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In the partial fulfilment for the requirement of the project on the subject of Political Science of B.A., L.L.B (Hons.), First Semester
Submitted ToMs. Shveta Dhaliwal
Submitted ByGroup ± 1 Abhishek Boob Nidhi Sharma Sahil Singh Kanika Bhutani
Marxism 4. Socialism at the turn of the twenty-first century 5.2. Kinds of Conservatism 3. Introduction 4. Origins and Development 2. Conservatism 3.4. Cold War Liberalism 126.96.36.199.1. Nationalism at the turn of the twenty-first century 6. Origins and Development 5. Origins and Development 4.2. Theories of Nationalism 5.3.2. Anarchism .2.3.1. Non-Marxist interpretations of Ideology 2. New Right 3.4. Marx and his followers on Ideology 1. The Origins of the term Ideology 1.2. Introduction 5. Liberalism Transformed 2. Nationalism 5. Social Democracy 4. Introduction 3.1. Introduction 1. Introductory 1.3. Liberalism at the turn of the twenty-first century 3. Democratic Socialism 4.1.4. Introduction 2.5.Table of Contents 1. Origins and Development 3.4. Liberalism 2.5. Conservatism at the turn of the twenty-first century 4.3.1.
188.8.131.52.3. 10.2. Origins and Development 9. Origins and Development 8. Origins and Development 6.1. Feminism 8. Anarchism at the trun of the twenty-first century 7.1. Modern Marxist and Post-Modern Feminism 8.1. Fundamentalism at the turn of the twenty-first century 10. Conclusion : Ideology without End ? 10. Introduction 6.4.1. Introduction 8.1.4. Introduction 7. The family of fundamentalisms 9.2. Fascism at the turn of the twenty-first century 8.6.2. Origins and Development 7. Feminism at the turn of the twenty-first century 9. The end of Ideology The rise and the fall of the ideologies . Fascism 7. Introduction 9. Religious Fundamentalism 9.3.
Oxford. historians. in the West we have a µfree¶ market (a term which diverts attention from constraints such as advertising). Ideology as elite power. It is important to stress that these approaches are not entirely exclusive. many people in Western societies believe that it is only common sense that we need relatively high income differentials. sociologists. However. For instance. p. Freeden.1. There is a strong tendency especially among approaches 2 and 3 to be interested in the exercise of power too. For instance. linguists. cultural anthropologists. they can be divided into: 1. for attempting to organize phenomena that appear unrelated. philosophers. like liberalism and its key thinkers such as John Stuart Mill (180673) or F.Chapter 1 : Introduction 1. 1996. It is remarkable for being discussed on levels that seemingly do not intersect. Ideology as political thought 2.13. our coins often bear the symbols of continuity. and for causing confusion among scholars and political commentators.A. Ideology as language. though they could not articulate a full liberal-capitalist ideology. Hayek (1899-1992). symbols and myths 4. The first relates especially to the great µisms¶. Ideology as beliefs and norms 3. The third approach looks more at discourse and iconography (semiotics). Political theorists. like a 1 M.1 At the risk of oversimplifying so broad a set of approaches. .Introduction Over the past half-century the concept of ideology has emerged as one of the most complex and debatable political ideas. thoughts which tend to be much less systematic. Clarendon Press. It tends to focus on questions such as: what are the limits of freedom ± should we tolerate the intolerant? Is there a contradiction between liberalism¶s emphasis on individual autonomy and rationality and the constraints of the capitalist market? The second relates to the body of views held by ordinary people. and psychologists have all grappled with the notion of ideology. Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach. the above four categories point to different areas of primary study.
de Tracy believed that his task was not simply explanatory. Political Ideology can be briefly defined as a relatively coherent set of empirical and normative beliefs and thought. The term µpolitical philosopher¶ or µpolitical theorist¶. Rawat Publications. to how a brutal intolerance could have emerged in the name of progress and the people. They are µideal types¶. to further µprogress¶ by improving people ± to show which ideas were false and to develop a system of secular education which could produce better people. which replaced the royal academics after the revolution.17. The Origins of the term µIdeology¶ The French philosopher Antoine Destutt de Tracy (1754-1836) coined the term µideologie¶ in 1796. Fraternity¶).2 1. or the apparent principles of democracy (µLiberty. Political ideologies are essentially the product of collective thought. in true Enlightenment fashion. He wanted. an ideology can act as either a stabilizing or radical force. De Tracy saw µideology¶ as a science of the human mind (like biology and zoology were sciences of species). capable of pointing the true way forward. are more typically seen as the basis of conformity. 2 R. seems more appropriate for a thinker capable of developing a sophisticated level of debate. not to be confused with specific movements. Equality. therefore. but to call a single person an µideologist¶.monarch.2. he posed the question of the way in which the values of epochs and societies differed significantly. p. Depending on its relationship to the dominant value structure. but was imprisoned during the subsequent Jacobin Terror. . sympathetic to the French Revolution (1789). and socio-political arrangements. Like many other members of the Institute National. In the past this may have focused on physical repression. parties or regimes which may bear their name. the processs of history. or the very state education system. Wright. On release. De Tracy was an aristocrat. 2003. Now summing up everything. Single thinkers may embody the core of an ideology. would normally be seen as pejorative. It is usually related to a programme of specific short run concerns. Eatwell and A. but now media moguls. focusing on the problems of human nature. he turned his attention to what had caused such barbarities. Contemporary Political Ideologies. or µideologue¶. More generally. Jaipur and New Delhi. The fourth approach relates more to the way in which elites seek to ensure conformity and support. De Tracy was a rationalistic heir to the eighteenth-century movement known as the Enlightenment ± Critical of traditional authority and the mystification of religious thought ± but also deeply concerned by the fanatical perversion of the Enlightenment by Robespierre and other Jacobins.
p. 1974.e. who introduced the word into social and political theory. Napoleon thus began a long line of critics who were to associate µideology¶ with traits such as an a priori desire to overturn old ways and µimprove¶ people¶s lives. the term µideology¶ quickly degenerated into a pejorative term. the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it. Ideology. John Plamenatz. and not the other way round. after becoming emperor. and to reinforce support for regimes which lacked traditional legitimacy.4 Marx was critical of those who held that the role of ideas was crucial in history and in social life. The first major figure to use the term in this pejorative way was Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821). . Indeed. Napoleon had initially been sympathetic to de Tracy¶s work.64. not least because he was highly interested in the power of ideas and symbols to mould people.Marx and his followers on µIdeology¶ Ideology as a pejorative concept was particularly important in the work of Karl Marx (1818-83). He believed that social existence determined consciousness. The former referred to the basic organization of the means of production. 1. so that thereby. Lawrence and Wishart. London. in which economic forces rather than great leaders or ideas led to µprogresses¶. a leading political philosopher. Marx made a distinction in capitalist society between a µbase¶ and µsuperstructure¶. which Marx wrote with Friedrich engels (1820-95) in the 1840s: The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas. 3 Subsequently. has control at the same time over the means of mental production. the class which is the material force of society. he caricatured the Enlightenment and de Tracy¶s group as µideologues¶ (partly influenced by a desire to court favor with traditional groups. Indeed.The association of µideology¶ with science and objective study was short lived. especially the Catholic church). p. is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. Marxist approaches have had a dominant influence on the methodological debates about µideology¶ Arguably the best known Marxist statement on ideology appears in The German Ideology. However. i.3. He thus adopted a materialist view of history. generally speaking. and/or to advocate beliefs which suited the interests of those proclaiming them. The class which has the means of material production at its disposal. and 3 4 John Plamenatz. 1970. and he used it in all its important senses without troubling to make clear how they differ¶. has written that it was Marx µmore than anyone. Pall Mall. referring to the object rather than the form of study and often contrasted with scientific approaches.11. London.
imagine that the labour movement pure and simple can elaborate. although it subsequently became central to Marxist work. religious. etc.44. He saw unions as premised on the existence of capitalism. For Marx and Engels. p. Moreover. pp. These ideologies were not simply µisms¶. In Lenin¶s words: All those who talk about µoverrating the importance of ideology¶. holding the view that individuals and groups have equality before the law. and so on. and an impoverished proletariat. T. political. Marx s Social Theory. Oxford University Press. . but were reflected in any feature of society which served to defend the ruling class.I.6 False consciousness refers to socially or time-bound views.Lenin especially believed such an ideology was important to prevent the working class from falling into trade union consciousness. lacking the leadership of those who had been attracted by unions. 1982. Lenin. an independent ideology for itself«But this is a profound mistake« Since there can be no talk of an independent ideology formulated by the working masses themselves in the process of their movement. too. the law was ultimately a defence of capitalism and property. Lawrence and Wishart. best be achieved through a healthy capitalism. Oxford.39-40. identified Marxism as a science. it was Engels who sought to popularize the term µscientific socialism¶ for Marx¶s work It was also engels who dismissed µideology¶ as µfalse consciousness¶.5 Marx did not believe that his own views were µideology¶. Lenin (1870-1924).7 5 6 Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.resulting class system. 7 V. Selected Works in One Volume.. but he effectively accepted that µideology¶ was a term which should not be restricted to capitalist or pre-capitalist society. which help support a particular system. The superstructure referred more to individuals. 1973. What Is To Be Done?. as were other key features of the liberal democratic state. the only choice is either bourgeois or socialist ideology. Thus ideologies were the µlegal. A good example of this would be the belief that the liberal democratic state is µneutral¶: in other words. In What Is To Be Done? (1902) Lenin argued for a socialist ideology which could help develop working-class consciousness beyond the µeconomism¶ of immediate concerns. that the civil service does not pursue classinterest. Moscow. 1984. London. particularly in the sense that their demands for better wages and conditions could. p. However. I. in the short run. seeing them as based on a scientific understanding of history and the inevitable triumph of the working class and socialism. and will elaborate. to ideologies. aesthetic or philosophic¶ principles which reinforced capitalist society. unions threatened to divide the working class into a relatively well-paid unionized group. a phrase not used by Marx. V.183. Carver. about exaggerating the role of the conscious element. Progress.
backed by a coercive state apparatus. They were people like members of the communist party. For Gramsci. In his later writings. 1971 . Organic intellectuals. Gramsci¶s work also had an influence on a cult figure in French thought in the 1960¶s and 1970¶s. or their role in key institutions which could challenge capitalist hegemony. London. whom he divided into µtraditional¶ and µorganic¶. Gramsci was especially interested in the role of intellectuals. developing the idea of the µrelative autonomy¶ of the superstructure. in keeping with the later Marx. was never made fully clear. ideology became a kind of common sense. Lenin and Philosophy. held that there was no rigid relation between base and superstructure. something which was simply not challenged. 8 L. on the other hand. Gramsci believed that the rule of one class over another was not simply an economic one. Louis Althusser (1918-90). Althusser. such as education or the mass media. these were the intellectuals most likely to help create a counter-hegemony. Some have been overtly anti-Marxist. 1.4.Non-Marxist Interpretations of µIdeology¶ Non-Marxist approaches have been more diverse. which clearly must have broken free from the power of capitalist conditioning. were closely connecgted organizationally with the class structure.8 Althusser. This development was taken even further in the works of the Italian communist Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937). In its ultimate form. or were incapable of offering any serious challenge to domianant values. Gramsci held that in practice such intellectuals were normally imbued with the hegemonic culture. New Left books. To counter this ideological power.This socialist ideology was largely to be developed by an intelligentsia. and/or have focused on similar basic questions. he also became increasingly critical of Leninism. both in method and in targeting Marxism as an especially dangerous from of thinking. non-governmental institutions and froms of social conditioning. But others have borrowed from Marxism. Gramsci rejected the crudest forms of Marxist materialism which reduced the µsuperstructure¶ solely to µbase¶ factors. through their writings. believing that it did not pay sufficient attention to the strength of µcivil society¶ in liberal democracies ± namely. it reflected a challenge to those Marxists who sought to delineate rigid materialist laws of history. Exactly where this left the materialist conception of history. and especially the primacy of base over superstructure. It depended on µhegemony¶ ± on cultural and ideological forces as well. However.
London. at least of the traditional mainstream British type. tolerance and discriminatory forms of arguments. the latter refers more to the mind of era or of a major socio-economic group. an abstraction. The latter accepts that there is a strong relationship between ideas and their context. such as Michael Oakeshott (1901-90). pragmatic knowledge. The Open Society and Its Enemies. which were understood more specifically. usually limiting the term to radical/extremist forms like communism and fascism. Mannheim¶s use of terminology was not always clear or consistent. again largely emanating from American social science ± though it was reinforced by British philosophical thought ± sought to make a distinction between loosely organized values which structured life. This analysis was reinforced by the writing of philosophers. The origins of Totalitarianism. A parallel development. depending on µrationalist¶ knowledge. place and time. whereas the latter can be subversive of it. 9 The argument here often focuses on whether a set of beliefs is µhistoricist¶ or µmonist¶: namely. but central to his thought were two distinctions. a Weltanschauung. Key early writers in this vein included Karl Popper (1902-94) and Hannah Arendt (1906-75). somewhat unclearly between µrelativism¶ and µrelationism¶. New York. accepted Marx and Engels¶ view that ideological thought was distorted. Such ideologies involve a rejection of pluralism. Popper. Mannheim tried to get round this by distinguishing. tradition exalted practical. which could not be acquired a priori or formulated in grand propositions. The former holds that all knowledge is relative to the group. The former remains at the level of more or less conscious manipulation. Ideology represented a simplification. 2 vols. Arendt. The latter approach accepts only certain types of belief system as an µideology¶. the extent to which it is held that there is a single fundamental truth. who had worked with Lukacs. he distinguished between the µparticular¶ and µtotal¶ conception of ideology. Second. . First. was not an ideology ± a claim which has frequently been made by many leading members of the Conservative Party. 1945. Mannheim. 9 H.Like Marx. even deceipt. but he argued that the reductionist use of µideology¶ could be turned against Marxism. Routledge and Kegan Paul. Thus conservatism. and µideologies¶. 1951. Mannheim¶s quest for what he termed a µsociology of knowledge¶ was plagued by the problem of whether there can be objective knowledge and truth. who drew a distinction between a traditionalist and an ideological stance in politics. K. but holds that a certain type of intellectual is capable of rational debate about such ideas and developments. he distinguished between µideology¶ and µUtopia¶: the former tends to protect the status quo. Doubleday.
there is today a rough consensus among intellectuals on political issues« the ideological age has ended. 1962. The End of Ideology (1960). believe that the Welfare state is µthe road to serfdom¶. and few serious conservatives. Moreover. Few µclassic¶ liberals insist that the state should play no role in the economy. 10 D.These last approaches were an important influence in the development of what became known as the µend of ideology¶ thesis. there was a greater philosophical awareness of the dangers of µtotalitarianism¶. the older µcounter-beliefs¶ have lost their intellectual force as well. the American sociologist Daniel Bell (1919) celebrated the demise of radical ideologies. pp. The Free Press. The End of Ideology. In the Western world. . notably fascism and communism. at least in England and on the continent.10 This approach held that the great social strains which had allegedly produced radical ideologies had diminished in the face of the post-1945 boom. Bell. New York. therefore. He argued: Few Serious minds believe any longer that one can set down µblueprints¶ and through µsocial engineering¶ bring about a new utopia of social harmony. In his much discussed book. At the same time.402-3.
Mill11 The all-pervasiveness of liberalism results from the fact that liberal values both shaped and reflect the character of the modern states and the other social and economic systems of Western Europe. p. that for this there are two requisites. men who were neither Wilhelm von Humboldt. 11 . it seems we are all liberals now.2. Oxford.Chapter 2 : Liberalism 2. while prevailing and even growing as a background theory or set of presuppositions and sentiments of a supposedly neutral and universal kind which dominates political thinking across the ideological spectrum. and that from the union of these arise an µindividual vigour and manifold diversity¶. The distinctiveness of liberalism consists in its being the dominant ideology rather than unideological.J. µfreedom and variety of situation¶. Oxford University Press. or that which is prescribed by the eternal or immutable dictates of reason. it is possible to take a different perspective on the political institutions and socio-economic processes of the contemporary world to the liberal one. Origins and Development The term µliberal¶ has been in use since the fourteenth century but has had a wide variety of meanings. 1991. in other words. which combine themselves in originality«´ . S. The Sphere and Duties of Government in On Liberty. and not suggested by vague and transient desires. the object µtowards which every human being must ceaselessly direct his efforts« is the individuality of power and development¶.1. is the highest and most harmonious development of his powers to a complete and consistent whole¶. However as the other ideologies examined in this book show. Liberalism can be defined as ³«The end of man. The Latin liber referred to a class of free men. Introduction Twentieth-century liberalism has suffered the curious fate of steadily declining in most countries as an electoral force exclusive to a particular party. that.64. therefore. 2. From New Right conservatives to democratic socialists.
1927. Liberal Points of View.´12 During the period of 1870-1930 two main liberal strategies emerged to cope with the changed circumstances of modern societies. the former predominated in Britain. to the arrival of a new industrial revolution. . this change is partly a result of the victory of democracy. being first employed in Spain in 1812. France and the USA. as in µliberal¶ helpings of food and drink. It has meant generous.205. or. the term was widely recognized throughout Europe in relation to a distinctive set of political ideas. Germany and Austria.Nathan and H. in reference to social attitudes. and of the new self-consciousness and the new organisation of the wage-earning classes. 2. whereas the latter was largely formulated in Italy. p. The radical. It is due also. Heathcote Williams. Liberalism thus became increasingly conservative. Historical developments since the nineteenth century have clearly influenced the nature and substance of liberal ideology. standing less for change and reform. By the 1840s. Liberalism Transformed Quoting lines of John Maynard Keynes ³. The English Revolution of the seventeenth century and the American and French Revolutions of the late eighteenth century each embodied elements that were distinctively liberal. But it is not entirely psychological in its origins. The character of liberalism changed as the µrising middle classess¶ succeeded in establishing their economic and political dominance. the subject matter of liberalism is changing« Now. London. where liberal democracy seemed relatively secure. It also came to be increasingly associated with ideas of freedom and choice.L. which I shall call Social Liberalism and New-Classical Liberalism. even though the word µliberal was not at the time used in a political sense. it has implied openness or open-mindedness.3. as I believe. a new economic transition which we have to meet with new expedients and new solutions. Significantly.. The term µliberalism¶ to denote a political allegiance made its appearance much later: it was not used until the early part of the nineteenth century. even revolutionary edge of liberalism faded with each liberal success. 12 H. where democracy either barely existed or if it did was severely distrusted by liberals.serfs nor slaves. Ernest Benn. and more for the maintenance of existing ± largely liberal ± institutions.
. life. temperance. with the growth of experience a more matured opinion has come to recognize that liberty is not only a negative but a positive conception. Grant Richards. J. H. To be really free.T. 1902. Freedom cannot be predicated. better dwellings.samuel. L. social Liberalism was associated with the so-called µnew liberalism¶ of figures such as T. Green.L. merely because they are no longer under the compulsion of restraints which have the sanction of positive law. p. Hobson.Social Liberalism. opportunity. communal and personal efficiency13. Hobhouse. they must be able to make the best use of faculty. Asquith In Britain.H. It is in this fuller view of the true significance of Liberty that we find the governing impulse in the later developments of Liberalism in the direction of education. in its true meaning.A.10. The downturn of economic growth 13 H. everything. London. an improved social and industrial environment. .H. that tends to national. in short. either of a man or of a society. energy. Liberalism: An Attempt to State the Principles and Proposals of Contemporary Liberalism in England.
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