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Term Paper of Electromagnetic and Communication System Roll no R702A27 Registration no 10801368
Dr. Kailash Juglan
. various facts effecting ground wave propagation.Abstract:- I avail this opportunity to convey the entire knowledge of ground wave propagation through this paper. line of sight. This paper gives the information about the ground wave propagation.
. Ground wave propagation is one of the most popular technique for transfer the signals of low and medium frequency range of radio waves from one place to another place.Introduction to the problem:- In communication system. there are various methods or techniques for propagation. We use all the methods for communication to one place to another place.
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency Range 30-3000 Hz 3-30 kHz 30-300 kHz 300-3000 kHz 3-30 MHz 30-300 MHz 300-3000 MHz 3-30 GHz 30-300 GHz Band Designation ELF VLF LF MF HF VHF UHF SHF EHF Propagation of Waves . All radio waves are electromagnetic waves which travel with speed of light. If the medium in which it is propagating (air for example) is the same everywhere. telephony. the wave will propagate outwards in all directions. An electromagnetic wave is created by a local disturbance in the electric and magnetic fields.CORE CHAPTER Radio waves The word radio means radiation of electromagnetic waves conveying information from one end and receiving such information at other end. television and a host of navigational age are classified as radio. the wave will spread out uniformly in all directions. Within this meaning such applications telegraphy. From its origin.
Ground waves travel between two limits. Ground Wave Radio waves in the VLF band propagate in a ground. The area between the earth and the warm air mass is known as duct. Evaporation of moisture from water into the lower layers of air cools the air. Thus the lower layer is cool and rich in moisture while the upper layer is warm and contains less moisture. This chapter describes the different ways that electromagnetic waves propagate. Such abnormal conditions may result when dry air flows from land out over cooler water. which is why the ionosphere plays an important role in most modes of propagation. Thus under certain special conditions the dielectric constant may not decrease at all with height or may even increase with height resulting in the radio wave following the straight line path or curving away from the earth respectively. This results in reduction of the distance to the horizon. As we have seen. In standard atmosphere the modified refractive index M increases linearly with the increase of height. Thus there results rapid decrease in dielectric constant as the wave travels upwards. which are atoms that have some of their electrons stripped off leaving two or more electrically charged objects. In troposphere under normal conditions the air pressure water vapor pressure and temperature reduces with the increase of height above earth. Thus as the height increases there results increased moisture lapse rate and a temperature inversion that is a rapid increase in temperature instead of reduction. Typical result of such an abnormal condition is it cause the path of the rays traveling close to the surface of the earth to be bent as much or even more than the curvature of the earth while the rays at greater height are bent less.The process of communication involves the transmission of information from one Location to another. When there is a stable high pressure system. variation of dielectric constant of the troposphere with height departs considerably from the standard condition. It is only the characteristics of the carrier wave which determine how the signal will propagate over any significant Distance. Radio waves trapped below the mass can travel great distance with little loss. Duct propagation becomes possible only at frequencies above . modulation is used to encode the information onto a carrier wave. Under abnormal meteorological conditions particularly under water. The duct propagation may increase the range of space wave communication two or three times the normal line of sight range. Under normal conditions. and may involve analog or digital methods. This special refraction the electromagnetic wave is called super refraction and the propagation utilizing this super refraction is called duct propagation. When the frequency is sufficiently high the region where the variation of refractive index is usually great actually traps energy and causes it to travel along the earth’s surface much as though in a waveguide. a mass of warm air may over run cold air. The wave is connected at one end to the surface of the earth and to the ionosphere at the other. which acts like a duct. the earth and the ionosphere. It is a collection of ions. The ionosphere is the region above the troposphere (where the air is). causing a temperature inversion. from about 50 to 250 miles above the earth. As a result of this the refractive index also reduces with the increase of height. Under another type of abnormal conditions the variation of refractive index with height may be much higher than the normal in the region close to the earth. the temperature of air gradually decreases with increase in height above ground. or surface wave. The propagation of radio waves in the presence of ions is drastically different than in air. The sun's rays cause the ions to form which slowly recombine.
Therefore very long range propagation is possible using ground waves.one thousand mega hertz. When the curve has a negative slope the curvature of the ray is concave downward on a plane earth diagram and the true curvature of the rays is greater than the curvature of the earth. The duct is the region between the upper minimum of the M curve and either the ground or the point where the vertical projection from the upper minimum curve intersects the m curve. the ground wave will follow. Since the duct curves with the earth. Hence rays which enter the duct with sufficiently small angles are bent until they become horizontal and then are turned downwards. Ground wave propagation . Ground wave use for radio communication signal propagation on the long and medium wave bands for local radio communication.
Instead of just traveling in a straight line the radio signals tend to flow the curvature of the earth. As the name suggests direct signal is that travels directly between the two antennas and is not effected by the locality. Beyond the horizon the direct and reflected waves are blocked by the curvature of earth.Ground wave propagation is particularly important on the LF and MF portion of the radio spectrum. The wave induces currents in the ground over which it passes and thus losses some energy by absorption. There will also be a reflected signal as the transmission will be reflected by a number of objects including the earth’s surface and any hills. at some distance from the antenna as partly determined by the type . If the antennas are in the line of sight then there will be a direct wave as well as wave signal. This is because currents are induced in the surface of earth and this action slows down the wave front in this region. It is the sum of all these components that is known as ground wave. The radio signals are spreads out from the transmit along the surface of earth. In addition to this there is a surface wave. With the wave front tilted in this direction it is able to curve around the earth and be received well beyond the horizon. There is another way in which the surface wave is attenuated. and the increasing tilt causes greater short circuiting of the electric field component of the wave and hence field strength reduction. This tends to follow the curvature of the earth and enables coverage to be achieved beyond the horizon. As the wave propagates over the earth it tilts more and more. Ground wave propagation is used to provide relatively local radio communication coverage especially by radio broadcast stations that required to cover particular locality. Because of diffraction the wave front gradually tilts over as shown in above figure. or large buildings that may be present. This is made up by energy diffracted downward from the upper portion of the wave front. Eventually. It is for this reason that surface wave is commonly called the ground wave propagation. and the signal is purely made up from the diffracted surface wave. Ground wave signal is made up of number of constituent. causing the wave front of communications signal to tilt downward towards the earth.
This seems to be most effective in the range of 600-1000 miles. but this time. Tropospheric scatter. Field strength at a distance Radiation from an antenna by means of the ground wave gives rise to field strength at a distance. However the frequency is still low enough for some significant effects. by the air itself. If the distance between two antennas is very long the reduction of field strength due to ground and atmospheric absorption reduces the value of voltage received. Some energy makes it back to the earth's surface. The signal is reflected by the E-region and scattered in all directions. . the wave is scattered. This can be visualized like light scattering from fog. 1. Figure 16 1. Again. Thus in the VLF band insufficient range of transmission is cured by increasing the transmitting power. Line of Sight In the VHF band and up. Ionospheric scatter.of surface over which the ground wave propagates the wave lies down and dies. This is a strong function of the weather but can produce good performance at ranges under 400 miles. the propagation tends to straighten out into line-of-sight (LOS) waves.
The degree of attenuation is dependent upon a variety of factors. becoming greater at lower frequencies and this means that it is not just the surface conductivity that is of interest. long ranges can be achieved. Beyond VHF. Communications are limited by the visual horizon. Effect of frequency As the wave front of the ground wave surface travels along the earth’s surface it is attenuated. Whenever inversion conditions exist. and rich agriculture or marshy land is also good. When the wave is block by a large object. like a mountain. Diffraction. At the higher frequencies this is not of greater importance. Ground conductivity. is can diffract around the object and give coverage where no line-of-sight exists. When the refraction matches the curvature of the earth. Salty sea water is best. Effect of Ground The surface wave also very dependent upon the nature of ground over which the signal travels. As a result it makes this form of propagation impracticable above the bottom end of the HF portion of the spectrum (3 MHz). Despite all these variables. Thus soil type and moisture content are of importance.0 MHz will suffer an attenuation that may be in the range of 20 to 60 db more than one at 0. Frequency of the radio signal is one of the major determining factors as losses rise with increasing frequency. Typically a signal at 3. The wave travels slower in cold dense air than in warm air. but at low frequencies penetration means that ground strata down to 100 meters may have an effect. Tropospheric ducting. it is found that terrain with good conductivity gives the best result. all the propagation is line-of-sight.Figure 17 1. Dry sandy terrain and city . In addition to this the ground penetration varies. terrain roughness and the dielectric constant all effect the signal attenuation. 1. This ducting occurs to some extend always and improves the range over true the line-of-sight by about 10 %. The line-of-sight range can be found from the height of the transmitting and receiving antennas as the addition of four third as the optical horizon. In view of this it can be seen why high power HF radio broadcast May only audible for a few miles from the transmitting site via the ground wave.5 MHz dependent upon a verity of factors in the signal path including the distance. the wave is naturally bent back to the ground.
even if they have to be made physically short by adding inductive loading. the water table may have an effect dependent upon the frequency in use. Effect of polaristion The type of antenna has a major effect. It is for the reason that medium wave broadcast stations use vertical antennas.centers are by far the worst. In some cases the difference can amount to several tens of decibels. resulting on path lose being slightly dependent upon the whether it should also be noted that in view of fact that signal penetration has an effect. This means sea paths are optimum. . Vertical polarization is subject to considerably less attenuation than horizontally polarized signals. although even these are subject to variations through due to roughness of the sea. Ships making use of the mf marine bands often used inverted L antennas as these are able to radiate a significant proportion of the signal that is vertically polarized.
com/propagation.References • • • http://www.com/info/propagation/ground_wave/ground_wave.php http://www.html .html http://ham-shack.com/music/duct-propagation.radioelectronics.articlestreet.
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