" — — 59 29 96 97 86 57 . 84. 83. The Uttle rattlesnake 1157 1158 1154 1155 1156 1077 100 102 103 104 106 108 Unclassified Songs 78. "You need not fear the horse" A poor man's prayer "Everything will be right" "The message of a star" Song to comfort a child's grief Mother's song for a dead baby Song received from a dead relative " Father gave me a pipe " Mad Chief mourns for his grandson 2.. 82. .

1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 "A woman "The welcomes the warriors"—. "The bear is pointing at the sun".. do do do do do do do do do do do do do do Horse Chief. LIST OF SONGS Arranged in Order of Catalogue Numbers Name of singer —Continued Serial Catalogue Title of song No... Blain__. Hand Hand Hand Hand Hand Hand Hand game game game game game game game guessing song (a) guessing song (b) guessing song (c) guessing song guessing song guessing song guessing song (d) (e) (f ) (g) Ghost dance song (a) Ghost dance song (b) Ghost dance song (c) Ghost dance song (d) "I am like a bear" Bear dance song (b) Bear dance song (d) Mr. Song to comfort a child's grief "It is mine.. "The Lance dancers" "He comes " "The message of a star " A poor man's prayer Eagle Chief's war song "O expanse of the heavens" "Power is in the heavens" Man Chief's song Song received from a dead relative. do do do do do do do do do do do 35 82 30 57 31 5 6 9 4 8 2 7 3 11 13 12 14 15 61 60 26 34 81 79 32 62 63 65 84 24 36 69 68 39 40 41 Dog Chief. ' XIV 2. _ " Beloved emblem " Song for returned Pawnee soldiers Song of affection (b) Spng of affection (a) Blue Hawk's hand game song . is "Unreal the buffalo standing" "My dear father the buffalo" "The waves of dust" " The herd passes through the village "The buffalo are coming" "The buffalo and the crow" "Mother is coming" "A woman stands among the trees ". No.. this country wide" yellow star" Song concerning Iron Shirt "Yonder the smoke was standing".. "The woman imitates the buffalo".. - do do 42 43 44 45 46 53 54 55 56 16 18 20 . "The horse is shouting" "I was lost in the timber" "The heavens are speaking" "I am exalted among the people". do do do do do do do do do do do do do do do do do John Luwak.

Song of Morning Star Dog Chief. do Mark Evarts do Mrs. Good Eagle 74 75 76 72 73 21 22 80 1 Coming Sun . Page 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 Bear dance song (c) Bear dance song (a) Song of Coyote Song of the strange little boy. XV Arranged in Order of Catalogue Numbers Name of singer — Continued Serial Catalogue Title of song No. _ Folk tale song (a) Folk tale song (b) "How near is the morning?". "Spring is opening" "Everything will be right". Song as the boys flew away. No. do Mrs. 19 17 46 44 103 104 106 100 102 48 49 111 20 Mary Murie do do Fannie Chapman._ . LIST OF SONGS 2.

placed above a series of notes indicates that these tones ) i i constitute a rhythmic unit. The intonation of these tones was not such as to suggest the intentional use of "fractional intervals" + by the singer. • is variable in the several placed above a note shows that the tone was given slightly less than the indicated time. Au (diphthong) is pronounced as ow in Tiow. In many instances the tones designated by this and the following sign were "unfocused tones. ( placed above a note shows that the tone was prolonged slightly beyond the indicated time. . All vowels have the continental sounds except that a a obscure. PHONETICS All consonants have the English sounds except that x represents the is palatal spirant.SPECIAL SIGNS USED IN TRANSCRIPTIONS OF SONGS These signs are intended simply as aids to the student in becoming acquainted with the songs. — • placed above a note shows that the tone was sung slightly lower than the indicated pitch. They should be understood as supplementary to the descriptive analysis rather than a part of the musical notation. This and the following sign are used only when the deviation from strict time is less than half the time unit of the song and appears to be unimportant. In many instances the duration of the tones thus marked renditions of the song. placed above a note shows that the tone was sung slightly higher than the indicated pitch." or were tones whose intonation varied in the several renditions of the song.

before the removal of the tribe to Oklahoma. the phonograph the white man. singer of the old songs. a). 49716°— 29 2 . who are members of the Skidi Band and spent their early years Both in Nebraska. _ Wicita Blain i Tutukrawitsu She led a pony into the ceremony. according to the pronunciation of the Skidi Band. Wicita Blain Blain). 12.. A John Luwak (pi. 18. Mr. CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGERS majority of these songs were recorded by Wicita Blain and his wife. 2. Mary Murie * Fannie Chapman Mark Evarts Mrs. when recording their songs. Efiie Blain is considered an equally reliable in the Lance dance. Good Eagle (Nora 5 3 2 2 1 White). Blain recorded songs of the Lance and Buffalo dances which are his by right of inheritance. * 86 1 Died Dec. Band and requested that his name be presented with the letter L used by the The words of his songs are presented in the form used by the Skidi in order that they may be Chaui. were led by a granddaughter who acted as interpreter. is chief of the Chaui Band and a fine example of the old-time Indian. Mrs. were afflicted with blindness and. 1928. 25 20 15 12 John Luwak 2_ Laduda desadu He does everything as a chief. is commonly known as John Rowak. (Eflfie Tsastawinahiigat. ' This singer He a chief of the Chaui 3 * » Died June Died June Died Nov. 1923.* (Simond Chief Dog Adams). who recorded many songs. He overtook the enemy. Coming Sun Total. being seated back of the "altar". he also took a prominent part Mrs. (Spotted Chief Horse Horse Chief). In the Buffalo dance attended by the writer he led the songs. is 20. uniform with the majority of recorded Pawnee songs. CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGERS XVII NAMES OF SINGERS Common name Number Pawnee name Translation of songs recorded Mrs. but is ambitious to accept the best customs of In accordance with his request. 1921. 13. 1927. He speaks practically no English.

2.XVIII CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGERS home. at some distance from Pawnee. c) also is held in high esteem. Mrs. shining braids. conservative member of the Mrs. one of the younger men and wears his hair in two He is one of the leading singers at dances. and a majority were recorded there. is story Coming Sun a prominent that his English member of the name be withheld because had contributed Skidi Band. h) is a quiet. Chief (pi. of the certain material which he to this He asked importance of work. 1) is one of the oldest members of the tribe and is to his is was taken of his songs Dog highly respected. Mary Murie and Fannie Chapman are known as excellent tellers. . Good Eagle (pi. with his niece acting as interpreter. (pi. 2. Mark Evarts tribe. Horse Chief long.



5. compiled chiefly from unpublished notes of Dr. Dorsey. ed. The Sacrifice to the Morning Star by the Skidi Pawnee. Miss Alice C. another north. 1904. the divisions or bands of the tribe being treated by her as separate tribes in the Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico.also Linton.^ When the Siouan Tribes entered the valley of the called themselves Platte River in Nebraska they found the in that region. the Kithahld (Republican Pawnee) were upstream. Caddoan Tribe living some distance to the The Pitahauerat (Tapage Pawnee) were downstream. Buffalo and other game was abundant in the early days. Cf. 2 Indian Aflairs. Fletcher regards the Pawnee as a confederacy. and pumpkins. A. pp. representing a division of the tribe. 1922-23. published as leaflets Nos. In the the five independent groups of the 1 . Powell the Pawnee is classified as one of Caddoan stock. Bur. 2. u. 6. Amer. The people of each group were a The Slddi (Wolf Pawnee) was in the northwest. p 213. 156-159. Q.. its people considering themselves related to the Arikara. Bull. 1818." neighboring tribe Pawnee already established by a term meaning Their present name was probably given by some and derived from pariki. The Thunder Ceremony of the Pawnee. The soil of the region was dry and rather sandy with rough. Field Museum of Natural History. and Annual Ceremony of the Pawnee Medicine Men. each having its geographical location along the Platte River. 30. Louis Trading Post in June. yet the Pawnee were essentially an agricultural people. and the Pawnee were excellent hunters. Charles J. as it was the Pawnee custom to shave the head except a narrow strip extending from the forehead to the scalplock and to stiffen this ridge of hair with grease and paint. squash. Ralph. Kappler. Washington. broken land toward the mountains in the west. Chicago. and 8. beans. cultivating corn.^ classification of the North American races by John W. The Pawnee "men of men. meaning a horn.PAWNEE MUSIC By Frances Densmore THE PAWNEE TRIBE The Pawnee is commonly regarded as the last of the Caddoan Tribes which migrated in a general northeasterly direction at an earl}'^ date. Ethn. pt. Laws and Treaties. unit. curving it upward like a horn. the ' The first treaty between the Government of the United States and Pawnee Indians was made at St. vol. their hunting expeditions covering a wide area. While in Nebraska the Pawnee lived in earth lodges which were in four permanent groups of villages. and the Chaui (Grand Pavmee) were located between the two last named..

the treaties being Peace was then concluded respectively on June 18." ^ A reservation in Nebraska was provided for the Pawnee who remained in that State until 1876.84 acres were allotted to 821 iPawnee] Indians. <x. this being the name which is applied to the garden of the Evening Star. pp. Ethn. the Pawnee ceded to the United States "all the land lying south of the Piatt River. p.) On a private ranch near Pawnee are broad. There are outcroppings of stone in the region south of the town of Pawnee (pi. and the residue of 169. c. Republic." the agreement being ratified by act of March Council Bluffs. and was The earth lodge 15 feet high. future cause of discussion or dissension.. 2.« of Pawnee in 1702 was estimated by Iberville at 2.^ The reservation of the Pawnee is beautifully diversified.859. 216. designated as Grand. the Sioux. At that time with 1812. but the opening of a principal emigrant trail directl}^ through the country in the forties introduced disease and dissipation and left the people less able to defend themselves against their enemies. 19. 1876." 3. Bur. p.N ETHNOLOGY [bull. of « ' Handbook Report American Indians.2. the sale of their reservation in Nebraska being approved on June 5 of that year. 58. each having "At the west side of the lodge a its appointed space along the wall. and 22.. who shall so elect. 1893. agency. a. BUREAU OF AMERICA. year 1928. with many streams and tracts of woods. Ibid.''' They decreased in numbers and in 1928 the Pawnee population was 2. 1833. (PL a picturesque herd of buffalo was seen near a "buffalo wallow. pp. » Ibid.. Amer. and cemetery purposes. 6) while north of the town (PL 3. l. Noisy.000 persons. 416-418. The Pawnee were removed to that reservation and "each head of a family or single person over 21 years of age residing upon said reserve. 30. where the corn is always ripening and where are stored many parfleches of buffalo ' * Ibid. pt. smooth fields.. 840 acres reserved for school.) The number of the Pawnee was about 40 feet in diameter and was occupied by several related families. of the « Bureau of Indian Affairs for the . Bull. 159-161. and Marhar. p. The setting apart of a reservation in Indian Territory (Oklahoma) was approved April 10. Ibid." families. 383. all tribes of A treaty with the the region which had been disturbed by the war of Pawnee Tribe was made at Fort Atkinson.^ In a table compUed by the Office of Indian Affairs in 1908 it is stated that "112.000 In 1838 they numbered about 10. 93 a separate treaty was made with each band of Pawnee. which was considered sacred. 4. September 30. space was always reserved.." was entitled to receive an allotment of 160 acres of land. and called wiharu (place-for-the-wonderful-things).320 acres was opened to settlement. 20. vol. pp. its purpose being "to remove all ^ By the treaty of October 9. 3. I.766. 1825. 258-260.

c. 6. . Landscape south of Pawnee. Landscape south of Pawnee. Okla. Okla. Okla. Landscape north of Pawnee.BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 93 PLATE 3 a.

b. Olila.BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 93 PLATE 4 a. Okla. Buffalo grazing on private ranch near Pawnee. . "Buffalo wallow" on private rauch near Pawnee.

DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 3 meat. 215. vol. The tribal council was composed of men who belonged to the council of several bands. long Ufe. Society. and a man. Miss Fletcher states that "Through the sacred and symbolic articles of the shrines and their rituals and ceremonies a medium of communication was believed to be opened between the people and the supernatural powers by which food. while below these were the members of the tribe who held no office. Amer. . 1° Dorsey. and suspended from one of the rafter poles. by four men or priests called Nahikuts. Another structure used on the hunt was made by bending willows into a dome-like frame which was covered with boughs or skins. This lodge was constructed in a ceremonial manner and when a family returned from an absence the posts of the lodge were ceremonially anointed before they resumed their occupancy. At the whose orders were enforced Below these in rank were the Kurahus the ceremonies. The floor of the lodge was a foot or two below the ground and its framework may briefly be described as a "skeleton stockade" of heavy posts on which poles were laid. The tribal organization has been mentioned as consisting of four bands. The entrance was protected by a covered way built of poles and having an earth-covered roof. and the sleeping space on either side of it was the most honored. Memoirs Amer. and this body transacted all business which affected the welfare of the tribe. consequently."^ This space is designated as the altar. or medicine men. each living in its own location. Bur. This framework was covered with earth and sod. which was next the door. extending upward to the posts w^hich supported the smoke-hole and outward to a bank of earth around the outer edge of the lodge. Descent was reckoned through the female line. and its priests who had charge of the rituals and ceremonies connected with those objects. p. It had bundle") containing sacred objects. so placed that it faced the entrance of the lodge and. Handbook of American Indians. and the warriors. pt.. next in order were the Kurau. Here rested a buffalo skull. 1904. New York. Folk-Lore 2. George A. Bull 30. and prosperity were obtained. « who performed XV. p. the positions being graduated downward to that of the oldest people. was the sacred bundle and other religious paraphernalia. A family usually possessed also a tipi covered with hides and used as a summer abode while on the hunt. went to live with his wife's family. was clearly defined. Above this. Ethn. vm. resting on long willow rods laid transversely on the poles or rafters. Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. Each band had its hereditary of the chief and leading men. after his marriage. "^° chief its and council composed also its shrine (''sacred The social organization of the tribe head of this social order stood the chief. the rising sun.

20. The child of these two deities was the first human being. marrying the son of Morning Star and the chief . 1923. and below her was Morning Star. Associated with him are Hutukawahar (Wind-ready-tosymbolic of The North-Star is give) and Hikus (Breath). by means of their sleight-of-hand performances.4 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. Annual ceremony of the Pawnee medicine men. while his assistants. who was the god of the medicine men. and their religious system is elaborate and cogent. and from this garden sprang all the streams of life. to Their rites were elaborate heal diseases. of which there were several in each tribe. and their ceremonies dramatic. thunder. regarded as a woman. Dorsey states that "next to these gods in rank are the three gods of the north. Evening Star. 93 The medicine men claimed to have received their power from supernatural sources and were organized into numerous societies. Karariwari (One-who-does-notmove). . 19. pp." ^^ Next in power to Tirawa was Evening Star. This daughter. rich in symbolism and poetic fancy. and rain were his The mythology of the Pawnee is remarkably messengers. Ethn. . Next in rank to Evening Star and Morning Star were the gods of the four world-quarters who supported the heavens and who stood in the northeast.. The secret societies. drove disease from the village. southwest and northwest. lightning. Amer. supreme among whom is the North-Star. Bur. these being the sacred directions of the Pawnee. pt. In the west. these gods being the special patrons of warriors and medicine men. a warrior who drove the other stars before him across the sky. generally spoken of as 'father. xix. Linton states that "The function of the medicine men's ceremonies was threefold. Field Museum No. . ."^^ Below these in turn were Sun and Moon. sent the buffalo and the breath of life. 2. < of Natural History. southeast. from whose union sprang the second human being on the earth. . the winds. produced the human race. . BulL 30. The functions of these societies were to call the game. p.' The heavenly bodies. convinced the people that they really possessed the supernatural powers attributed to them. Evening Star had a beautiful garden with fields of ripening corn and many buffalo. The lesser Leaflet Linton.. equally beneficent. gods of the heavens included Star of the South and Big-black-meteoric-star. cit. were connected with the belief in supernatural animals." " According to Miss Fletcher their "religious ceremonies were connected with the cosmic forces and the heavenly bodies. i» Dorsey. . Chicago. 8. each with its leaders and messengers. . » Handbook of American Indians. op. p. and. The dominating power was Tirawa'. . By them they renewed their powers. and to give occult powers. 215. There were also earth gods organized into four lodges. Ralph.

also those of the sacred bundle and the costumes (pis. When not in use a bundle was wrapped in buffalo hide.DENSMORE] PA. Dorsey conPawnee more nearly comparable to the elaborate altars of the Southwest Indians than to the medicine bundles of the northern Plains tribes and central Algonquian. and the skins of birds other than those sacred articles in the group. people as their object. The bundle belonging to a band was in charge of an hereditary keeper. 8). and hung on the west wall of the lodge above the buffalo skull which was alwa3^s placed opposite the entrance of the lodge. G.) The Morning Star bundle and its ceremony will be considered in a subsequent paragraph. A. when the sacred seed corn was given to the people (pi. Elaborate ceremonies were connected with the sacred bundles. and as the bundles were inherited in the female line. Next in importance were the tobacco-filled skins of hawks and owls. or Morning Star. The beliefs of the Pawnee differed considerably from siders the village bundles of the those of other tribes using sacred bundles and Dr." At this ceremony the ears of corn in all the sacred bundles were renewed from the freshly gathered harvest. In addition to the bundles belonging to the several bands there were two bundles which were the property of the entire tribe. 7. tobacco.' one or more scalps taken from slain enemies. Aside from the seasonal observances there were numerous ceremonies whose time of observance was not fixed. one and symbolized the male element. the owners were always women. a. (PI. and that the "sacred bundle" belonging to the band (or village community) was given to its ancestor by one of these heavenly beings.^^ and ended with the harvest ceremony. The ceremonial year of the Pawnee began with the first thunder in the spring. paints. of and had the welfare of the These ceremonies contained a dramatization some actions attributed to the gods and in practically all there was All these were in charge of priests " The writer acknowledges the courtesy of Dr. Director of the Field Meusum of Natural History. or Evening These ears of com were shelled and given to the people as Star.WNEE MUSIC belief of the 5 the It was the Pawnee that all members of a band were descended from one ancestor. J. 5. Simms. and one or more pipe bowls. a. called "Mother Corn." which were the most If two ears of corn were used. Each of the bundles contained one or two ears of corn. 5. which was followed by a ceremony known as "Making Mother Corn. C. while the other sjmibolized the female element. in providing this photograph. the hawk skin symbolizing a warrior and the owl skin a chief who must always be awake and watchful. seed com at the first ceremony in the spring. was attached to a stick mentioned. Other articles in every bundle were sweet grass for incense. tied with a rope of plaited buffalo hair. Some bundles contained other articles. . a).

The number and elaborateness of the ceremonies show the Pawnee to have been. in the old times.. M Of. Washington. Amer. ceremonies of the warrior societies and the medicine men. C. 93 In addition to these were the of offering or sacrifice. which were smiple and appeared to be modern melodies.6 some form BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. Alice 2. Ethn.^* Only a portion of this rich ceremonialism is considered in the present work. a ceremonial people among whom symbolism was highly developed. Kept. 1903. a Pawnee Ceremony. Fletcher. Twenty-second Ann. pt. The Hako. . Bur. The writer listened to several of the songs. but the subject was not studied nor its songs recorded. Peyote is used extensively among the Pawnee at the present time.

— FIRST NOTE OF SONG—ITS RELATION TO KEYNOTE .—TONALITY Chippewa. and Papago Songs MELODIC analysis Table l.2 33 39 1 A6 1 553 463 6 61 43 26 12 12 1 H 1 38 13 Total ' 987 classified 86 1. Ute.Comparison of Pawnee Songs with Chippewa. Songs are thus Table 2. Hidatsa. Sioux." the tones not having an apparent In such songs the tones appear to be arranged with reference to intervals rather than with reference to a kejiiote. Hidatsa. if they are "pure melody without tonality. Ute. Mandan. Mandan. Per cent Pawnee Per cent Total Per cent and Major tonality Minor tonality Both major and minor Third lacking Irregular ^ 520 424 5 1. many being based on successive intervals of a fourth.073 relation to a keynote. Sioux.








percentage of songs beginning with a downward progression is considerably higher than in any other tribe under analysis. This suggests a less primitive form of music than that based on 5-toned scales. 10. while in the Papago group 90 per cent contain tones lower than the final tone. This is approached only by the Mandan and Hidatsa. Table 5. This shows a less primitive structure in Pawnee than in the other songs Talbe — of which are melodic in structure. under analysis. and in the Mandan and Hidatsa songs it is 51 per cent. which have respectively 90 and 88 per cent ending on the lowest tone of the compass. while the combined songs of other tribes show only 30 per cent of such melodies. interesting to note that 38 per cent of the Pawnee songs contain the octave lacldng one or two tones. Table —The difference clearly shown in this table. The most freciuent accidental is the seventh raised a semitone. and a much larger percentage containing six or seven tones. 8. It is. The percentage in Pawnee is 71. Five of these songs are on the first 5-toned scale which omits the third and seventh tones of the diatonic octave. while in the 987 songs previously analyzed 31 per cent are based on these scales. The percentage having a range of an octave is smaller than in any tribe except the Chippewa. which contains 96 per cent of such melodies. while the percentage with a compass of 5 tones is 14. which comprise 30 per cent of such songs. In the compass of the songs we again see a feeling for the overtones of a fundamental. however.DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 15 that tone while the total of songs from other tribes shows 10 per cent ending on that tone. a majority Table 9. 8. The Papago resemble 4. the highest percentage being those having a compass of 12. The Pawnee avoid the use of the complete octave. showing only 5 per cent of such songs. The Pawnee comprise 25 per cent. In structure we find the harmonic songs higher in percentage than in any tribe except the Mandan and Hidatsa. while the entire number of other songs show 6 per cent. Thus it is sho\^^l that the Pawnee have a smaller percentage of songs on the 5-toned scales and the complete octave. The percentage of songs without accidentals is larger than in any other tribe under analysis except the Ute. Table 6. while in the Papago songs it is only 37. with 8 per cent. The major and minor 5-toned scales are not favored by the Pawnee. only 23 per cent of their songs being based on these scales. the largest in any tribe under present consideration. the Chippewa and Sioux. —The 49716°— 29 3 . this occurring in three songs which are — — — minor in tonality. between the songs in various tribes is In the Pawnee songs 78 per cent end on the lowest tone of the compass. and 5 tones. Table 7.

The average interval is still approximately a minor third. Table 13. contrasted with 30 and 25 per cent . Hidatsa. In other tribes the percentage of songs beginning in 2-4 time is smaller. contrasted mth 46 per cent in descending and only 33 per cent in ascending order. use the interval of a fifth which constitutes 1 per cent of the descending and 8 per cent of the ascending intervals but which. In all the tribes previously studied a majority of the songs have begun on the accented part of the measure. which is 3. Table 16.18 semitones. Ute and Pawnee each 62 per cent beginning in double time. is — — — — — — . and a modification is clearly shown in the retaining of one measure-length throughout so large a proportion of the songs. while the Pawnee contain 64 per cent descending and 36 per cent ascending intervals. The nearest approach to this is the Chippewa with 23 per cent and the lowest is the Papago with only 9 per cent.in the combined songs of other tribes. Mandan. and Papago songs. The Chippewa Tribe has probably been in contact with the music of the white race more than any other analyzed tribe except the Pawnee. shows the descending trend of Pawnee songs. A different trend is shown in the Papago songs. the percentage in the combined tribes being 63 in descending and 37 in ascending intervals. The percentage of descending and ascending intervals almost the same in the Pawnee as in the combined Chippewa. This. constitutes less than 1 per cent of the descending and 6 per cent of the ascending intervals. Table 15. Sioux. Ute. and contains 3.08 semitones. The Pawnee songs are evenly divided in this respect. in the combined other tribes. half beginning on the accented and half on the unaccented part of the measure.16 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. 93 Table 10. which contain 59 per cent descending and 41 per cent ascending intervals. showing 26 per cent. The fourth occurs with about the same frequency in Pawnee as in the other tribes but the percentage of whole tones is 45 in descending and 37 in ascending order. Tables 11 and 12. more than other tribes. like the preceding table. A peculiarity of Pawnee songs is shown in the relatively small percentage of minor thirds. The Pawnee. The Pawnee resemble the other tribes under observation in preferring to begin their songs in 2-4 time rather than in The Papago songs show 66 per cent and the triple or other meter. these being 24 per cent in descending and 14 per cent in ascending progression. The percentage of semitones (both ascending and descending) is 10 in the Pawnee and only 6 in the other tribes under analysis. Table 14.14 semitones. and considerably larger than in the combined songs under analysis. The average number of semitones in an interval is slightly larger than in the Ute. which was 3. In the percentage of songs containing no change of time the Pawnee is higher than any other tribe under analysis.

A developed rhythmic structure is shown In the high percentage of songs containing two rhythmic units. SUMMARY From the foregoing it appears that Pawnee songs resemble those of the Ute more closely than those of other tribes. This work contains many songs that undoubtedly have come down for many generations and there is no reason to think they were not sung correctly. Mandan. and Hidatsa. The songs with three rhythmic units constitute 8 •per cent in the Pawnee and 1 per cent in the songs of other tribes. eighth. in contrast to these tribes. quarter. each stroke uniform stress and corresponding to sLxteenth. recorded . or half notes of the In some tribes there have been instances of elaborate drumsong. These were last used in the analysis of 710 songs in Northern Ute Music.DBN8M0RE] PA. show that the Indians under — observation prefer an even drumbeat. but no trace of this was found among the Pawnee. Bulletin 75. The Yuma and Cocopa. but the Pawnee songs differ widely from those of the Papago who live on the Mexican border. as the purpose of this analysis seems to have been accomplished. but there are also songs of more recent origin. pages 25-26. The statement has been made in a previous paragraph that certain results of the Pawnee analyses suggest the influence of a settled mode of life or a contact with the music of civilization. The result of the analysis was summarized in Mandan and Hidatsa Music. pages 42 and 48-51. The comparative table showing the rhythm of the drum has been discontinued. Other tables which have been discontinued are those showing the keynote of the song and the metronome tempo of voice and drum. perhaps. use elaborate rhytlmis of m drum and rattle. This is in accordance with other evidence that the music of the Pawnee has been modified by the estabhshing of a more settled mode of life or. as well as between the Pawnee and Sioux.WNEE MUSIC 17 Table 17. this being 30 per cent in the Pawnee and only 10 per cent in the combined songs of other tribes. The analysis of Pawnee songs according to this basis is shown on page 125. The percentage of Pawnee songs with one rhythmic unit is considerably lower than in the combined tribes and that of the songs with no rhythmic unit is only half the percentage in the larger group. Bulletin 80. a portion of the tribe still residing in Mexico. beats. Occasional resemblances are noted between the Pawnee and Chippewa. This should not be understood to mean that the form of all the songs has been changed. This data and the comparative table of drum rhythms in Bulletin 80. either in recorded songs or in the performances heard at gatherings. page 15. by hearing the music of the white race.

some is An important point. . which are usually songs of complicated rhythms. The latter are indicated in the foregoing paragraphs. It is distinct. be due to the absence of songs used in treating the sick. in accordance with custom. MUky Way were feminine and those to the east were masculine. affects the total nmnbers. whose grandfather was a high prie^ in the Morning Star vUlage and who received his name by inheritance from Star and its A sacred this ancestor. Sun was with the former and Moon was a companion of the latter. Among the former is the change of measure-lengths found in many Indian songs and the downward trend of the melody. Evening Star and Moon. A characteristic of Pawnee music that evades. of other tribes. number ing Star of details With Coming Sun's narrative is combined a limited mentioned by Linton in "Sacrifice to the Mornin the east by the Skidi Pawnee. One after another the eastern » Cf. It was the writer's privilege to see the Morning Star bundle in the house of the woman who was its keeper. to extent. acteristic of the group may. the individuality of Pawnee music. and also to see its contents exposed in the ceremony. tribe or another in separate characteristics. in its entirety. was hung on the west wall of its owner's house. Morning Star ruled All the stars west of the and Evening Star in the west. The bundle. made evident in this comparative analysis. and with it were hung four large gourds. pp. is its simplicity of both melody and rhythm. however. but the most powerful were Morning Star and Evening Star. and also characteristics which distinguish the songs of one tribe from those of another. Dorsey. 93 in order that the may be represented. to some extent. This can only be appreciated by a study of Pawnee music is the plainest of any thus the melodies themselves.18 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY music of the entire tribe [bull. from the songs though bearing a resemblance to one The study of Indian music by an established system of analysis shows there are characteristics that are common to Indian songs of various tribes and different from the music of the white race. the tabulated analysis. 52-55. Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. symbolizing the four deities who were the special guardians of Evening Star and also representing the breasts of the two women in the west. MORNING STAR CEREMONY bundle of the Skidi Pawnee was associated with Morning ceremony was held in the early spring. This charfar recorded in its rhythmic divisions and general content." As already stated. All these songs are combined in the analyses and the latter class.^^ The legend from which the Morning Star ceremony arose was related by Coming Sun. having for its object the securing of good crops in the coming season.

When throwing the ball he sang the following song. but as soon as they came in sight of the village she At caused the ground to open so the man fell through and was killed. Linton. Ten obstacles were encountered by Morning Star and his companion. But Morning Star carried a ball encased in such a manner that when he threw it the casing broke and it became a ball of fire. however. Thus. which was said to be one of the principal songs in the ceremony. and bear. the first five being difficulties of travel. Linton states that Morning Star struck the ground with his war club. All these w^ere placed in their way by Moon. buffalo. taking his little brother along to carry his pack. and the last five being animals wliich attacked them. . states that Morning Star was accompanied by Sun.densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 19 stars came to court the stars in the west. representing the little brother. according to Coming Sun. Moon welcomed them and walked with them toward the west. a small star always appears near and slightly below the morning star in the spring. including the mountain lion. and that he sang a song with substantially the same words recorded by Coming Sun. who thought she could conquer them as she had conquered the others. such as sharp flints and sword grass beneath their feet. wildcat. in order that man might be placed on the earth. last Morning Star resolved to go and woo the great Evening Star. who carried a sacred bundle with a war club. closing the cracks made by Moon for his destruction.

^ "This I did when I became angry. This song was considered too sacred for phonographic Analysis. and C. after which all the voices proceed in unison. and holding a low tone while two or three voices repeat the opening phrase." In later use the words "And I imitate this power" were added. recording and was orally taught to the writer by Coming Sun. r r n ^1— a ^ 3E ^ 1 r • d vni Manner of rendition Two or three voices ^^ Solo - ^^ i ^ r V ^ ts>^ t=^^ S All the singers "K r r ^^ — B ^ f ^^ m.— 20 BtTEEA-U No. singing this and other ceremonial songs is indicated in the transcription. referring to the persons using the song. B fiat. and the principal progressions . For The manner of this reason the metronome time is not indicated. This melody is an example of interval formation. 93 Song of Morning Star (Catalogue No. G. in order that in the future the earth might be formed. The only tones are F. ^ FREE TRANSLATION etc. 1162) ^ i Sung by Coming Sun rs: m — s^ 4S^ — -0-. OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 1. ^ »• '" ::r:r 1 r i ^^ 2Z ' n r (V v'i. [bull. one voice singing the opening phrase.

It is said that Evening Star required a human sacrifice as her reward. she even required him to pro^dde perfumed water for bathing the child and a On the hoop. they enacted the journey of the Morning Star. as he had overcome the others.WNEE MUSIC 21 and C. Finally she insisted that he make provision for the child that should be born. She came dow^n to earth and wandered about in fear. Other warriors joined him and. A and 53. Other articles have been added from time to time and will be noted in this paper. they gave forth and captured a maiden from the enemy. child of As she was running hither and thither she met a boy. He left this bundle with Evening Star and for that reason a woman has always been the keeper of the sacred bundle. sometimes appeared to a man in a dream and told him to secure a maiden for this sacrifice. this cradle board was painted a morning star and the lightnings. and between F and G. From this union a daughter was born. Morning Star made a bundle and placed in it various articles connected with the obstacles he had overcome on his westward journey. . After dancing furiously around their fire and offering a last prayer to Morning Star the warriors started Returning.) the Morning Star to rise and the leader went outside the lodge and addressed an invocation to him. Evening Star saw that his power was greater than hers. 5 the song. a man who had this vision went to the keeper of the Morning Star bundle and received the warrior's costume and the sacred objects kept for such an expedition. The tenth obstacle was not encountered by Morning Star until after he entered the lodge of Evening Star. Evening Star also required him to plant a tree in front of the lodge so that the mocking birds might nest there and sing to the child. This sacrifice must be a pure and beautiful maiden and she demanded Long ago. of cradle board in which it should be placed. this custom being followed by the Pawnee at the present time. but he overcame it. but she determined to hold him aloof as long as possible. preliminary to the expedition. When the ceremony ended it was almost time for (Cf. the Sun and Moon. six in number and comprise the entire melody. Slight differences in the note values of the rhythmic unit occur in the latter part of are whole tones between B flat similar melodic form occurs in Nos. 1. and these two became the ancestors of the human race. or arch. by means of the ball of fire and the song. and sang the song with which he overcame the obstacles placed in his way. The obstacle was a snake. This song is transcribed with the signature of the key of F and classified with songs lacking the The repetitions of the rhythmic unit are third above the keynote.DENSMOREl PA. Morning Star that the sacrifice be repeated annually. According to Linton. Song No.

On this occasion the writer had the honor of entering the lodge. and money. as well as the prayers and rituals. Coming Sun. At the appointed time her body was painted. Dorsey.. This tipi had been used in the Ghost dance and was decorated with Plate Ghost dance symbols. She was treated in a ceremonial manner but kept in ignorance of her fate. was in charge of the ceremony. directly opposite men at the entrance. On the night preceding her execution she was seated beside some tall sunflowers. said that sometimes. Okla. In front of the at either side of him held similar rattles. having been anointed for death with the sacred ointment of red paint powder and buffalo fat. and she was tied to a scaffold and shot through the heart with an arrow. who sings the ceremonial songs. 1920. &. has entered the lodge during the ceremony and seen the contents of the sacred bundle. on April 17. and held one of the sacred gourd rattles.I. She died within three months. half red and half black. though only the prinAt the proper time Coming Sun. The Morning Star ceremony was held by the Skidi Band near Pawnee. G. Thus the entire songs of the ceremony were heard. c." and the people hear a woman's voice singing the songs above his head. This ceremony formerly lasted four days and nights. north of Pawnee. tobacco. 4 p.) The adjacent landscape is shown in The ceremony began at about 9 a. the writer sitting outside the tipi except for the brief time she was permitted to enter. putting Ijer on his horse and taking her to Fort Leaven- worth. This occurred about the year 1818. The man who rescued the intended victim was a warrior of distinction and through his influence the The ritual of the sacrifice is still rendered custom was discontinued. A young chief came through the tall weeds and stole her away. A. m.. It is said that only one other white person. before which she laid gifts of calico. through the courtesy of Coming Sun.22 BUREA. Tradition states that on one occasion the intended victim was rescued. 93 her into the care of the chief of the Morning Star village until the time for her sacrifice. (PL 5. Dr. whence she was returned to her own people. but at the present time it is concluded in one day. ending when the morning star appeared in the east. who cipal song was obtained. and continued until 3. sent a messenger to summon the writer and she entered the lodge. The ceremony was held in a tipi erected for the occasion in a quiet spot near the house of the keeper of the bundle. It was said that the braided thong used to bind the girl to the scaffold is now in the Morning Star bundle. left Two men Coming Sun's and next the sacred bundle was a belt decorated . m. OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. Coming Sun was seated back of the bundle. passing to the right and standing near the bundle. during the Morning Star ceremony he stops and says "Listen. but no actual sacrifice has taken place since that date.

The feast consisted chiefly of dried meat. have been obtained in Arizona. The tradition concerning the "Cheyenne arrow" in the Morning Star bundle is as follows The Skidi were once on a buffalo hunt and were camped in the usual order. In accepting the gifts oft'ered by the writer.. The woman who kept the bundle prepared the feast that was served early in the afternoon. and on the wolf hide lay a pipe. It is said that the longer the arrow ^^ is kept the straighter and heavier it becomes. vol. one red. and that for the same reason is often used as a wrapping for infants. of the Morning Star bundle. and before going to fight he told the people to close He fought well and captured the tipi in which the bundle was kept. This was "Mother Corn" and consisted of dark lines partly down its length and a the decoration white feather and dark streamer at its tip. About 20 men were in the ceremonial They wore no clothing above the waist and their bodies lodge. . George A. 644-658. Lancaster. accepting them in the prescribed ceremonial manner.DEN3M0EE] PAWNEE MUSIC scalps. said to is black and has a flint tip. The Cheyenne attacked the camp and Big Eagle. "How the Pawnee captured the Cheyenne medicine arrows. Cf. Afterwards the Cheyenne recovered two arrows by treachery. the tip inclined toward the sacred bundle. boiled in the usual manner. s. 1903. however. although the day was intensely hot. the ''Cheyenne arrow. Between the wolf skin and the fire was a decorated ear of com fastened to a stick which was stuck in the ground. A large fire was kept burning in the middle of the lodge. but the principal arrow is still in the bundle. It is said that the paws of the wildcat are selected to hold the tobacco because the animal is spotted like the star-strewn heavens. On this was a wolf hide. were smeared with the "sacred paint" made of red paint powder mixed with buffalo fat and kept in the sacred bundle. The people believed he did this by the power of the Morning Star and the arrows were accordingly placed m the bundle. four Cheyenne arrows. who was in charge He did not.Anthrop. Coming Sun stroked her the skin of the wildcat arm. went out to fight. avoiding the space between the bundle and the fire. and another tribe secured one arrow." with human At on the ground. one white. V. and one black. a coiled 23 thong of braided hide and a bundle of the right of the bundle were four owls. The outer wrapping of the bundle is of buffalo hide and this was spread "song-sticks. one yellow." and wildcat paws filled with native tobacco. It The shaft is of heavy wood. forget his duties. pp. the tipis containing the Evening Star bimdle and the Skull bundle being on the west side of the circle and that containing the Morning Star bundle being on the east side." Amer. bringing for the purpose an armful of wooden bowls and a quantity of horn spoons of various sizes strung on a hide thong. She then left the lodge as she had entered. : n n.. Dorsey.

93 BUFFALO DANCE The ceremony of Painting the Buffalo Skull is held every spring by the Chaui Band of Pawnee and is in charge of Mr.) The opening of the lodge was toward the east. but the semidarkness of the lodge and the solemnity of the occasion precluded the taldng of notes upon either the music or the details of the ceremonial dances.) Only members of the Buffalo Society were admitted to the painting of the skull. h. lay on a folded blanket in front of the "altar" which was opposite the entrance. whose name was Naru'dapadi. shouting and firing his gun in an attempt to divert them from There were buffalo on their course. also certain songs of the Bear dance. The ceremony and dances were held in a large earth lodge. At a later time he recorded the ceremonial songs here presented. probably that of a sweat lodge. including (PI. The chief singer at both of these dances was Wicita Blain. c. At some distance was a framework. Her uncle rode toward them. This song is minor in tonality and contains all the tones Analysis. has been found to characterize songs associated with motion or connected with animals. all sides of him as the herd swept through the camp and across a the Pawnee. This song has a compass of 11 tones and contains the fourth below the final tone. 7. Matlock.24 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. This occasion and the Lance dance held a few days later afforded exceptional opportunities to listen to Pawnee songs. but during the Buffalo dance the skull. no other white person being present. A great herd of Blain's uncle. which were sung at a certain position back of the altar. Table 4 shows that the final tone is the lowest tone in a majority of the Indian songs under analysis. which is held in equally high esteem by John Luwak. was prominent Lance dance and later recorded numerous songs. a prominent member of that band. of the intervals are fourths. These are the tones of the octave except the fourth and sixth. Blain at the Buffalo dance attended by the writer and is a very old song concerning Mrs. omitted in the fourth 5-toned scale which is major wliile the present song is minor in tonality. Stacy Matlock. but he was caught in the herd. . (PI. h. at the stream. painted a few days previously. several miles south of the town of Pawnee. The following song was led by Mr. (PL 6. carrying him with them. It is interesting to note that 25 per cent — This interval. a He led the songs blind man who received the songs by inheritance.) those of the Crow Lance Society. buffalo came to the place where the Indians were encamped and threatened the destruction of the village. a. a. The closing events of the ceremony are the Buffalo and Lance dances. in songs of other tribes. chief of the Chaui Band. which were witnessed by the writer through the courtesy of Mr. The most frequent interval is the whole tone. 2.

Tipi iu which Morriug Star ceremony was held . Sacred bundle b.BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 93 PLATE 5 n.

Entrance to earth lodge in which Buffalo and Lance dances were held c. showing "altar" . Interior of ceremonial earth lodge.BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 93 PLATE 6 a. Exterior of earth lodge in which Buffalo and Lance dances were held 6.

25 the Village" "The Herd Passes Through Recorded by Wicita Blain (Catalogue No. 1114) Voice J c 88 Drum J = 120 See drum -rhythm below FtfTf^ffff LT Ti wa-ka o i tffJf iftftf^ l we re ru ti ka-ku sa. ku-ra ra wa- m i» —im ku ( « » sa ^ ^ Ti - ru we re ru ti ka-ku 1 sa ^Q a a ^:=je I i» (» ( tu-ru kat 31: * * ka a we ra ri - ^^ a we re ra hu ka-ta-ta ^ i rutewi kaksa-wa i' - W l[ hu ij r \ i l!'i:S_ were U ift'. \ 'ia^ sa a — ruti ka-ku a^ H m^ ^ ^ we fl.^ r r ra ri tu-ru kat - a a — we re ra bu ba-ta-ta Drum.rhythm . ^ ^ I 1! » ka ip 1 jtS" ar-N I (»—<w pE . 2.— densmore) PAWNEE MUSIC No.

The first phase is introductory in character. including a major sixth and a fifth as well as fourths. . and the dotted eighth notes at the beginning of the third and fourth measures give an effect of vigor No rhythmic unit occurs.26 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. major and minor thirds and major seconds. The song con- — tains the tones of the fourth 5-toned scale. Analysis. There is a wide variety of intervals. in measure-lengths giving variety to the rhythm. 08 The next is considered one of the most valuable of the Buffalo dance songs. the time being maintained with special regularity in the 5-8 and 7-8 measures. It was said to be concerning a buffalo and a crow. but he was not afraid of the crow. The change of metric unit from a quarter to an eighth note is clear in all renditions of this song. the changes to the opening of the song. The buffalo heard the call of the crow and looked around thinking it might be an enemy.

ku a tu ri ru a ra a __ ra rl J<e g a tl- p¥^"fe^t^^b^^Hi^a^^ atsturi Ti j?5 a ±1 tB m » a a ra«. 1116) " The Buffalo and the Crow " Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J r 84 168) Drum J : 84 Drum..rhythm similar A to No. ka-a-ka_ rawikaksa . 27 (Catalogue No. ku-na - ^ ^j rJyf^ ra ri ke a a ti • ats tori •^'%'i\ LLT ^^AlZJLP}ru l i LriLS ra wi kak-sa '^ rat- a a ra^ ka-a-ka.denshobe] PAWNEE MUSIC No. 3.. 8 ^it"! 1 i ^ I 1 f wa-ka ra I ^Jftf e l Ti ra ri ke ko-ra ra ta t^ttf^rC/ wa - I .

1112) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J r 76 In fourth similar to No. He had been lying down and tried to rise he fell down again./ ^ Ha ti i ru ^ e • ru ti at- si e c e wi ! » - I* ri wi-"ha-ku sa ta ti at- si \-%^ n^ e e m m m m wi. The next song is concerning this buffalo. 93 In the herd was a very old buffalo. He was too old and heavy to get up. 4.iajt-ft. "My Dear Father the Buffalo" (Catalogue No.i-hakusa-ta «- Jt ^ wl-ti ru ri e . Drum 0: 132 Changing Drum-rhythm measure to J= 76- ra r ta wi-a >).2 28 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY IbULL. . when he No.

6. coincide except on the The drum and it voice rarely word loia.DKN8MORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 29 This song was recorded on two phonographic cylinders. Tida'kawidik (House-fuU-of-people) and the name of the latter was Kiwi'kude' epaku (Buffalo-fighting). and its melodic form resembles that of No. 7. wherever : occurs. The drum- beat at the close of the song is as follows The drum ceases after the first stroke on the final syllable of ivia and begins rapidly at the close of the last measure. by the metronome and it can only be stated that they do not exactly coincide throughout the renditions of the song. 14. 13. continuing in that tempo until the voice begins the repetition of the song. renditions were the clearer and the transcription is from is The song opens with a three-measure phrase which designated as a rhythmic unit. About two-thirds of the progressions The melody contains all the tones of the octave. G. a fourth. Thus in the present instance it can not be said that the drum consistently The general tempo of each is measured follows or precedes the voice. the latter comprising of the progressions. An abrupt change in the tempo of the drumbeat occurs in the fourth measure. largest interval Although the song has a compass of 10 tones the is are whole tones. In this song the singer's grandfather is represented as driving the buffalo in the hunt. and A. 12. There is no uniformity in the space of time between the renditions of the song." Analysis. This is repeated. —The change of tempo in the drum is similar to that described with the song next preceding. The only tones occurring in this song are D. 11. 9. Analysis. After tliis change the drum and voice apparently have the same metric unit but do not always coincide. 5. The metric unit of an Indian's musical performance often contains variations too small to be indicated. — The second that group. Except for an ascending ninth the only intervals are unit is fourths and whole tones. It was said that he "rode a white horse and frightened the buffalo for other from men to shoot. and is followed by two phrases in a different rhythm which bring the song to a satisfactory close. and 15. The rhythmic more than three-fourths long and occupies only a portion of the song. the only difference in the renditions being in the opening phrase. Other Buffalo and Bear dance songs containing a similar change are Nos. 1. This and the three songs next following were inherited by the singer The name of the former was his grandfather and his father. . E.

that she lived a long time afterwards. the is line. left Nebraska with th-e Pawnee Tribe and died in Oklahoma. 93 "Yonder the Smoke Was Standing" (Catalogue No. [bull.30 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No. 1109) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J : 116 ^ s ^ ^ Drum J r 132 Changing to J r 116 Drum.rhythm similar to No. Yonder the smoke was standing here and He was coming along the line. said the The information concerning the next song is incomplete. It was woman who imitated the buffalo was shot through the back but not killed. He was coming along the line. said. . This there. 2 f Ti wa-ka o p> r f wi - rex ru ka-ta a ra i ta-wi *»»jj ^ •^ - I p vi m ta rex ru— « ka - ta wi — hu ka - ta ^¥ ^^-M^ wi - ' rrr r+-f i i rm* ki r ^ i a ra-ta a rawis a-ri - rex ru ka-ta i Ti j » r I r I WI waka said ra- hu ru did ka - ta wi wia ra 1 rex kata line He tawi tell him coming wia have ra him hu do ariki rex ru did rata ra kata line about him wia coming ru did coming wis have kata line yonder wia coming ra have smoke hu do kata line standing rex kata line wia him have coming FREE TRANSLATION He man was coming along the what I was told about it. but the reason for her action is not indicated. 5.

densuobe] PAWNEE MUSK No. 2 -4^ •!» -^ -)» •)»-' e e ru re ra u - ra we ri-ku sa a Ha Listen ti waka said he . 31 (Catalogue No. 6. 1110) "The Woman Imitates the Buffalo" Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J = '80 Drum J z 144 Drum-rhythm ' Chaugiiig to J r 80 similar to No.

No. In the distance he thought it was a horse.ha a re ra Ha . many good things that "The Buffalo Are Coming" (Catalogue No. 1115) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J r 96 Drum J -138 CKanglng to J Drum -rhythm similar to No.32 BUREAU OF AMEBIC AJSr ETHNOLOGY is [bull. = ft6 2 ra ha re ra ta. 93 concerning a dream of buffalo by the singer's grandfather. 7.ra - ha_ re ra ta. That night he dreamed of a horse The next song that turned into a buffalo and told him of would happen to him. but when it came nearer he saw that it was a buffalo.ra. He was in his lodge when he saw an animal approaching.

3 Drum -rhythm Hati waka i-ra-re ra wa-a ku-ra ra wa-ku-ru J re rawa-a ra wa - a (2) ru tit ka-ha - ru (1) re ra wa - a ru te a rax wi-wa-ri hu - sa Ha . Long ago an old man named Nara'dudesa'ru had a dream and in his dream he saw a cloud of dust rolling along the ground.densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 33 to characterize songs associated with animals and with motion. 8. 2. A rhythmic unit occurs several times and the characteristic count division of the unit occurs in the opening portion of the song. This interval comprises 14 of the 25 progressions in this song. No. as in No. but after the dust storm had passed he saw a great herd of buffalo. 1113) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice # r r 7e Drum J 120 similar to No. He sat and looked at the dust a long time until late in the afternoon. The final tone is preceded by a fourth lower. Then it looked like a crowd of people. "The Waves of Dust" (Catalogue No.

F and B This occurrence flat. lay down. increased during the latter portion of the rendition and in the subsequent renditions. This phrase is followed by a second rhythmic unit. Such hastening of the tempo is not customary among Indians and was probably due to agitation on the part of the The rhythmic unit is not distinctive singer. After a repetition of the rhythmic unit the song returns to the whole tone progressions on the highest tones of the compass. These are his sayings. who said that he had "taken pity" on the man. The drumbeat was in the same tempo throughout this song. ea There the buffalo are coming in a great herd. the singer changing to a loud tone at the beginning of the rhythmic phrases. It contains 39 progressions. The next song is also concerning a dream of buffalo. who was totally blind. . differing from other ceremonial songs in which the drumbeat was rapid in the opening measures. There the buffalo are coming in a great herd. The herd was scattered and a man was watching them. occurs as next to the last note. whole tone.34 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FREE TRANSLATION Listen. however. The transcription is from the first rendition. The buffalo promised the man that he would live to old age and be able to foretell events a long time before they came to pass. In several renditions the portions of the song resembling a chant were sung softly. That night he dreamed about the buffalo. — but occurred several times. makes The song has a compass of 9 tones and its progressions in tonality. [bull. suggests a chant and is followed by a rest. They mark the place Analysis. This song is imusual in containing no interval of a Analysis. he said. the tempo of the drum changing abruptly on the fourth measure The tempo of the voice as in certain other songs of this group. One of the buffalo The man wondered why the buffalo had lain down. —This melody contains only the tones E flat. The opening portion consist of 28 whole tones and 7 larger intervals. There the buffalo are coming in a great herd. This is of the song succeeded by a 3-measure phrase with a clear-cut rhythm and a descending trend of 9 tones. The waves of dust roll downward. except G which possible the classification of the song as major of G. 12 of which are semitones and 11 are minor thirds. of the buffalo wallow.

k{ ti wa- ku-ra fit ra (ft. wa-ku-ru ra.-^ ^ ra ra wa-ku- Inmrmff ^ Ti wa-ka a ra-ru te ki' ku - m ru e A ra ri - ^^ ki \ e 8 ra - ru te i i ka - ri - ki e ra-a-ru tex ra a ri . 1111) "Unreal the Buflfalo is Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J = 76 ' Drum J s 138 chan<?fug to J: 76 Drum.rhythm similar to No. 35 Standing" (Catalogue No.-ru texwararu ka-ri - ki a ra-a-ru tex ra a n- TI .densmoee] PAWNEE MUSIC No.^ A r^ ^' r -i ^ ra -— ri - 1 '"^^^ j«:> f. 2 a . 9.

These are his sayings. LANCE DANCE At a certain point in the Lance dance witnessed by the writer the decorated lances were carried around the lodge and the following song was sung." The words mean "Father. 1091) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice J= 63 Drum uot recorded ff LJ "^ urimtT^^^ ^^^jjujut:mr^ * f tt * 'i**^ 'tst^ T- ^te ^P —Exactness ^ m. Unreal he is standing. the song being sung whenever they danced. Unreal he stands in the open space. The woman lived to be so old that she could not stand erect but she "was always singing this song while she was cooking or working. Unreal the buffalo is standing. the band of the dead is coming. in the repetition of in the renditions of this w an Indian song is shown melody. In each rendition the . This constituted one of the most impressive portions of the ceremony. The song is very old and belonged to a woman who had two sons.36 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FREE TRANSLATION [bull. 10. No. 93 He said. "The Band of the Dead Is Coming" (Catalogue No." The woman who recorded the song was blind. Eight renditions were recorded without a break in the time except that the final tone was sometimes prolonged to the value of three quarter notes. m \ V m =^ jj^j^rts^^ Analysis. unreal the buffalo is standing.

I want you to take pity on me. He saw a woman coming toward him. of the by a member of the Skidi Chaui Band and the last These two groups of songs are strikingly different in musical character.!rrrrrlTpWH4 l -lirr|frg| . and the fourth and fifth renditions. nature. standing in the sky. When the song is used ceremonially there are six "stops" or verses. changing to Jr 126 Drum. devotional by for his parents.densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 37 song was sung twice. and there was said to be a similar song containing the word "Father. The young man learned the song. the general meaning of which is as follows: learn this song. " Mother stands yonder." 5. 2 r -M. 4. now you must lived a long time afterwards. "Mother is Coming" (Catalogue No." The young man says." The woman said. I mean the mother who alone stands (the moon). and progresses by whole tones except for three other intervals which occur only in downward progression. "Mother" was said to refer to the moon. while mourning for his parents who had died. Ten songs of the dance were recorded. 1117) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice 126 Drum 138. 6. BEAR DANCE There was no opportunity to witness this dance." 1. %'. Mother is coming. imagines that he is still mourning 3.rhythm similar to No." You have seen me. The next song was sung when all the participants in the Bear dance were seated. the five first five by a member Band.. " Mother. "Mother now ends" (stands still).'* A young man received this song in a dream. The connective phrase occurred between the second and third. and its details were not made a subject of inquiry. and said. "Mother is coming. forever in the sky" No. 11. The song has a compass of nine tones." The young man. " 2. and took part in the Bear dance. "I will now say.

and when he awoke he saw a strange sight. Ever since that time the song has been used in the Bear dance. which is the keynote. No. In the next song that power the is we have an expression of the belief that a bear of derives his "medicine power" from the sun and that the center in his palms. long ago. The change in the tempo of the drum has been — described in connection with other songs of this group. "The Bear is Pointing at the Sun" (Catalogue No. 93 Analysis.rhythm similar to No.) An old man named Lata'piii. 1119) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J Drum J a) I = 76 132 Changing to J = 76 Drum. (Cf. The old man made this song about his vision and whenever he saw the sunrise he sang the song. 12. upheld for the purpose. The rhythm is energetic and the phrases with continuously descending trend are somewhat unusual. He first rays of the sun may In this manner he renews his power from the sun. and ends on the lowest. The sun was rising and a bear was pointing at the sunrise. 2 r (1) -A.38 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. which has a compass of 11 tones and is melodic It begins on next to the highest tone of the compass in structure. All the tones of the octave except the sixth and seventh occur in this song. stands facing the dawn in order that strike his paws. fell asleep. Song 16.ki feu' ru ks he-ru_ te ri-ki e — we ra sa-ku ra . -^ -» wSV -A- Ha ti w'a-ka i ra ri-ki e e ra wa i-ta-wi (2) e' we ra sa-ku ra kO - ruks he-ru te a ri .

densmobe] .

1118) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J -76 (A 152) Drum J = 116 Changing to J = 76 Drum. 93 "A Woman Stands Among the Trees" (Catalogue No. 2 . 13.rhythm similar'to No.N ETHNOLOGY No.40 BUREAU OF AMERICA. [bull. .

1120) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J = 120 r Drum J = 138 Changing to J Crum> rhythm similar to No. 14.WNEE MUSIC 41 Many years ago the Pawnee fought the Sioux. Among the Pawnee warriors was a man named Nada'kutade (Eagle Chief). "The Horse is Shouting" (Catalogue No. lolling many. father-in-law of the man who recorded the following song. ! 120 2 E 'ST t 5 .deksmobe] PA. No. the battle resulting in a victory for the Pawnee. Eagle Chief owned this song and sang it in the Bear dance. The fight with the Sioux was said to have taken place in a part of the country which was thickly wooded.

he told this to me. Even with this aid he could This old man had a dream in which he ascended a scarcely walk.ka ra m. BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. . high hill and sat down. The —This song has a compass of only tains the tones of the gradual decrease in the tempo of the song next preceding. said. 2 Voice ^>^^g-^-^£j f Ha ti f y^\^' ^Pj^-^ ra ti-i-ra ra ku C/U^ i-ta-wi wa . The clouds were below him and he saw rain falling from the clouds. the first seven measures lodic. In structure it is meThe form of the melody is peculiar. I He was lost in the timber.42 Analysis. he also saw about 40 white horses and drove them. "I Was Lost in the Timber" (Catalogue No. 93 five tones and conminor triad and fourth. ra— f 1^ a ti - Fff^ » ^ - 1 r £?- £ ra I 1 kuks I. This structure is repeated and the song closes with three measures on the descent from C to A. It was sung in the Bear dance. drum is similar to that in the The singer said that when he was a young man living in Nebraska he saw a very old man who used a cane. I came to a place where I I came to the place. I - ra hi ri we 1 ti - ra " 'I I ti -^ ^)^^^^^r iirg^^^ ka-hii ra ha n tsu ra u ra ti - ra ra hi«ri we kii ra tT - ra Ha Listen itawi ti waka said hiri tira I ra he place ra do ra come I do tira did ti have kixks mentioning we now hatsu lost do come I was kahu timber have FREE TRANSLATION come. not related to the foregoing dream. 15. containing the descent from E to A and the next two measures being framed on the descent from D to A. Only four intervals larger than a minor third occur in the song. 1121) Recorded by Wicita Blain J r i38 Drum J z 144. chaugiug to J z 138 Drum. the white horses were probably the shapes assumed by the clouds The following song belonged to this old man but was in his dream. Now I come. Listen. No.rhythm similar to No.

Analysis. 1149) Recorded by Vfrice Dog Chief J : 138 Di>um not recorded p?i.i'i> p J J j^v II f f r £-f4^ r r FREE TRANSLATION I I (" 8 a bear. song. It is interesting to note that major thirds are more frequent than minor thirds.^F^f^^^Q^ti^^'%Aj4^=^^ \^\. though the song is minor in tonaUty. Only one interval larger than a major third occurs The time was broken between the renditions of this in the melody. other tones occurring only as passing tones. 16. "I Am Like a Bear" (Catalogue No. these songs. —This song has a compass of five tones the tones of the minor triad and second.DEN3M0RE] PAWNEE MUSIC 43 and contains only Analysis. No. hold up my hands waiting for the sun to like am rise. the melody beiog based on the triad A flat-C-E flat. This song is harmonic in structure.\>i ' ^1^ •) r n^ D Of \ p 1 1 'tj-Yj:Xff=t s ^^ [» ^ r ^ B Bf J J j^y j: ^ r r H' I \ "H^']yi f r rW m m t* OL a 33 C aBB ^f a tH-i •) ^i: #i f> i>^ ) fTff piijf rr^f^Tir^^ P=?E }v^i. The rhythmic interest Hes in the 5-4 measures and in the — . 1). remaining songs of the Bear dance were recorded by Dog whose father was one of the leading singers at the Bear dance in old times and who therefore has inherited the right to sing The five Chief (pi.

the two renditions differing only in the time values of the first measure. In describing the next song Dog Chief said that his father took part in the war against the Sioux and chased a member of that tribe who held a shield over his back as a protection.44 BUREAU OP AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. The time was steadily maintained. his horse. 93 fact that in two instances they alternate with 2-4. 1153) Recorded Voice Dog Chief J = 84 Drum . Bear Dance Song b}^ (Catalogue No. which were changed to conform to the words of a second verse. and 4-4 measures in a somewhat irregular manner. The song is major in tonahty but about 40 per cent of the intervals are minor thirds. not recorded ££^ £^^f ^ ^ 1^3 . 3-4. Dog Chief's father killed the Sioux and captured No. this song commemorating his (a) deed of valor. 17.

each containing the same number of measures. a few measures being on the tones G sharp and A. This shows that the rhythm of the entire song is an entity and offers a contrast to songs that consist of three or more distinct periods. 12. The rhythmic imit is short and the rhythm of the song as a whole is "swung" by the triple measures occurring as measures 2. [j ZIP F'''^*^ '^''^'^CJ' l a^^'^ —With is the exception of two descending fifths and two all descending fourths the progressions in this song are whole tones and semitones. Bear Dance Song (b) (Catalogue No. A majority of the melody is on the tones C sharp. It is interesting to note the irregular time spaces at which these triple measures occur. 1150) Recorded by Dog Chief VqU« J : 92 I OraiD not recorded nh tj P ^frf-r p r 7 i' 1 Tj ^^^^ tt i^^yf WSTMrm ffp a l m t UJ^^: tltT^L\^ tTw^ ^^ %J!j^lTfy|tm^|]j. 9. Thus the formation of the melody is seen to be based on intervals rather than on a scale or key. 18. No. and E. D sharp. . which is also the initial tone in five consecutive measures later in the song. The first seven measures begin with the same tone. This next to the highest lq the compass. The rhythm is accurately repeated in the three renditions.pp^|Q/pgy^ "f'-^i Analysis. and 19. 18.DENSH9RE] PAWNEE MUSIC 45 The words of the following song (not translated) state that Dog Chief took horns like those of a buffalo and put them on the horse he had captured.

the people saw him running Hke a bear while the horse was galloping. 19. No. 93 When the man returned with the horse he had captured.46 BUREA-tJ OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. This was commemorated in the following song. Bear Dance Song (c) (Catalogue No. 1152) Recorded by Voice J : Dog Chief 80 Drum not recorded .

putting about half a bean in a kettle of water. Murie. Two rhythmic units occur. whistle on which he blew as he danced. and its purpose was "to find out whether a man would be killed when going on the warpath. After drinking it they An attendant then ran the jaw of a garfish along fell unconscious. The dance of the society was held in the autumn when the corn was ripe. Murie said. These rests were clearly given in both renditions of the song. described by James R. appears to have been a testing of the powers of its members. Members of this society had power over snakes and their dance was allied to that of the Mokis.— densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC No. 1151) Recorded by Voice Dog Chief J r 168 Drum ih Qot recorded m ivM r a ^ (2) (1) 1 ^^ m (1) I r I r I f^ I r r Analysis." The dances took place in an earth lodge. Bear Dance Song (d) 47 (Catalogue No. "These men drank mescal. It has a compass of 12 tones and is based on the fourth 5-toned scale." each carrying a bow in one hand and a gourd rattle in the other. 49716°— 29 5 . Rests occur at the end of each phrase and after a detached tone in the fifth measure. the man's spine and if he recovered consciousness he was not considered fitted to belong to the society. and a comparison of these units forms the principal interest of the rhythm. Progression is chiefly by major and minor thirds. — ^ SONGS OF THE DEER SOCIETY The Wichita Indians are said to have originated this society. This song is clearly harmonic in feeling. Each dancer carried a fox skin and held in his mouth a plain bone or reed There were four singers. though three measures in the latter part of the song begin with nonharmonic tones. 20. which has been discontinued for many years. Mr. A custom of the society.

gressions of the opening measures suggest an inquiry and are marked by consecutive whole tones on the upper tones of the compass. the second being an extension of the first. each containing nine Analysis. saying." attendant returns and says. No. He said that the ceremony Deer Society lasted four days and nights and that song was sung just before daylight. "The morning star is coming up. " Go out and see how the stars stand. h). Progression is by a variety of intervals but the major second comprises about three-fifths of the entire number. Tell us how near is the morning. Mark Evarts (pi. 21. — . 2. saying. 93 Two who this said that his father of the was one of its dancers. mi^id f. men. This phrase. gives a plaintive character to the melody. Two rhythmic units occur. This song consists of two parts. 1159) Recorded by Voice J = Mark Evarts 120 (1) X)rum not recorded r T (2) |^Mfej:ft^|^JQg[%f% (2) 7 g=Fms P (2) MjCE C2) r p-'Sh'^:^ aJ\ t^ r. measures and ending with the same phrase." rising." It is almost morning. "It is almost morning. Tell us the morning. together with the accented subdominant at the beginning of the second half The proof the song." The attendant The chief says returns and says. "Wake up. "Go out and see how the stars stand. m-mm\mm\ /^ ^dmm 1 ^ FFFiS ^ is FREE TRANSLATION Part 1 The The The chief speaks to his attendant. "How Near is the Morning?" (Catalogue No." chief says to the dancers. is how near Part 2 The chief speaks to his attendant. " Change the song.48 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY songs of the society were recorded by [bull." The morning star to the singers.


of the following


The use

song was not explained.

No. 22. "Spring

(Catalogue No. 1160)

Recorded by Voice

Mark Evarts





not recorded



[bull. 93

was required that they keep hold of each other's hands durmg the "Thus if they came to a tree as they danced they entire dance. could not loose their hands but must stand there and dance."

The general idea of the next song is that it is better to die bravely when young than to live to an enfeebled old age. In this, as in other Pawnee war songs, we see a light estimate upon the value of life as compared to success in war. The song belonged originally to a brave man who lived to an advanced age. When this was sung in a
live to

dance he rose and told the young men that it was a painful thing to be so old. The song was also sung by men in a battle, this being the last song they sang ''when they were all tired out and so nearly beaten that even their hair was disheveled." It was further stated that "sometimes when men were having this dance an enemy attacked the village. This was the song they sang as they drove the enemy away." The song was also used in the scalp dances that followed
the return of a successful war party.
No. 23. "Old Age

(Catalogue No. 1078)

Recorded by Effie Blain

Voice J




not recorded











te ra-tu hu«







kuxta ra-tu









The first and second renditions were recorded. interrupted by the shrill cries given by women renditions were in a war dance, the interruptions occurring in the eighth measure of


and the ninth measure of the second rendition. After the rendition the singer spoke several sentences rapidly and after second the third rendition she repeated the shrill cries. The third and fourth

renditions were sung without interruption.





interesting example of the performance of this class of songs.




slow and the melody


marked by a

steadily descending

harmonic in structure, contains the octave, and has a compass of 11 tones.

The song

the tones of

The custom of the Pawnee concerning the raven lance (JcaJcutsaa) was similar to that of the Mandan.^° A warrior who carried this lance into battle and planted it in the ground was obliged to defend its If he were killed, his comrades brought back position with his life. the lance. By the Pawnee informant the lance was described as a staff wrapped with otter hide and having a crook at the upper end. It was decorated with eagle feathers and bore the body of a raven,
commonly designated as a crow. The dance of the Raven Lance
Society was said to be "almost like

that in which the dancers painted half their bodies red and half

The original owner of dance lived to extreme old age and, as he had no children, he gave the dance to a young man who was one of his nearest relatives. One day the people said, ''Some Indians are coming to attack us." The young man who had received the dance took his raven lance, mounted his pony, and went to get the old man. They rode together on the pony to a place near the fight and then went forward on foot, but the old man could not go as fast as the warriors. The old man called, "I am still coming," and the young man came back and helped him forward. The aged man was proud to see that the young man to whom he had given his dance was among the leaders in the fight. The enemy shot and killed the young man, and the lance was brought back with his body. Then the old man sang this song. In the manner of recording the song there was a wailing which was said to be "the old man crying because the young man had been killed and he had no more relatives," yet he loved the lance and all that it symbolized. He died soon afterwards and, as he was too old to give the dance to anyone else, the Pawnee do not have the dance at the present
black," referring to the White Lance Society.



of the

Mandan and Hidatsa Music, pp. 48 and Mandan and Hidatsa Indians, pp. 313-314.




to the


also Lowie. Societies

52 BUEEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No. 93 Emblem" (Catalogue No. 30. The tempo was well sustained but the intonation was not Six renditions were recorded with no break in the time steady. they are carrying Beloved emblem. they are bringing it it forward. The third occurs only twice. the compass. which is the lowest in —This If this song were transcribed in accordance with the phonograph record it would have a signature of six pitch of the sharps. the next four measures are on the descending flfth G to C. 29. "Beloved [bull. followed by B flat to F. The intervals which characterize the song are the major second as an interval of progression and the fourth and fifth as portions of the framework of the melody. Songs with a similar change of signature are Nos. 52. changing the key from D sharp minor to D minor. all a compass of 12 tones and contains the tones of the octave. The next song belonged Analysis. 39. —This song has to the singer's father and was his war song. For convenience of observation it is presented with a signature of one flat. The major second constitutes about 83 per cent of the entire number of intervals. Thus the first six measures are based on the descending fifth C to F. Analysis. and the song closes with the intervals C to F and B flat to F in the lower octave. and 85. The first is melody is a plaintive melody with a compass of 12 tones. back. 36. both occurrences being as short unaccented tones in the first half of the song. 51. the highest in the compass and the trend of the tone is steadily downward to the final tone. 1133) Recorded by John Voice Luwak J r 66 Drum (i) uut recorded FREE TRANSLATION (An exclamation of endearment) Beloved emblem. . 62. 24.

. 1083) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice Jz 84 not recorded Drum rif=f FREE TRANSLATION If I did anything great in battle I would be a crow (member of the Crow Society). I his mother. said." Analysis. who grew up to be a handsome young The first dance he saw was that of the KLitsita and he said to "I like that dance. although more than half the progressions are whole tones. The first rhythmic unit is transcribed in a 5-count measure as the secondary accent varies. ''No.densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 53 rapidly. Those taking part in the dance were painted as in the White Lance Society and "held their lives in such light esteem as to be called unreal. their repetitions comprising the entire melody. the subject being that of the song. larger variety of intervals than a majority of the Indian songs which have been analyzed. in some instances the third." Hke certain animals that why I do not want you to — in this song. No. or even to interrupt a song with spoken words. SONGS OF THE KITSITA SOCIETY The identity of this society is not fully estabUshed. the dancers are acting have only a short time to live and that dance with them. and in others the fourth count of the group being slightly accented. wish I could be in is my son. who had only one child." In describing this song the singer said that long ago there was a woman man. except between the second and third when a sentence was spoken It is in accordance with Indian custom to interject rapid sentences between renditions of a war song. Two rhythmic units occur His mother it. Crow Lance Society Song (Catalogue No. a boy. 25. In some renditions the tempo is slightly hastened This song contains a at the opening of the second rhythmic unit.

54 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No. [BULL. ( "The Lance Dancers " (Catalogue No. 1124) Recorded by John Luwak Voice 144 144 See Drum-rhythnj bel^rw r J Drum J (1) r ru i-ra rax ru ri-wi tsa-patti wa-ku a ku ka-ki rariksa (1) ki-tsi-ta rax ru ri-wi ru i-ra rax ru ri-wi . 26.

you are glad because they are but your father is dead and there is no one to bring us meat as he used to do. not realizing that his father was dead. One family had a little boy with them and while they were climbing the hill another tribe overtook them and killed the little boy's father." She sang this song. the words being those that she had spoken to the little boy. the final tone of the rhythmic unit falling on an accented instead of an unaccented count. When the Pawnee had run away from the other tribe they began to kill buffalo. Attention is directed to the change of accent in the seventh measure. In the second rendition these cries were given at the beginning of the fifth measure. — . The child's said. The song is classified as lacking the third." The tradition concerning this song was related by the singer as follows The PaAvnee were on the buffalo hunt and were climbing a hill in search of the herd. was interrupted by shrill cries. although the third above that tone does not occur. mother wept and lolling buffalo No. like No. 27.: PAWNEE MUSIC 55 An informant said that the song next following was sung "when men made up their minds that it was no matter if they were killed. The signature of the key of B is used in the transcription of this melody." Analysis. The two rhytlimic units differ only in the division of the last count. This song. "Little boy. The little boy was very happy about the hunt. This change represents the break in rhythm which frequently occurs just after the middle of an Indian song. 1081) Recorded bv Effie Blain Voice J = 5'6 Drum not recorded Analysis. The song has a compass of 12 tones and progresses only by whole tones and major and minor thirds. 23. Such cries were also given between the tliird and fourth renditions. Lance Dance Song (a) (Catalogue No. — The next song was composed by a man who dreamed that he "heard some one crying and singing at the same time. Afterwards the singer resumed the tempo and rhythm of the song. This melody is minor in tonality and is characterized by an effect of deep sadness.

The first song of this society was said to "go back to the time when the Pawnee lived in Nebraska where the white or silver fox was commonly found. About two-thirds of the progressions are whole and half tones. the lowest tones being sung with clearness. No. The distinction between the tones transcribed as A natural and A flat was clearly given in all the renditions and the song is classified as both major and minor in tonality. . 1093) Recorded by Effib Blain Voice Jz 66 Drum (1) not recorded SONGS OF THE WOLF SOCIETY Only two songs of this society were obtained. Teton Sioux Music. Tradition states that a war party found a white fox singing this song.-^ Analysis. 183. Murie. the latter of the — producing a peculiar wailing " Cf. during their songs.56 Except for BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. It was the custom Wolf Society to pound on a tanned buffalo hide. 28. The same wort: relates instances in which wolves appeared to warriors. effect. instead of a drum. The song is unusual in its initial progression of an octave and in its compass of two octaves. Lance Dance Song (b) (Catalogue No. 93 an ascending fourth the song progresses entirely by major seconds and minor thirds. in which a man is taught a song by a wolf. p." The animal was also designated as a kit fox by James R.

1103) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voiee J = 69 I>rum not recorded ^^ ra ra ha i ra li^ i ya_ a [ ya i — a he ti re ka-hu- i tftxrf he" wa he 1^-i^ ho i-ra-ri ti wa-ku fe± i-sa ka.densmoee] PAWNEE MUSIC No.wa-ku j* re ka-hu - ra rawa a ^JiriM^-HJg S 4 Ha #'jWg' «^ Wg^fMjfj^ S . 29. "The White Fox" 57 (Catalogue No.hu-ra t ki.

Although strange misfortunes have befallen me. progresses by an unusual variety of interoccurs in the song. Hke the song next preceding. 78. —This fifth song.r l B i i ra ha ha i ra ha ha i ha a ra g ^ ha i —p P | B > (g O he \ G - ra ta ti-ri ru-ra ra-a-wa pits ra 10 Wi » ^N "c ta ti-ri ru-'ra ra->a-wa B^'t? f » | F 1 Esmn — zr Fine ^ rawa wide rura land Ha Yonder pits ra there coming siratu ha yonder ruti ta I tiri mine kux rura land ka consider hateful hurtful did tiri my rura land ra wi ta I rawa wide strangely became mine FREE TRANSLATION Yonder they are coming. The occurs six times. This Country Wide" (Catalogue No. "It Is Mine. entitled "You Need not Fear the Horse. 93 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY tunate circumstance or occurrence. this country wide. Analysis. Yet it is mine. 30. which vals. Another song of the days before the Pawnee obtained horses is No. ." No. harmonic in structure and No rhythmic unit contains the tones of the fourth 5-toned scale. has the unIt is usual compass of two octaves. which is an unusual prominence of that interval.— 58 — [bull. 1106) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J : 80 ^^ Ha Drum not recorded ££?l^^-I"f>l^ i'£cT g.

The arrow received by Carrying-the-shield was red. went out and met a party of Pawnee retreating with the Cheyenne in pursuit. In giving the arrow his father said. The rhythmic unit is interesting and of frequent occurrence." So Carrying-the-shield took the arrow and a bow. the Cheyenne attacked the Pawnee.DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 69 WAR SONGS Three classes of war songs are here presented and comprise a song concerning a conquered warrior of the Che3^enne Tribe. The Pawnee "counted coup" on his body and found that he wore. The song is major in tonaUty and the most frequent interval is a major third. who. Soon after the return of the treaty party. "Use this arrow when you are in great danger and it will save your hfe. Touching Cloud had these disks sewed on a shirt and cap. . His father had four sons and gave them four sacred arrows. —An ascending tenth occurs in this song. who was keeper of a sacred bimdle. where they had gone to make a treaty with the Government of the United States. The Pawmee were unable to explain the fearlessness of this man and talked of it among themselves. because of the incident to be related. who were himting buffalo. these gatherings being in honor of Pawnee soldiers who had recently returned from the World War. several songs of Pawnee warriors. each a different color. Analysis. the metal-covered shirt made for him by the Mexican. Touching Cloud made ready to attack him but the youth shot him in the eye with the red arrow and he fell from his horse. the pieces overlapping a? in old-world armor. that he could use no weapon except a sword but he used this so effectively that he and his party drove the Pawnee back to their village. In the village was a young man named Carrying-the-shield who had not gone with the hunters. Therefore he was known as Iron Shirt among the Pawnee. was afterwards known among the Pawnee as Iron Shirt. and songs which were sung at two gatherings of the tribe attended by the writer. This man had in his employ a Mexican who could cut great reputation round disks from the thin frying pans used at that time. representing an ascent from the lowest to almost the highest tone of the compass. concealed beneath his outer raiment. Touching Cloud felt so secure that he rode directly among the PawHis arms were so stiffened by the metal disks on his sleeves nee. song commemorates a well-known event in Pawnee About the year 1852 the Cheyenne and Arapaho returned from Washington. The retreating party opened and let him through. He listened to what they said and remembered something told him by his father. named Touching Cloud. Among them was a Cheyenne of first The history.

31. 1108) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J = 108 to No. 26 Drum J = 126 Drum rhythm similar III ii.— 60 * # BUREAU OF AJMERICA. M Si m^--&—•— kii-'Ei ti ra pa-pi-tsi-sn ruks tax « u a a We .ffiffnrriffiirr riinn l "We ra :: ^ — ^ ^ tsa ^ ^m €> j| tsa we 1 I ra tsa we ra -\ tsa we ra tsa we 1 ra r -» -» r zsj"^ r a» pa-|>i'tsi ^44 • we m u i ra tsa -su niks tax ka-si & f trtj-ir i r ru liir rr-H is _- ra rS-te ra - ku tsiks ta 4 «i . 93 No.N ETHNOLOGY [bull. Song Concerning Iron Shirt (Catalogue No.

No. of difference. 33." He heard the thunder sing the following song. your father is coming.densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 61 Drum of each count. Eagle Chief's War Song (Catalogue No. "The Thunder Spoke Quietly" (Catalogue No. learned it. 32. and sang it when he went to war. 2 afraid of the storm and wept when he but in a dream the thunder spoke to him slowly and said. His name was Eagle and he lived to be one of the old warriors A certain young man was lieard the thunder. and voice are in the same tempo and coincide on the first Three renditions were recorded and show no points No. of the tribe. 1086) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice J = 63 (i) Drum not recofded 1 (1) r ^MMHfam a - MT 1 a ra' 1 m - ^ I A Kta^ - he ' ru - u a he - ru 1 ra - m u — w ^^ -Hh4 . "Do not be afraid. 1128) Recorded by John Luwak Yolee 66 Dritm-rhytbm similar to = J Drum J : M lio.

Sioux Music." not to do so. onetain other tribes. The thunder. in structure and contains the tones of the second 5-toned scale. said it was his own war-dance song. The following tones represent a repetition of the rhythmic unit. lies in Pawnee songs. which are intervals of a fourth. fundamental tone and a portion below A portion of the song which is but the above the somewhat unusual ruhato. 93 Analysis.^^ would not fire at the enemy unless commanded The song next following was said to be a song of that The same society and was recorded by the chief of the Chaui Band. [bull. John Luwak (pi. who recorded the song. This is shorter and livelier than the The song is harmonic first. translated ''children Members of this society did everything contrariwise.'" Attention is directed to the rhythmic form of this song Analysis. Only three intervals occur which are larger than a minor third. third of in tonality was a society In explanation of the following song it was said that long ago there called IrusTca Virdu (or Pircm). The song opens with a rather long phrase. concerning the Heyoka Kaga (Fool impersonation). ' — pearing in " Cf. so he said to him. Teton all renditions of the song. of the Iruska. . accents were clearly given. The song is minor and contains only the tones of the minor triad and second. this aptheir version stating that a would be killed the next day. If anyone is kind-hearted and good to the poor he is made a chief and has a great name. it is good. melody with different words was used by the Slddi Band.62 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY FREE TRANSLATION Beloved. explaining the words as follows: "A dead person wanted a certain warrior to do right. the words of Thus in a fight they young man was told in a dream that he but felt no fear. which is repeated. When he dies we in the spirit land are glad and want to go and meet him because he was kind and good. 2. but a second unit is introduced and continues to the end of the song. it is good. although occurring frequently in the songs of cerProgression is by a wide variety of intervals. —The tempo of this song was sHghtly it. though bearing some resemblance to it. The tempo of the drum is slightly faster than that of the voice. a). He is saying quietly. p. 157. and a comparison of the rhythmic units.

- m ra - a he - e - ru r*— 1 ^te he-e-ru I r rrti ra-a he - ^^ he-e-ru ru (a) ra-a ^ ra__ • (a) 1 I ^ » he . 63 (Catalogue No. 1125) "He Comes" Recorded by John Vole* J-r 84 Luwak Dram J (1)" : 100 Drum-Rhytlun similar to Kb* 26 LTtr^r A .__ tix t^ e m m i» » wawa-ke he we-e-ta a ax- a^a.densuobe] PAWNEE MUSIC No. I a - he (1).V ra ru a ^ a kl-i - f— rrrrrirrr tu.rau Aheru i - SI - rit rE a ta-we .e (3) ^ ^ \ .e • ru » I a a he (a) - ru_ ra _ 1 he . 34.

—This song contains two phrases designated units. tribes. The first phrase consists entirely of descending intervals and has a compass of an octave. The melody tones are those of the fourth Analysis. as rhythmic which comprises three measures. but it differs from the first phrase in containing one ascending interval and having a compass of only six tones. 1104) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J= 66 Drum (1) not recorded ke-rit hi hi-a a hi-a hi a hi tu - a ra hi-a kerit Hia A woman's exclamation of surprise we now ta I you have seen TRANSLATION Ah. north of Pawnee and located among the members of the Skidi Band. now I have seen you. 35. the scalps of slain warriors is [bull. of dances of historic interest to the Pawnee were held in honor These of the tribe who had served in the World War. The place of the gatherings was a large wooden structure. . and had an entrance toward the east which resembled the covered entrance to the earth lodge. each of 5-toned scale. "A Woman Welcomes the Warriors" (Catalogue No. with a dirt floor. as in other in the victory dance. and were attended by the Two members writer.64 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY pleasure at the return of victorious warriors song which was sung at the Scalp dances. (PI. 7. 93 A woman's expressed in the folio whig Among the Pawnee. dances were held on June 6 and 7. 1919. The second phrase begins with the same count division as the first and comprises almost three measures. c.) It was sLx-sided. were carried No. These rhythmic phrases were accurately given in all the renditions.

and. one man had composed words which mentioned airplanes and subA woman had marines. although many saw hard service at the froiit. "Help our boys over there. \vithout Throughout the entire afternoon there were frequent the drum. Old war songs singing. but the words English. They were very happy and were dancing and waving flags. those unable to gain admission being crowded around the windows and door." He dreamed. sometimes three persons being on their feet at the same time. Luwak. and on one occasion when except one of there was a call for volunteers for dangerous service four Pawnee One of these men brought stepped forward and were accepted.DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC first 65 The gathering was attended by about 200 Indians and the building was closely packed at the second gathering. said that his friends translated to him the who speaks no nev/spaper accounts of the war and that he "felt badly that our boys must cross the ocean and suffer so much. crossing the circle. None were wounded. pie." The dance on June 6 was the rejoicing of the tribe and that on the day following was more formal. We did this at every was fastened it looks as though our prayers had been answered. The Pawnee Tribe was 40 young men. or giving a gift. narrating some incident. For exam. whom back a German helmet as a trophy and his mother carried it in the victory dance as a scalp was carried in former times. It was a time of general rejoicing. most interesting songs heard on this occasion had their The melody of the two was origin in two dreams by John Luwak. public gathering and were sung with new words appropriate to the occasion. quavering cry with which the Indian women express pleasure or approval. A Pawnee said: "WTiile the boys were away we prayed for their safe return." So he prayed daily to Tu-awa. the same. she stood in front of the chief (James R. referred to different dreams. being attended by many white persons from the town of Pawnee. after such a prayer. Murie) and sang them alone. The helmet to a pole at the top of which a captured knife wfis fastened like the point of a lance. At the first dance the soldiers were honored by their families and friends. Several were with the Rainbow Division." One night he fell asleep. all represented in the United States Army by returned in full health and vigor. about 45 of whom were in the circle. so they will all come back strong and let me live to see them again. even the oldest people were dancing. and in his dream he saw thousands of white people and heard them sing this song. composed two similar songs. these words being sung to an old tune. repetitions of the shrill. and "in his sleep someone told him that it would not be long before he would see the Pawnee boys again. saying. Two of the . One of the Pawnee soldiers died from disease in France. especially by the women.

and sang the song. A few days later he heard of the signing of the armistice and the scenes of its celebration. and on top of it was a skull." The words of the song when sung at the victory dance were connected with events of the recent war. As already mentioned. 1134) Recorded by John Voice J r Luwak 76 to No. Two white women stood near him watching the dance.^^- ." When he awoke he thought perhaps the skull indicated that many of the enemy had been killed but later he interpreted the skull as representing a helmet. saying.2 Drum J = 76 Drum rhythm similar |4V. The words with his second dream were addressed to the skull: "At this. whoever you may have belonged to. 93 never seen white people behave in this manner. ii i.66 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY him [bull. and it surgreatly. Song for He had Returned Pawnee Soldiers (Catalogue No. 36. you are now hung on a pole. a helmet was carried in the victory dance. which was readUy learned by the people and sung at subsequent gatherings prior to the return of the soldiers. I wonder what that can be. The next night he dreamed again. and in his dream he saw a circle of Indians dancing and heard them sing the same melody. prised No. told his dreams. and one of them pointed to the skull. The words heard in his first dream are those presented with the transcription. In the middle of the dance circle was a tall pole. Soon after these dreams there was a gathering of the Pawnee at the earth lodge and Luwak rose. "Look.

" The informant added. The speaker placed his hands on the man's head. nardhata." The custom of weeping and even wailing aloud at pubUc gatherings has not been noted in tribes previously studied. The young soldier who directed the dancing carried a sword which had belonged to one of his ancestors. broA\Ti).' " Analysis.DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 67 dance lodge by women." ^* A touching event in the second day's gathering was the expression led into the the full sympathy for the parents of the yoimg man who died in France. The time was well maintained throughout the song. This is one of the "crying songs. bear. The Omaha Tribe. 459. he also held the man's hands closely in his own as he talked to him in a tender. were friendly toward all. AH the tones of the octave occur in the melody which progresses by a wide variety of intervals. and "when he sang everybody cried. who died not long ago. The former is coromon to all the tribes of the northern plains. extending even to the Kutenai. Numerous speeches were made. by the women on the second day an "honor song" and belonged to an old man named Brown Bear {guruks. — M Fletcher and La Flesche. of earnest manner. According to Miss Fletcher. Ethn.. dignity as well as rejoicing. "Nobody knows when the world will end. drawing them down the man's arms to his hands. and made a good impression upon the white people who attended the gathering. Bur. followed by the war dance. The words of the song meant. is impossible to transcribe. Twenty-seventli Ann. 13. . Kept. Attention is directed to a comparison of the count-divisions in the two rhythmic imits and in the fifth and sixth measures from the close of the song. and the occasion was marked by The young soldiers appeared to be in excellent health. and 14. the dance originally was connected wdth the Hethushka Society of the Omaha. a society whose object was "to stimulate an heroic spirit among the people and to keep alive the memory of historic and valorous acts. At a war dance he used to rise and sing this song without the drum. and Lawrence Murie wore the khaki uniform in which he had served with the artillery at the front. The song next following was sung It is of the victory dance. p. especially in measures 7. Some of the young men were in costume of Indian warriors. They stood before the assembly while the chief and other leading men tallved to them. others were in civilian clothing. The principal dance was the grass dance. 8. "The old man used to say 'there is one person who knows when the world will end." and the sliding tone. Amer.

37. Brown Bear's Song [bull.^' Among the other songs used at this time was one which belonged to Roaming Chief and appears as No. She would also sing it at the dance held after their return. 67 in the present work. 93 (Catalogue No.U OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No. Women's War Song (Catalogue No. the men who belong to the Lance Society (Tirupa).68 BUREA. The words mean." It is a woman's song and would be sung by a woman whose husband or son was on the warpath. 38. "They are coming yonder. 1082) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice Jr 63 (J)= 126) Drum not recorded . 1085) Recorded by Effie Blai Voice Jr 69 not recorded Drum at the victory dance Lance dance songs. also The next song was sung by the women and was said to be "in the style of the No.

Miniature group of Pawnee Thunder ceremony exhibited in Field Museum of Natural History 6. Framework (probably sweat lodge) near ceremonial earth lodge c. Structure in which victory dances and hand games were held .BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY BULLETIN 93 PLATE 7 a.


The man holding the balls moves his hands above his head. games was in 1919 and the second in the following year. one pair with six notches on one side and one notch on the other side. and all feathered Hke arrows. Ghost dance songs are sung in the dancing which takes place at intervals during the game. pp.DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 69 Analysis. five correct guesses in succession. each set consisting of eight sticks. of their leadership. chief of the Slddi Band. impossible to transcribe. 274. The melody tones are those of the second — 5-toned scale. game attended by the writer continuing about six hours. keynote is more prominent in this song than in a majority of the songs under analysis. Four renditions of this song were recorded without a break in the time. Rept. the seventh measure was omitted and the first tone in the next to the last measure was sung as C instead of E. marked in pairs alike.) The first of these for returned soldiers had been held. four painted yellow ington. slightly larger than bullets. occurred at the end of the first and third measures. Murie. The number of Indians in attendance was more than 200.. The transcription is from the The only differences were that in the later renditions first rendition. and the other pair with an incised cross on each side of the sticks. A downward sliding of the voice. Nine of the 32 intervals are fourths. the first ^* feathered sticks were placed upright in the ground before him. HAND GAME SONGS had the privilege of attending a hand Pawnee held in the same lodge where the victory dances (PL 7. Thus there were seven Ghost dance . This is interesting because of the 7-8 measures which were always sung in correct time. of four hiding sticks. Twenty-fourth Ann. 1% inches long. Bur. The balls are hidden by players of one side until the opponents have made sticks. 1907. The games are often of long duration. Amer. Such differences are The slight but are important to observe in a study of Indian music. dance.) 28 The number seven is leaders. In former times this game was played only by men and the objects hidden were short occasions the writer On two game of the but at the present time both men and women take part in the game. while the songs grow more excited as the moment for maldng the guess approaches. In one set these and four painted blue." ^e The woman who and this was said to be "as in the Ghost "gave the dance" stood in the center of the lodge and appointed such sticks are illustrated by Culin. decorated with feathers. which is an unusually large proportion of this interval. Ethn. In the other The same authority illustrates a set set each stick bears a little hoop at its end. Stewart. 275. this tone occurring in every measure except the first. This game was opened in a ceremonial manner by James R. Wash25 Two sets of are 17 inches long. hiding smaU balls. who Seven also recorded the guesses by means of decorated sticks. c. Games of the North American Indians. and does everything possible to mystify and confuse his opponent. (Culin. puts them behind his back. wearing sacred crow feathers as emblems particularly sacred in the Ghost dance.

7. Eight of the songs used at this game. The writer was invited to sit beside a member of the tribe and join in the game. »8 2. . The writer shared in the feast. On two occasions my partner in the dance. 923. Mrs. hand game and the victory dances. In some of these songs there were no words and in others the words are obsolete. not only because she gave the invitations and provided the feast. were later recorded by Horse Chief. . B trance. James. then older women. and gradually quieted her. The woman who gave the hand game was afflicted with what was termed a ''Ghost dance fit. provided his own the manner of the Indians. . and at a gathering in that village the writer saw a woman afflicted in a manner similar to the " Ghost dance fit. standing in the center of the lodge and appointing those who should lead the two sides of players. the unconsciousness.) the Indians at Neah Bay. Young women are usually the first to be affected. 1921. Good Eagle was a dignified hostess. and was given by Mrs. 2. Bur.. and lastly men. This was said to be her hand game. who recorded Song No. pt." ^^ She staggered and moaned in a pitiful manner but did not fall to the ground. Wash. Mr. Good Eagle (pi. or one outer and one inner hand. each time a woman.70 those BUREA." (Mooney. Fourteenth Ann. 93 who should lead the two opposing sides. 80. It was customary to give the balls to persons sitting next each other. The "Shaker religion" has been introduced among . « The woman undoubtedly suSered from the early stages of what. the singer repeating them but having no knowledge of their meaning. Kept. A bountiful According to Indian custom. and back again to wakefulness. the two inner. but because certain features of the game. as played that day. Several persons went to her aid and ^^ restored her in the manner peculiar to the Ghost dance. came under the influence and I was thus enabled to note the very first nervous tremor of her hand and mark it as it increased in violence until she broke away and staggered toward the medicine man within the circle. The doors were closed and a fflled pipe was offered to the earth and the sky. had been revealed The symbolism of certain articles used in that to her in a dream. p. a prominent singer at the drum. during the hiding of the balls. c). by the writer took place on The second hand game attended April 16. opposite the door. game was not made known to the singers and perhaps is known only The game was held in the same 6-sided lodge as the former to herself. Ethn. After the game the doors were again closed and a tiny portion of each sort of food was ceremonially offered and then laid beside the fire space." A slave woman went to her. 1896. would have been through the Mooney states that he "was able to note all the stages of the phenomenon staggering. in the Ghost dance. c. the guesser indicating by a gesture whether he (or she) believed the balls to be in the two outer hands.) As on the former occasion. each person feast was then served. (PI.. These in turn selected those who should hide the balls. The Ghost Dance Religion. at- tempting to hide the balls in An unfortunate though not unusual circumstance took place in the dances which occurred during this game. stroked her arms and head. utensils and the food was served in large containers. Murie opened the game in a ceremonial manner. Washington. the rigidity.TJ OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull.

The song contains. 1138) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J r 108 Drum not recorded m \ fcmfJi ^^ i ^m This song. Only two tones occur in the melody. 39. Analysis.WNEE MUSIC 71 The first song of this group belonged to Blue Hawk. It is interesting to note that in these phrases were clearly given." No. four phrases. however. the first and second having one rhythmic unit and the third and fourth another rhythmic unit. Blue Hawk's When he Hand Game Song (Catalogue No. — Hand Game Guessing Song (a) (Catalogue No. each of which contains two phrases. The first imit contains a change of time.densmore] PA. as transcribed. 40. is composed of three periods. It will be noted that the The rests occurring first two phrases each contains two measures. the first unit contains a triplet of eighth notes on the second count and the second unit contains such a triplet on the first count. but the latter part is repeated. melodic material and well-developed rhythm. (i) _^ » i: i p* p ff ^ I r p p p ' p i If y ft ft~ *f I P ' P ft *y - ji This is an interesting example of a song with scanty Analysis. while the measure lengths are uniform in the second rhythmic unit. a fundamental and its major third. These did not vary in the renditions of the song. gave a game this was always sung at the first "hiding. No. 1137) Recorded by Horse Chief Vdice J r 10^ (!) Druffl'iid"t^ectfrdfe5. — .

On the quarter notes of the rhythmic unit there was a pulsation of the voice which can not be indicated by notation. — . the song is The descending fourth classified as based on the first 5-toned scale. the sixteenth notes were given with distinctNo words were sung and the tones were separated by the ness. The most prominent tones are F and C. B flat to F. and the song is transcribed as being in the key of F. The keynote appears to be F and. Hand Game Guessing Song (b) (Catalogue No. No. 93 Two such complete renditions were recorded and show no differences.72 making five BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY phrases in a complete rendition. is a prominent interval in the framework* of the melody. except few instances. and G to D. It is interesting to note that a dotted eighth occurs on the accented count of the first unit and on the unaccented count of the second unit. Analysis. although the third above that tone does not occur in the melody. occurring as C to G. as the third and seventh above that tone do not appear. This pecuharity was noted first in other songs recorded by the same singer. peculiar action of throat and tongue that characterizes the tone production of the Indians. 1139) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J= 60 not recorded Drum m in a very M- ^- ll^i ^ k: #—1» rrrrt » h Eight renditions of this song were recorded and. [bull. 41.

42. and the song is classified in the key of F. as an unaccented tone . unit occurring twice. although A occurs only once. and B flat. G. 73 (c) Hand Game Guessing Song (Catalogue No. Hand Game Guessing Song Recorded by Horse Chief (d) (Catalogue No. No. with the third lacking.DENSMOEEj PAWNEE MUSIC No. 1140) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J : 104 ^ S Drum (1) uot recordt^d (1) f \r r (2) s^iLr (3) ^ . (2) £ (3) I rrnm Isome r T r ^ * » i i» i» fc^ p V B » |P • ^ ^tltisi S Analysis. 43. Attention is directed to the rest in the first measure of the third unit which adds interest to the melody. 1141) Voice J= 96 not recorded (2) Drum IH^l^U s V^ 1 I _. jf Cr m 0- P vCLJ (2) \i U [j^ c • ^ F Analysis. —This song comprises three periods. The only tones occurring in the song are F. —The prominence of F and C in this song suggests as its keynote. each with a rhythmic There is less resemblance between these units than in many other songs.

The melody tones are those of the second 5-toned scale and the downward progressions comprise two-thirds This is a proportion of descending intervals of the entire number. these being —The G-B frequently noted in Indian songs. 42. 1142) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J : 112 Drum not recorded (1) r ^ ^ J2I ^ IT IfZ '_/[T ^i r^'^C-zL/ Analysis. 44. as in [bull 93 in the first measure. tone of the first measure. many other is Indian songs. The first of these minor intervals comprises the first four measures of the song. the clas- sification according to a keynote for convenience in grouping the material and does not indicate that the song is in an established key. The minor third D-F is prominent in the latter portion of the song. this difference being maintained in every The principal interval is the minor third. and the song closes with four measures on the second named interval with a different rhythm than that of the first phrase. framework of this thirds.U OF A^MERIC^N ETHNOLOGY In this. which comprises instance. four-fifths of the progressions. This is followed by two measures that may be considered connective. . No. with two occurrences of the rhythmic unit.' 74 BUREA. Hand Game Guessing Song (e) (Catalogue No. Three rhythmic units occur but do not appear in consecutive order The first and third units are alike except for the last as in No. '^ C-/r flat ' tj'-^^LJ? ^ melody consists of two minor and D-F.

and the fourth. 75 (f) Hand Game Guessing Song (Catalogue No. 45. Hand Game Guessing Song (g) (Catalogue No. This song comprises four periods. The fourth and seventh tones of the octave are lacking as in the fourth 5-toned scale.WNEE MUSIC No. The first and — second are repetitions of a rhythmic unit. No. song. 46.Q rhythm of this is pleasing and the rhythmic of three repetitions of the unit comprises three measures. This song affords an example of what has been termed the influence of a rhythmic unit on that portion of the song in which it does not occur. as more than half the intervals are semitones which are difficult for an Indian to sing. 1144) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J = 100 ^^ Drum not recorded i^—i^ • £ ir r P V Analysis. 1143) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J = 96 Drum not recorded m ^m Z /LJ Il/Cj^ ^ ! 1'-"^ U^^ ^ l a C JF song ^ 1 ^' C^rrivfi?-^ Analysis.— 'Y:\\. the third differs from the unit on the last count. but the song is minor iij tonality. though beginning like the first period. contains one phrase like the ending of the rhythmic .densmoee] PA. the repetitions being exact in the two renditions The intonation was uncertain. The song consists of this unit.

with F as the principal tone of the song. 1098) Recorded by Effie Blain Volee J = 92 to No. he heard a cry in the woods. one night. was said. The rhythm was identical in aU the renditions. 2 Djum J = 92 Drum rhythm similar (1) ra w3 - ka ka - wi ti-ku m kl • ra waka ka-wi -ti-ku a-. The old man cried every day but at last.— 76 — (bull. I am in heaven. The melody is less interesting than the rhythm." No.' Afterwards he did not cry any more. It was his daughter. was also sung while the game was in progress. 'Father.ti ^m ra-hu i - ^ ra Piraski W ka-we' ^ I I ra ka t ra-hu a-ti< T3I I 1 ti rat pa ri ti rat pa ri Child . 93 BtJBEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY unit and another which resembles it but is not exactly like any other phrase in the song. "This song belonged to a man who died He had one daughter and she died. who said. "I Hear the Sound of a Child Crying" (Catalogue No. the first half beuig based on the interval of a fifth (F to C) and the last half on a fourth (D to G). The following song it In explanation long ago. 47.

the Pawnee "used to go traveling.rhythm Ti This ra ^__ (2) ?z2: g ti (2) -J ^J^ hu lij J j T^ • Ti ra hu ra ats-kupi-ras-ki ^ii j^i^/-]. at night to rest Long when No. maintaining this tempo in all the renditions. too young to play. Part of the song is above and part is below the keynote. Ten renditions of this song were recorded with no break in the time except a pause for breath between the eighth and ninth renditions. ago. It is interesting to note that the drum is slightly faster than the voice. The descent at the close of the first and second measures was given with a sliding of the voice which can not be represented in musical notation. As soon as night came this little boy ran to get wood and made a big fire so that everyone would come and play the hand game. One boy is running. who loved to watch the game.densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 77 and bears no resemblance the second unit. Two rhythmic units occur. resembling and voice are in the same tempo. He was so little that he wore no clothing. Hand Game Song Concerning Recorded by Epfie Blain a Little Boy (Catalogue No. Drum to it." they stopped and frequently played the hand game. — . and the third is still shorter. He did not even want to eat he was so anxious for them to play.jTTTijUi_^-« i tu ra 51 -hu ats-kupi-ras-kt tu ra si-hn have hu coming atsku piraski tu ra sihu one boy do Have running FREE TRANSLATION They (the men) are coming. The song is minor in tonality and contains all the tones of the octave except the seventh. the second being much longer than the first. 1097) Voice J Drum J (1) r = 108 112 (1) See drum-rhythm below ^H Dr um. Among them was a little boy. 48. Analysis. The men made this song about the little boy and sang it as they played the game.

93 The next song was have come down from a time when only men played the hand game. No change of measure length occurs and the song consists entirely of repetitions of the rhythmic unit. certain Ghost " Mooney. . cit. becoming as much devoted to the Ghost dance as the Arapaho themselves. The doctrine made slow progress for some time. 66) w^as also sung at a hand game.78 BUREAU OF A. suggests alternation and the swaying of the players from side There is also an energy in the ascending approach to the first count of each measure.MERICAN ETHNOLOGY said to [bull. The song contains 11 ascending and 10 descending progressions. 1095) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice J : 76 Drum uot recorded f' X'li li-Jjjg'i'xii Analysis. two of each being the interval of a fourth." ^^ A woman's Ghost dance dress is shown in Plate 8.. p. 49. op. 1892. also other costumes. but by February. James. the majority of the Pawnee were dancing in confident expectation of the speedy coming of the Messiah and the buffalo.. rhythm that to. GHOST DANCE SONGS The Pawnee are deeply religious by nature and received the Ghost dance with sympathy. According to Mooney "The Ghost dance was brought to the Pawnee . 902. Ghost dance songs were recorded but the dance did not form a subject of study by the present writer. Uijjp It is a —The rhythm of this song is characteristic of the physical movements of persons playing the hand game. No. c. side.. A song of Roaming Chief (No. by delegates from the Arapaho and Cheyenne in the west. As stated. The tones are those of the first 5-toned scale which omits the third and seventh tones of the octave and is always a particularly free melodic form. "You Came Near Finding Them" (Catalogue No. Of all these tribes the Pawnee took most interest in the new doctrine.

is no change of measure length and the rhythm sugmotion of the players. — ceding song. "The Crow" (Catalogue No. 49716°— 29 7 ." At intervals these people gave the caw of the crow and imitated that bird in their dancing. In old times the game and its accompanying dances were held on the prairie instead of inside a lodge. A portion of the people were called "crows.DENSMOREl PAWNEE MUSIC 79 dance songs were sung in the dances at hand games while others were not used in that manner. no one except themselves being able to see it. who said she might sing it either at a hand game or a Ghost dance.^ith the hand game attended by the writer. The singer said that she "dreamed" this song when she was a young girl. The following song was "dreamed" by the woman recording it. there gests the The crow which sometimes appeared in the Ghost dance might speak of taking the dancer to Mother Moon or to the Ghost dance messiah. (This was done in the dance connected v. The first two phrases of this song are based on a descending fourth and the last two phrases on a descending fifth. the dancers sometimes saw a crow inside the dance circle. 1087) Recorded by Effie Blain Volce^ J = 116 •Drum not recorded r FREE TRANSLATION The crow. 50. The hypnotic phase which the hand game has in common with the Ghost dance is indicated in the following song which was sung at the Ghost dance and also at the hand game. we see his likeness moving inside the circle of dancers. Analysis. No.) It is said that under the hypnotic influence of the occasion. The song is minor in tonality and contains all the tones of the octave except the sixth and seventh. the repetiAs in the pretion of these Dhrases comprising the entire melody." and the woman who recorded this song said that she "belonged on the crow side of the circle.

1084) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice J= 108 (1) Drum not recorded (2) 1 (1) (2>. 93 Moon (Catalogue No. 51.— 80 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No. Song Concerning Mother [bull. ^J l3^JJ Ka-ka 5^ ti l a - J- J^J \iJ ti P5 B=ac tu - wa 1 1 (3) ku ka ka wa - kuwetat ta tu- ^^ ta 4 * Kaka "iJ-'»_~p%~" - ta tu a-ti-rai m ri (3) ra-a a-ti-ra i ri ra-a .

(Catalogue No. 52. 1094) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice J Drum J (1) r 112 : 112 Drum-rhytliin similar to No. used in the dances incident to a No. (i) 4 W M^ ^ i « *F ^m ^^^ The Voice J r ^ ^^ (2) (2) 9—9 ^^ ^^iF^^^ hand game. Song Concerning an Open Grave sort. It in songs connected with animals has been noted that the fourth is and with motion of any No. 53. 1145) Recorded by Horse Chief 96 (1) Drum (1) not recorded (1) (2) (1) . Ghost Dance Song (Catalogue No.2 PAWNEE MUSIC About one-fifth of the intervals are fourths. (a) four songs next following were also said to be Ghost dance songs. 81 which is is a large propornot associated with especially prominent tion of this interval to occur in a song that motion.

Ghost Dance Song (c) (Catalogue No. fourth.82 BUREAU OF AMERICA-N ETHNOLOGY [bull. The rest in measure of the unit was clearly given. 55. 1146) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J r 88 Drum not recorded ^ six y^^^i> t-^~~^^ (g . this interval constituting 8 of the 11 The melodic material consists of the minor triad and intervals. Thus it appears that E is the fundamental tone. same number of major seconds. 93 four periods of five measures each. fTV\ w p >] Lxuntrr^ song contains a single rhythmic unit repeated progressions divide the song into three The compass of each part parts. and the second and last on the descending fourth A-E. The song comprises No. the remaining intervals consisting of two ascending fourths and one ascending fifth. but the third above that tone does not occur The progressions consist of 12 minor thirds and the in the song. ^ iLTT 7 1 | ^£I-^ p \LU=^ \lS P ^ y =^ p'A> LI Analysis. each contaming four measures. the first being on the descending interval C-A flat. the first and third being based on the descending fifth B-E. and the third entirely on F. times. 54. Ghost Dance Song (b) (Catalogue No. The melody progresses chiefly by whole tones. is small. No. 1147) Recorded by House Chief Voice J : 76 Drum ii) not recorded .fja. the —This The melodic second on the first B flat-A flat.

is used imder a false pretense no results . This and the succeeding song were not used in the hand game. 56. The first rhythmic unit begins on an unaccented tone and the second begins on an accented tone. A dream of the yellow star was induced stars in the sky are people. "All the feather painted yellow. 43 and 47). Ghost Dance Song (d) (Catalogue No. He dreamed of a yellow star wliich came to him and said. can be obtained." The star was in the form of a woman holding in her hand an eagle She gave him the feather. the first and last having the — same rhythmic unit and the second period having a longer unit with a change of time. No.dEUsmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 83 Analysis. fifth. The song contains eight descending and only thi-ee ascending intervals. "I am the star which you see in the sky at night." by watching the star when in a Ghost dance trance. It is interesting to compare the close of the first rhythmic unit with that of the second wHich contains the same count division with a difl^erent More than four-fifths of the intervals are semitones accent. which occur only sharp and G. This peculiarity occurs also in two songs of the hand game (Nos. but she gives to her favored friends the right to wear a yellow eagle feather upright in their hair and to use it in hypnotizing other The If such a feather dancers. The interest and force of the song lie in the second rhythmic unit which contains a triple measure. The favor of "yellow star" was greatly desired as she does not appear to many dancers. —In this song we feel the pathos of the Ghost dance. The only accented tones in this song are the keynote and The song comprises three periods. Analysis. 1148) Recorded by Horse Chief Voice J . saying. singer said that he composed this song when waking from a trance in the Ghost dance. and D sharp and E. Rests occur with some between F frequency and were given uniformly in all the renditions. 96 JDrum not recorded (I) .

57. 93 (Catalogue No. 1107) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice J = 84 similar to No.84 BUEEAXJ OF AMEETCAN ETHNOLOGY No. "The Yellow Star" [bcix. 26 (1) Drum J = 84 Drum rbytbm (1) .

He also gave the call of the fox while he was dancing. Running Scout's Ghost Dance Song (Catalogue No. 1088) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice . 58. No. J = 96 Drum not recorded he .densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 85 dancing. For this reason Running Scout always wore a fox skin in the Ghost dance. Some had fox skins around their heads while others used fox skins in hypnotizing their fellow dancers. The skin was not made into a cap but the head and tail were fastened together and hung at the back of his neck in such a manner that the tail rested on his shoulder.





[bull. 93

The song comprises two




eight and the second containing seven measures. units occur, the second being an extension of the



has a compass of 12 tones, which


The song somewhat unusual in Pawnee

No. 59. Song Concerning the Ghost Dance
(Catalogue No. 1102)

Recorded by Wicita Blain



not recorded





The words with the repetition of the melody were: "My father himthrough him I am exalted (made prominent) among the people."





the People "

(Catalogue No. 1123)

Recorded by John


Voice J




not recorded

A' ##.'1=:

ti-as ru


ra ri-ke

a-ti-asru a ra




[bull. 93

compass of 10 tones, beginning on the highest and ending on the lowest
tone of the compass.
After descending to the lowest tone with repeti-

melody ascends to the fifth and again descends to the lowest tone, this time in a different rhythm. The whole tone comprises two- thirds of the progressions.
tions of the rhythmic unit the

No. 61.

"The Heavens Are Speaking"
(Catalogue No. 1122)

Recorded by John


Voice J


similar to No. 2

Drum J r 60 Drum-rhythm


lu ra


ri -


ru u


ru ra


ri -





ti -

iJJ 'iur




ta kl-ta-wi-u

" T densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC 89 The next song heavens. the fourth raised a semitone. As in several other songs its with begins on the highest tone of compass and ends on the lowest. except in the final meas- ures. The song has a compass of an octave and progresses by a variety of intervals. —This song major in tonality and contains one acci- dental. and belonged to Man Chief. went around the village singing this song with other young men. —With it a range of 10 tones this song contains the tone material of the second 5-toned scale. The rhythm presents an un- usual monotony as the only count-divisions. is O heavens. following was used as an old war dance. the third differing slightly from the others in rhythm. The song consists of four periods." man. dwell the ruling powers. 62. so that all the people might hear and know they had assumed the It is an Iruska but not a dancing song attitude of men toward life. Analysis. in former times. It The song next Analysis. . as a young their trust in the heavens. was the custom of the young men. large compass. to make known that they had arrived at an age of realization and had "put James R. contains the same idea of the "ruling power in the No. Murie said that he. 1129) Recorded by John Luwak Voice J = 104 Drum not recorded VH jj^f ^f "Pi^'^r^^^i''r"iff"#^ pif7 V'l? In There ta r n ^"^ir' hawa almost always iT^lr' ^ wi are tas ^ ta kitawi ras (or leaders) you have tas powers ta you kawaha heavens ki we are kitawi have expand you have powers FREE TRANSLATION I believe that in you. are dotted quarter notes followed by eighth notes. a form which occurs frequently in the simpler songs of the Indians. "O Expanse of the Heavens" (Catalogue No.

64. 26 Drum-rbytbm similar m My ^•ir spirit rests in r ^ 1^ Cjifir r is p i r ' r m FREE TRANSLATION the belief that power in the heavens. "Our Hearts Are Set in the Heavens" (Catalogue No. 93 "Power is in the Heavens" (Catalogue No. 63. 1130) Recorded by John Luwak Voice J : r Drum J 104 126 to No. ' ' 4 . [bull. 1080) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice J =84 Drum not recorded ^*^J!ghii «— ri } ru -: te ra - hu-ku tsik- 4 ur^.• 90 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No. No.

the second being the opening phrase of the first unit and occurring at the close In structure the song is harmonic. —The rhythmic form of this song is interesting and complete. iDrum^J i 63 Drum-rhythm sImllaT to No. the third period Analysis. Chief's Song (Catalogue No. 2 Si) Analysis. The grief of his wife at the death of a mentioned in connection with her song (No. 1131) Recorded by John Luwak Voice Id = 6.5.WNEE MUSIC 91 introduces the interval of a semitone." It was also customary to sing this song at a hand game. second. beginning of this compass. It was said that "Tirawa had pity on Roaming Chief" and that. Roamdaughter is ing Chief was hereditary chief of this band and was a nephew of the famous Pitalesaru. A Ghost dance was sometimes held especially for Roaming Chief and he "cried as he sang this song. Visions appeared to him in this trance. the present song referring to such an experience. The compass is 13 tones and more than half the progressions are — . being in rhythm different from that of the first. The song contains two rhythmic units. This song is in a form already noted. and was sung with distinctness. during a Ghost dance. ROAMING The two songs next chief of the CHIEF'S SONGS following belonged to a comparatively recent Chaui Band. though the words are not translated.DENSMOREl PA. and fourth. who was appointed chief of the confederated bands of the Pawnee by the Government of the United States. It is minor in of the song. The song contains no change of measure lengths and has a compass of 13 tones. has a ^compass of an octave. tonality. 83). 65. and progresses by a variety of intervals. on the highest and ending on the lowest tone The final song belonging to Man Man Chief is similar to those already presented. those occurring most frequently being the fourth and the major second. No. he fell in a trance.

92 BUREAU OF \MERICAN ETHNOLOGY The seventh all is [bull. 66. a hi I (1) (1) Ra m he T r m ra a ni i H I i a ' a ne I t ^ r ta tix wa-'ki-a rorr T r hu . this accidental being of particular interest in a song with minor tonality. "It Is Good Where We Are Now" (Catalogue No. jCjE ti-hera: we_ u^r r^^u ra-he— tii ^ - ra a WH Ra (2) r-^ f hi JjJ i i *f? ra a hi i 3 t a he a mm i 1 1 he • ru heTQ . sharped in every occur- rence. 93 whole tones and semitones. The song contains the tones of the octave except the fourth and sixth. No. 1090) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice ice J «J r 84 Drum I not recorded (1) <2.

"My Trust is in Mother Corn" (Catalogue No.DENSMOnE] PA. and two very old songs expressing a These were sung by young girls when at work in the gentle longing.^^ The cause of the change from these songs of respectful affection to the modern "love song" is found in the general change from primitive customs. No. and often boast of fasThey are connected with intoxication and are cinations and conquests. 54-67."^^ The words of modern Indian love songs usually express a lack of respect for women. Walks Visibly (woman's name) has said this. p. recorded songs of loneliness for her husband. pp. The song contains 19 intervals. p. Many ity in the A " Teton Sioux Music. This led to clandestine meetings. 67. The distmction between these and the modern ''love song" is clearly drawn by the Indians and is evident from the words of the songs. sung by young men of no standing among their own people. 10 of which are whole tones and 5 are fourths. one containing the words "If you are truthful. 1089) Recorded by John Luwak Voice J r-53 Drum not recoi'ded SONGS OF AFFECTION Songs rising from deep affection and respect were occasionally sung by Indians in the old times.^^ Otter Woman. few songs of this period were recorded among the Sioux. The Sioux said that in old times they had a few songs concerning a man's qualification to wed. A period of transition began when the young people refused to recognize parental author- matter of their affections. " Mandan and Hidatsa Music. 370. and might be concerning persons who had been married for many years. come. 510. an aged widow of the Mandan Tribe. . this being determined by his success in war or on the buffalo hunt. and are as delicate as the little plants which they tended so gardens carefully . In former times the marriages of young people were either arranged by the parents or subject to parental approval.WNEE MUSIC 93 measure were changed to conform to different words but the duration of the measure remained the same. " Teton Sioux Music.



[bull. 93

such songs have been recorded among the Chippewa and Menominee.

The development of

this class of songs


Pawnee is considered

in a subsequent paragraph.

Three of the old songs of affection were obtained among the Pawnee, the first two being recorded by John Luwak, chief of the Chaui Band, while his wife assisted with the information. As already stated, the marriages were formerly arranged by the parents and "the fathers usually took charge of the matter." It was further said that "the marriages always turned out happily as the old people knew better than the young people and understood which boys and girls would get along the best." Mrs. Luwak, wife of the singer, said that her marriage was arranged by her parents and that at first she "cried every day," but she indicated with some shyness that the marriage had resulted happily.




the song of a

addresses his wife, saying,

loved me, but if you love soon after I die."

man who is going to war. He "When I die do not cry unless you really me you will cry and you will not remarry

No. 68. Song of Affection

(Catalogue No. 1136)

Recorded by John Voice J



(1) 1)

not recorded)

















r r

third tone in this song
of about a tone




was followed by a down-

ward glissando

which is impossible to transcribe. It is interesting to note that the count divisions of the first unit are reversed in the second unit, a thematic treatment showing the intelligence of the Indian musician. The song is major in tonality, has a compass of 10 tones, and about 80 per cent of the progressions are major seconds. Three renditions were recorded without a break
in the time.



In explanation of the next song it was said, "There was once a married couple. One day the wife said to her husband, 'I love you very much and if you should die I would cry every day.' This was the first time that either had admitted an affection for the other."
No. 69. Song of Affection

(Catalogue No. 1135)

Recorded by John
Voice J = 138 'Drum not recorded












.».^ <H-a




present song is unusual in that the intonation on was good while the transition from one phrase to another was uncertain in intonation. This may have been due to the compass of two octaves, the rapid tempo, and the agitation in the mind of the singer. The rhythmic unit is simple and its repetitions comprise practically the entire song. In every rendition there was a pause after the sixth measure, followed by a repetition of these six measures, and a continuance without a break in the time. All the tones of
single phrases


the octave except the seventh are present in this remarkable melody.

There is deep pathos in the next song and its history. A woman composed this song while her husband was on the warpath. She died during his absence, but her friends had learned the song. When her husband returned they sang the song and told him its story.


learned the song.

49716°— 29



No. 70. Song of a Warrior's Wife

[bull. 93

(Catalogue No. 1100)

Recorded by Effie Blain


J)= 144 (J= 72) uot recorded

T r


I wonder where he is sitting, That person who comes and sits




Analysis. In all renditions of this song the 7-8 and 3-4 measures were sung in exact time. Except for one minor third the melody progresses entirely by fourths and major seconds. It has a compass
of 10 tones

and contains the

entire octave except the fourth.
of the tribe said that

Mr. James R. Murie and other old members

love songs, in the white man's use of that term, were


According to Mr. Murie, there were four classes of Pawnee, the lowest being considered outcasts by the remainder of the tribe. These people camped near towns and worked for white people, from whom they obtained whisky. This class of Pawnee sang what were termed "crazy people's songs," which were associated with "love charms" and evil influences. No effort was made to secure examples of these songs. A change from the former attitude toward women, however, is shown in the following song which was said to be very old. It is not of so low a character as the "crazy people's songs," neither does it represent the high standard of life indicated in the former songs of this group. A girl married a man for whom she did not care and it would appear that, instead of adapting himself to the situation, he sought consolation elsewhere. Analysis. This melody consists of two parts, the first of which contains the rhythmic unit. The second part begins with a succession of eighth notes, followed by a measure which preserves the count divisions of the rhythmic unit. The count divisions throughout the song were sung with special clearness. The song is transcribed as having B flat for its keynote but the third above that tone does not occur. Except for an ascending octave the only inthe better class of
in the early days.



. Songs of this class were preceded by the syllable ee-ee on a low tone in imitation of a flute. or during resting periods in the chanting of a long ritual. Especially is it the privilege of the one who has made the ceremony possible. especially during the intermissions or pauses in the ceremony which occur from time to time between rites. Wash- . "Other Girls Are as Pretty as She'* (Catalogue No. Publ. Carnegie Institution of Washington. by providing the food for the sacrifice and These tales may also. No. be told outside the ceremonial lodge certain : . under feast. 59." MYTHS AND FOLK TALES The Pawnee possessed many stories pertaining to the origin of Concerning such stories Doctor Dorsey states "These tales. and circumstances. The Pawnee: Mythology ington. sacred bundles and the doings of mythological persons. are told only during ceremonies. (Pt. During such intermissions anyone of those present may ask the priests for such a tale.2 1 Drum-rhythm similar S3- A modern love song "That lady loves me." ^* religious significance. (not transcribed) I bet she is was translated as follows: thinking of me. each being maintained with regularity. No. 1906. The informant said ''the flute was courting medicine of a bad kind. M Dorsey.densmore] PAWNEE MUSIC and major seconds. 1)." It was said to be the song of a man already married who wanted the person mentioned in the song to elope with him. 1101) Recorded by Effie Blain Voice J Drum J = = 112 120 to No. 97 voice are different tervals are fourths Drum and in tempo. as a rule. . 71. to ask that such a tale be related. the chief object in relating folk tales them of stories gradually passed into current by any member Such knowledge and were told as the tribe without mention of their is to furnish instruction.

93 The first three stories of the following group are versions of old legends connected with the mythology of the tribe. while the fourth story in the group appears to be an ordinary folk tale. Later the old woman said. . The old woman said. One day the younger boy thought he would go to another village in the woods.." to the old (Referring to a of the tipi. "You certainly are good-looking. for Longnose (Coyote) will come before daylight to see if anyone is here. nor corn. tipi When by he came near itself this village he saw the smoke of a that stood among the willows. Northern Ute music." and the boy entered the tipi. If he offers you dry pumpkin do not eat it. there is a good looking young man down at the old woman's tipi. how good-looking he is. old told the youngest girl to go outside girl The was woman there." The old woman said. The Bring it home with you. They were goodlooldng lads and wore their hair long on the right side of the head. Coyote came to see if anyone was in the tipi. pp. "I sent for you to eat with me. "You had better go to some village where the people have more money. I want to feast him. Ethn. men killed by "Run down the chief that had been put in his 3« story of the Gambler. 35-54. "O grandmother. ''No. . (Cf Rudimentary Songs." The old woman went to speak with him and said. nor mush.98 BUREAU OF AMERICA." Before daylight.) In the first story we find an interesting resemblance to a story recorded in southern Arizona. He ought to go where the big men are.) The woman's tipi and bring the young man. 185-191. In this tipi lived an old woman and her three granddaughters.." and offered him dry heads of chief said. ^^ Story of the Gambler RELATED BY FANNIE CHAPMAN In a certain village were two young boys. saying. there is a good-looking young man outside. When you row kill him he will be the leader of your heads. Bull. You must watch. It differs from the others in that the entire narrative was sung. We are very poor. Cf.N ETHNOLOGY [bull. pp." But the lad replied. Bur. pp. He will see you and tell the chief. Amer. come in. op. who will ask you to breakfast. as the old woman had predicted. also Dorsey. and see if anyone saw the strange lad and returned. "You had better go away for the chief of our band is very unkind to strangers. 90. Coyote said to the young man." Coyote ran at once to the chief and said." Coyote ran as fast as he could. "Well. He went there and stood outside the entrance. Papago Music. "See my grandson. cit. I came here and this is where I belong. 200-205. The old woman saw him coming and again told the young man not to eat anything but to bring the food home. "O chief." When the chief saw the young man he said.

Stephen H. Long witnessed the playing of this game and described it as follows: "The instruments used are a small hoop about 6 inches in diameter. . he is waiting for you. . cow. you did wrong to consent. he him the hoop." The boy went home and told the old woman that he was to play the stick game with the chief." The old woman invited him into the tent but said as before. mentioned at the beginning of this story. and a pole The game is played 5 or 6 feet long. so the people on the chief's side killed all the people on the boy's side. and other food. the chief wanted him to play the "stick game. Coyote watched everything on the chief's side."^^ He refused at first but finally he said that he would play in two daj^s. and at last he was obliged to bet himself. They even killed the boy. 444.) . I In the story of "Blood-clot boy. He determined to find him and traced him to the village. I will take this home to my grandmother. Philadelphia." Before daylight on the day of the game Coyote opened the old woman's door and said. . got his bow and arrows. either in the ring. . and went to the old woman's tipi. then discharges after it the pole. why do you come father. p. After the boy refused to eat the food. 84. grew uneasy about his brother. Then Coyote took the bowls back to the chief. While this was happening the elder of the two boys. J823. sending the same girl to see if anyone were outside. Vol. mush. The old chief won. After throwing them from him the gamester continues his pace and the Indian. Edwin. She said. The chief said. was originally a buffalo 3' he wound with . The lad replied. "It looks as though that good-looking boy had come to life. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky Mountains under command of Maj. and the pole The effort appears to be to place tfie end of the pole arrive at the end of the path about the same time. 344. "O grandam full. The same authority states that "The was originally played for the direct purpose of calling the buffalo. You saw those heads in the chief's tent. ." Doctor Dorsey described the boy as making a ring of ash stick which a string made of boiled buffalo hide so that it looked like a spider's web. according to the story. "I will go when I am ready. and how they were to be anointed with the buffalo fat. on the larger end of which a limb is left to project about C inches. the hoop. The boy had nothing to wager so he bet the people who were on his side. "Choose a day and we wUl play. saying he must wait because he was so tired. . . . The old woman did as before. how the game was to be played. leaving first full instructions as to how they were to be treated. The girl returned and said. I have had my breakfast.DENSMOREl PAWNEE MUSIC 99 pumpkin. which slides along the path pursuing the first rolls from hoop until both stop together. The ring. and running at full speed. at one end of which the gamester commences. I. "O my grandson. then he went home." Later they began to play the stick game." (Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. The grandmother rolled the ring and the boy shot it with arrows and killed buffalo. or as near as possible. and we could perceive that those casts were considered best when the ring was caught by the hook at the end of the pole. pp. Long. He will kill you and all our people." Coyote went with him and waited while the old woman emptied and washed the bowls. The boy had people on his side and also a bird-man (bird turned into a man). "The chief is at the place for the game. "O my boy. Stephen H. Then they cut off all the heads and put them up with the other heads in the chief's lodge. at the distance of about 30 yards from the place whence they were thrown. how the songs were to be sung." (James. which is usually wound with thongs of leather.) Maj. corn. who watched everything. ring and javelin game The two sticks represent young buflalo bulls which turned into the gaming sticks." The boy replied. upon a smooth beaten path.

" They were so poor that they gave him only one bean from those they had gathered. 1157) Recorded by Fannie Chapman Tolce J Drum <1) = 116 not recorded . I wish you would go away. Coyote came." After they had gone the young man took the pipe out of the sacred I To-morrow bundle that the old woman kept. 93 to go where the rich people are. I want to be here. The boy went home and his brother said to his grandmother. The chief asked him to play the stick game and he said that he was too tired to play that day. for someone will come early in the morning to look all around the place. He held the stem of the pipe down toward the buffalo bones and sang the following song. found the young man. Go somewhere else or go home. over there by the hill. as his brother had done. Folk Tale Song (a) (Catalogue No. Do not try to look into the house until I call you. "O my grandson. Before daylight he filled the pipe and went toward the place where they used to kill the buffalo. It was decided that they would play in a few days." He repUed as had done." Everything happened exactly as before." Then he asked. When he reached the place he found many buffalo bones. 72. The young man replied. am going to play the stick game with the want you to clean up the house and put everything one side. that he was not hungry. "Yes. **I chief. At night the old woman said as before. then I want you all to go into the woods.100 here. BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY You ought [bull. "Is there any place around here where the people used to kill buffalo?" She replied. "No. who offered him food. and he took the food home. No. and took him to the chief.

The boy played with the sticks and had good luck. fathers. adding." Coyote went to the old woman's lodge." The chief said. He said.DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 101 Analysis." Then a middle-aged buffalo with shining horns came toward him and said. As the young man sang a noise like a great fathers this song the bones came to life and made many buffalo. The chief said. Now I will not be killed. They did not make any noise when he entered the lodge for they knew he was the right person. —The interval of a fourth constitutes 68 per cent of the is intervals in this song. "Perhaps you have some gaming sticks somewhere. and grandmothers. He was frightened and ran back. They rephed." and sent Coyote to get them. "All right. The buffalo said. played. The rhythmic structure is interesting as the three rhythmic units occur in somewhat irregular The song order. and the chief's leg was broken. "I will be the first to help you. In the morning Coyote came as before and said that all was ready Everything was the same as when the younger man for the game. opened the door and heard a noise as of many buffalo. "Now you have bet all the people. Where he had been lying the boy saw a game stick." mother that he would send someone for the sticks and the ring but did not want anyone to be at home when the messenger came. who brought the same report. Then a young buffalo cow did the same and when she The boy arose the boy saw a game ring which she told him to use. "Thanks. brought the two sticks and the ring home with him and hung them On the day of the game he told his grandbeside the sacred bundle. "Take that stick. interval. which is an unusually large proportion of this harmonic in structure and contains the complete octave except the second and seventh. ." in two. lying on the floor. chief's stick it sang this song. They began to play and the chief won as before. you ought to bet your- Then his stick struck the The young man said. "Now. the chief having Coyote and the man having the bird-man on his side. who brought the sticks and the ring." A young buffalo did the same and gave the boy another stick. The boy had no goods so he bet the people. He won back all the people." The young man and broke said "All right. Then the boy self." The buffalo thi'ew himself down and when he got up he shook himself. The Then chief sent another messenger. "They are common sticks. We know about that wicked chief and what he has been doing. as his brother had done. the boy sent the bird-man. sang. "Yes." The man said. grand- That is why I I want you to pity me.

They say you are a good gambler. He went and sat on a hill looking down and he saw a big flock of turkeys. p. " Coyote and the turkeys. Analysis. down. I have been asleep a long time. Then he stood below his brother's foot and kicked the foot. Chippewa Music. with the head at one end." and told him." Dorsey. and he thought. p. The song is melodic in structure and contains all the tones of the octave except the fourth. He asked. Then he laid his brother's smoothed his hair. He was hungry. as coyotes always are. MARY MURIE and a man who used to run around by himself. 206. Stoky of Coyote and the Turkeys ^^ RELATED BT MRS. As soon as the chief's people saw the stick turn into a buffalo they began to cry. "Where is my brother's head?" They east. but the boy's people began to rejoice. "Why are you sleeping so long?" His brother arose and said. They killed the chief where the game had been played and they to their killed all the chief's people. 265. 03 (Catalogue No. Traditions of the Slvidi Pawnee. "Thi'ow the sticks toward the bones?" They told him bones in order on the ground. "I am going to get one of them. saying. 73. Then the two brothers returned own vUlage.' 102 BUREAU OF AJMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No. The young man asked. »' The turkeys nudged each other and said. "Where are his this also. song comprises four periods. ' n r I i —This f L> S Get up and FKEE TRANSLATION are a good gambler. Also story of Wenabojo and the duclts. Although there is a similarity in these stories of the Pawnee and Chippewa there is no resemblance in the song which was sung in connection with the story. and finally it turned into a buffalo." They played again and They threw the the chief said. the same in each. "There comes a Cf. the rhythm being The descent of the voice at the close of each phrase was somewhat glissando but kept the intervals with reasonable distinctness. 1158) Recorded by Fannie Chapman Voice J= 132 Drum Dot recorded ^m "You play. Folk Tale Song (b) [bull. . sticks toward the east and the boy's stick went through the hoop and went on and on. "Yes." So he went There was a village He was Coyote.

let us have a dance. j'our heads down. D and E." The turkeys said. He selected about six of the biggest and fattest and said. He had a club in his hand but he kept on singing. Attention is directed to the effective use of a triple measure followed by a double measure at the close of the melody. com. The narrator of the next story said that it did not originate with the Pawnee and she thought that it came from the Omaha in Nebraska." Coyote looked at the turkeys. He looks hungry. they would go. "All right. pounded meat. "I have a song. "What kind of a game let us have a little game. song is continuous from the first measure to the and is especially interesting in the latter portion. They took plenty of dried meat. "Well. He said.WNEE MUSIC 103 We must look out for him. Some were big. and left the village." Coyote said to the turkeys. said. 74. let us have a dance. "Grandchildren. The turkeys said. and all kinds of food. fat ones. his children. Song of Coyote and (Catalogue No." sions. The rest flew away before he could Avives kill them." Then he arranged two rows back of them. He would have a feast for his "Turkeys have not much sense. move your hips as you dance of this —The rhythm last. 1154) Recorded by Mart Murie Voice J= 100 Drum not recorded FREE TRANSLATION Put Analysis. When I begin to sing you must all close your eyes. tut. "Close your eyes. killed all in the front row. don't let us have a game. and after a whUe he saw they all had their eyes shut. He is tricky. MART MURIE There was a man so jealous of his wife that he determined to take He told her to pack everything and her away from the village. "You must stand in front. supposed to represent the cry of the turkeys." are we going to have?" Coyote said. The tones occurring in the song are G and A. you are looking at me. Story of Nuri and His Brother RELATED BY MRS." He sang again." No. Then he Wliile you dance you must close your eyes. occurring in whole-toned progresThe last two notes were sung to the syllables "tut. The turkeys all had their eyes shut and he thief. They all said that. Then he said that he said." He kept his eyes open and he saw one turkey with its eyes open. When night came .densmoreI PA.

Her husband said they told her. After they had gone she exclaimed. No. BUREAU OF AMERICA. We know that you have plenty of food. The only progressions are whole tones and fourths. Song of the Strange Little Boy (Catalogue No. — . One day he went away as usual. Every morning before the man went to hunt he fixed the meat ready to cook and told the little boy to play inside the lodge. "Give us something to eat. as before. He was gone until night. and told his wife to stay in the lodge until his return. 1155) Recorded by Voice Mary Murie J r 76 Drum not recorded Irregular in tonality Analysis. One day. but his mother never knew." One heard it and said to the others. He said that he had seen some bad people prowhng about. When the man came home he looked for his wife. This song is classified as irregular in tonality. brought some water. after fixing the meat.N ETHNOLOGY [bull." She did not reply but pointed to the meat that was cooking on sticks around the fire. but her husband did not notice the second child and buried The second child crawled out of the ground it with the afterbirth. and lived with the animals.104 they camped. They did not see the baby but they carried the woman's body to their camp and devoured it. He was a good himter and killed deer. "She called us names. They ate it all and went away. 93 They were far from any people and her husband would stay in that place. that she must stay in the lodge. After a while they made an earth lodge to live in. and the little boy thought. "Those horrid men ate all my meat. when the man was away. and the sequence of tones can scarcely be said to suggest a keynote. and seeing the tracks he knew the wicked people had taken her. Both the melody and rhythm are simple and childish. Every morning the man put plenty of meat beside the fire. In time his wife bore a child and named it Nuri. these bad people came to the lodge." He went out and saw a little boy coming toward him. His wife was sitting beside the fire and the baby was asleep when she heard a sound and looked toward the door. The man grieved greatly for his wife. By this time the baby was old enough to walk and talk. Indeed she bore twin boys. The boy was about his own size and was singing the following song. and other game. Seven men entered the lodge and said. I never have seen what it is like out there." So they all went into the lodge and killed her. "I will go outside. 75. turkeys.

The strange boy went into the lodge and played until it was time into the lodge sniffed the air "Come Then he ran away. The wonder boy wanted The boy said as before. his brother continually would say." So one morning he hid instead of going away. "Forget. One day he failed to say "Forget" when he went away. The father determined to catch the boy by a trick and told Nuri how to tie a thong around his brother's scalplock. Another day they went to a place where a boat was moored. but as time passed. "Father. saying. Your father is my father too." Nuri said." The strange boy and asked." "It is certainly he. As the boy and his father were eating their supper Nuri said. him into danger. Before leaving the boat they sang the following song.DENSMORE] PAWNEE MUSIC 105 The strange boy (who was his brother) said." said Nuri. Then Nuri would yield. I have plenty of wild grapes and cherries but I do not have any meat to eat. Nuri obeyed tried to lead his father. "Perhaps you smell his blanket. and I will give you some." The man said to himself. you must give me my hair and I will go back to my grandmothers. One day they brought snake rattles and hung them on the door of the lodge. moving Nuri imitated him his arms and making a noise like a wild goose." Nuri yielded and they went in the boat. singing the same little song. which soon began tipping endwise and sidewise. and ran away. In the struggle that ensued the wonder-boy's scalplock w^as torn from his head and held by the thong." cried the wonder-boy. "Do as I do. If anyone went in this boat it upset. When Nuri objected his brother "Give me my hair and I will go back to my grandmothers." said the boy. I want to tell you something. "I will try to catch the boy." so that the lodge. "Your father is here. The father kept the scalplock gave the boys a good supper. He stopped and sniffed the air. "Is your father here?" "No. "Nuri." . Nuri would not tell their father. "Then to go in the boat but Nuri objected. the wood rats." "No. saying to Nuri. you are having a good time with your father but I am here with my grandmothers." said Nuri. The wonder boy came as usual. This child was a "wonder boy" and he came every day until both boys were quite grown. but the boys always returned in safety. and the boys flew away. threw the people into the water. There is a little boy who comes every day to play with me while you are away. and then returned to its place by the shore. and told them to stay in for their father to return. forget.

"Have you seen my father?" . Analysis. it It is melody. a bear. The wonder boy said. We will destroy them." Then both boys jumped on the edge of the kettle and upset it. The people fought and lolled one another. do this and we will turn into geese. Song as the Boys Flew Away [bull. The wonder boy knew that his father would do this but Nuri cried the next morning. "These boys are fat." Nuri was afraid but his brother said. Then the wonder boy wanted to go where the people lived who lolled his mother. The boiling water feU on the people but the boys flew out of the lodge like burned leaves. 76. We will not drown.106 BUKEAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY No." The boys went into the lodge and saw a kettle feast. and whenever they met a snake." full of boiling water.elbows and heels and on the back of their heads." and aside they said. If we do not they will kiU us. or even a little bug the wonder boy would ask. thinking they were killing the boys. "Do as I do." So the boys started to find their father. 1156) Recorded by Voice Mart Murie J = 69 Drum not recorded FREE TRANSLATION Nuri. — No ascending progressions occur in this contains the tones of the fourth 5-toned scale. "Come in soon. which harmonic in is Although the melody short has an interesting and characteristic rhythm. At first they saw no trace. These people had long sharp bones at the points of then. The brother said. we will have the feast ready. "Let us take these home for father to use in sewing moccasins. we will have a good The wonder boy heard them talking. when his father had gone. When they were dead the boys took off three or four of these points. structure and has a rhythmic unit. They called to the boys and said. 93 (Catalogue No." This frightened the father and that night he made up his mind to run away and leave the boys. "Do not cry. "The boys have no sense. "Father has left us but we will search until we find him. After they flew away the boat returned to the landing. The wonder boy said. These people lived in straw huts and when they saw the boys they said. and the lodge burned up.

"Father. I He said to his father. "If you see us you will die. and his brother summoned a tiger (mountain lion?) and both boys When they had traveled a long way farther they and asked. and took them on the hill. and two walnut poles. "Yes." The boys turned their heads from side to side and they rattled." His father "You and last are not old enough. "I would not cry. while mine does not. I want Those who are not the daughters of chiefs is very neat in her dress. "Nuri. "I do not see why I don't am just like my brothers and sisters but their rattles rattle said. we saw him going north.EN8MORE1 PAWNEE MUSIC 107 They replied "No. You can tell the difference in that way. "Father. At the third found that their father had been lolled by the people. Then they laid them crosswise in a pile with sweet grass underneath and put their father's body on top of the pile. and four cedar posts about as long as the height of a man. The oldest snake said. The wonder boy said." are very careless." After the boys had traveled a long time the brother said to Nuri. two elm. "Tell to bite her foot. They said to the people. The wonder boy said. "A chief's daughter looks.L." Nuri cried. but yielded. He left us to They found their father's body and took it away to a high starve. They cut two willow poles. one after another. they "made medicine" to rattle Then he wanted it all me how a chief's daughter His father said. and if you do not see us you will die." sisters your rattle wiU hke for The little snake cried so hard that at him so that his rattle would rattle. Then the boys looked rode on his back. The snakes' house was located on a road along which the Pa\vnee used to travel." The people fell over and died. "Have you seen our father?" The people replied. the time. my Uttle brother The httle snake said to his father. When you rattle are as big as your brothers theirs." hill. but. a noise. two cottonwood. "Let us kill all the people in every village. The story was as follows: In the place where the rattlesnakes lived there was a little rattlesnake who cried because he wanted his rattle to make rattle. came to a village through the village but could not find their father. you are not dead all village they forever. we used to love you but now we are going to burn you up and the smoke will ascend to Tirawa. and some day we will see you again." ." Story of the Little Rattlesnake This story differs from the preceding in that the entire narrative was sung. They worked all day doing this. Nuri cried but his brother said. a typical portion of the melody being transcribed. "Are you tired?" Nuri said that he was tired. The brother said. do this." The boys traveled all that night but could not find him. father.

followed by C sharp. although the fifth occurs in the opening measure. didn't I tell you that one of us would be killed? There That is the end of the is my little brother with his head smashed. The principal progression in the song is F sharp-E.j iU. "Father. which is somewhat unusual in Indian songs. The Little Rattlesnake (Catalogue No. He even went beside the road and the bit her foot the road and rattled his rattle very loud. and found that horses could work for them. He . — Six renditions of values in all UNCLASSIFIED SONGS When the Pawnee first saw a horse they were frightened. He story.!u i# this song were recorded and the time were as indicated in the transcription. A great crowd of people was looking at the horse. little snake thought and she turned quickly and crushed his head. animal. "I wonder what he is dragging behind him" (referring to his tail). 77. At is last someone said. Make him stop." One day a girl The Pawnee will hear him and kill us all. Some ran away and others said. He can carry you and your packs." Ever since that time the Pawnee have owned horses. 93 rattles all the time. The other snakes found him and the brother said.108 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. The song begins and ends on the same tone. Thus the tone material is practically the minor third and fourth." came along she was a chief's daughter.4iJri i i i . No.ui. j i l iJ A^ ^4¥U'jji . 1077) Recorded by Effie Blain Volcp i^z 152 Drum not recorded Y^^^ l \ '-j^U^J^<^^J^MhJ^J^J)\J J)l^ j^. You can get on him and he will take you from place to place so that you can kill game. Analysis. But the little snake kept on. "Why are you afraid of this very useful.

densuoke] PAWNEE MUSIC No. we ru-ta a hu e e re e ki-ri" ki-ri Kirike - ke we ru-ta . 78. 1079) Recorded by Effie Blain Voitie J : 108 Drum not recorded T-J Ki-ri-ke I I J J 1 1 I I k m'\ e a e m . "You Need Not Fear the Horse" 109 (Catalogue No.

93 Tirawa. 1127) Recorded by John Voice Luwak J r 58 to No. and he became a very rich man. His prayer was answered. 2 no BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. A Poor Man's Prayer (Catalogue No. He therefore prayed that Tu-awa would help him get a horse so that he could kill some buffalo. This is the song in which he offered his prayer.58 Drum-rhythm similar r:=r:3ni . No.. J^ . 1 : Drum J . 79.

"What I going to tell you is not a dream. In explanation of the following song the singer said. I am the one to the north. look toward the west. "Everything Will Be Right" 111 (Catalogue No. You will see two bright stars.WNEE MUSIC No. I am the one who helps you. ''Look at me. why do you neglect your prayers?" The singer said that ever since that time he had prayed morning and night. tone. downward. I gave you everything you needed. Analysis. Good Eagle Voice J s too Drum not recorded IJJm FREE TRANSLATION I was thinking. A star spoke to me and said. am home. when you go pity on you and gives you good health. for I saw it in broad daylight.densmoee] PA. and I knew that everything would be right. 80. the The first seven measures of this song begin on the same melody descending a fourth or a third during the measure and — The remainder of the song contains only the tones of the major triad." Then the star said. This is the more interesting as the general trend of the melody is returning to the initial tone. The upward and downward progressions are almost equal in number. "You are not praying enough but I am helping you. When you sing this song you must think of me. 49716°—29 9 . I am the one who takes Tonight. Three different phrases are repeated but can scarcely be considered units of rhythm. 1161) Recorded by Mrs.

[bull.\MERICAN ETHNOLOGY No." When he grew up his father. is —This and fifth measures. His mother died when he was 3 years old and he grieved a long time for her. 1126) Recorded by John Luwak Jr 76 Drum J . one of the songs in which the Indians "cry as the intonation unsteady in a portion of the melody. The song is characwas exaggerated terized by a large compass and a descending trend. they sing. who was still living. we can only pray. In some of the renditions this and produced a wailing effect. 81. sions in the fourth .76 Drum. taught him the song and told him of its early use. "We can do nothing when a person dies. before the Pawnee moved to Oklahoma. His father sang this song to comfort him and said. Perhaps some day you will be a man and have children around you.rhythm similar Voice to No.112 BUREAU OF . 93 "The Message of a Star" (Catalogue No." maldng In this instance the first three and last three measures were sung with good intonation but a glissando was used on the descending progresAnalysis. 26 The singer who recorded the next song spent his childhood in Nebraska. He made it into a war dance and it is known as his song.

who was a close friend of the singer.tS4 e tekis ij. The next song belonged to the first wife of Roaming Chief. The woman's name was Curuk'siwa. in the expanse of the heavens. . Song to Contfort a Child's Grief 113 (Catalogue No. followed by a phrase which begins like the rhythmic unit but changes to a descending ^' — The first syllable of this word was omitted by the singer. Although she had several other children she grieved for this baby and sang the following song about it. Mother's Song for a Dead Baby (Catalogue No. V ^ ^ 1 ^ J""^ J. 1105) Recorded by Wicita Blain Voice «I= 66 Drum r not recorded ro te-kis he - ru te - kis hi- ru te-kis ri ]^^^h^^ ]' ku Aheru ^* Dear . 82. She had a little girl who died when about 8 months old. 1099) Recorded by Effie Blain ^ Drum f Voice J r 72 not recorded T r ' ' M. My is where power dwells. No. stop crying.ip^^'r wa-ha-a-a-ke ha re rikutsi "^ r re I f - ' ^ child stop crying ha yonder there wahake heavens FREE TRANSLATION dear child. This melody is exceedingly simple in both melody and rhythm. 83. The rhythmic unit occurs three times. J Ij m Analysis.DENSMOES] PAWNEE MUSIC No. Yonder there.

saying. "Yonder. a dream and in that dream one of his dead reland said. ''I have come back into this world. The words of the first were translated. The melody tones are those of the fourth five-toned scale and the repeated portion. 84. our relatives are walking. 26 The chief interest of this song lies in the two phrases Analysis. 1132) Recorded by John Voice Luwak J = 116 = trrum J 116 Drum-rhythm similar r to No. "Remember when we pass from the old earth we pass to a new earth where we are now. Progression is by an unusually large variety of intervals but the whole tone is the interval of most frequent occurrence." When the man awoke he remembered the song and understood what He dreamed a second time. 93 wail in which the tones transcribed E-D-B are clearly discernible but are connected by a glissando. and both bear a resemblance to the unit." The two songs were recorded and the melodies found to be the same. as in many Indian songs." and the words of the second were. begins with the second phrase.114 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [bull. Song Received from a Dead Relative (Catalogue No. "I am coming." certain atives appeared A man had No. It was formerly used in a "dance of the chiefs" in which the daughters of chiefs took part. appeared. The next song belongs whose father was a this chief. The song has a compass of 10 tones and is based on the fourth 5-toned scale. which do not contain the rhythmic unit. The first of these phrases is the more energetic. — to a very old woman named Ciiha'rurees start The singers at the drum sometimes song so that she can dance. You At the same time he heard and learned the following song. see me. whence I came. . and the same dead relative it meant.

85.densmoreI PAWNEE MUSIC No. 1092) Me Recorded bv Effie Blain Voice J (1) z 104 Drum not recorded hak ku tu_ ra-he he_ a he he_ a he he_ a he he ^ a he. "Father Gave 115 a Pipe" (Catalogue No. He a he .

but he refused to do so. and that my relatives left the decision to yours?" "Yes. This little boy liked to stay with his grandhad one child. the mother's relatives being seated on the south and the left father's on the north side of the lodge. He does not want her camp foolishly. and his arms were strong?" "Yes. When the soup She did so. wife and abuse her." "Do you remember that my relatives sat on the north and yours on the south side of the lodge. Chief). who told him stories. should be allowed to marry the young man. a brave grandfather's then he set it Chaui Band. She said." Then the woman stopped finding fault with her son-in-law.116 BUREAU OF AMERICA. The little boy cooled his by swinging the dish back and forth." brought the soup he told her to sit beside him and eat. He gave pony to us. before the old man. "Do you remember one beautiful morning when you said the young man was handsome." and put water put the finest of wooden bowl. a boy. 93 relatives together. your dried meat done you must bring me some in a in it. and the young distributed. As they ate he said." like the "You the our daughter for meat that our son-in-law brings us? her own good. He gave the ponies. We have no a right to interfere with his property. and then the young man began to beat his The girl's mother begged her father to interfere. the decision with the mother's relatives. had many horses. Put it on the is "Now take your parfleche bag and in the pot. There were buffalo robes The father's relatives who decided that the girl and many valuable articles among the presents. "You claim to be a brave man. His grandfather was Saritsaris (Mad father.N ETHNOLOGY [bull. The next day the old man gave the horse to his wife." "So your people fine sold our daughter to that man. They asked him to He and his wife join their societies and later he became a chief. He punishes run around wants her to be a good cook and to look to He after things in the lodge. that he came of good family. "What nice fat! What fine meat this is! Who When she it got for you?" "Our son-in-law." "Get a kettle. why do you not make our son-in-law stop beating his wife?" He said. Didn't I give you that pony?" fire "Yes. The young man was well liked by the chiefs. All went well for a time. man gave a fine horse to the father and mother of the girl. man of the mush or soup . Many presents were The young man's relatives gave presents.

" The women had sent the boy to his grandfather. "Sarltsaris' grandchild is coming through the deep snow. never mind." When the young man entered the lodge his grandfather said. thinking he would keep him at home." "Do you have dreams at night?" the old When man "Yes." "Can you relate some of them?" "Yes." Then he told him to sit yonder and said." "Tell one to me. but he said. That dream will come true. He told his mother that he wanted to go. He also wanted arrows. I am grown to be a man." The old man passed his hands downward over the young man's head and body in the tribal manner of "blessing. Everyone in the lodge was excited." "In my dream I was with a war party. "Why do you not mourn?" grandchild." The man rode back and cried through the village." and said. and all the equipment of a warrior. It was fall when the war party started. "I ask yoii when attacked. but one day. You made moccasins I questioned him and for him and filled his quiver with arrows. "You did not care for our for about 10 days. did you hide in a ravine? When you were a little boy and cooled my — . "He is coming. I found myself coming toward home through deep snow. He is coming home. The women urged him to go. except the old man. "You can go. or smoked his pipe. mourned exceedingly and cut their flesh with loiives. so I want you all to stop mourning. some people going out from the village met the young man returning. and he wanted her and his grandmother to make him some moccasins." "You remember that you turned the he wanted to go to war. and his daughter said." "That is enough. He said. a bow and a quiver. but the old man sat and laughed at them." said the old man. and they were greatly surprised to learn that the grandfather had told the boy to go with the warriors. As winter was coming near it was noised through the camp that all the war party had been The women of this family killed and the people began to mourn. This went on Then his wife said. "AU the warriors were killed except myself." They would not believe him. after a snow. "I believed in your dream and now you are here.DENSMOEE] PAWNEE MUSIC 117 When the httle boy was about half-grown he heard that a war party was to start. heard this he called the boy and said. "Do you realize what you are doing?" "Yes." The old boy over to man said to me when his wife. "Sit on my knees. He did not rush out to meet his grandson. that he had had a dream in which he was returning alone found through deep snow.

"This will tell the story. The young man went out and was killed. the same If you had been killed I would not have shed a as your father's. The news was brought into the village and the old man heard it. Then he wept. Returning home. 93 mush in a ravine. In the first portion of the words he sings about himself and his pride in his grandson. The young man his arm. I told you not to run away. tear. Tell me the truth. never wanted to hear that your body was found if you must be killed. I shall miss you. where the bowThe boy said. threw it over his shoulder. "Now your name shall be Sirirut Kawi. "You waved the bowl of mush to cool it. . He took his robe of bear skin. and in the latter portion he sings about the young man." People said his heart was like a stone until he sang this song. enemy? Is it possible that you had gone on an errand and on your return found the fight going on and ran home instead of joining your comrades? I told you always to tell the truth." The old man said. let it be on a hilltop. Don't lie to me you that I I said that now. and went about the camp telling how kind the young man was to the old and sick.118 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY I told [bull." and he exposed which was raw and sore from wrist to elbow. he said. I fought until night and then they let me alone. Did you fight the fighting in the open." So the young man lived with his grandfather until the next summer. "I did not even throw away my string had stung him. for I urged you to go on the warpath. when the village was attacked by the enemy." said. buffalo robe.

119 Mad Chief Mourns for His Grandson (Catalogue No. 86.DENSMOEEl PAWNEE MUSIC No. 1096) Recored by Effie Blain Voice J= 84 Drum not recorded ra ri ta^weSaritsaris re-huk-su-nt a ^i § ta - ^e e i re .

23. 59. 78. 42. 79. 82. Third lacking Irregular ' 29 (same keynote) 1. 47. 81. 12. 77. 37. 14. 53. 9. 31. 18. 86. 40. 4. 3. 61. Both major and minor. 93 1— TONALITY Serial numbers of songs Number Major tonality. 65. 20. 85. 35. 33. 67. 63. 24. 30. 43. 49. tonality. . 57. 48. 39. 62. 25. 6. 28. 72. 36. 68. 22. 84.120 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY Melodic Analysis Table [bull. 61. 66. 45. 21. 19. 71. 5. 83. 70. 44. 16. 26. 8. 50.10. 32. 73. 80 75 Total. 58. 38. 7. 76. 52. 17. 56. U. 55. 27. 46. 64. 60. 34. 13. 74. 69. 54. Minor 2. 41. 15.

22. A major third below the final tone. 25. Songs containing An octave below the final tone. 62.. 83. 30. 6. 51. 19. 34. 7. 20. with a whole tone below in a previous measure. 11. 71. 55. 33.. 28. 40.. 61. 32. 60. 46. Whole tone below. 77. 15. 54. Total. 84. 59. 78. 10. 79. 80. . 2. 53. 85. 42. A minor third below the final tone. 37. 36.. 65. 82. 74 1 A fourth below the final tone. 16 with minor third below in a previous measure. Semitone below 38. 56. 72. 4. 69.. with fourth below in a previous meaS' ure. 64. 39. 63. 24. 13. 35. 17 A semitone below the final tone. Minor third below. Immediately preceded byFourth below 3. 18. Minor third below. 41 12. 67.. 67. 50. 75. 5. 76. 44. 49. 68. 81.. Minor third below. 48. 45. 73. 27.. 14. 21. 58. 86. 70. 66. 43. 23.— DENSMOBE] PAWNEE MUSIC 4— LAST NOTE OF SONG— ITS RELATION TO COMPASS OF SONG Serial 121 Table numbers of songs Number Per cent Songs in which final tone Lowest tone in song is1. 29. 68 78 31. AVhole tone below. 26. 8.

63. 72. 68. 54. 85.43. 30. Total. 45. 53. 57. 20. 8. 46. 24. Octave complete except seventh and sixth. 18. 21. Octave complete except seventh and fourth. 22. 40. 27. 11. 3. 71. 15. Octave sixth complete except except 66.23.52.. 48. 47. Octave fourth. 38. 93 6— TONE MATERIAL Serial numbers of songs Number Per cent First 5-toned scale 28. and 1. 78. Table 7.38. 86. 84. 6. First. 12. Second raised a semitone. Irregular 29. 55. 79 fourth. 32. Octave complete Octave complete seventh. 51.49. second. 50. 70.. 83. 3.80. 34. 59. 48. fifth. 30.71 fifth tones. The fourth and seventh are the omitted scale degrees in the fourth 5-toned scale.20. 81. 14. 21. 33. 6. 62. 27. 40. 41.47.41. 4. 70.74 17. 83. 34. 76. 2. 84. 13. 69.1 Fourth raised a semitone.67. 50.53.. sixth tones. 39.' Octave complete except seventh and second. second. and fourth. 16. Major triad Major triad Major triad Major triad Minor triad 7 Minor triad and sixth and fourth and second and fourth and second except 81 36. 60.. 26. 43. 39. 9. 32. 12. 7. Second 5-toned scale Fourth 5-toned scale 13.63. 8. 74. 4.37 10.66 9. 5. 18. 11. 73. . 10. 26. 58. 69. and 5. 31. 22. and 54. fourth. 79. constituting a scale that major in tonality. 46.56. 52. 33. 37. 35. 77 15. 16. 64. Octave complete except sixth. but in that scale the third and sixth above the keynote are major intervals. 75. . Both Other combinations of tones major and minor (same lieynote) 29 75. Seventh raised a semitone. complete third.55 fifth tones. 36. 61.25. 57. Irregular Total- 1 This song is is minor in tonality.65.58..— ACCIDENTALS Serial numbers of songs Number Per cent Songs containing— No accidentals 1.. 86.. 23..76 14. 78. 49. 19. 24. 82.. 73. 68. 85. 51. 17. 56. 72. 80. 42. 77... 67. Major and minor (same keynote). . 19. 35.44. 61. First.44. 64. 122 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY Table [bull. 65. 82 45.60 2. First. 25. 31.

deksmobe] PAWNEE MUSIC Table 123 8— STRUCTURE .


— CHANGE OF 125 TIME (MEASURE-LENGTHS) .densmoreI pawnee MUSIC Table 16.

Washington. Bur. Ethn. Rept. Bull. Ethn. Carnegie Inst. Edwin. Hist. Francis. 5. no.. The Thunder Ceremony of the Pawnee. Ralph. Kappler.. Ibid. Washington.. v. vol. Mandan and Hidatsa Music. viii. Laws and Treaties. Annual Ceremony of the Pawnee Medicine Men. Fourteenth Ann. vol. Bur. — • Papago Music. pt. Mem. Amer. piled and edited by Charles J. Ethn. 1910. Bull. H. i.. ii (Treaties). Frances. pt. Washington. Translated by A. Amer. 6. Bur. 1907. 1911. Ethn. 45. 2. Twenty-seventh Ann. Pa. Ethn. Ethn. Bull. Publ. Bur. Amer. Papers Amer. Rept. Washington. 1904. Chicago. xi. Amer. Amer. Bull. Boston and New York. 8. Ethn. vol. 1922. 3. 61. F. Ethn. 30. DoRSEY. 90. 53. 1929. 126 . 1923. 1823.. Amer. J. pt. The sensations of tone as a physiological basis for the theory of music.. MooNEY..AUTHORITIES CITED CuLiN. Bur. and La Flesche. The Ghost-dance Religion and the Sioux Outbreak of 1890. 1885. Amer. Washington. Stewart. [Article] Pawnee. 2. 80. The Pawnee: Mythology (Part I). ington. Nat. Wash- and La Flesche. Bur. How the Pawnee captured the Cheyenne medicine arrows. Bull. Washington. Alice C.. 2d ed. Twenty-fourth Ann. Games of the North American Indians. s. 59. Alice C. James. Washington. 75. See Fletcher. Washington. Bur. vol. L. Lancaster. Bur. Francis. Bur. Report of the Bureau of Indian Affairs for the year ending June 30. Helmholtz. 1922. Societies of the Hidatsa and Mandan Indians. vol. 1918. 219-358. Philadelphia. Washington.. Densmore. 1903. Indian Affairs. No. 1910. Northern Ute Music. Linton. Chippewa Music. vol.. Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. n. Ethn.. George A. London. James. 1928. 1928.. New York. Account of an expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky Mountains under the command of Maj.. Leaflet No. Washington. pt. Folk-Lore Soc. Bull. La Flesche. • Chippewa Music II. 1906. Robert H. Bur. pp. Amer. 1913.. Bull. Washington. Amer. 2. Washington. Field Museum of Natural History. The Omaha Tribe. Bur. Amer. ComWashington. The Hako: a Pawnee Ceremony. No. Twenty-second Ann. The Sacrifice to the Morning Star by the Skidi Pawnee. Anthrop. Amer. Anthrop. 1923. 1897. i (Laws). Ethn. Mus. Rept. Rept.. Amer. 644-658. 1904. 1903. Ethn. pp. 1913.. Stephen H.. Ellis. Ibid. Long. LowiE. 213-216. Fletcher. pp. Teton Sioux Music.

Ghost Lance of the Chiefs. medicine power of 38 37-47 Bear dance. described 60-61 2-3 127 49716°—29 10 . reference to__ 37-47 24-35 78-86 36 114 47 53 51 Ceremonies of — 59 5-6 24 18-23 xvii xviii of the of the of the Deer society of the Kitsita society general discussion of Painting the Buffalo Skull Raven Lance society. 61. Simond. songs recorded by DoRSEY George A. asinger characterization of v 23 17 Cheyenne concerning arrow.. DESCRIPTIVE. matrilineal Dog Chief — habitat of research among members of. mention of Eagle feather. See Dog Corn — Mother Corn. 39 32. concerning See Sacred story 24 67 24-35 Dance — Bear Buffalo Carrying-the-shield. 37. song belonging to_ Buffalodance Bundle.— INDEX Page Adams. sacred. story of 102-103 21 — Cradle board. game described by 43-47 99 97-98 quoted on folk tales Ciiha'rurees. of songs_ 14-17 Bear. resemblance of to Pawnee . Cocopa. songs of 47-49 3 xvii xviii Chaui Band— story related by 98 1 Descent. 47 concerning young men 89 mourning 117 of weeping at gatherings 67 songsledby Brown Bear. song belonging to 83 18 20 Earth lodge. Morning Star Chapman. Wicita a singer — x vii xvii characterization of xvii concerning cradle board 21 concerning lance 51 concerning marriage 93-94 concerning mescal drinking. 79. 66. worn in hair. Effie (Mrs. songs of Analysis. Wicita) xvii a singer symbolic use of see also Coyote and the turkeys. Fannie of the — White Lance society. BUNDLE. Page 5 Chief. use of Customs — 67 — characterization of Blain. 49-50 to celebrate return of World 64-66 War soldiers 64-69 Victory asinger characterization of Deer Society. tradition Chippewa songs. song to belonging 114 of Dreams 17 xvii — customs derived from songs originating in 33. 65. 93-97 Affection. songs of Beliefs concerning flute 97 concerning sacred bundle 5 concerning the bear 38 Blain. reference to music Coming Sun asinger — 83 41 ceremony conducted by characterization of legend related by song taught by 22-23 xviii Eagle Chief. Eagle Shield. 34. custom concerning Crying songs.

17 treaty v/ith 2 customs. reference to__ Mourning custom MuRiE. John — 96. resemblance to Pawnee Horse. treaty with NuRi AND his brother. drinking of 24 4 47 18-23 23. Steven H. story 116-118 of Good Eagle. society called 59 62 1 legends connected with KiTHAHKi Band. Lawrence. Stacy. songs recorded by Feather. 53. a singer — Man Chief — characterization of song explained by Gourds.-GnosT dance religion. 115-116 in charge of Grass dance. Miss Alice cited 49 83 C. described. song of of Myths AND FOLK tales Noisy Band. symbolic use of Grand Pawnee habitat of treaty with — 110 18 account of prayers of songs belonging to Mandan songs. 1 2 Marriage Matlock. value placed upon 50. Lodge.87 17 — 108 xvii xviii 56. — v the Omaha Hidatsa bongs.97 xvii xvii Flute. game 99 described by Love songs. songs of Lance. 67. Pawnee gods of — 103 Iron Shirt. 69-70 79 77 69-78 of Morning Star ceremony Mother corn. 67 97 97-108 98-102 a singer LuwAK. 55 a singer characterization of xvii xviii 48.-. 93-94. 87 ceremony derived from connected of Pawnee 1 Organization nee — of the Paw3 3 mythology Morning Star 98 8-22 social tribal . &ee Hand game. belief concerning Folk tales and myths Gambler. Mrs. 51 Legends — 36 18 Omaha v/ith tries. Marhar Band. INDEX Mark— Page Page Life. _ 93-94. story concerning Horse Chief of..57 47 custom described by 69 mention of 96 quoted on classes of Pawnee 67 MuRiB. _ Iruska. Mary xvir a singer — characterization of xviii a singer characterization of story related by Mythology. resemblance to Pav/nee brief 86 87 86-91 of. habitat Kitsita society. Long. of the Pawnee Hand game — — 1 ceremony Medicine men.78-86 70 78 xvii xviii Ghost dance fit. acknowledgment to cited 5. of the Pawnee Habitations. mention of MuRiE. James R. story of the Games. Mrs. 92 117 2-3 described hypnotic phase of played at night songs belonging to Hethushka society. See Earth lodge. characterization of Ghost dance sacred number songs of — in 69 69.— 128 EvARTs. progress of 65-66 dreams described by mention of 24 song explained and recorded 111-112 by 62 v/ar-dance songof Mad Chief's grandson. modern Indian. worn in hair Fletcher. story of 4 98 97-108 2 53-5G 36. function of Mescal. custom concerning Lance dance. common to many tribes 67 Habitat. Maj. story concerning. mention of 103-107 67.

secret. acknowledgment to 6 47 1 Wolf Women— Society. 91 2 inheritance of lists 43 20 of xi-xv Chief. Pawnee — Phonetics Pipe dance. Tap age Pawnee. 64 Seven. society nated by Wolf Pawnee. Nora. 17 64-69 59-69 See Good of. song Wichita Indians. used in transcriptions of songs XVI SiMMS. widely from Pawnee characterization of names of xvii xvii to 17 Pawnee tribe — 17 1 classification of Sioux songs. Mrs.. human. removalto Roaming Chief brief — — account of 102-103 65 to song of wife of 113 Running Scout. attitude toward 96 See also toms. functions of_ 4 Soldiers. C. hypnotic trance of 84-85 5 Sacred Bundle belief concerning contents of place of woman keeper of 5. resemblance of. habitat of origi- Sacred number Sacrifice. Pawnees with xvi 92 1 characteristics of 18 compared with others influences affecting 7-14 17 29. dances in honor of 64-69 Songs. Marriage cus67. among the Pawnee 78 Religious ceremonies of the Horse Chief. story 69 21-22 Scalps. Ghost dance. songs. mention of Population of the Pawnee Rainbow Division. Pawnee described — 59 23 1-2 Tradition of the Cheyenne 2 2 91 arrow Treaties. the sacred number 69 Shaker religion. story of Skidi Band habitat of research habitat of habitations of 1 — 115-118 1 2-3 1 meaning of name mythology of population social organization of treaties with tribal organization of among members of. resemblance Pawnee Sirirut Kawi. song of-. See sacred character of 65 little. S. acknowledgment to v of of Coyote and the turkeys. habitat of 4 2 1 102-103 Nuri and his brother. 103-107 Swanton. Stick game. of 107-108 Raven Lance Society. Page Papago songs. introduced among Indians 70 Signs. carried in victory dance. mention of PiTAHAUERAT Band. Yuma. Eagle. songs recorded by 93 different Singers — of. story Spotted Horse Rattlesnake. J..18 21 of Pawnee Victory dances War songs White. habitat of— Pitalesaru. with the Pawnee Turkeys. 49-51 White Lance Society. songs of 56-58 93. Pawnees in Utb songs. described Story — 99 Pawnee Republic Pawnee. treaty with. World War. Republican Pawnee. story concerning 1 Reservation.. story about U. reference to music of 68 85 17 o .23 5. v 4 2 3 1-2 3 Social organization 3 Societies. habitat of Touching Cloud. Women's songs Young Dog Society. Army.61-53 Religion. John R.INDEX Page 129 Otter Woman.





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